Science.gov

Sample records for adult language learning

  1. Adult Language Learning: A Survey of Welsh for Adults in the Context of Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…

  2. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  3. Second Language Learning by Adults: Testimonies of Bilingual Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between languages and selves in adult bicultural bilinguals who learned their second language (L2) post puberty and became writers and scholars in this language. Autobiographic narratives are used to identify and examine subsequent stages of L2 learning. (Author/VWL)

  4. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  5. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  6. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  7. Collaborative Language Learning for Professional Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesh, Linda Joy

    2010-01-01

    Institutions of higher education realise the importance of the role of learning organisations in terms of providing personnel training and updating. Yet further consideration should be given to flexible and accessible means for meeting the growing request for continuous learning. Jason Hughes describes an organization's capability to "learn how to…

  8. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  9. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  10. Language Learning Strategy Use by Colombian Adult English Language Learners: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Elsie Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford's (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12…

  11. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-12-27

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  12. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  13. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank’s model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956

  14. Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.

  15. Child-Adult Differences in Implicit and Explicit Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream linguistics has long held that there is a fundamental difference between adult and child language learning (Bley-Vroman, 1990; Johnson & Newport, 1989; DeKeyser, 2000; Paradis, 2004). This difference is often framed as a change from implicit language learning in childhood to explicit language learning in adulthood, which is…

  16. Phonological similarity influences word learning in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Stamer, Melissa K; Vitevitch, Michael S

    2012-07-01

    Neighborhood density-the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)-influences word-learning in native English speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words with few similar sounding English words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). The present study examined how neighborhood density influences word-learning in native English speaking adults learning Spanish as a foreign language. Students in their third-semester of Spanish language classes learned advanced Spanish words that sounded similar to many known Spanish words (i.e., dense neighborhood) or sounded similar to few known Spanish words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). In three word-learning tasks, performance was better for Spanish words with dense rather than sparse neighborhoods. These results suggest that a similar mechanism may be used to learn new words in a native and a foreign language.

  17. An Examination of the Self-Directed Learning Practices of ESL Adult Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…

  18. Adult Learning Satisfaction and Instructional Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda Jo

    2009-01-01

    Adult education literature suggests that the instructional perspective of the teacher has an important effect on adult satisfaction with learning. In this study, the relationships between instructional perspective, satisfaction with language learning, and certain teacher and student characteristics were investigated. Study participants were adult…

  19. The Influence of Phonological Similarity in Adults Learning Words in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood density refers to the number of similar sounding words to a target word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) and influences first language word learning in adults learning English (Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006). There are two processes in word learning: lexical configuration and lexical engagement (Leach & Samuel, 2007). Lexical configuration…

  20. Learned Attention in Adult Language Acquisition: A Replication and Generalization Study and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…

  1. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Mastering Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Research of language learning strategy (LLS) has provided insight for language learners from many international cultures since this branch of research began in the 1970s. Despite the urgent need for competence in the use of business English in Western Europe, LLS studies have not been conducted on Spanish adults who use English for business. The…

  2. Involving Adult Service Users with Learning Disabilities in the Training of Speech and Language Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Celia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project carried out at City University London, Department of Language and Communication Science, where adult service users with learning disabilities trained first-year speech and language therapy students. The training involved presentations by the service users on their involvement in interviewing support staff,…

  3. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

  4. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  5. Communication et reflexion metalinguistique dans l'apprentissage du francais par les adultes (Communication and Metalinguistic Reflection in French Language Learning by Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galatanu, Olga

    A discussion of the relationships between communication in a foreign language and metalinguistic thought given to that language focuses on formal French language learning by adults in their home countries. Experience with adult language learners suggests a resistance to grammatical explanations but an openness to explanations of meaning. It would…

  6. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  7. Developmental Diversity in the Academic Language-Learning Experiences of Adult English as a Second or Other Language Learners: A Constructive-Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Academic language is a challenging yet increasingly important skill for Adult Basic Education/English as a Second or Other Language learners. Related to academic language learning is an adult's developmental perspective. Developmental perspectives have been shown to vary in adulthood and shape qualitatively distinct ways of reasoning and learning…

  8. Socio-Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: A Case Study of Adventurous Adult Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…

  9. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  10. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Adult Brain and Success in Second-Language Learning.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-20

    There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human

  11. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Adult Brain and Success in Second-Language Learning.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-20

    There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human

  12. Childhood Bilingualism and Adult Language Learning Aptitude, CUNY Forum, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Miriam

    This paper investigates the influence childhood bilingualism has on adult foreign language learning ability. Early research exploring the influence of bilingualism on general intelligence is mentioned as well as recent studies that present more favorable results. It is hypothesized that childhood bilingualism will have a positive effect on adult…

  13. Plasticity in the adult language system: a longitudinal electrophysiological study on second language learning.

    PubMed

    Stein, M; Dierks, T; Brandeis, D; Wirth, M; Strik, W; Koenig, T

    2006-11-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace changes in brain activity related to progress in second language learning. Twelve English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were recruited. ERPs to visually presented single words from the subjects' native language (English), second language (German) and an unknown language (Romansh) were measured before (day 1) and after (day 2) 5 months of intense German language learning. When comparing ERPs to German words from day 1 and day 2, we found topographic differences between 396 and 540 ms. These differences could be interpreted as a latency shift indicating faster processing of German words on day 2. Source analysis indicated that the topographic differences were accounted for by shorter activation of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on day 2. In ERPs to English words, we found Global Field Power differences between 472 and 644 ms. This may due to memory traces related to English words being less easily activated on day 2. Alternatively, it might reflect the fact that--with German words becoming familiar on day 2--English words loose their oddball character and thus produce a weaker P300-like effect on day 2. In ERPs to Romansh words, no differences were observed. Our results reflect plasticity in the neuronal networks underlying second language acquisition. They indicate that with a higher level of second language proficiency, second language word processing is faster and requires shorter frontal activation. Thus, our results suggest that the reduced IFG activation found in previous fMRI studies might not reflect a generally lower activation but rather a shorter duration of activity.

  14. Auditory processing deficits among language-learning disordered children and adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayland, Ratree; Lombardino, Linda

    2003-10-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 5%-9% of school-aged children in the United States are diagnosed with some kind of learning disorders. Moreover, previous research has established that many of these children exhibited perceptual deficits in response to auditory stimuli, suggesting that an auditory perceptual deficit may underlie their learning disabilities. The goal of this research is to examine the ability to auditorily process speech and nonspeech stimuli among language-learning disabled (LLD) children and adults. The two questions that will be addressed in this study are: (a) Are there subtypes of LLD children/adults based on their auditory processing deficit, and (b) Is there any relationship between types of auditory processing deficits and types of language deficits as measured by a battery of psychoeducational tests.

  15. Second Language Learning in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Denny, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews second-language learning literature concerning factors which may affect adult students. Focuses on cognitive mechanisms, cerebral dominance theories, formal operations, motivation, and second-language teaching and learning. Offers suggestions for community college teaching and programs. (DMM)

  16. Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words…

  17. Adult Learners' Perceptions of the Significance of Culture in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne

    2014-01-01

    Is learning about culture important when learning a foreign language? One would think that after its long history in the field of foreign language teaching this question had been answered with a resounding "yes". However, I saw little evidence of this in the classroom when I returned to the university to learn a foreign language or when…

  18. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  19. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype.

  20. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Ping C.; Richards, Todd L.; Coe, Bradley P.; Eichler, Evan E.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects’ grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  1. Student Response Systems' Virtual Interaction Effects on Learning in Adult Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassihi Langroodi, Sayedeh Parvanak

    2010-01-01

    In an English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) class, special emphasis is often put on interaction and negotiation as a means of learning and understanding the language being taught (Long, 1981; Pica, 1994). However, student-student interaction as well as student-teacher interaction could be difficult to achieve in…

  2. Investigating the Cause of Language Regularization in Adults: Memory Constraints or Learning Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson Kam, Carla L.; Chang, Ann

    2009-01-01

    When language learners are exposed to inconsistent probabilistic grammatical patterns, they sometimes impose consistency on the language instead of learning the variation veridically. The authors hypothesized that this regularization results from problems with word retrieval rather than from learning per se. One prediction of this, that easing the…

  3. Factors Influencing Indirect Speech and Language Therapy Interventions for Adults with Learning Disabilities: The Perceptions of Carers and Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: The working context for speech and language therapists (SLTs) delivering interventions to adults who have a learning disability has changed following the reorganization of care provision from hospitals to the community. Consequently, SLTs often deliver their care within a social model of disability through indirect intervention in…

  4. Age and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Lucien

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the differences between first and second language acquisition and the relationship between age and second language learning. The stages in native language acquisition and the advantages of an early start in second language learning are discussed. (AMH)

  5. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    PubMed

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.

  6. Brain Responses before and after Intensive Second Language Learning: Proficiency Based Changes and First Language Background Effects in Adult Learners

    PubMed Central

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1–L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., “grammaticalization”) are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641

  7. "Here, without English, You Are Dead": Ideologies of Language and Discourses of Neoliberalism in Adult English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warriner, Doris S.

    2016-01-01

    Ideologies of language (and language learning)--in concert with discourses of individualism and meritocracy that characterize neoliberalism--shape pedagogical policies and practices in ways that are consequential for multilingual students all over the developing and developed world. To investigate how such intersections and influences work in…

  8. English Learning Predictors of Listening and Speaking Self-Efficacy for Adult Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafals, Zoraida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was conducted to compare English communicative competency achievement between two different models of instruction. Adult English language learners (AELLs) participated in either the communicative task-based (CTB) or in a more traditional (MT) language instructional approach. The goal of the…

  9. Teaching Language, Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Richard M.

    A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

  10. Grammar Instruction for Adult English Language Learners: A Task-Based Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, grammar instruction has moved from its central position in traditional language teaching approaches to playing virtually no role in communicative approaches. This article first gives a historical perspective of grammar instruction. Then it outlines the 10 principles of instructed language learning formulated by Ellis and…

  11. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

  12. Learning of Grammar-Like Visual Sequences by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…

  13. Predictors of Spoken Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We…

  14. Short Research Note: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon--A Web-Based Interface to Calculate Phonological Similarity among Spanish Words in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The…

  15. Speaking the Same Language: A CILT Guide to Partnership in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Henriette; Swanton, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The conflicting pressures of supply and demand often raise significant challenges for providers of languages for adults. Numbers of learners are inconveniently patchy, trends in take-up often short lived and provision vulnerable due to funding pressures. This makes institution-based curriculum planning very precarious. The answer, it seems more…

  16. Examining English Language Learning Motivation of Adult International Learners Studying Abroad in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…

  17. Modern Languages and Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD): Implications of Teaching Adult Learners with Dyslexia in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallardo, Matilde; Heiser, Sarah; Arias McLaughlin, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    In modern language (ML) distance learning programmes, teachers and students use online tools to facilitate, reinforce and support independent learning. This makes it essential for teachers to develop pedagogical expertise in using online communication tools to perform their role. Teachers frequently raise questions of how best to support the needs…

  18. Predictors of spoken language learning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We found those who were successful to have higher activation in bilateral auditory cortex, larger volume in Heschl’s Gyrus, and more accurate pitch pattern perception. All of these measures were performed before training began. In the second set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned a phonological grammatical system governing the formation of words of an artificial language. Again, neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, and cognitive factors predicted to an extent how well these adults learned. Taken together, these experiments suggest that neural and behavioral factors can be used to predict spoken language learning. These predictors can inform the redesign of existing training paradigms to maximize learning for learners with different learning profiles. Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to: (a) understand the linguistic concepts of lexical tone and phonological grammar, (b) identify the brain regions associated with learning lexical tone and phonological grammar, and (c) identify the cognitive predictors for successful learning of a tone language and phonological rules. PMID:21601868

  19. Resting-state qEEG predicts rate of second language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Yamasaki, Brianna L; Kluender, Reina A; Stocco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA) is important for research on bilingualism, learning, and neural plasticity. The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to predict SLA in college-aged individuals. Baseline, eyes-closed resting-state qEEG was used to predict language learning rate during eight weeks of French exposure using an immersive, virtual scenario software. Individual qEEG indices predicted up to 60% of the variability in SLA, whereas behavioral indices of fluid intelligence, executive functioning, and working-memory capacity were not correlated with learning rate. Specifically, power in beta and low-gamma frequency ranges over right temporoparietal regions were strongly positively correlated with SLA. These results highlight the utility of resting-state EEG for studying the neurobiological basis of SLA in a relatively construct-free, paradigm-independent manner. PMID:27164483

  20. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: A Plea for Syncretism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the apparent opposition between the concepts of language learning and language acquisition in the context of adult second-language study. Proposes that these two concepts are mutually supportive, not mutually exclusive. Demonstrates how the implications of learning vs. acquisition can be integrated into a communicative…

  1. Language Experience Changes Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual…

  2. Learning to Play, Playing to Learn: Comparing the Experiences of Adult Foreign Language Learners with Off-the-Shelf and Specialized Games for Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grove, Frederik; Van Looy, Jan; Mechant, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Learning opportunities offered by digital games have become an important research topic in recent years. Language learning is one of the areas in which games could prosper but the question then is whether these should be specialized language-learning games or commercial off-the-shelf games for entertainment. The goal of this paper is to compare…

  3. Second Language Acquisition and First Language Loss in Adult Early Bilinguals: Exploring Some Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially "eroded" first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make…

  4. Sex Differences in English Language Acculturation and Learning Strategies among Vietnamese Adults Age 40 and over in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1988-01-01

    Examines sex differences in English language acculturation and learning strategies among older Vietnamese refugees using data from a national sample. Finds that females had more language problems than males, and that males were more likely than females to use various learning strategies to improve their language skills. (FMW)

  5. LANGUAGE LEARNING--READINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    SELECTED ARTICLES ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND REPORTS OF RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1966, ARE PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN FL LEARNING" BY PAUL PIMSLEUR, DONALD M. SUNDLAND, AND RUTH D. MCINTYRE, (2) "THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN INTENSIVE FL TRAINING" BY JOHN B.…

  6. Teaching Pronunciation to Adult English Language Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Low, Ee Ling

    2009-01-01

    Adult English language learners in the United States approach the learning of English pronunciation from a wide variety of native language backgrounds. They may speak languages with sound systems that vary a great deal from that of English. The pronunciation goals and needs of adult English language learners are diverse. These goals and needs…

  7. Elderly Refugees and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grognet, Allene Guss

    For elderly refugees, coming from a variety of cultural situations and with varied educational backgrounds, transplantation to a new culture is an especially difficult process. There is no research evidence to suggest that older adults can not succeed in learning another language, although more deliberate efforts must be made to achieve this. In…

  8. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    PubMed Central

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  9. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    PubMed

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning.

  10. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention. PMID:27422443

  11. Language and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Norman, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a 1993 International Conference on Language in Education include: "A Language Development Approach to Education" (M. A. K. Halliday); Text, Talk, and Inquiry: Schooling as a Semiotic Apprenticeship" (G. Wells); "Chinese Orthography and Reading" (O. J. L. Tzeng); "Task-Centred Assessment in Language Learning" (G. Brindley); "Task as a…

  12. Philosophy and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore different ways of picturing language learning in philosophy, all of them inspired by Wittgenstein and all of them concerned about scepticism of meaning. I start by outlining the two pictures of children and language learning that emerge from Kripke's famous reading of Wittgenstein. Next, I explore how social-pragmatic…

  13. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  14. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  15. Simultaneous Learning of Two Foreign Languages, English and French, by Adult Persian-Speaking Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Farshadjou, Mahdieh

    2013-01-01

    In today's world, a good command of more than two foreign languages is a commonplace necessity. However, this is not the case for the majority of language learners in Iran. The foreign languages which could be of any avail to them are neither close to Persian nor have any daily social usage. The present research aims at promoting this linguistic…

  16. Adults Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    Aimed at anyone who wants to know how to teach adults, this guide aims to build confidence, offer practical advice, and give the real-life flavor of helping fellow adults develop. Chapter 1 addresses adult learners: mindsets, motivation, and learning (learning cycle, learning styles, relevance, reinforcement and practice, experience, learning to…

  17. The Beginning Spanish Lexicon: A Web-based interface to calculate phonological similarity among Spanish words in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon. The present report describes the words contained in this web-accessible resource, and the information about those words provided by the interface. This information is freely accessible at: http://www.people.ku.edu/~mvitevit/BegSpanLex.html PMID:25342870

  18. The Beginning Spanish Lexicon: A Web-based interface to calculate phonological similarity among Spanish words in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Stamer, Melissa K; Kieweg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon. The present report describes the words contained in this web-accessible resource, and the information about those words provided by the interface. This information is freely accessible at: http://www.people.ku.edu/~mvitevit/BegSpanLex.html.

  19. Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilling, Sarah, Ed.; Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Adult language learners have specific learning goals that reflect their lives within a global society, and adults negotiate multiple and changing identities throughout their personal, academic, and professional lives. Chapters in "Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Adult Learners" highlight how teachers have the ability to…

  20. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  1. Early Dual Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  2. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  3. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  4. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  5. Assessing and Acknowledging Learning through Non-Accredited Community Adult Language, Literacy and Numeracy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the obvious acquisition of the three "R's"--reading, writing and arithmetic--many other benefits derive from learning. Increases in self-esteem and confidence have often been cited as consistent, if unanticipated, outcomes of learning and have been achieved even when there has been limited gain in the competency being learned. Such…

  6. Promoting ESP language learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, S. A.

    2003-10-01

    The article focuses on the current problem of teaching English for Specific Purposes(ESP) language vocabulary taking into consideration the ways how learners store and recall words and the influence of their mother tongue. Through incidental learning and explicit vocabulary instructions the elaborated vocabulary learning occurs involving the creation of an affective semantic network.

  7. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  8. From Refugee Camp to Solitary Confinement: Illiterate Adults Learn Swedish as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmeroth, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Studied the factors that govern immigrants' acquisition of a second language through 22 interviews with illiterate Kurdish refugees in Sweden and immigrants with at least 6 years of schooling. The pedagogic conclusions that can be drawn relate mainly to measures for increasing motivation and the need for achieving greater contact with target…

  9. The Role of Iconicity in Sign Language Learning by Hearing Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Ann K.; Gamble, Mary Ellen Bellile

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated the recognition and retention of transparent and nontransparent manual signs by 50 sign-naive hearing college freshmen. There was a significant decrease in the number of nontransparent signs retained as the period of time after training increased. Implications for sign language training with nonverbal hearing persons are…

  10. Agency in the Making: Adult Immigrants' Accounts of Language Learning and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers language learner agency from a poststructuralist perspective, focusing on how agency is discursively constituted as individuals position themselves and are positioned as (potential) agents within ideologically defined spaces. As such, I regard agency as inherently unstable and as a discursively mobilized capacity to act.…

  11. Age and Learning Environment: Are Children Implicit Second Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study…

  12. CHILDHOOD AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY. Foreign Language Program Research Center.

    THE REPORT OF A MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION-SPONSORED CONFERENCE ON CHILDHOOD AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING (MAY 5-6, 1956) SUMMARIZES THE DISCUSSIONS. THE TOPICS INCLUDE (1) HOW CHILDREN NORMALLY LEARN THEIR MOTHER TONGUE, (2) IMITATION AND ANALYSIS IN THE LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS, (3) RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE LEARNING OF A FIRST AND A SECOND…

  13. Phonetic and Phonological Acquisition in Endangered Languages Learned by Adults: A Case Study of Numu (Oregon Northern Paiute)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Erin Flynn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation compares the phonetic and phonological features of adult non-speakers' productions of words in an endangered Native American language, Oregon Northern Paiute (also known, and hereafter referred to, as Numu), to productions by fluent speakers. The purpose of this comparison is two-fold. The first purpose is to examine the…

  14. Career Adventures from Learning Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning and using languages has been a central feature of most of Paul Kaye's working life. In his current job, he helps to promote multilingualism, language learning, and the language industry in the UK, as well as to raise awareness of careers in the EU civil service for those with language knowledge. He is on temporary secondment from the…

  15. Language Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Two programs that have been successful at integrating a number of suitable conditions for learning a foreign language in the online environment are Spanish at Rio Salado Community College in Tempe, Arizona, and French at Coastline Community College in Fountain Valley, California. Discussion includes instructional delivery; course lab experience;…

  16. Learning Languages through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    While posing important questions about how learning proceeds with new technologies, this volume demonstrates how teachers captivate the imagination of learners, from schoolchildren to postgraduates, by providing real-world purposes for language. The authors are from educational institutions in many regions of the world, and describe technology use…

  17. Cognition Plus: Correlates of Language Learning Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Madeline E.; Oxford, Rebecca L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationships of individual difference variables to end-of-training proficiency ratings in speaking and reading for a large sample of adults in intensive training in a wide range of languages at the U.S. Department of State. Variables included tested cognitive aptitude, learning strategies, learning styles, personality, motivation and…

  18. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  19. The Processing Behaviours of Adult Second Language Learners and Their Relationship to Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the behaviors for processing language input demonstrated by five adults beginning to learn Hindi as a second language through the Total Physical Response method. The study suggests that, when adult learners are provided with comprehensive input, they engage in a variety of behaviors to extract meaning from it. (73 references) (GLR)

  20. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  1. Computer Assisted Language Learning: A Shortcut to Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Kathleen K.

    A study investigated the attitudes of language program students, teachers, and administrators concerning the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) instruction for adults, and specifically concerning EXITO courseware, a Spanish language program developed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Interviews with an adult language…

  2. Approaches to Self-Assessment in Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskarsson, Mats

    This study was designed to outline possible forms of guided self-assessment in adult language learning and to suggest steps that might be taken in order to further develop methods judged to be suitable for use within the European unit/credit scheme for foreign language learning by adults. The report includes a review of relevant literature and…

  3. Processing Narratives for Verbatim and Gist Information by Adults with Language Learning Disabilities: A Functional Neuroimaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Elena; Ramage, Amy E.; Magloire, Joel

    2006-01-01

    How verbal information is processed and recalled appears to be influenced by the structure of the information presented (e.g., unrelated sentences vs. narratives) and the processes the listener uses to encode the information (e.g., verbatim encoding vs. gist extraction). Twenty adults, half with a history of learning disabilities (HLD) and half…

  4. Students and Their Teachers of Arabic: Beliefs about Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated beliefs about second language learning held by 27 adult students and 10 teachers of Arabic at the Yemen Language Center. The survey instrument consisted of 5 demographic statements and 47 statements concerning language learning in a Likert-type scaled response format. Results indicate students and teachers generally agreed…

  5. The Storage and Composition of Inflected Forms in Adult-Learned Second Language: A Study of the Influence of Length of Residence, Age of Arrival, Sex, and Other Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Laura; Stowe, John C.; Maloof, Christopher J.; Brovetto, Claudia; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear whether adult-learned second language (L2) depends on similar or different neurocognitive mechanisms as those involved in first language (L1). We examined whether English past tense forms are computed similarly or differently by L1 and L2 English speakers, and what factors might affect this: regularity (regular vs. irregular…

  6. Assessment in Intercultural Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides background to considering how to assess intercultural language learning. It describes why traditional views of assessment are not sufficient. Essentially, assessing intercultural language learning requires assessment of both students' performance of communication in the target language and how they understand and explain the…

  7. Technology and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Current technology provides new opportunities to increase the effectiveness of language learning and teaching. Incorporating well-organized and effective technology into second language learning and teaching for improving students' language proficiency has been refined by researchers and educators for many decades. Based on the rapidly changing…

  8. Learner Development in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenden, Anita L.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on learner development, a learner-centered innovation in foreign language-second language instruction that responds to learner diversity by aiming to improve the language learner's ability to learn a language. Describes various ideas that shaped early practice in learner development, and provides an evaluation of the theory and practice in…

  9. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  10. Helping Adults Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Phyllis J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased attention to preparing addictions counselors and related professionals to use evidence-based practices has brought new attention to the preparation programs for addictions counselors. Research and theory about adult learning emphasizes the importance of students as active participants in problem and experience based learning. This paper…

  11. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

  12. Adult Literacy, Numeracy and Language: Policy, Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Hillier, Yvonne, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place;…

  13. English as a Second Language for Adults: A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mary; And Others

    To help improve English as a Second Language (ESL) programs for adult learners, this curriculum guide provides informative materials for the teacher and 30 sections of lessons suitable for adaptation by the teacher. Teacher information includes materials on language teaching and learning, use of the guide, needs assessment, adapting lesson plans,…

  14. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal…

  15. Spatial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  16. Practice Theory in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.

    2013-01-01

    Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…

  17. Second-Language Acquisition, Culture Shock, and Language Stress of Adult Female Latina Students in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the educational, cultural, and linguistic adjustments and experiences encountered by Hispanic adult females in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the relation of these experiences to the variables of language, culture, and education of adult Hispanic females. Adult ESL learners…

  18. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  19. Adult Literacy Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…

  20. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction. PMID:26915737

  1. Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

  2. Child-Adult Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Series on Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen D., Ed.; And Others

    Studies of age differences in second language learning ability are collected along with commentary on the results. The 12 papers describe long and short term studies of children and adults that focus on the optimal age for second language acquisition, the effect of different teaching methods and environments on age differences, and theories that…

  3. Learning Values about Languages in the Multilingual Preschools of Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Ellen C.

    In multilingual nations, young children learn early about the social and educational importance that adults attribute to different languages. In Malaysia, parents express their values about languages by choosing specific kindergartens. Preschools' language values are reflected in the amount of time devoted and the seriousness of approach to each…

  4. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  5. Noninvasive brain stimulation improves language learning.

    PubMed

    Flöel, Agnes; Rösser, Nina; Michka, Olesya; Knecht, Stefan; Breitenstein, Caterina

    2008-08-01

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a reliable technique to improve motor learning. We here wanted to test its potential to enhance associative verbal learning, a skill crucial for both acquiring new languages in healthy individuals and for language reacquisition after stroke-induced aphasia. We applied tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) over the posterior part of the left peri-sylvian area of 19 young right-handed individuals while subjects acquired a miniature lexicon of 30 novel object names. Every subject participated in one session of anodal tDCS, one session of cathodal tDCS, and one sham session in a randomized and double-blinded design with three parallel versions of the miniature lexicon. Outcome measures were learning speed and learning success at the end of each session, and the transfer to the subjects' native language after the respective stimulation. With anodal stimulation, subjects showed faster and better associative learning as compared to sham stimulation. Mood ratings, reaction times, and response styles were comparable between stimulation conditions. Our results demonstrate that anodal tDCS is a promising technique to enhance language learning in healthy adults and may also have the potential to improve language reacquisition after stroke.

  6. The Effects of Frequency, Distribution, Mode of Presentation, and First Language on Learning an Artificial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Munehiko

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents results from a series of experiments investigating adult learning of an artificial language and the effects that input frequency (high vs. low token frequency), frequency distribution (skewed vs. balanced), presentation mode (structured vs. scrambled), and first language (English vs. Japanese) have on such learning.…

  7. Intelligence and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    "Understanding Adult Intelligence" (Robert Sternberg) focuses on the nature of intelligence. It explains Sternberg's triarchic theory, in which he posits three main aspects of intelligence: its relation to the internal or mental world of the learner, its relation to experience, and its relation to the surrounding world. "Strategies and Learning"…

  8. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    PubMed

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-09-03

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  9. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  10. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  11. Learning a Language in the Field: Problems of Linguistic Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catford, J.C.

    The author feels that there is no reason to suppose that adults are less capable than children in learning a second language, given adequate opportunity and motivation. In terms of amount learned in comparable time, the adult is about five times as efficient as the child. This is what would be expected of any other kind of intellectual or rational…

  12. How to Learn a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimsleur, Paul

    This book covers many practical aspects of language learning. The first section entitled "The 'Whys' of Language Learning" discusses such topics as the following: (1) everyone can learn a language; (2) easier and more difficult elements in a language and classification of languages according to difficulty for speakers of English; (3) length of…

  13. Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack

    This book presents a theory of how adults learn by making meaning of their experiences. Chapter 1 gives an overview of an emerging transformation theory of adult learning, compares it with other theories of adult learning, and describes the dynamics of the process through which one makes meaning of one's experience. Chapter 2 examines the way…

  14. A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

  15. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  16. Vocationally Oriented Language Learning Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Karin; Kantelinen, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    Vocationally oriented language learning (VOLL) is often seen as a part of English for Specific Purposes/Language for Specific Purposes (ESP/LSP), which it is not in every case. The diverging characteristics and lines of development that these two branches of ELT have undergone are outlined and contrasted. Then, a discussion of the added value of a…

  17. Bots as Language Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Luke; Carpenter, Rollo

    2006-01-01

    Foreign Language Learning (FLL) students commonly have few opportunities to use their target language. Teachers in FLL situations do their best to create opportunities during classes through pair or group work, but a variety of factors ranging from a lack of time to shyness or limited opportunity for quality feedback hamper this. This paper…

  18. Journal of Celtic Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Laoire, Muiris, Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal is an international review for researchers and teachers of modern Celtic languages. This volume contains seven articles. There are three research articles: "Issues in the Design of Irish Credited Courses" (Thomas W. Ihde); "Learning Irish for Participation in the Irish Language Speech Community outside the Gaeltacht" (Muiris O…

  19. Social Learning, Language and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Ian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article supports the claim that there are strong interactive links between children's language development, cognitive reasoning and their success in school achievement. These links are best facilitated within a social learning framework where children's language and talk is encouraged, accepted and respected. This talk is the most authentic…

  20. Accelerated Learning, Suggestopedia, and the Adult Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlisk-Renner, Monique; Truscott, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of suggestopedia and accelerated learning (AL) techniques in a 10-week French-as-a-Second-Language course for 13 adult learners. Course organization, lesson plans, and results, focusing on the effectiveness of AL techniques in short-term courses, are examined. (two references) (MDM)

  1. Whole Language Approaches in Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, JoAnn; Pharness, Gary

    After an introduction to the use of the whole language approach in adult literacy instruction, this paper describes some techniques or activities used in two adult literacy programs in Vancouver with participants who speak English as a first and as a second language. The Municipal Workplace Literacy Program, operated by the City of Vancouver…

  2. Will Mobile Learning Change Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile phones and other portable devices is beginning to have an impact on how learning takes place in many disciplines and contexts, including language learning. Learners who are not dependent on access to fixed computers can engage in activities that relate more closely to their current surroundings, sometimes crossing the border…

  3. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  4. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  5. The Company That Words Keep: Comparing the Statistical Structure of Child- versus Adult-Directed Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…

  6. [Phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in young adolescents and adults with and without dyslexia in German and English: impact on foreign language learning].

    PubMed

    Romonath, Roswitha; Wahn, Claudia; Gregg, Noel

    2005-01-01

    The present study addressed the question whether there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in adolescents and young adults with and without dyslexia in German and English. On the evidence of the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis and results of the latest research in foreign language learning the hypothesis is tested if there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge on the one hand and decoding and spelling performance on the other hand in German adolescents and young adults reading and spelling German and English words. This hypothesis was tested with the statistical method of structural equation modeling and therefore the research population was divided into the following groups: group 1 with dyslexia in reading (n = 93), group 2 with dyslexia in spelling (n = 93), group 3 without dyslexia in reading (n = 95), and group 4 without dyslexia in spelling (n = 95). Results of data analysis show that the postulated prediction model fits only the data of the dyslexia group for reading and spelling, but not for the control group. Also the model for both groups does not fit. The results of the pilot study show that it is necessary to modify diagnostic instruments of measurement and to separate scales of phonological and orthographic processes.

  7. Adult Learning Strategies in an Onsite Training Program in Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayachi, Zeineb

    2015-01-01

    The new market place has dictated on adults the use of English as it is the first international language used in business. However, learning a foreign language becomes more and more complicated as the learner gets older, is in a mature command of L1 and L2, and does not have enough time to learn due to professional responsibilities. Contrary to…

  8. Learning a Third Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiste, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Reports on three investigations concerning the acquisition of a third language in bilingual immigrant students in Germany and Sweden. The results suggest that immigrant students who always use Swedish at home but have passive knowledge of their first language clearly perform better in English than do Swedish monolingual students. (SL)

  9. Language Learning and Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Michael, Ed.

    This collection of original papers draws upon work in linguistics, psychology, and education to highlight the relationship between language acquisition in deaf and hearing populations. The book's 11 chapters are divided into 2 sections, Theoretical Issues and Research Reports. Titles and authors are as follows: "Language Varieties in the Deaf…

  10. Reflections on Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Scott, Mike, Ed.

    The collection of papers, dedicated to Maria Antonieta Alba Celani, a celebrated English professor in Brazil, consists of writings by colleagues on four themes: developments stemming from Dr. Celani's Brazilian national project for the teaching of English for special purposes; language teacher training; language processing; and analysis of…

  11. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning…

  12. Language Learning in Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Charles S.

    Ludwig Wittgenstein's pragmatic conception of language, his theory on language learning, and his treatment of the function of language in the growth of the child are the focus of this book. Wiggenstein's study of language is compared with those made by linguists, psychologists, and sociologists, and accounts of language learning based on empirical…

  13. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the field of intelligent computer assisted language learning (ICALL) and relates them to current practice in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and second language learning. Points out that ICALL applies expertise from artificial intelligence and the computer and cognitive sciences to the development of language learning…

  14. Language Learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss language learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson. Starting from a remark by Bakhurst, I hold that both Wittgenstein and Davidson's philosophies of language contain responses to the problem of language learning, albeit of a different form. Following Williams, I hold that the concept of language learning can explain…

  15. Adult Learning and Numeracy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantner, M. Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the marginalization of adult mathematics learning within education. The problem is adult education subsumes adult mathematics learning under the umbrella of literacy. Literacy and numeracy compared in terms of their quantities of funding, directed projects, ERIC submissions, and published dissertations.…

  16. Written Narrative Characteristics in Adults with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddarth, Rachael; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Adults with language-based disabilities are known to have deficits in oral language; however, less is known about their written language skills. Two studies were designed to characterize the writing of adults with language-based disabilities. Method: In Study 1, 60 adults, 30 with language impairment and 30 with typical language,…

  17. Emerging Technologies in Adult Literacy and Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Liaw, Meei-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Although information and communication technologies have become an integral part of life in the United States, they have not yet been adequately integrated into adult language and literacy programs. This raises concerns because of the potential value of technology for enhancing learning and because of the vital role of technological proficiency as…

  18. Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students' own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to…

  19. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  20. Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…

  1. Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2011-01-01

    For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

  2. Biculturalism through Experiential Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Pamela; Donoghue, Anna Acitelli

    This paper describes the English as a Second Language Program developed for educationally disadvantaged Mexican-American adults as part of the educational offerings of Project Step-Up, an OEO-funded demonstration program in San Diego. Project Step-Up features a multifold methodological approach incorporating techniques from (1) life skills…

  3. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal system. The findings showed that variance in language abilities is associated with performance on different domains of procedural memory, including the motor domain (as shown in the pursuit rotor task), the cognitive domain (as shown in the weather prediction task), and the linguistic domain (as shown in the nonword repetition priming task). These results implicate the corticostriatal system in individual differences in language. PMID:26190949

  4. Speech and Language Therapists' Approaches to Communication Intervention with Children and Adults with Profound and Multiple Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. Aims: To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the…

  5. First Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallen, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Preface: The Acquisition of Celtic Languages" (Jeffrey L. Kallen); "The Development of Finiteness in Early Welsh" (Robert D. Borsley and Bob Morris Jones); "Acquiring Subject and Object Relatives; Evidence from Irish" (Helen Goodluck, Eithne Guilfoyle, and Sile Harrington); "The Language…

  6. Language Learning with Laser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppard, Herb

    1989-01-01

    Describes a laser videodisc program which helps non-native English learners gain confidence and language skills in social contact or casual conversation situations by having them interact with a variety of "characters" at a backyard barbecue. Describes production problems and problems associated with making a workable interactive system. (RS)

  7. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  8. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  9. Language learning and retention in young language-disordered children.

    PubMed

    Gaines, R; Leaper, C; Monahan, C; Weickgenant, A

    1988-06-01

    Simultaneous sign and spoken language training was conducted with young, language-disordered children under standardized training and follow-up conditions with a stringent learning criterion to determine if language learned was stable over time. Twenty-one children between 36 and 86 months with no or nonfunctional language participated in the study. Diagnoses included autism, mental retardation, combined autism and mental retardation, and developmental aphasia. Children completed a mean of 74 signed speech training sessions. Sessions were twice daily, 5 days a week. Follow-up evaluations were made approximately 6 months after training. Of the 21 children, 17 learned at least one word and 7 children learned multiple-word phrases during the training. Most language learned in training was found to be retained at follow-up approximately 6 months later. Gestural imitation, play style, language age, developmental age, and fine motor skills had strong correlations with language learning and retention.

  10. Effective Motivation in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Mehmet Ali; Engin, Ali Osman

    2008-01-01

    This research is about the importance of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidance motivation in second language learning and being successful. Firstly, we had a motivation questionnaire then we applied this questionnaire and the achievement test to 90 students in Education Faculty English Department. Before the motivation questionnaire…

  11. Second Language Learning vs. Pidginization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, William C.; Gilbert, Glenn G.

    This paper examines the differences between second language learning and pidginization to better understand the mechanisms involved in each process. Current research suggests similarities between the two. Both are characterized by reduction and simplification. Grammatical transformations tend to be eliminated, along with inflectional markers of…

  12. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  13. Metacognition and Second/Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raoofi, Saeid; Chan, Swee Heng; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Rashid, Sabariah Md

    2014-01-01

    Metacognition appears to be a significant contributor to success in second language (SL) and foreign language (FL) learning. This study seeks to investigate empirical research on the role metacognition plays in language learning by focusing on the following research questions: first, to what extent does metacognition affect SL/FL learning? Second,…

  14. Do Language Proficiency Levels Correspond to Language Learning Strategy Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…

  15. Language Learning Strategies of Language e-Learners in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…

  16. Error Analysis of Present Simple Tense in the Interlanguage of Adult Arab English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses errors on present simple tense among adult Arab English language learners. It focuses on the error on 3sg "-s" (the third person singular present tense agreement morpheme "-s"). The learners are undergraduate adult Arabic speakers learning English as a foreign language. The study gathered data from…

  17. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  18. When it hurts (and helps) to try: the role of effort in language learning.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Lee, Taraz; Kraus, Allison; Hudson Kam, Carla L

    2014-01-01

    Compared to children, adults are bad at learning language. This is counterintuitive; adults outperform children on most measures of cognition, especially those that involve effort (which continue to mature into early adulthood). The present study asks whether these mature effortful abilities interfere with language learning in adults and further, whether interference occurs equally for aspects of language that adults are good (word-segmentation) versus bad (grammar) at learning. Learners were exposed to an artificial language comprised of statistically defined words that belong to phonologically defined categories (grammar). Exposure occurred under passive or effortful conditions. Passive learners were told to listen while effortful learners were instructed to try to 1) learn the words, 2) learn the categories, or 3) learn the category-order. Effortful learners showed an advantage for learning words while passive learners showed an advantage for learning the categories. Effort can therefore hurt the learning of categories.

  19. When It Hurts (and Helps) to Try: The Role of Effort in Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Amy S.; Lee, Taraz; Kraus, Allison; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to children, adults are bad at learning language. This is counterintuitive; adults outperform children on most measures of cognition, especially those that involve effort (which continue to mature into early adulthood). The present study asks whether these mature effortful abilities interfere with language learning in adults and further, whether interference occurs equally for aspects of language that adults are good (word-segmentation) versus bad (grammar) at learning. Learners were exposed to an artificial language comprised of statistically defined words that belong to phonologically defined categories (grammar). Exposure occurred under passive or effortful conditions. Passive learners were told to listen while effortful learners were instructed to try to 1) learn the words, 2) learn the categories, or 3) learn the category-order. Effortful learners showed an advantage for learning words while passive learners showed an advantage for learning the categories. Effort can therefore hurt the learning of categories. PMID:25047901

  20. Learning: Statistical Mechanisms in Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    The grammatical structure of human languages is extremely complex, yet children master this complexity with apparent ease. One explanation is that we come to the task of acquisition equipped with knowledge about the possible grammatical structures of human languages—so-called "Universal Grammar". An alternative is that grammatical patterns are abstracted from the input via a process of identifying reoccurring patterns and using that information to form grammatical generalizations. This statistical learning hypothesis receives support from computational research, which has revealed that even low level statistics based on adjacent word co-occurrences yield grammatically relevant information. Moreover, even as adults, our knowledge and usage of grammatical patterns is often graded and probabilistic, and in ways which directly reflect the statistical makeup of the language we experience. The current chapter explores such evidence and concludes that statistical learning mechanisms play a critical role in acquisition, whilst acknowledging holes in our current knowledge, particularly with respect to the learning of `higher level' syntactic behaviours. Throughout, I emphasize that although a statistical approach is traditionally associated with a strongly empiricist position, specific accounts make specific claims about the nature of the learner, both in terms of learning mechanisms and the information that is primitive to the learning system. In particular, working models which construct grammatical generalizations often assume inbuilt semantic abstractions.

  1. Adult Immigrants' Media Usage and Its Function in Host Language Training Opportunities: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Media promotes to what extent immigrants learn the host language and cultural values. Consequently, the overall aim of this paper is to identify predictors among adult immigrants in language training and its effect on host language training. The participants (n = 186)-- many of them refugees--were recruited purposefully for the study from one…

  2. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  3. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  4. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults

    PubMed Central

    Weikum, Whitney M.; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  5. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  6. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood.

  7. Prediction in processing is a by-product of language learning.

    PubMed

    Chang, Franklin; Kidd, Evan; Rowland, Caroline F

    2013-08-01

    Both children and adults predict the content of upcoming language, suggesting that prediction is useful for learning as well as processing. We present an alternative model which can explain prediction behaviour as a by-product of language learning. We suggest that a consideration of language acquisition places important constraints on Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) theory.

  8. Subgroups of the Learning Disabled College Student: An Analysis of Written Language and Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Donna; Arsenault, Joseph

    A study examined the identification of distinct subgroups of learning-disabled young adults based on their ability to generate written language. Two subgroups of learning-disabled college students, the language strong/visually weak (N=22) and the visually strong/language weak (N=10), were identified based on evaluation of 32 essays. Subjects were…

  9. Regularization of languages by adults and children: A mathematical framework.

    PubMed

    Rische, Jacquelyn L; Komarova, Natalia L

    2016-02-01

    The fascinating ability of humans to modify the linguistic input and "create" a language has been widely discussed. In the work of Newport and colleagues, it has been demonstrated that both children and adults have some ability to process inconsistent linguistic input and "improve" it by making it more consistent. In Hudson Kam and Newport (2009), artificial miniature language acquisition from an inconsistent source was studied. It was shown that (i) children are better at language regularization than adults and that (ii) adults can also regularize, depending on the structure of the input. In this paper we create a learning algorithm of the reinforcement-learning type, which exhibits patterns reported in Hudson Kam and Newport (2009) and suggests a way to explain them. It turns out that in order to capture the differences between children's and adults' learning patterns, we need to introduce a certain asymmetry in the learning algorithm. Namely, we have to assume that the reaction of the learners differs depending on whether or not the source's input coincides with the learner's internal hypothesis. We interpret this result in the context of a different reaction of children and adults to implicit, expectation-based evidence, positive or negative. We propose that a possible mechanism that contributes to the children's ability to regularize an inconsistent input is related to their heightened sensitivity to positive evidence rather than the (implicit) negative evidence. In our model, regularization comes naturally as a consequence of a stronger reaction of the children to evidence supporting their preferred hypothesis. In adults, their ability to adequately process implicit negative evidence prevents them from regularizing the inconsistent input, resulting in a weaker degree of regularization. PMID:26580218

  10. Promoting Learning. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Kate

    This document is intended to help adult educators in the United Kingdom promote learning. The guide presents practical advice, case studies, and tips for undertaking and implementing effective promotional work. Sections 1 through 11 discuss the following topics: recognizing the increasing need for lifelong learning; the rationale for campaigns…

  11. Generative Learning: Adults Learning within Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaides, Aliki

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which ambiguity can serve as a catalyst for adult learning. The purpose of this study is to understand learning that is generated when encountering ambiguity agitated by the complexity of liquid modernity. "Ambiguity," in this study, describes an encounter with an appearance of reality that is at first…

  12. What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

  13. Video and Second Language Learning. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Junetta B., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The extent to which video has come of age with respect to language learning is the focus of this special issue, which provides information on sources of materials and offers practical ideas for the effective and creative use of those materials in second language instruction. Articles include: "Video and Language Learning: A Medium Comes of Age"…

  14. Language Learning Impairment in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize empirical evidence at the intersection of two populations: children with language learning impairment (LLI) and children from immigrant families who learn a single language from birth and a second language beginning in early childhood. LLI is a high incidence disorder that, in recent years, has been referred to by…

  15. LANGUAGE LEARNING, THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE PROCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAJAM, EDWARD W.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIANA-PURDUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES AND INTRODUCED BY DIEKHOFF'S SPEECH ADVOCATING TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE REVISION OF PROGRAM POLICY TO MEET CONTINUOUS SOCIAL CHANGE. IN THE FIRST SECTION, THE INTERRELATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING, ARE…

  16. Year 8 Attitudes to Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajdu, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Carr (2002), in her investigation of boys' alienation from languages and language learning, addressed the question of an "appropriate curriculum" for boys and boys' understanding of masculinity. Boys reported in that research that they preferred physical activities so found the written text orientation of language learning to be "hard" and…

  17. Beliefs and Emotions in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragao, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    From the argument that in languaging worlds are created (Aragao, 2005; Kalaja, 1995, 2003; Maturana and Varela, 2001; Nunez, 1997), this article aims at reflecting about the relationship between emotions and beliefs in foreign language learning. It is argued that beliefs and emotions in language learning/teaching are inter-related and can be…

  18. New Frontiers in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H., Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

    This volume on second language learning contains the following eleven articles: "The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis," by Ronald Wardhaugh, "Students' Errors and the Learning of French as a Second Language," by Magdelhayne F. Buteau, "Error Analysis and Second Language Strategies," by Jack C. Richards, "Induced Errors," by Nancy Stenson, "Global…

  19. Making Intercultural Language Learning Visible and Assessable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student…

  20. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  1. Student Modeling and Ab Initio Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Provides examples of student modeling techniques that have been employed in computer-assisted language learning over the past decade. Describes two systems for learning German: "German Tutor" and "Geroline." Shows how a student model can support computerized adaptive language testing for diagnostic purposes in a Web-based language learning…

  2. Aptitude for Learning a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard; Ganschow, Leonore

    2001-01-01

    Review research on foreign language aptitude and its measurement prior to 1990. Describes research areas in the 1990s, including affective variables, language learning strategies, learning styles as contributors to aptitude and aptitude as a cognitive construct affected by language variables. Reviews research on individual differences and the…

  3. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    PubMed

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-09-01

    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge. PMID:27233808

  4. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    PubMed

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-09-01

    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge.

  5. Flipped Approach to Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Junko

    2013-01-01

    There are abundant possibilities for using smart phones and tablet computers for foreign language learning. However, if there is an emphasis on memorization or on technology, language learners may not develop proficiency in their target language. Therefore, language teachers should be familiar with strategies for facilitating creative…

  6. Adults Learning for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    This book, drawing on 30 years of adult education experience in England, Ireland, India, and other countries, contrasts the individualistic approach to adult education in the West with the social responsibility view of adult education in the developing world. The book's thesis is that the gulf between the approach of the West and that of…

  7. Some Characteristics of an Effective Language Learning Program. CATESOL Occasional Papers, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kenton

    Children learn a second language quickly and easily simply by being exposed to it. Adults generally learn more slowly and less well. It is hypothesized that the brain in youth is extremely plastic, but hardens with adolescence and adulthood and becomes less receptive. Children learn in an active way, during play, and the language is reinforced by…

  8. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  9. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  10. Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.

    Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A 17-item…

  11. Weblogs for English Language Learning: Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Juida; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in…

  12. Technology and Second Language Learning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willetts, Karen

    Increasingly, technology is incorporated into second language teaching and learning both in and out of classroom situations. The computer alone has many capabilities for enhancing language learning, but when combined with other technologies, the possibilities multiply for information retrieval, interactive audio- and video-assisted learning, use…

  13. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  14. Co-Operative Language Learning: What's News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Ted

    This discussion of cooperative second language learning describes the approach in terms of response to three questions: WHO? WHAT? and WHY? The first section "WHO: Major Directors and Actors," chronicles the evolution of cooperative learning in general and cooperative language learning in particular, citing some specific methods and the…

  15. Meaning in Second Language Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The role of grammar rules and their relationship to language teaching, learning, and communicating are discussed in an attempt to stimulate language teachers to examine the approach they take in teaching grammar rules. (Contains five references.) (LB)

  16. Einige psychologische Besonderheiten der Erwachsenen und die Erlernung einer Fremdsprache (Some Psychological Peculiarities of Adults and the Learning of a Foreign Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witlin, Sh. L.

    1974-01-01

    Reports on 2 investigations of problems of teaching adults (ages 18-40) vs. teaching pupils 10 and 11 years old. Differences are observed in character, temperament, motivation, work capacity, mental processes. Learning ability increases with degree of education rather than age alone. This fact must be considered in a differentiated methodology.…

  17. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between HRD…

  18. Social Environment and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    This monograph contains papers from an institute on the theme of adult learning in the social environment. "Bill Moyers' Journal: An Interview with Myles Horton" provides excerpts from a televised interview that discusses Myles Horton's life, work, and association with the Highlander Folk School. "Myles Horton's Views on Learning in the Social…

  19. Input Variability Facilitates Unguided Subcategory Learning in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Plante, Elena; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method: Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half…

  20. Adult Learning in a Computer-Based ESL Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karen Renee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…

  1. Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…

  2. Language Alternation and Language Norm in Vocational Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontio, Janne; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The present article deals with language choice as communicative strategies in the language learning environment of an English-medium content and language integrated learning (CLIL) workshop at an auto mechanics class in a Swedish upper secondary school. The article presents the organisation and functions of language alternations (LAs) which are…

  3. Navajo Language and Culture in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Louise

    1999-01-01

    Examples of culturally relevant education for Navajo adults are described: (1) Arizona State Prison Literacy Program; (2) Dine College Teacher Preservice Program; (3) Salt Lake City East Community School; and (4) Family and Child Education Program. The examples attest to the power of native language literacy. (SK)

  4. Unsupervised learning of natural languages

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Zach; Horn, David; Ruppin, Eytan; Edelman, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    We address the problem, fundamental to linguistics, bioinformatics, and certain other disciplines, of using corpora of raw symbolic sequential data to infer underlying rules that govern their production. Given a corpus of strings (such as text, transcribed speech, chromosome or protein sequence data, sheet music, etc.), our unsupervised algorithm recursively distills from it hierarchically structured patterns. The adios (automatic distillation of structure) algorithm relies on a statistical method for pattern extraction and on structured generalization, two processes that have been implicated in language acquisition. It has been evaluated on artificial context-free grammars with thousands of rules, on natural languages as diverse as English and Chinese, and on protein data correlating sequence with function. This unsupervised algorithm is capable of learning complex syntax, generating grammatical novel sentences, and proving useful in other fields that call for structure discovery from raw data, such as bioinformatics. PMID:16087885

  5. Unsupervised learning of natural languages.

    PubMed

    Solan, Zach; Horn, David; Ruppin, Eytan; Edelman, Shimon

    2005-08-16

    We address the problem, fundamental to linguistics, bioinformatics, and certain other disciplines, of using corpora of raw symbolic sequential data to infer underlying rules that govern their production. Given a corpus of strings (such as text, transcribed speech, chromosome or protein sequence data, sheet music, etc.), our unsupervised algorithm recursively distills from it hierarchically structured patterns. The adios (automatic distillation of structure) algorithm relies on a statistical method for pattern extraction and on structured generalization, two processes that have been implicated in language acquisition. It has been evaluated on artificial context-free grammars with thousands of rules, on natural languages as diverse as English and Chinese, and on protein data correlating sequence with function. This unsupervised algorithm is capable of learning complex syntax, generating grammatical novel sentences, and proving useful in other fields that call for structure discovery from raw data, such as bioinformatics. PMID:16087885

  6. Cooperative Language Learning: Increasing Opportunities for Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes cooperative language learning, group instruction which is under the learner-centered approach where the groups are formed in such a way that each member performs his or her task to achieve the goal. Previous research indicates that cooperative language learning doesn't only improve learners' language skills, but also…

  7. Behavioural Objectives in Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Peter

    1976-01-01

    Behavioral objectives are discussed in relation to second language learning. They are broken down into cognitive and affective objectives, and difficulties in setting such objectives are discussed. (RM)

  8. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document, comprising volume 5, issues 1-3 of Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL), includes the following articles: "Poverty, Race, and Foreign Language Immersion: Predictors of Math and English Language Arts Performance" (Stephen J. Caldas, Nicole Boudreaux); "Meet a Foreign Language…

  9. The Changing Face of Language Learning: Learning beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two important dimensions to successful second language learning: what goes on inside the classroom and what goes on outside of the classroom. While language teaching has always been seen as a preparation for out-of-class uses of language, much of the focus in language teaching in the past has typically been on classroom-based language…

  10. Learning to Converse in a Foreign Language: The RECEPTION GAME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Marsha A.

    1997-01-01

    The RECEPTION GAME teaches conversation skills to adult foreign language learners with positions in international business and diplomacy. The design combines elements of simulation and experiential learning and takes into account conversation's rapport-building function, turn-taking mechanisms, open-ended structure, listening demands for following…

  11. Literacy and Language Education: The Quantification of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes international policy contexts of adult literacy and language assessment and the shift toward standardization through measurement tools. It considers the implications the quantification of learning outcomes has for pedagogy and practice and for the social inclusion of transnational migrants.

  12. Critical Geragogy and Foreign Language Learning: An Exploratory Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Gómez, Danya

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes an exploratory application of the principles of critical geragogy (Formosa, 2002, 2011, 2012) to foreign language (FL) education (i.e., L2 learning in the L1 community). Critical geragogy is an educational, practical framework intended to empower older adults and lead them to emancipate from age strictures (Glendenning &…

  13. Implicit language learning: Adults’ ability to segment words in Norwegian*

    PubMed Central

    KITTLESON, MEGAN M.; AGUILAR, JESSICA M.; TOKERUD, GRY LINE; PLANTE, ELENA; ASBJØRNSEN, ARVE E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener’s language background influences this process. In Study 1, the “guessibility” of potential test words from the Norwegian language was presented to 22 listeners who were asked to differentiate between true words and nonwords. In Study 2, 22 adults who spoke one of 12 different primary languages learned to segment words from continuous speech in an implicit language learning paradigm. The task consisted of two sessions, approximately three weeks apart, each requiring participants to listen to 7.2 minutes of Norwegian sentences followed by a series of bisyllabic test items presented in isolation. The participants differentially accepted the Norwegian words and Norwegian-like nonwords in both test sessions, demonstrating the capability to segment true words from running speech. The results were consistent across three broadly-defined language groups, despite differences in participants’ language background. PMID:21512605

  14. Input Skewedness, Consistency, and Order of Frequent Verbs in Frequency-Driven Second Language Construction Learning: A Replication and Extension of Casenhiser and Goldberg (2005) to Adult Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Recent usage-based models of language acquisition research has found that three frequency manipulations; (1) skewed input (Casenhiser & Goldberg 2005), (2) input consistency (Childers & Tomasello 2001), and (3) order of frequent verbs (Goldberg, Casenhiser, & White 2007) facilitated construction learning in children. The present paper addresses…

  15. Learning to Learn an Additional Language: A Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the New Zealand experience of second language acquisition as it applies to learning the Maori language and also to new immigrants learning English. The article describes the te kohanga reo movement and also outlines the government policy as it relates to the learning of English as an additional language…

  16. Statistical learning of a tonal language: the influence of bilingualism and previous linguistic experience

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2014-01-01

    While research shows that adults attend to both segmental and suprasegmental regularities in speech, including syllabic transitional probabilities as well as stress and intonational patterns, little is known about how statistical learning operates given input from tonal languages. In the current study, we designed an artificial tone language to address several questions: can adults track regularities in a tonal language? Is learning enhanced by previous exposure to tone-marking languages? Does bilingualism affect learning in this task? To address these questions, we contrasted the performance of English monolingual adults (Experiment 1), Mandarin monolingual and Mandarin–English bilingual adults (Experiment 2), and non-tonal bilingual adults (Experiment 3) in a statistical learning task using an artificial tone language. The pattern of results suggests that while prior exposure to tonal languages did not lead to significant improvements in performance, bilingual experience did enhance learning outcomes. This study represents the first demonstration of statistical learning of an artificial tone language and suggests a complex interplay between prior language experience and subsequent language learning. PMID:25232344

  17. Pragmatics and Language Learning, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.; Kachru, Yamuna, Ed.

    The selection of papers from the 6th Annual International Conference on Pragmatics and Language Learning (Urbana, Illinois, April 1992) include: "Discourse Markers Across Language" (Bruce Fraser); "Conjunction and Causality: Pragmatics and the Lexicon" (Yael Ziv); "Situated Discourse: The Sociocultural Context of Conversation in a Second Language"…

  18. Speech Analysis and Visual Image: Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Alfred; Chung, C. W.; Lam, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Students will speak a second language with an accent if they learn the language after the age of six. It does not matter how motivated and clever they are, the accent will not go away. Only a few gifted students can speak a second language flawlessly. The exact reasons for this phenomenon are unknown. Although a large number of hypotheses have…

  19. Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively…

  20. Identifying Language Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This is a small scale, inductive, ethnographic study whose objective is to explore the language learning strategies used by the students of different languages at a language program at the university level. Students of English, French, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and German participate in the study. Three instruments are used…

  1. Technologies in Use for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the technologies in use for second language learning, in relation to the major language areas and skills. In order, these are grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, pronunciation, listening, speaking, and culture. With each language area or skill, the relevant technologies are discussed with examples that illustrate how…

  2. The Natural Method of Language Learning: Systematized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Arline B.

    In this monograph, the language and pedagogical concepts embodied in the Tucson Early Education Model are used to develop a systematized method of natural language learning. It is hypothesized that young children in school continually resystematize their language, and that conscious and systematic modeling by the teacher should accelerate this…

  3. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  4. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  5. The Neurolinguistics of Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D., Ed.

    These proceedings are a collection of papers by researchers in neurology, bilingualism, linguistics, and the neurolinguistics of bilingualism. Topics are addressed using neurolinguistic data for second language learning, learning models for second language acquisition, and implications for teaching and research. Summaries of the following papers…

  6. Contextual Dynamics in Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozaki, Yoko; Ross, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Learning context has increasingly been postulated to exert an influence on the dynamics of individual differences in language learning. In a longitudinal design that tested the proficiency gains of 1,682 learners over a 2-year foreign language program, a multilevel modeling approach was deployed in this study to account for variation in second…

  7. Narrative Research in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkhuizen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Narrative research in language teaching and learning (LTL) is concerned with the stories teachers and learners tell about their lived and imagined experiences. Teachers typically tell about their professional development and their practices, and learners about their experiences of learning and using languages. What stories are, and indeed what…

  8. Investigating University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohebi, Sanaz Ghobadi; Khodadady, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate beliefs students usually held about language learning, based on the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire (Horwitz, 1988). For this purpose, 423 University learners of English in Iran were selected. Running descriptive statistics and the scree plot test, five factors were extracted:…

  9. Language Distance Learning for the Digital Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran-Cerda, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to shed light on the potential of distance learning to overcome challenges in distance, space, time, and human and economic resources that limit access to language learning opportunities in cultural, literary, historical, geographical, and cross-cultural frames. Language and literature educators collectively have…

  10. The Language Experience Approach and Adult Learners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marcia

    This Digest focuses on using the language experience approach for teaching adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The language experience approach (LEA) ia a whole language approach that promotes reading and writing through the use of personal experiences and oral language. It can be used in tutorial or classroom settings with…

  11. Adult Second-Language Reading Research: How May It Inform Assessment and Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Maria S.; Sylvester, Ellen Skilton

    Research studies on how adults learn and develop second-language reading competence were considered in the context of a componential theory of reading. In particular, C. A. Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory (VET) was used as a framework in which to organize and evaluate the studies' contribution to the field of second-language reading. The…

  12. Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

  13. Identifying native language difficulties among foreign language learners in college: a "foreign" language learning disability?

    PubMed

    Ganschow, L; Sparks, R L; Javorsky, J; Pohlman, J; Bishop-Marbury, A

    1991-11-01

    The present study compared successful and unsuccessful college foreign language learners on measures of intelligence, foreign language aptitude, native oral and written language, and math. Unsuccessful students had received petitions to waive the foreign language requirement. No significant differences between groups were found on intelligence and reading comprehension. Significant differences were found on the Modern Language Aptitude Test, on tests of written and oral language in the syntactic and phonological domains, and on math calculation. Authors suggest that students with foreign language learning difficulties may have underlying native language problems manifested especially in the areas of syntax and phonology. Suggestions for diagnosing a foreign language disability are made.

  14. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  15. "Facebook" for Informal Language Learning: Perspectives from Tertiary Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Antonie

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of "Facebook" for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish) completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1) their perceptions of "Facebook" as a multilingual environment, (2) their online writing…

  16. Appropriate Language Assessment in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a small-scale research project in two schools using content and language integrated learning (CLIL), one English and one Austrian, where in both cases there had been considerable misgivings about appropriate forms of assessment to match the different kinds of language skill developed in the CLIL process. Teachers were…

  17. Incidental Language Learning in Foreign Language Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Daryl M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which 40 students enrolled in upper level foreign language literary/cultural studies content courses showed evidence of incidental language learning over the course of a semester. Students completed a cloze passage and provided both writing and speaking samples at the beginning and end of the semester. In…

  18. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations.

  19. Adult Learning Theories Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A student-centered nontraditional learning program was proposed to better prepare fire department military personnel in obtaining their 911 dispatch certification at a Florida military installation. Maintaining an adequate number of dispatched qualified military personnel, in addition to current civilian dispatchers at the same location, improves…

  20. Investigating the Language and Literacy Skills Required for Independent Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to investigate the threshold levels of literacy and language proficiency necessary for adult learners to use the Internet for independent learning. The report is triangulated around learning from large-scale surveys, learning from the literature, and learning from the field. Reported findings include: (1)…

  1. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    PubMed

    Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule. PMID:26107624

  2. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject—One Language Rule

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish—adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)—learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject—one language rule. PMID:26107624

  3. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    PubMed

    Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  4. Electrophysiological Investigations of Second Language Word Learning, Attrition and Bilingual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkanen, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation examined changes in brain activity associated with learning, forgetting and using a second language. The first experiment investigated the changes that occur when novice adult second language learners acquire and forget second language words. Event-related brain potentials were measured while native…

  5. Adult Learning in Traditional Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study is based on interviews carried out with 13 adult learners of traditional fiddle playing. The average age of the learners was 56 and they had been learning to play for between 2 and 20 years. All of the interviewees had taken music at school but none of them had been stimulated to participate further in any significant sense. The…

  6. Where Now for Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

  7. The company that words keep: comparing the statistical structure of child- versus adult-directed language.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at children aged 1.0 to 5.0, and two adult-directed corpora representing spoken and written language. Statistics were adjusted relative to shuffled corpora. Child-directed language was found to be more associative, repetitive and consistent than adult-directed language. Moreover, these statistical properties of child-directed language better predicted word acquisition than the same statistics in adult-directed language. Word frequency and repetitions were the best predictors within word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives and function words). For all word classes combined, associative structure, contextual diversity and word repetitions best predicted language acquisition. These results support the hypothesis that child-directed language is structured in ways that facilitate language acquisition.

  8. Systems of Goals, Attitudes, and Self-Related Beliefs in Second-Language-Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…

  9. Media, Information Technology, and Language Planning: What Can Endangered Language Communities Learn from Created Language Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreyer, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…

  10. The Internet, Language Learning, and International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…

  11. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Language Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…

  12. A Critical Appraisal of Foreign Language Research in Content and Language Integrated Learning, Young Language Learners, and Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Published in Spain (2003-2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…

  13. Mobile Learning: A Powerful Tool for Ubiquitous Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Nelson; Lopes, Sérgio; Araújo, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, e-readers, etc.) have come to be used as tools for mobile learning. Several studies support the integration of such technological devices with learning, particularly with language learning. In this paper, we wish to present an Android app designed for the teaching and learning of Portuguese as a foreign…

  14. Do Inequalities in Adult Learning Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona; Iain Murray; Berry, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) Adult Participation in Learning Survey 10 years ago showed that two-fifths of the adult population said that they had taken part in learning in the last three years. A decade later, the 2012 survey shows that little has changed--active participation in learning remains a minority…

  15. Barriers to Adult Learning: Bridging the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falasca, Marina

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…

  16. Suggestopedia: An Innovation in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Used primarily for second language learning, Suggestopedia is a learning method which facilitates whole brain learning by using the arts--music, drawing, and theatrical presentations--to reduce negative and increase positive suggestive factors. Stages in a lesson are discussed and sources of information and suggestopedia music selections are…

  17. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  18. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  19. The ELAA 2 Citizen Science Project: The Case for Science, Equity, and Critical Thinking in Adult English Language Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basham, M.

    2012-08-01

    This article summarizes a paper presented at the recent ASP conference Connecting People to Science in Baltimore 2011. This action research study currently in progress aims to explore the impact of integrating science into English language instruction (English Language Acquisition for Adults, or ELLA) serving largely Hispanic immigrants at an adult learning center based in Phoenix, Arizona.

  20. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This review of the current literature on second language learning was to inform the following four questions: (1) what are the effects of learning a second language on the first language? (2) What is the role of content instruction in offering a second language? (3) What are the effects of learning a second language on students with special needs?…

  1. Understanding the Conditions of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Knud

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the essential characteristics of learning in the four main life stages: childhood, youth, adulthood, and mature adulthood. Itemizes the characteristics of adult learning and stresses the importance of life projects as a motivation for learning. (JOW)

  2. Learning About Living: Youth and Adult Education on Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Helen P., Ed.; And Others

    Presented is an instructional guide designed for use in training young people and adults who may have children with learning problems. Included are five modules dealing with the following topics (with sample sub-topics in parentheses): child development (toilet training), home activities to enhance school performance (language development),…

  3. Introducing Advanced Clinical Reasoning to an Adult Learning Disability Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…

  4. Neural correlates of second-language word learning: minimal instruction produces rapid change.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Judith; Osterhout, Lee; Kim, Albert

    2004-07-01

    Adult second-language (L2) learning is often claimed to be slow and laborious compared to native language (L1) acquisition, but little is known about the rate of L2 word learning. Here we report that adult second-language learners' brain activity, as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs), discriminated between L2 words and L2 'pseudowords' (word-like letter strings) after just 14 h of classroom instruction. This occurred even while the learners performed at chance levels when making overt L2 word-nonword judgments, indicating that the early acquisition of some aspects of a new language may be overlooked by current behavioral assessments.

  5. Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2003-10-01

    Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

  6. Children's Learning Strategies in Language Immersion Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Anna Uhl; El-Dinary, Pamela Beard

    This paper reports on an investigation of learning strategy applications in elementary foreign language immersion classrooms. The focus of the paper is on identifying strategies more and less effective learners use for classroom reading and writing tasks in the target language. Think-aloud data from third grade and fourth grade students were…

  7. The Role of Environment in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Irma

    Attention to different aspects of communicative competence (form and meaning) in second language instruction creates different kinds of learning environments. Form-focused classrooms favor transmission of linguistic competence. Whole-class instruction and lockstep conditions restrict communication. Input from teacher language and attitudes toward…

  8. Survey Interviews for Interactive Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, George; Gregory, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A survey-interview exercise is described as it evolved through English-as-a-second-language students' efforts to develop better spoken language skills. The exercise provided students with experience in using spoken English in interaction, learning first-hand about local ideas and attitudes, and reflecting on and discussing the experience in the…

  9. Second Language Learning; Investigating the Classroom Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rosamond

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a number of second-language (L2) classroom-based research projects undertaken at the University of Stirling in Scotland. It is argued that a full understanding of classroom-based L2 learning requires the integration of sociolinguistic studies of the classroom context with psycholinguistic studies of second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  10. Suggestology as an Effective Language Learning Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MaCoy, Katherine W.

    The methods used and the results obtained by means of the accelerated language learning techniques developed by Georgi Lozanov, Director of the Institute of Suggestology in Bulgaria, are discussed. The following topics are included: (1) discussion of hypermnesia, "super memory," and the reasons foreign languages were chosen for purposes of…

  11. Learner Perspectives on Fully Online Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Susan Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on this author's 2011 article in which the author reflects on the pedagogical challenges and resultant changes made while teaching two fully online foreign language papers over a four-year period (Y. H. S. Sun (2011). Online language teaching: The pedagogical challenges. "Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An…

  12. Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

  13. The Challenge of Measuring Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the usefulness of using generic strategy inventories to assess language learning strategies (LLSs) across contexts. A review of the LLS research is presented with a critique of extant studies in relation to classification of strategies, methodological issues, and the predictability of language performance. The present…

  14. Gesture in Modern Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane

    2007-01-01

    For decades there have been linguists who proclaimed the significant role of kinesic expression in carrying the meaning of spoken language (e.g. Efron, 1941; Birdwhistell, 1952; Kendon, 1972). Drawing on such studies, there have also been pioneer studies of gesture in second language learning and use (McNeill, 1992; Gullberg, 1998, 2006), and…

  15. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  16. Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Fox, Roy F.; Almarza, Dario J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates international students' perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have…

  17. Operationalizing Multilingualism: Language Learning Motivation in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…

  18. Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

  19. Myths about Foreign Language Learning and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in education has suggested that students who are classified as learning disabled (LD) will exhibit inordinate difficulties learning a foreign language (FL). Even when not explicitly stated, the notion that those classified as LD have a disability for FL learning is implied. However, while beliefs about this purported disability…

  20. Does Learning Spanish Grammatical Gender Change English-Speaking Adults' Categorization of Inanimate Objects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurinski, Elena; Sera, Maria D.

    2011-01-01

    Second language acquisition studies can contribute to the body of research on the influence of language on thought by examining cognitive change as a result of second language learning. We conducted a longitudinal study that examined how the acquisition of Spanish grammatical gender influences categorization in native English-speaking adults. We…

  1. A Role for Chunk Formation in Statistical Learning of Second Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Humans are remarkably sensitive to the statistical structure of language. However, different mechanisms have been proposed to account for such statistical sensitivities. The present study compared adult learning of syntax and the ability of two models of statistical learning to simulate human performance: Simple Recurrent Networks, which learn by…

  2. Enhancing Learning in Training and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ronald R.; Ponticell, Judith A.; Gordon, Edward E.

    This book, which is designed to prepare individuals to become workplace consultants, examines the theory and practice of enhancing learning in training and adult education. The following are among the topics discussed: putting cognition theory into practice in instruction; cognitive science perspective on adult learning (adults as learners, three…

  3. Adult Learners, Learning and Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Ten articles focusing on adult learning services in public libraries highlight global trends, support for intentional change, counseling and information needs of adult learners, adult learner services at Pratt Library and North York (Ontario) library, process of learning, administrative considerations, political factors, and implications for…

  4. Pragmatics and Language Learning, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.; Kachru, Yamuna, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Monographs on pragmatics and language learning include: "Do We All Apologize the Same?--An Empirical Study on the Act of Apologizing by Spanish Speakers Learning English" (Montserrat Mir); "Conversational Openings in Kiswahili: The Pragmatic Performance of Native and Non-Native Speakers" (Alwiya S. Omar); "Experimental and Observational Data in…

  5. Crosslinguistic Differences in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janny H. C.; Williams, John N.

    2014-01-01

    We report three experiments that explore the effect of prior linguistic knowledge on implicit language learning. Native speakers of English from the United Kingdom and native speakers of Cantonese from Hong Kong participated in experiments that involved different learning materials. In Experiment 1, both participant groups showed evidence of…

  6. Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relatively new field of materials development for language learning and teaching. It reports the origins and development of the field and then reviews the literature on the evaluation, adaptation, production and exploitation of learning materials. It also reviews the literature, first, on a number of…

  7. Language Learning Strategy Use and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences across the varying levels of EFL learners in the frequency and choice of learning strategies. Using a reading test, questionnaire, and parametric statistical analysis, the findings yielded up discrepancies among the participants in the implementation of language-learning strategies concerning their…

  8. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  9. "I Learn More at School": A Critical Perspective on Workplace-Related Second Language Learning In and Out of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandwall, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a student involved in language learning at a work placement, as part of the basic Swedish language programme for adult immigrants, Svenska for invandrare (Sfi), in Gothenburg, Sweden. In accordance with the predominant economic agenda, this system is assumed to accelerate labour market entrance as well as…

  10. Adult Learning and the Future of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

  11. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 3. These issues contain the following major articles: "A National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL): A Brief History, 1987-1997;""Juguetes Fantasticos" (Mari Haas); "A Perspective on the Cultural Perspective" (Genelle Morain);…

  12. Language Disorders Are Learning Disabilities: Challenges on the Divergent and Diverse Paths to Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…

  13. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, General Language Learning Outcome, and Beliefs about Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the probable relationship between Iranian students' socioeconomic status, general language learning outcome, and their beliefs about language learning. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English for specific courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were…

  14. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch); "Bring Back Childhood…

  15. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  16. Learning a Second Language. What Parents Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Kathleen M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines several key issues that parents must know about their children learning a second language, including the benefits of knowing a second language; the benefits of learning second languages in elementary school; how languages are taught to children; whether second languages will interfere with English ability; how parents can help; and how…

  17. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  18. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  19. Transfer and Developmental Processes in Adult Foreign Language Speech Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flege, James Emil; Davidian, Richard D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study done to test the hypothesis that factors that shape children's production of their native language (L1) will also influence adults' pronunciation of sounds in a foreign language (L2). Results confirmed the hypothesis that developmental processes are "reactivated" when adults attempt to produce L2 sounds not found in their L1.…

  20. Transformational Learning: Reflections of an Adult Learning Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning, narrative learning, and spiritual learning frame adult experiences in new and exciting ways. These types of learning can involve a simple transformation of belief or opinion or a radical transformation involving one's total perspective; learning may occur abruptly or incrementally. Education should liberate students from…

  1. Gesture's role in speaking, learning, and creating language.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Alibali, Martha Wagner

    2013-01-01

    When speakers talk, they gesture. The goal of this review is to investigate the contribution that these gestures make to how we communicate and think. Gesture can play a role in communication and thought at many timespans. We explore, in turn, gesture's contribution to how language is produced and understood in the moment; its contribution to how we learn language and other cognitive skills; and its contribution to how language is created over generations, over childhood, and on the spot. We find that the gestures speakers produce when they talk are integral to communication and can be harnessed in a number of ways. (a) Gesture reflects speakers' thoughts, often their unspoken thoughts, and thus can serve as a window onto cognition. Encouraging speakers to gesture can thus provide another route for teachers, clinicians, interviewers, etc., to better understand their communication partners. (b) Gesture can change speakers' thoughts. Encouraging gesture thus has the potential to change how students, patients, witnesses, etc., think about a problem and, as a result, alter the course of learning, therapy, or an interchange. (c) Gesture provides building blocks that can be used to construct a language. By watching how children and adults who do not already have a language put those blocks together, we can observe the process of language creation. Our hands are with us at all times and thus provide researchers and learners with an ever-present tool for understanding how we talk and think. PMID:22830562

  2. Gesture’s role in speaking, learning, and creating language

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Alibali, Martha Wagner

    2013-01-01

    When speakers talk, they gesture. The goal of this chapter is to understand the contribution that these gestures make to how we communicate and think. Gesture can play a role in communication and thought at many timespans. We explore, in turn, gesture’s contribution to how language is produced and understood in the moment; its contribution to how we learn language and other cognitive skills; and its contribution to how language is created over generations, over childhood, and on-the-spot. We find that the gestures speakers produce when they talk are integral to communication and can be harnessed in a number of ways. (1) Gesture reflects speakers’ thoughts, often their unspoken thoughts, and thus can serve as a window onto cognition. Encouraging speakers to gesture can thus provide another route for teachers, clinicians, interviewers, etc., to better understand their communication partners. (2) Gesture can change speakers’ thoughts. Encouraging gesture thus has the potential to change how students, patients, witnesses, etc., think about a problem and, as a result, alter the course of learning, therapy, or an interchange. (3) Gesture provides building blocks that can be used to construct a language. By watching how children and adults who do not already have a language put those blocks together, we can observe the process of language creation first hand. Our hands are with us at all times and thus provide researchers and learners with an ever-present tool for understanding how we talk and think. PMID:22830562

  3. Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Edith, Ed.

    The immediate stimulus for this collection of papers was a conference, Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner, organized by the Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research (CILT) and the Language Centre of the University of Cambridge in December 1992 at Queen's College, Cambridge. Several 1-day conferences on the same theme were…

  4. Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

  5. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  6. Language Views on Social Networking Sites for Language Learning: The Case of Busuu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Álvarez Valencia, José Aldemar

    2016-01-01

    Social networking has compelled the area of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) to expand its research palette and account for new virtual ecologies that afford language learning and socialization. This study focuses on Busuu, a social networking site for language learning (SNSLL), and analyzes the views of language that are enacted through…

  7. Learning through Action: Parallel Learning Processes in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Elizabeth A.; Branscomb, Kathryn R.

    2009-01-01

    Experiential learning has become an essential part of many educational settings from infancy through adulthood. While the effectiveness of active learning has been evaluated in youth and adult settings, few known studies have compared the learning processes of children and adults within the same project. This article contrasts the active learning…

  8. Electronic Tandem Language Learning (eTandem): A Third Approach to Second Language Learning for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cziko, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    Tandem language learning occurs when two learners of different native languages work together to help each other learn the other language. First used in face-to-face contexts, Tandem is now increasingly being used by language-learning partners located in different countries who are linked via various forms of electronic communication, a context…

  9. Developmental Comparisons of Implicit and Explicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that children learn languages implicitly whereas older learners learn languages explicitly, and some have claimed that after puberty only explicit language learning is possible. However, older learners often receive more explicit instruction than child L2 learners, which may affect their learning strategies. This study…

  10. Using Language Learning Conditions in Mathematics. PEN 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoessiger, Rex

    This pamphlet reports on a project in Tasmania exploring whether the "natural learning conditions" approach to language learning could be adapted for mathematics. The connections between language and mathematics, as well as the natural learning processes of language learning are described in the pamphlet. The project itself is described--small…

  11. Modeling social learning of language and skills.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Paul; Haasdijk, Evert

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms agents should have in order to be able to transmit language from one generation to the next so that it can be used as a medium to transmit internalized rules that represent skill knowledge. We have performed experiments where this knowledge solves the familiar poisonous-food problem. Simulations reveal under what conditions, regarding population structure, agents can successfully solve this problem. In addition to issues relating to perspective taking and mutual exclusivity, we show that agents need to coordinate interactions so that they can establish joint attention in order to form a scaffold for language learning, which in turn forms a scaffold for the learning of rule-based skills. Based on these findings, we conclude by hypothesizing that social learning at one level forms a scaffold for the social learning at another, higher level, thus contributing to the accumulation of cultural knowledge.

  12. Anxiety About Foreign Language Learning among High School Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganschow, Leonore; Sparks, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between anxiety and native-language skill and foreign-language aptitude measures among high school foreign-language learners using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). Findings suggest that skill in one's native language may affect aptitude for learning a foreign language and that the FLCAS may provide an…

  13. Sabemos y Podemos: Learning for Social Action. Adult Education Curriculum. English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rachel

    This adult education curriculum, part of the Aprender Es Poder (To Learn Is Power) program, explores the themes of school success for Latino children, expands the work options and improves the working conditions of Latino adults, and identifies community issues. It is meant to be a resource for English as a Second Language Literacy and adult basic…

  14. Strategy Inventory for Language Learning-ELL Student Form: Testing for Factorial Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Tretter, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    As the school-aged English language learner (ELL) population continues to grow in the United States and other English-speaking countries, psychometrically sound instruments to measure their language learning strategies (LLS) become ever more critical. This study adapted and validated an adult-oriented measure of LLS (50-item "Strategy…

  15. Post-Structuralist Potentialities for Studies of Subjectivity and Second Language Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a proliferation of studies investigating, complicating, and reimagining the relationship between second language learning and identity. Yet, with only a handful of exceptions, these studies are limited to adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article, the author proposes that identity research with…

  16. Language Learning in Cyberspace: Teleporting the Classroom into the Target Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Randall P.; Kotter, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Reports a study that tested the possibility of language instruction in a MOO (Multiple-User Domain, Object-Oriented). The experiment consisted of two groups: adult evening-school participants in Germany learning English-as-a-Second-Language and American college students in their fourth semester of college German. Partnerships were formed with one…

  17. Learning English as Thai Adult Learners: An Insight into Experience in Using Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwanarak, Kasma

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to understand language learning strategies of Thai adult learners and factors affecting their strategy use. The participants are forty officers of General Service Division of the Council of State of Thailand, attending an English training course for developing their work potential. The data were collected through the…

  18. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  19. Understanding the Experiences of Adult English as a Second Language Instructors: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Marni Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Positioned within the social constructivist view of learning that individuals make meaning from their experiences and through their social actions and interactions, this qualitative study explores the ways in which nine instructors of underprepared adult English as a Second Language students made meaning of their classroom experiences. Through…

  20. Stability and Change in One Adult's Second Language English Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on how, against a background of relatively stable patterns of second language negation, a Japanese-speaking adult learning English made use of a negative formula, "I don't know," and how, in and through interaction, analyzed it into its component parts and began using "don't" more productively.…

  1. Mixed Ability Teaching: Meeting Learners' Needs. Netword 3: Teaching Languages to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainslie, Susan

    This guide, designed for teachers of second languages to adults, discusses instruction for student groups of mixed abilities. The first chapter examines the factors that determine mixed ability, including: student motivation, interests, and needs; linguistic ability; general educational background; learning style; age; external pressures and time…

  2. Symposium on "A Units/Credits System for Modern Languages in Adult Education." Consolidated Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trim, J. L. M., Ed.

    This paper presents a consolidated report of the work of a group of experts investigating the possibility of organizing modern language teaching/learning in the form of a units/credits system, in order to allow an approach based on the individual motivations and capacities of the adult learner. In particular, three issues considered central to the…

  3. Preparing Adult Educators: The Need to Develop Communicative Language Teaching Skills in College-Level Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines why communicative language teaching (CLT) fails to improve student learning in certain contexts by assessing two adult educators' communicative and noncommunicative practices through qualitative case studies, interviews, and participant observations. Results show no inherent CLT problems that prevent teachers from grasping…

  4. Why Words are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. METHOD: Sixty-nine 18-25-year-olds with LI or without (ND) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings immediately after training (encoding) and 12-hours, 24-hours, and 1-week later (remembering). Half of the participants trained in the morning and half in the evening. RESULTS: At immediate posttest, those with LI performed more poorly on form and meaning than those with ND. Poor performance was more likely among those with more severe LI. The LI and ND groups demonstrated no difference in remembering word meanings over one week. In both groups, participants who trained in the evening, and therefore slept shortly after training, demonstrated greater gains in meaning recall than those who trained in the morning. In contrast, the LI-ND gap for word form recall widened over the week. CONCLUSIONS: Some adults with LI have encoding deficits that limit the addition of word forms and meanings to the lexicon. Similarities and differences in patterns of remembering in the LI and ND groups motivate the hypothesis that consolidation of declarative memory is a strength for adults with LI. PMID:24023376

  5. Brain responses reveal the learning of foreign language phonemes.

    PubMed

    Winkler, I; Kujala, T; Tiitinen, H; Sivonen, P; Alku, P; Lehtokoski, A; Czigler, I; Csépe, V; Ilmoniemi, R J; Näätänen, R

    1999-09-01

    Learning to speak a new language requires the formation of recognition patterns for the speech sounds specific to the newly acquired language. The present study demonstrates the dynamic nature of cortical memory representations for phonemes in adults by using the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential. We studied Hungarian and Finnish subjects, dividing the Hungarians into a naive (no knowledge of Finnish) and a fluent (in Finnish) group. We found that the MMN for a contrast between two Finnish phonemes was elicited in the fluent Hungarians but not in the naive Hungarians. This result indicates that the fluent Hungarians developed cortical memory representations for the Finnish phoneme system that enabled them to preattentively categorize phonemes specific to this language.

  6. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  7. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  8. View, 2000: Commentaries on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning Australia, Inc., Jamison.

    This booklet is compiled from all the Adult Learning Australia (ALA) Commentaries produced in 2000. Emailed to ALA members each week, ALA Commentaries are written by people in the field of adult learning in the broadest sense, usually in Australia, sometimes overseas, and designed to stimulate discussion. ALA hosts an online discussion forum about…

  9. Adult Perspectives of Learning Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn; Jutras, Peter; Kim, Seon Joo

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults' perceptions and experiences of learning musical instruments. Conducted in the south-east United States, 15 adults who were learning instruments were recruited via community music groups and private instrumental teachers. Analysis of transcripts of semi-structured interviews…

  10. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  11. Autonomous Language Learning with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) wants English language education to be more communicative. Japanese teachers of English (JTEs) need to adapt their instructional practices to meet this goal; however, they may not feel confident enough to teach speaking themselves. Using technology, JTEs have the ability…

  12. Authenticity, Culture and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; Dasli, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In philosophy, authenticity has been used with two meanings: one entails the notion of correspondence; the other entails the notion of genesis (Cooper, 1983: 15). As in certain branches of philosophy, language teaching has perhaps clung too long to the first of these notions of authenticity at the expense of the other. This paper reviews four key…

  13. Beyond Babel: Language Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Uschi

    The book and accompanying CD-ROM is designed to assist teachers who want to develop their own materials on the World Wide Web, are interested in integrating interesting Web sites and ideas into their curriculum, or are interested in students' perspectives of the Web. It is also for anyone who wishes to refresh a language or get a feel for a new…

  14. Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

  15. Brief Training with Co-Speech Gesture Lends a Hand to Word Learning in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Spencer D.; McDevitt, Tara; Esch, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in psychology and neuroscience has demonstrated that co-speech gestures are semantically integrated with speech during language comprehension and development. The present study explored whether gestures also play a role in language learning in adults. In Experiment 1, we exposed adults to a brief training session presenting novel…

  16. The Relationship between Artificial and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we…

  17. Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... the details of a story's plot or a classroom lecture Reading and comprehending material Learning words to ... stories to the child? Observe the child during classroom activities. Evaluate the child's ability to understand verbal ...

  18. Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sally

    The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

  19. Informal Adult Learning and Everyday Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the types of informal learning activities that adults with low literacy skills engage in outside of formal literacy programs and how these activities relate to their literacy practices. Key informants for the study included 10 adults identified at International Adult Literacy Survey levels 1 and 2. Using ethnographic…

  20. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  1. Cooperative Learning Activities for Language Arts: Challenging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Grace; Nader, Lillian

    Designed to introduce teachers to cooperative learning techniques in the language arts, this book presents 24 activity units--12 on outer space (including the exploration of space and its many adventures), and 12 on "inner space" (the mind, the emotions, and the brain). After an introduction and overview, the first section of the book gives…

  2. Autonomous Language Learning against All Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualizing learners' individuality as dynamic and contextually situated, this paper reports on an inquiry that examined the genesis of a disabled learner's success in learning foreign languages on the Chinese mainland. Using source texts such as the learner's published diaries, letters and her autobiography, the inquiry revealed that language…

  3. Games in Language Learning: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the interest in using digital games for language learning. This coincides with the explosive growth in multiplayer online gaming and with the proliferation of mobile games for smart phones. It also reflects the growing recognition among educators of the importance of extramural, informal…

  4. PROGRAMMED LEARNING OF A SECOND LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, HARLAN

    THE PROCESSES OF EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMING OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ARE EXAMINED ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, WHICH IS THE BASIS OF PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES. DISCUSSION OF FORMAL REPERTOIRES COVERS THE USE OF SUCH CONDITIONING METHODS AS DISCRIMINATION LEARNING AND TRANSFER, STIMULUS GENERALIZATION, RESPONSE GENERALIZATION, AND…

  5. Student Language Learning Strategies across Eight Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Matthew; Ho, Belinda

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the use of 50 common second language learning strategies by English for academic purposes students across eight disciplines--building, business, computing, engineering, English, mathematics, primary education, and science--in a university in Hong Kong. Compared and contrasted strategy use across disciplines and examined relationships…

  6. Computers as a Language Learning Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschoff, Bernd

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted language learning project at the University of Wuppertal (West Germany). It's hoped that teachers can overcome the two handicaps of the past--lack of teacher awareness of current audio-visual technical aids, as well as unsophisticated computer hardware--both problems by getting the opportunity to familiarize…

  7. Agency, Language Learning, and Multilingual Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of agency in language learning and use as discursively, historically, and socially mediated. It further explores how agency can be understood as variously enabled and constrained as individuals move from one cultural, linguistic, and/or geographical space to another. These explorations focus on how agency is…

  8. Language and Literacy Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Elaine R., Ed.; Wilkinson, Louise C., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents evidence-based practices for integrating language and literacy knowledge to enhance children's learning in today's standards-based classrooms. While grounded in theory and research, the book focuses on day-to-day concerns in instruction and intervention. Identified are models for effective collaboration among speech-language…

  9. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  10. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  11. Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

  12. Language Learning--An Intellectual Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis E.

    1985-01-01

    Looks at the debate over whether foreign language study is intellectually challenging. Examines four points in the debate: the contrast between content and skill; the nature of the learning and teaching material; the nature of classroom interaction; and the idea of osmosis. (SED)

  13. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  14. Help Seeking in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Barbara; Madden, Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    An examination of literature on the issue of help seeking (HS) has revealed a common theme: students will not always ask for help, even when they are aware that help is needed. The purpose of this action research study was to examine HS and help avoidance in the context of setting tasks in two types of English language-learning environment: a…

  15. Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Learning Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wire, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    The number of young people with a diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) coming into mainstream foreign languages classes is increasing, and this is causing some concern to teachers. Based on her extensive professional experience, Vivienne Wire here considers the implications for teaching and learning of the "triad of impairments" found in…

  16. Tutorial Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    "Sometimes maligned for its allegedly behaviorist connotations but critical for success in many fields from music to sport to mathematics and language learning, 'practice' is undergoing something of a revival in the applied linguistics literature" (Long & Richards 2007, p. xi). This research timeline provides a systematic overview of…

  17. Language Learning Strategies and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shomoossi, Nematullah; Kooshan, Mohsen; Ketabi, Saeed

    2008-01-01

    The role of learner's strategies and skills in learning a foreign language has been investigated in the last three decades. However, the part it plays in ESP achievement tests is not seriously treated. Moreover, as students take the final exam, their chief complaint concerns the idea of test anxiety as a debilitating factor. Therefore, the present…

  18. Discourse Connectors and Language Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitis, Eliza

    1987-01-01

    Considers the significant divergency of functions of connectives in speech from those of their counterparts in written language and points out that, because learning materials are based mainly on sentence grammars, the former functions are in the main neglected in them. (CB)

  19. Language Learning in Virtual Reality Environments: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…

  20. The Use of Technology for Second Language Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes distance learning (DL) for languages within the context of recent advances and research findings in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In addition to reviewing the different DL modalities, theoretical underpinnings, and the most appropriate technological applications to second language learning, the issues of…

  1. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  2. Adult English as a Second Language Students in the United States: Learner Characteristics, Goals, and Academic Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Olga Demin

    2009-01-01

    Adult English as a second language (ESL) students learning English outside of traditional academic settings are an understudied population of second language learners. The purpose of the research reported here is to contribute to meeting the instructional needs of these students more effectively by investigating the relationships between their…

  3. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These six issues of a periodical intended for teachers and tutors of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students offer articles and features including the following: readers' comments and questions; in-class map practice ideas; songs for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning; suggested films to show in class; conversation activities;…

  4. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 2. These issues contain the following major articles: "Minneapolis and Brittany: Children Bridge Geographical and Social Differences Through Technology" (Janine Onffroy Shelley); "Student Reasons for Studying Language: Implications for…

  5. Making the Jump: 'We Can Do a Good Job'. A Pack for Adults with Learning Difficulties Who Want To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Yola

    This document uses clear language and pictures to help adults with learning disabilities learn how other adults with learning difficulties have made the jump from courses and training into jobs and kept working. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1 through 9: (1) the objectives and activities of the Making the Jump project…

  6. Language Learner Strategy Research and Modern Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a…

  7. Does Recreational Reading in Native Language Influence Foreign Language Learning Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2011-01-01

    Limited studies have been conducted on the effects on recreational reading in native language on foreign language learning, whereas no findings exist on the effects of recreational reading in Turkish as a native language (L1) on English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of recreational reading…

  8. Pedagogy of Language Learning in Higher Education: An Introduction. Advances in Foreign Language Pedagogy, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauer, Gerd, Ed.

    This second volume in the series "Advances in Foreign and Second Language Pedagogy" is an introduction to the pedagogy of language learning in higher education focusing on learner motivation, classroom environments, relationships for learning, and the future of language education. The book reveals numerous links to language education on the…

  9. Which Methodology Works Better? English Language Teachers' Awareness of the Innovative Language Learning Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether English language teachers were aware of the innovative language learning methodologies in language learning, how they made use of these methodologies and the learners' reactions to them. The descriptive survey method was employed to disclose the frequencies and percentages of 175 English language teachers'…

  10. Sleep and native language interference affect non-native speech sound learning.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-12-01

    Adults learning a new language are faced with a significant challenge: non-native speech sounds that are perceptually similar to sounds in one's native language can be very difficult to acquire. Sleep and native language interference, 2 factors that may help to explain this difficulty in acquisition, are addressed in 3 studies. Results of Experiment 1 showed that participants trained on a non-native contrast at night improved in discrimination 24 hr after training, while those trained in the morning showed no such improvement. Experiments 2 and 3 addressed the possibility that incidental exposure to perceptually similar native language speech sounds during the day interfered with maintenance in the morning group. Taken together, results show that the ultimate success of non-native speech sound learning depends not only on the similarity of learned sounds to the native language repertoire, but also to interference from native language sounds before sleep.

  11. Adult and Community Learning Fund Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 2002

    2002-01-01

    Twelve articles describe projects supported by Britain's Adult and Community Learning Fund, including employment skills and information technology for disadvantaged groups, heritage restoration skills, alcohol rehabilitation, basic skills through media-based learning, guidance for female ex-offenders, access to learning for socially excluded…

  12. LEARNING AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KUHLEN, RAYMOND G.; AND OTHERS

    THIS RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OVER 1,500 ITEMS IS LARGELY DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF ADULT LEARNING AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR (CONDITIONING, SKILL LEARNING, DISCRIMINATION, VERBAL LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, AND SET), TO STUDIES ON INTELLIGENCE AND TEST BEHAVIOR (AGE CHANGES, CORRELATIONAL AND FACTOR…

  13. Interdisciplinary Handbook of Adult Lifespan Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D., Ed.

    This book is divided into three parts: theories and models, learning in specific life contexts, and the influence of aging on learning. Chapters include: "Chaos Theory as a Framework for Understanding Adult Lifespan Learning" (John C. Cavanaugh, Lisa C. McGuire); "The Future Impact of the Communication Revolution" (Lynn Johnson); "The Educated…

  14. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  15. Language Acculturation among Older Vietnamese Refugee Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1990-01-01

    Examined English language acculturation among older Vietnamese refugees (aged 40 and older). Found that age, sex, education in Vietnam, health, and length of residence in United States had some significant relationships with language acculturation. Older Vietnamese people had more problems with language acculturation than younger counterparts, and…

  16. The role of language in learning physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, David T.

    Many studies in PER suggest that language poses a serious difficulty for students learning physics. These difficulties are mostly attributed to misunderstanding of specialized terminology. This terminology often assigns new meanings to everyday terms used to describe physical models and phenomena. In this dissertation I present a novel approach to analyzing of the role of language in learning physics. This approach is based on the analysis of the historical development of physics ideas, the language of modern physicists, and students' difficulties in the areas of quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and thermodynamics. These data are analyzed using linguistic tools borrowed from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar. Specifically, I combine the idea of conceptual metaphor and grammar to build a theoretical framework that accounts for: (1) the role and function that language serves for physicists when they speak and reason about physical ideas and phenomena, (2) specific features of students' reasoning and difficulties that may be related to or derived from language that students read or hear. The theoretical framework is developed using the methodology of a grounded theoretical approach. The theoretical framework allows us to make predictions about the relationship between student discourse and their conceptual and problem solving difficulties. Tests of the theoretical framework are presented in the context of "heat" in thermodynamics and "force" in dynamics. In each case the language that students use to reason about the concepts of "heat" and "force" is analyzed using the theoretical framework. The results of this analysis show that language is very important in students' learning. In particular, students are (1) using features of physicists' conceptual metaphors to reason about physical phenomena, often overextending and misapplying these features, (2) drawing cues from the grammar of physicists' speech and writing to categorize physics

  17. Literacy Development and Language Expression for Adult Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Moon, Ji Yoon Christine

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides examples of transitions that learners face connected to their participation in adult education and English literacy instruction. It describes their efforts to attain relevant language expression skills.

  18. Classroom noise and children learning in a second language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Sabur, Sabina; Shaw, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The presence of background noise affects children more negatively than adults. Understanding speech in noise is a skill that continues to develop well into a child's adolescent years. Childrens' experience with a specific language also may affect their ability to make sense of incoming speech. Research suggests that even for adults the presence of background noise negatively affects the ability to listen in a second language. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of classroom noise on attention and speech perception in native Spanish-speaking second graders learning English as their second language (L2), as compared to English-only speaking peers (EO). In Study 1 we measured childrens' on-task behavior during instructional activities with and without soundfield amplification. In Study 2 we measured the effects of noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio) using an experimental English word-recognition task. Findings indicate although there were no effects of amplification on on-task behavior, word-recognition performance declined significantly for both EO and L2 groups in the noise condition. In particular, the impact of the noise was disproportionately greater for the L2 group. Children learning in their L2 appear to be at a distinct disadvantage when listening in rooms with typical noise and reverberation.

  19. The Varieties of Adult Civic Engagement in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2012-01-01

    Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…

  20. Learning the Languages of Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In his work with schools and other workplaces, psychologist Paul White has learned that many programs designed to appreciate employees fall flat because the appreciation is too generic or involves something the employees don't want (such as getting up in front of a group). Effective appreciation is (1) offered regularly, (2) valued by the…

  1. Transformations: Mobile Interaction & Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita; Thomas, Nathan; Dunning, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices and the interactions that these technologies afford have the potential to change the face and nature of education in our schools. Indeed, mobile technological advances are seen to offer better access to educational material and new interactive ways to learn. However, the question arises, as to whether these new technologies are…

  2. Sharing the Language of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Patti R.

    2005-01-01

    Educating newcomers to help themselves provides the knowledge and security they will need to function better in the community, but it can also be a learning experience for students. This article describes an integrated curriculum at Community High School in West Chicago, Illinois, that combines Spanish native speaking (SNS) students and child…

  3. Mnemotechnics in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the keyword method, which divided vocabulary learning into two stages: (1) the subject associates the spoken foreign word with the keyword, and association that is formed quickly because of the acoustic similarity between the words, and, (2) the subject forms a mental image of the keyword "interacting" with the English translation.…

  4. On-Line Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Considerable individual differences in language ability exist among normally developing children and adults. Whereas past research have attributed such differences to variations in verbal working memory or experience with language, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in statistical learning may be associated with differential language performance. We employ a novel paradigm for studying statistical learning on-line, combining a serial-reaction time task with artificial grammar learning. This task offers insights into both the timecourse of and individual differences in statistical learning. Experiment 1 charts the micro-level trajectory for statistical learning of nonadjacent dependencies and provides an on-line index of individual differences therein. In Experiment 2, these differences are then shown to predict variations in participants’ on-line processing of long-distance dependencies involving center-embedded relative clauses. The findings suggest that individual differences in the ability to learn from experience through statistical learning may contribute to variations in linguistic performance. PMID:21833201

  5. "Language Immersion Tepee" as a Facilitator of Sámi Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Due to the history of assimilation, power relations, and their sociolinguistic situation, the Sámi languages are categorized as endangered. The position of the Sámi languages in Sámi education is reviewed, and language immersion as a teaching method and as a means of language maintenance is discussed. Sámi language learning is described through…

  6. Language Diversity & Practice in Higher Education: Can Discipline-Specific Language Instruction Improve Economics Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Trien; Trimarchi, Angela; Williams, Julia

    2012-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition, discipline-specific language instruction is becoming widely known as Content and Language Integrated Learning. This method includes any activity that involves teaching a subject in a second language for the purpose of teaching both the subject content and the language. Research has shown that this two…

  7. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  8. A Research in the Influences of Vague Language on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Hongyun; Zhu, Yue

    2005-01-01

    Vague language is widely used in both spoken and written English and it is also a very important language variable. The process of language use is active, during which speakers and hearers constantly have to make choices out of variables. This paper mainly studies the influences of vagueness in language on second language learning and attaches…

  9. Is Developing Employability Skills Relevant to Adult Language Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaven, Tita

    2016-01-01

    Open University (OU) students are typically mature students who combine studying part-time with work or caring responsibilities; the average age of OU language students has been dropping, and about 30% of our new students are now under 25. The traditional view of adult learners who study languages is that they often study for pleasure or personal…

  10. Identification of Clinical Markers of Specific Language Impairment in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.; Betz, Stacy K.; Miller, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of 3 tasks known to be effective diagnostic clinical markers of specific language impairment (SLI) in children: (a) nonword repetition, (b) sentence repetition, and (c) grammaticality judgments of finiteness marking. Method: Two groups of young adults, 13 with SLI and 18 with typical language, completed 3…

  11. The Acquisitional Value of Recasts in Instructed Second Language Speech Learning: Teaching the Perception and Production of English /?/ to Adult Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of recasts together with form-focused instruction (FFI) on the development of second language speech perception and production of English /?/ by Japanese learners. Forty-five learners were randomly assigned to three groups--FFI recasts, FFI only, and Control--and exposed to four hours of communicatively…

  12. Content-Learning Tasks for Adult ESL Learners: Promoting Literacy for Work or School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Doreen E.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of English as a second language (ESL) are often on the frontline of working with adult ESL learners who are facing a difficult developmental pathway to academic and/or economic success. These learners come to the task of learning English with widely varying schooling experiences, degrees of first language literacy, and English language…

  13. A Working Model for Intercultural Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Online Language Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…

  14. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Their Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Fereshteh Khaffafi; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' learning strategies use and their language learning beliefs. A sample of 200 Iranian EFL learners who were all English language learners at different language institutes participated in this study. Two instruments, Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and…

  15. Prediction of single stage limit language and adult language via Yusof-Goode approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wen Li; Yusof, Yuhani; Rosli, Norhayati

    2014-06-01

    Yusof-Goode (Y-G) rule, a new symbolization of representing rule in splicing system under framework of formal language theory to model the recombinant behaviors of DNA molecules, was introduced by Yusof in 2012. A language that contains the strings resulting from a splicing system is called splicing language. Limit language is a subset of splicing language where it is restricted to the molecules that will be present in the system after the reaction has run to completion. Adult language is a subset of limit language where it does not participate in further splicing. In this paper, the new concept of single stage splicing languages is introduced and some theorems have been formulated to stipulate the final state product of single stage limit languages of Yusof-Goode splicing system based on the characteristic of one initial string andone rule.

  16. Second Language Learning of Complex Inflectional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored learning and generalization of parts of the Russian case-marking paradigm, an inflecting-fusional system in which affixes simultaneously mark several grammatical features (case, gender, number, animacy). In Experiment 1, adult English speakers (N = 43) were exposed to nouns with transparent gender marking in the nominative case…

  17. Maryland Adult English as a Second Language Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Adult Continuing Education Section.

    This document is an official statement of the State of Maryland, outlining in detail the state's adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program standards. The standards are not specific instructional standards, but rather overall guidelines for identifying and improving major components of quality adult ESL programs. The document has three…

  18. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  19. Telling the Life Stories of Adult Immigrants Learning English as a Second Language in the Midwest: A Chronotopic Approach Informed by Bakhtin's "Forms of Time and of the Chronotype in the Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yin Lam

    2013-01-01

    Adult immigrants are invaluable assets to our society as they bring along their cultural capital across borders. However, little is known about how their rich life histories reflect and refract their plights as ESL learners. This study is an investigation of three adult immigrants' English learning in an immigration center in the Midwest. The…

  20. Learning to read words in a new language shapes the neural organization of the prior languages.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one׳s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects׳ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects׳ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages.

  1. Learning to Read Words in a New Language Shapes the Neural Organization of the Prior Languages

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one's prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects’ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects’ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. PMID:25447375

  2. Should All Deaf Children Learn Sign Language?

    PubMed

    Napoli, Donna Jo; Mellon, Nancy K; Niparko, John K; Rathmann, Christian; Mathur, Gaurav; Humphries, Tom; Handley, Theresa; Scambler, Sasha; Lantos, John D

    2015-07-01

    Every year, 10,000 infants are born in the United States with sensorineural deafness. Deaf children of hearing (and nonsigning) parents are unique among all children in the world in that they cannot easily or naturally learn the language that their parents speak. These parents face tough choices. Should they seek a cochlear implant for their child? If so, should they also learn to sign? As pediatricians, we need to help parents understand the risks and benefits of different approaches to parent-child communication when the child is deaf [corrected].

  3. Should All Deaf Children Learn Sign Language?

    PubMed

    Napoli, Donna Jo; Mellon, Nancy K; Niparko, John K; Rathmann, Christian; Mathur, Gaurav; Humphries, Tom; Handley, Theresa; Scambler, Sasha; Lantos, John D

    2015-07-01

    Every year, 10,000 infants are born in the United States with sensorineural deafness. Deaf children of hearing (and nonsigning) parents are unique among all children in the world in that they cannot easily or naturally learn the language that their parents speak. These parents face tough choices. Should they seek a cochlear implant for their child? If so, should they also learn to sign? As pediatricians, we need to help parents understand the risks and benefits of different approaches to parent-child communication when the child is deaf [corrected]. PMID:26077481

  4. Looking for Evidence of Language Learning in Practices for Repair: A Case Study of Self-Initiated Self-Repair by an Adult Learner of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellermann, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses methods from conversation analysis to investigate a well-documented practice from mundane conversation (self-initiated self-repair) as it is accomplished during the interactions of one adult learner of English. The interactions took place during her classroom talk-in-interaction over the course of 18 months. The research describes…

  5. Assessing the Literacy Skills of Adult Immigrants and Adult English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck; Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; Soroui, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics and performance of adult immigrants and adult English language learners on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. These factors are related to key social outcomes such as involvement in the labor force, income, and welfare participation, and the data reported can be used in making decisions about…

  6. The Relationship Between Artificial and Second Language Learning.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-05-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we considered these questions by examining the relationship between performance in an ALL task and second language learning ability. Participants enrolled in a Spanish language class were evaluated using a number of different measures of Spanish ability and classroom performance, which was compared to IQ and a number of different measures of ALL performance. The results show that success in ALL experiments, particularly more complex artificial languages, correlates positively with indices of L2 learning even after controlling for IQ. These findings provide a key link between studies involving ALL and our understanding of second language learning in the classroom.

  7. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  8. ERPs Recorded During Early Second Language Exposure Predict Syntactic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In the present study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners’ proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared to closed-class function words, while low proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners’ L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

  9. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  10. From Pedagogically Relevant Corpora to Authentic Language Learning Contents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    The potential of corpora for language learning and teaching has been widely acknowledged and their ready availability on the Web has facilitated access for a broad range of users, including language teachers and learners. However, the integration of corpora into general language learning and teaching practice has so far been disappointing. In this…

  11. Should I Learn the Local Language When Teaching Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    For practical reasons, teachers of English as a second language abroad may choose not to learn the local language. However, the advantages of learning even a little of the language far outweigh any inconvenience caused by extra study time. First, teachers abroad lead more comfortable lives when not depending on others for basic needs such as…

  12. A Note on Internationalisation, Internationalism and Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the editorial of "The Language Learning Journal" of July 2011, readers' attention is drawn to the decline in language teaching and learning in British schools and universities, and to the attempt of the British Academy to promote language teaching against this decline. The British Academy paper makes seven recommendations of which the second…

  13. Individual Differences and Universals in Language Learning Aptitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Karl C., Ed.

    The following articles are included: (1) "Neurolinguistic Considerations on the Optimum Age for Second Language Learning" by Terence M. Walsh and Karl C. Diller; (2) "Major Variation in Language Skills Apparently under Genetic Influence (Discussed from the Viewpoint of Human Evolution)" by Brenda K. Sladen; (3) "Language Learning Strategies: Does…

  14. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  15. The Measurement of Foreign Language Learning Disabilities in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joan F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    In response to an earlier article on foreign language learning disabilities in college students, the article reports on a similar study using the Modern Language Aptitude Test and concludes that, as yet, tests are not adequate to determine a disability affecting foreign language learning. (DB)

  16. The Distance Learning of Foreign Languages: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Research into the distance learning of languages is now established as a significant avenue of enquiry in language teaching, with evident research trajectories in several domains. This article selects and analyses significant areas of investigation in distance language learning and teaching to identify new and emerging gaps, along with research…

  17. Languages in a Global World: Learning for Better Cultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesa, Bruno Della, Ed.; Scott, Jessica, Ed.; Hinton, Christina, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or…

  18. Identifying Our Approaches to Language Learning Technologies: Improving Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Gina Mikel; Avery, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The mid- to late 1990s was an exciting time for those concerned with incorporating new technology into their teaching of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). Commonly referred to as Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), or sometimes with the broader term Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL), the field took huge leaps…

  19. The Discourse of Language Learning Strategies: Towards an Inclusive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alexander Harris

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…

  20. Formulaic Sequences and the Implications for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is a review of literature in relation to formulaic sequences and the implications for second language learning. The formulaic sequence is a significant part of our language, and plays an essential role in both first and second language learning. The paper first introduces the definition, classifications, and major features of…

  1. Goofing: An Indicator of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulay, Heidi C.; Burt, Marina K.

    1972-01-01

    Revised and abridged version of You Can't Learn without Goofing (An Analysis of Children's Second Language Errors')'' to appear in Jack Richards (ed.), Error Analysis -- Perspectives in Second Language Acquisition,'' (Longmans). A goof'' is a productive error made during the language learning process. (RS)

  2. Age Differences in the Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate language learning strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners at different educational levels and explored the influence of age on the use of language learning strategies. A total of 1,023 students participated in the study. Out of the participants, there were 250 primary students…

  3. E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgalas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

  4. Foreign Language Learning and Inclusion: Who? Why? What? -- and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    The presumption of mainstream schooling and the removal of core status for foreign language learning at Key Stage 4 are presenting new challenges to our ideal of foreign language learning for all. In the current climate, the case for including children with special educational needs in foreign language classes has to be made with greater clarity…

  5. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…

  6. Shopping. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on shopping is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with reading levels of 4.0-7.5. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each module is a complete instructional package, including Adult Performance Level…

  7. Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Linda

    2001-01-01

    In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

  8. Beliefs about Second Language Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Learning Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Osaimi, Saleh; Wedell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In…

  9. Unlock a Brighter Future. Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

    This guide, which is intended for adults in the United Kingdom, contains information about the educational and employment opportunities available to them. The following topics are discussed in the guide's 11 sections: assessing one's own learning skills and identifying available learning opportunities; locating sources of educational and career…

  10. Salvaging the Self in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Celia; West, Linden

    2009-01-01

    This paper stems from a dialogue on the subjects of learning and learners: one forged out of experiences in research and teaching, and the application of psychodynamic insights, developmental psychology and recent work in the neurosciences, to thinking about adult learning and subjectivity. We argue that some notion of the self needs to be…

  11. Automatic Selection of Suitable Sentences for Language Learning Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilán, Ildikó; Volodina, Elena; Johansson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In our study we investigated second and foreign language (L2) sentence readability, an area little explored so far in the case of several languages, including Swedish. The outcome of our research consists of two methods for sentence selection from native language corpora based on Natural Language Processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML)…

  12. Applying a Multimedia Storytelling Website in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsou, Wenli; Wang, Weichung; Tzeng, Yenjun

    2006-01-01

    Storytelling is a practical and powerful teaching tool, especially for language learning. Teachers in language classrooms, however, may hesitate to incorporate storytelling into language instruction because of an already overloaded curriculum. English foreign language (EFL) teachers in Taiwan report additional problems such as having little prior…

  13. Languages for Adult Learners. Language Teaching and Linguistics: Abstracts, Vol. 9, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trim, J. L. M.

    Increasing attention is being paid to the teaching of languages to adults. Communications improvements, tourism, immigration and international commerce are all contributing factors. Emerging third-world states often require a European language for internal and outside communication. Close contact among European nations demands knowledge of a…

  14. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.

  15. Teacher Feedback to Support Oral Language Learning for Young Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Park, Hyejin

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing numbers of dual language learners (DLLs) in early childhood programmes, the use of research-based and effective pedagogical strategies to support oral language learning is important. Early childhood classrooms can provide many opportunities to support language learning. Teacher feedback is an intentional teaching strategy to…

  16. The Use of the First Language in Second Language Learning Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasa, Najwa Hanna; Al-Manaseer, Majeda

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to study new techniques in second language learning involving the active use of the mother tongue in classroom situations. Several teaching methods will be discussed such as The Alternating Approach, The New Concurrent Method, and Community Language Learning method. These methods of employing the first language recognise the link…

  17. Why Words Are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. Method: Sixty-nine 18-to 25-year-olds with LI or without (the normal development [ND] group) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings…

  18. Adult Learning Principles and Presentation Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Palis, Ana G.; Quiros, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy. However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles (i.e., relevance, congruence with student's needs, interactivity, connection to student's previous knowledge and experience) to this method increases learning by lectures and the effectiveness of lectures. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective. PMID:24791101

  19. A Review of Integrating Mobile Phones for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmi, Ramiza; Albion, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) is gradually being introduced in language classrooms. All forms of mobile technology represent portability with smarter features. Studies have proven the concomitant role of technology beneficial for language learning. Various features in the technology have been exploited and researched for acquiring and learning…

  20. Malaysian Gifted Students' Use of English Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Melor Md; Sulaiman, Nur Ainil; Embi, Mohammed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been done on language learning strategies employed by different type of learners and in various contexts. However, very little studies have been done on gifted students regarding language learning. Gifted students have unique characteristics and have different ways of thinking and learning. These characteristics affect how they…

  1. Lexical Units and the Learning of a Foreign Language Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaards, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the concept of lexical unit as proposed by Cruse (1986) in the context of second language vocabulary learning to replace the notion of "word." Defines the concept in terms of lexical semantics and applies it to the task of learning a second language. Describes studies in which the learning of different types of lexical units is…

  2. Is There a "Disability" for Learning a Foreign Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, talk of a new type of learning disability (LD)--a foreign language learning disability, or FLLD--has made its way into the LD and foreign language (FL) literature. However, no empirical evidence has been published to support the concept of a "disability" for FL learning by those professionals who use the term. In this article, the author…

  3. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  4. Skype Me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live…

  5. The Impact of Native Language Use on Second Language Vocabulary Learning by Saudi EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Saleem

    2016-01-01

    This paper strives to explore the impact of Native Language use on Foreign Language vocabulary learning on the basis of empirical and available data. The study is carried out with special reference to the English Language Programme students in Buraydah Community College, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The Native Language of these students is…

  6. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  7. Primary or "Specific" Language Impairment and Children Learning a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2009-01-01

    We review empirical findings from children with primary or "specific" language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of…

  8. Two Languages in One Brain: Recent Work in Neurolinguistics and Its Implications for Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Lev I.

    1981-01-01

    Briefly outlines progress in neurolinguistics including Broca's aphasia, multilingual aphasiacs, lateralization, and localization as possible explanations for problem of adult foreign language accent. (BK)

  9. Learning Decision Trees over Erasing Pattern Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukouchi, Yasuhito; Sato, Masako

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a learning problem of decision trees over erasing patterns from positive examples in the framework of identification in the limit due to Gold and Angluin. An erasing pattern is a string pattern with constant symbols and erasable variables. A decision tree over erasing patterns can be applied to identify or express transmembrane domains of amino acid sequences, and gives intuitive knowledge expressions. We first show that the ordinary decision trees with height 1 over erasing regular patterns are learnable but those with height at most 2 are not learnable from positive examples. Then we introduce a co-pattern pc for an erasing pattern p, and we redefine the language of a decision tree over erasing patterns as a language obtainable by finitely many applications of union operations and intersection operations to the languages of erasing patterns and co-patterns. Under the new definition of decision trees, we show that these decision trees with height at most n are learnable from positive examples. Moreover, we investigate efficient learning algorithms for decision trees with height 1. Terada et al. discussed the same problem for decision trees over nonerasing patterns, and the results obtained in the present work are natural extensions of Terada's results.

  10. Promoting Language in under 3s. Assessing Language Development and the Quality of Adult Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laevers, Ferre; Buyse, Evelien; Willekens, Annemieke; Janssen, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to develop instruments to assess language development in under-3s and the adult interventions that support it. After an extensive literature search, observations were conducted in 17 groups of children spread over two day-care centres. In total 42 children were observed during a 30-minute slot and 25 adults during a half day.…

  11. Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

  12. The Role of Language Learning Progressions in Improved Instruction and Assessment of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…

  13. From specific examples to general knowledge in language learning.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Jakke; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    The extraction of general knowledge from individual episodes is critical if we are to learn new knowledge or abilities. Here we uncover some of the key cognitive mechanisms that characterise this process in the domain of language learning. In five experiments adult participants learned new morphological units embedded in fictitious words created by attaching new affixes (e.g., -afe) to familiar word stems (e.g., "sleepafe is a participant in a study about the effects of sleep"). Participants' ability to generalise semantic knowledge about the affixes was tested using tasks requiring the comprehension and production of novel words containing a trained affix (e.g., sailafe). We manipulated the delay between training and test (Experiment 1), the number of unique exemplars provided for each affix during training (Experiment 2), and the consistency of the form-to-meaning mapping of the affixes (Experiments 3-5). In a task where speeded online language processing is required (semantic priming), generalisation was achieved only after a memory consolidation opportunity following training, and only if the training included a sufficient number of unique exemplars. Semantic inconsistency disrupted speeded generalisation unless consolidation was allowed to operate on one of the two affix-meanings before introducing inconsistencies. In contrast, in tasks that required slow, deliberate reasoning, generalisation could be achieved largely irrespective of the above constraints. These findings point to two different mechanisms of generalisation that have different cognitive demands and rely on different types of memory representations. PMID:25898155

  14. From specific examples to general knowledge in language learning.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Jakke; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    The extraction of general knowledge from individual episodes is critical if we are to learn new knowledge or abilities. Here we uncover some of the key cognitive mechanisms that characterise this process in the domain of language learning. In five experiments adult participants learned new morphological units embedded in fictitious words created by attaching new affixes (e.g., -afe) to familiar word stems (e.g., "sleepafe is a participant in a study about the effects of sleep"). Participants' ability to generalise semantic knowledge about the affixes was tested using tasks requiring the comprehension and production of novel words containing a trained affix (e.g., sailafe). We manipulated the delay between training and test (Experiment 1), the number of unique exemplars provided for each affix during training (Experiment 2), and the consistency of the form-to-meaning mapping of the affixes (Experiments 3-5). In a task where speeded online language processing is required (semantic priming), generalisation was achieved only after a memory consolidation opportunity following training, and only if the training included a sufficient number of unique exemplars. Semantic inconsistency disrupted speeded generalisation unless consolidation was allowed to operate on one of the two affix-meanings before introducing inconsistencies. In contrast, in tasks that required slow, deliberate reasoning, generalisation could be achieved largely irrespective of the above constraints. These findings point to two different mechanisms of generalisation that have different cognitive demands and rely on different types of memory representations.

  15. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test…

  16. The role of sound symbolism in language learning.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen; Walker, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Certain correspondences between the sound and meaning of words can be observed in subsets of the vocabulary. These sound-symbolic relationships have been suggested to result in easier language acquisition, but previous studies have explicitly tested effects of sound symbolism on learning category distinctions but not on word learning. In 2 word learning experiments, we varied the extent to which phonological properties related to a rounded-angular shape distinction and we distinguished learning of categories from learning of individual words. We found that sound symbolism resulted in an advantage for learning categories of sound-shape mappings but did not assist in learning individual word meanings. These results are consistent with the limited presence of sound symbolism in natural language. The results also provide a reinterpretation of the role of sound symbolism in language learning and language origins and a greater specification of the conditions under which sound symbolism proves advantageous for learning.

  17. Learning a Language with Web 2.0: Exploring the Use of Social Networking Features of Foreign Language Learning Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Megan P.; Liu, Min

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an online survey and a usability test performed on three foreign language learning websites that use Web 2.0 technology. The online survey was conducted to gain an understanding of how current users of language learning websites use them for learning and social purposes. The usability test was conducted to gain…

  18. Learning Theories and Skills in Online Second Language Teaching and Learning: Dilemmas and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    For decades foreign and second language teachers have taken advantage of the technology development and ensuing possibilities to use e-learning facilities for language training. Since the 1980s, the use of computer assisted language learning (CALL), Internet, web 2.0, and various kinds of e-learning technology has been developed and researched…

  19. Adult Learning in Educational Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Sue; McEwan, Joanne; Majocha, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    This article explores notions of learning in the niche market sector of educational tourism, with a focus on organised recreational tours that promote a structured learning experience as a key feature. It analyses the qualitative findings of surveys and interviews with a cross-section of educational tourism providers in Australia, their…

  20. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1996

    1996-01-01

    The three numbers of the new journal contain these articles: "Content-Related Teaching Through Distance Learning: A Viable Alternative?" (Zoe E. Louton); "Teacher as Researcher: Motivating an Eighth Grade Spanish Class" (Emily Francomano); "Traveling to South America on the Internet" (Margaret Reardon); "U.S. Joins Global Language Education…

  1. Language, Learning, and Identity in Social Networking Sites for Language Learning: The Case of Busuu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez Valencia, Jose Aldemar

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the discipline of computer applications such as the advent of web-based communication, afforded by the Web 2.0, has paved the way for novel applications in language learning, namely, social networking. Social networking has challenged the area of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) to expand its research palette in order to…

  2. E-Learning Implications for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criu, Roxana; Ceobanu, Ciprian

    2013-01-01

    If a few decades ago, "the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one's entire life," today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual's survival in society could…

  3. The Dynamics of Second Language Emergence: Cycles of Language Use, Language Change, and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an emergentist account whereby the limited end-state typical of adult second language learners results from dynamic cycles of language use, language change, language perception, and language learning in the interactions of members of language communities. In summary, the major processes are: 1. "Usage leads to change": High…

  4. Speech and language correlates of adults' judgments of children.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, E I; Tomblin, J B

    1990-08-01

    This two-part study explored the influence that a preschool-aged child's communication behavior has on the impression he or she makes on adults. First, the semantic differential technique was used to reveal the dimensions that describe the adults' judgments of these children. Four adult judges listened to 140 2-min samples of children conversing with an adult and rated the children on 24 bipolar adjective scales. Factor analysis of the ratings produced a three-dimensional structure (Dynamism, Maturity, and Appeal) that accounted for 80% of the total variance in the judgement data. Next, the association between six selected speech and language behaviors and the judgements on each of these dimensions were examined. Rate of speech, fluency of speech, participation in the conversation, complexity of sentences, and grammaticality of utterances were not highly correlated with adults' impressions. However, level of phonological accuracy did correlate with adults' perceptions of degree of maturity. PMID:2381190

  5. Learning to Look for Language: Development of Joint Attention in Young Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    Joint attention between hearing children and their caregivers is typically achieved when the adult provides spoken, auditory linguistic input that relates to the child's current visual focus of attention. Deaf children interacting through sign language must learn to continually switch visual attention between people and objects in order to…

  6. Investigating Language Learning Strategies of EFL Children for the Development of a Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürsoy, Esim

    2010-01-01

    As a still growing area, Language Learning Strategies (LLS) research needs to expand so that it covers different contexts and age groups. Previous research shows that most of LLS research is conducted in ESL contexts and the majority looked into strategies of adolescents and adults. Consequently, strategy taxonomies as well as the inventories…

  7. Learning of Idiomatic Language Expressions in a Group Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Khan, Kiren S.

    2013-01-01

    In typical development, children learn an extensive range of idioms and other figurative (non-literal) language expressions during childhood and adolescence. However, many children with autism fall far behind in their idiom comprehension and production and never fully reach adult levels. The current study measured the effectiveness of a group…

  8. The Metamorphosis of the Statistical Segmentation Output: Lexicalization during Artificial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Tania; Kolinsky, Regine; Ventura, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    This study combined artificial language learning (ALL) with conventional experimental techniques to test whether statistical speech segmentation outputs are integrated into adult listeners' mental lexicon. Lexicalization was assessed through inhibitory effects of novel neighbors (created by the parsing process) on auditory lexical decisions to…

  9. Analyzing Istruction and Learning of Derivational Morhology in the Spanish Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Nausica Marcos

    2013-01-01

    Morphological awareness can help learners of a second language (L2) infer and learn the meaning of unknown words. It is, however, unclear how morphological awareness evolves in adult English-speaking learners of instructed L2 Spanish and how this development relates to vocabulary knowledge. Moreover, the manner in which derivational morphology is…

  10. Similar Neural Correlates for Language and Sequential Learning: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Morten H.; Conway, Christopher M.; Onnis, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the time course and distribution of brain activity while adults performed (1) a sequential learning task involving complex structured sequences and (2) a language processing task. The same positive ERP deflection, the P600 effect, typically linked to difficult or ungrammatical syntactic…

  11. Reflections from Graduate Adult Learners about Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Geleana Drew; Clegg, T. E.; Clodfelter, Roy J., Jr.; Drye, Kimberly C.; Farrer, J. V.; Gould, Derek; Mohsin, Nidhal M.; Rankin, Tomiko N.; Ray, Sherri L.

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is grounded in responding to the needs of others, and the field places emphasis on adult learning theories such as transformative learning and experiential learning. Service learning is an educational approach that balances formal instruction and direction with the opportunity for adult learners to serve in the community as a…

  12. Discourse in Adult Education: The Language Education of Adult Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Hannah

    1990-01-01

    A shortcoming of adult education theories is lack of attention to social, historical, and institutional contexts. A case study of language education programs for adult immigrants in Sweden illustrates how assumptions about participant-centered, needs-based education justified and legitimated the use of these programs as a tool for employment…

  13. The Effects of Cognitive: Linguistic Variables and Language Experience on Behavioural and Kinematic Performances in Nonword Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cognitive-linguistic variables and language experience on behavioral and kinematic measures of nonword learning in young adults. Group 1 consisted of thirteen participants who spoke American English as the first and only language. Group 2 consisted of seven participants with varying…

  14. What Automated Vocal Analysis Reveals about the Vocal Production and Language Learning Environment of Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Steven F.; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Xu, Dongxin; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the vocal production and language learning environments of 26 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to 78 typically developing children using measures derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor and audio-processing algorithms measured the amount of adult words to children and the amount of…

  15. Language learning impairment: integrating research and remediation.

    PubMed

    Tallal, P; Merzenich, M; Miller, S; Jenkins, W

    1998-09-01

    Timing cues present in the acoustic waveform of speech provide critical information for the recognition and segmentation of the ongoing speech signal. Research has demonstrated that deficient temporal perception rates, that have been shown to specifically disrupt acoustic processing of speech, are related to specific language-based learning impairments (LLI). Temporal processing deficits correlate highly with the phonological discrimination and processing deficits of these children. Electrophysiological single cell mapping studies of sensory cortex in brains of primates have shown that neural circuitry can be remapped after specific, temporally cohesive training regimens, demonstrating the dynamic plasticity of the brain. Recently, we combined these two lines of research in a series of studies that addressed whether the temporal processing deficits seen in LLIs can be significantly modified through adaptive training aimed at reducing temporal integration thresholds. Simultaneously, we developed a computer algorithm that expanded and enhanced the brief, rapidly changing acoustic segments within ongoing speech and used this to provide intensive speech and language training exercises to these children. Results to date from two independent laboratory experiments, as well as a large national clinical efficacy trial, demonstrate that dramatic improvements in temporal integration thresholds, together with speech and language comprehension abilities of LLI children, results from training with these new computer-based training procedures.

  16. Sentence Processing Factors in Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    Sentence imitation effectively discriminates between adults with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Little is known, however, about the factors that result in performance differences. This study evaluated the effects of working memory, processing speed, and argument status on sentence imitation. Working memory was measured by both a…

  17. Adult People with Language Impairment and Their Life Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrnqvist, Maria Carlson; Thulin, Sofia; Segnestam, Ylva; Horowitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome of language impairment (LI) was explored in interviews with three adults with LI (as children attended specialized boarding school) and four of their parents. The informants with LI expressed acceptance of LI and described themselves as independent. With driving education with adjusted pedagogy and initial governmental…

  18. Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Clive, Ed.

    The field manual for a series of coordinated studies of the spontaneous acquisition of a second language by adult immigrant workers provides a theoretical and practical framework for the entire project and a source of information about it for other researchers. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the project's objectives and organization. Chapter 3 reviews…

  19. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…

  20. Legitimacy and Social Class in Catalan Language Education for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frekko, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…