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Sample records for adult language learning

  1. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  2. Second Language Learning by Adults: Testimonies of Bilingual Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between languages and selves in adult bicultural bilinguals who learned their second language (L2) post puberty and became writers and scholars in this language. Autobiographic narratives are used to identify and examine subsequent stages of L2 learning. (Author/VWL)

  3. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  4. Context or Key? Language in Four Adult Learning Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Clinton

    2007-01-01

    Context is a key factor in designing and delivering adult learning programmes, and in multilingual environments the choice of language plays a decisive role. Four programmes, two in Asia (Bhutan Myanmar) and two in Africa (Ghana and Uganda), which focus on learning for development, integrate language considerations in different ways, related both…

  5. Systems Development in Adult Language Learning: A European Unit/Credit System for Modern Language Learning by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    The study prepares the ground for the introduction of a language learning system for adults. Part 1 presents a draft outline of such a system, in which the language material to be learned is organized into units and credits awarded on the completion of each unit. The content is defined with reference to the nature of the learners and their…

  6. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  7. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  8. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    PubMed

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. PMID:26113447

  9. Collaborative Language Learning for Professional Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesh, Linda Joy

    2010-01-01

    Institutions of higher education realise the importance of the role of learning organisations in terms of providing personnel training and updating. Yet further consideration should be given to flexible and accessible means for meeting the growing request for continuous learning. Jason Hughes describes an organization's capability to "learn how to…

  10. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  11. Language Learning Strategy Use by Colombian Adult English Language Learners: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Elsie Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford's (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12…

  12. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  13. Languages at the Technion and Problems of Adult Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhouse, Judith

    A discussion of language teaching at the Technion Israel Institute of Technology emphasizes problems specific to the teaching of English, Hebrew, and Arabic, the main languages used in Israel. Three aspects of the program of instruction are examined. The first is the distinction between required and elective languages. English is required of all…

  14. Processing Prosodic Structure by Adults with Language-Based Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahl, Megha; Plante, Elena; Gerken, LouAnn

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the ability of adults with a history of language-based learning disability (hLLD) and their normal language (NL) peers to learn prosodic patterns of a novel language. Participants were exposed to stimuli from an artificial language and tested on items that required generalization of the stress patterns and the…

  15. Child-Adult Differences in Implicit and Explicit Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream linguistics has long held that there is a fundamental difference between adult and child language learning (Bley-Vroman, 1990; Johnson & Newport, 1989; DeKeyser, 2000; Paradis, 2004). This difference is often framed as a change from implicit language learning in childhood to explicit language learning in adulthood, which is…

  16. List Memory in Young Adults With Language Learning Disability

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact. PMID:25652445

  17. Implicit Language Learning: Adults' Ability to Segment Words in Norwegian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittleson, Megan M.; Aguilar, Jessica M.; Tokerud, Gry Line; Plante, Elena; Asbjornsen, Arve E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener's language…

  18. Identity, Good Language Learning, and Adult Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervatiuc, Andreea

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the process of linguistic-and-cultural-identity formation as experienced by adult immigrants to Canada who consider themselves professionally successful and highly proficient in the target language. It addresses the characteristics of "good language learners" by determining how they negotiated their marginal standing in…

  19. An Examination of the Self-Directed Learning Practices of ESL Adult Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…

  20. Adult Learning Satisfaction and Instructional Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda Jo

    2009-01-01

    Adult education literature suggests that the instructional perspective of the teacher has an important effect on adult satisfaction with learning. In this study, the relationships between instructional perspective, satisfaction with language learning, and certain teacher and student characteristics were investigated. Study participants were adult…

  1. Learned Attention in Adult Language Acquisition: A Replication and Generalization Study and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…

  2. The Influence of Phonological Similarity in Adults Learning Words in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood density refers to the number of similar sounding words to a target word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) and influences first language word learning in adults learning English (Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006). There are two processes in word learning: lexical configuration and lexical engagement (Leach & Samuel, 2007). Lexical configuration…

  3. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Mastering Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Research of language learning strategy (LLS) has provided insight for language learners from many international cultures since this branch of research began in the 1970s. Despite the urgent need for competence in the use of business English in Western Europe, LLS studies have not been conducted on Spanish adults who use English for business. The…

  4. Involving Adult Service Users with Learning Disabilities in the Training of Speech and Language Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Celia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project carried out at City University London, Department of Language and Communication Science, where adult service users with learning disabilities trained first-year speech and language therapy students. The training involved presentations by the service users on their involvement in interviewing support staff,…

  5. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

  6. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  7. The Effects of Variation on Learning Word Order Rules by Adults with and without Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunow, Hope; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Plante, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Non-adjacent dependencies characterize numerous features of English syntax, including certain verb tense structures and subject-verb agreement. This study utilized an artificial language paradigm to examine the contribution of item variability to the learning of these types of dependencies. Adult subjects with and without language-based learning…

  8. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  9. Individual differences in adult foreign language learning: the mediating effect of metalinguistic awareness.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Patricia J; Kempe, Vera

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural priming. PMID:23055121

  10. Developmental Diversity in the Academic Language-Learning Experiences of Adult English as a Second or Other Language Learners: A Constructive-Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Academic language is a challenging yet increasingly important skill for Adult Basic Education/English as a Second or Other Language learners. Related to academic language learning is an adult's developmental perspective. Developmental perspectives have been shown to vary in adulthood and shape qualitatively distinct ways of reasoning and learning…

  11. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Adult Brain and Success in Second-Language Learning.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-20

    There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human

  12. Socio-Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: A Case Study of Adventurous Adult Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…

  13. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  14. Short-Term and Working Memory Differences in Language/Learning Disabled and Normal Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Plante, Elena

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen adults who reported a childhood history of speech-language and/or learning disability were tested on two verbal memory tasks. Their performance on sentence repetitions and reading span measures was compared to a control group. Results indicated statistically significant group performance differences on both short-term and working memory…

  15. Auditory-Visual Speech Integration by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrix, Linda W.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Auditory and auditory-visual (AV) speech perception skills were examined in adults with and without language-learning disabilities (LLD). The AV stimuli consisted of congruent consonant-vowel syllables (auditory and visual syllables matched in terms of syllable being produced) and incongruent McGurk syllables (auditory syllable differed from…

  16. Sensitivity to Word Order Cues by Normal and Language/Learning Disabled Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Elena; Gomez, Rebecca; Gerken, LouAnn

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen adults with language/learning disabilities (L/LD) and 16 controls participated in a study testing sensitivity to word order cues that signaled grammatical versus ungrammatical word strings belonging to an artificial grammar. Participants with L/LD performed significantly below the comparison group, suggesting that this skill is problematic…

  17. Subcategory Learning in Normal and Language Learning-Disabled Adults: How Much Information Do They Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jessica; Harris, Laurel; Plante, Elena; Gerken, LouAnn

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if nonreferential morphophonological information was sufficient to facilitate the learning of gender subcategories (i.e., masculine vs. feminine) in individuals with normal language (NL) and those with a history of language-based learning disabilities (HLD). Method: Thirty-two adults…

  18. Contribution of Implicit Sequence Learning to Spoken Language Processing: Some Preliminary Findings With Hearing Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Pisoni, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language consists of a complex, sequentially arrayed signal that contains patterns that can be described in terms of statistical relations among language units. Previous research has suggested that a domain-general ability to learn structured sequential patterns may underlie language acquisition. To test this prediction, we examined the extent to which implicit sequence learning of probabilistically structured patterns in hearing adults is correlated with a spoken sentence perception task under degraded listening conditions. Performance on the sentence perception task was found to be correlated with implicit sequence learning, but only when the sequences were composed of stimuli that were easy to encode verbally. Implicit learning of phonological sequences thus appears to underlie spoken language processing and may indicate a hitherto unexplored cognitive factor that may account for the enormous variability in language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants. The present findings highlight the importance of investigating individual differences in specific cognitive abilities as a way to understand and explain language in deaf learners and, in particular, variability in language outcomes following cochlear implantation. PMID:17548805

  19. Auditory processing deficits among language-learning disordered children and adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayland, Ratree; Lombardino, Linda

    2003-10-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 5%-9% of school-aged children in the United States are diagnosed with some kind of learning disorders. Moreover, previous research has established that many of these children exhibited perceptual deficits in response to auditory stimuli, suggesting that an auditory perceptual deficit may underlie their learning disabilities. The goal of this research is to examine the ability to auditorily process speech and nonspeech stimuli among language-learning disabled (LLD) children and adults. The two questions that will be addressed in this study are: (a) Are there subtypes of LLD children/adults based on their auditory processing deficit, and (b) Is there any relationship between types of auditory processing deficits and types of language deficits as measured by a battery of psychoeducational tests.

  20. Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

  1. Second Language Learning in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Denny, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews second-language learning literature concerning factors which may affect adult students. Focuses on cognitive mechanisms, cerebral dominance theories, formal operations, motivation, and second-language teaching and learning. Offers suggestions for community college teaching and programs. (DMM)

  2. Learning Disabilities and the Acquisition of English Language Skills in the Adult ESL Population: A Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Disabilities Association, Minneapolis, MN.

    A demonstration project designed to improve identification and instruction of adult learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) with learning disabilities is reported. Of 50 students, most older adults, in two ESL classes, 13 students were referred for further assessment and specialized instruction from a learning disabilities specialist.…

  3. Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words…

  4. Child-adult differences in second-language phonological learning: the role of cross-language similarity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Wendy; Trofimovich, Pavel; Flege, James E; Mack, Molly; Halter, Randall

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether age effects on second language (L2) speech learning derive from changes in how the native language (L1) and L2 sound systems interact. According to the "interaction hypothesis" (IH), the older the L2 learner, the less likely the learner is able to establish new vowel categories needed for accurate L2 vowel production and perception because, with age, L1 vowel categories become more likely to perceptually encompass neighboring L2 vowels. These IH predictions were evaluated in two experiments involving 64 native Korean- and English-speaking children and adults. Experiment 1 determined, as predicted, that the Korean children were less likely than the Korean adults to perceive L2 vowels as instances of a single L1 vowel category. Experiment 2 showed that the Korean children surpassed the Korean adults in production of certain vowels but equaled them in vowel perception. These findings, which partially support the IH, are discussed in relation to L2 speech learning. PMID:19348154

  5. Adult Learners' Perceptions of the Significance of Culture in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne

    2014-01-01

    Is learning about culture important when learning a foreign language? One would think that after its long history in the field of foreign language teaching this question had been answered with a resounding "yes". However, I saw little evidence of this in the classroom when I returned to the university to learn a foreign language or when…

  6. Dialogue and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarule, Jill Mattuck

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the role of language and dialogue in adult learning looks at dialogue as epistemology and at talk as learning. It is proposed that the challenge in teaching and retaining adult learners is to create dialogue-rich classrooms, including many external speech opportunities, small-group discussion, and group projects. (MSE)

  7. Adult ESL in Higher Education: Balancing Academic Learning, Speech Science and English Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Replicating earlier studies, 66 English as a second language speech students at a community college undertook content-based second language learning in psychology, sociology, and history. End-of-semester assessments showed they had improved second-language confidence and learned academic subject matter; most agreed sheltered courses were a useful…

  8. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  9. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Ping C.; Richards, Todd L.; Coe, Bradley P.; Eichler, Evan E.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects’ grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  10. Children Learning Language: How Adults Can Help. Study Guide [and Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Naomi; Schrank, Louise Welsh

    Intended for parents and others caring for young children, this viewer's guide and videotape leads adults along the path of child's language acquisition and demonstrates how to use a language-rich environment to communicate with infants, toddlers, and preschool children in ways to foster language development. The first half of the guide presents…

  11. Student Response Systems' Virtual Interaction Effects on Learning in Adult Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassihi Langroodi, Sayedeh Parvanak

    2010-01-01

    In an English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) class, special emphasis is often put on interaction and negotiation as a means of learning and understanding the language being taught (Long, 1981; Pica, 1994). However, student-student interaction as well as student-teacher interaction could be difficult to achieve in…

  12. Factors Influencing Indirect Speech and Language Therapy Interventions for Adults with Learning Disabilities: The Perceptions of Carers and Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: The working context for speech and language therapists (SLTs) delivering interventions to adults who have a learning disability has changed following the reorganization of care provision from hospitals to the community. Consequently, SLTs often deliver their care within a social model of disability through indirect intervention in…

  13. Brain Responses before and after Intensive Second Language Learning: Proficiency Based Changes and First Language Background Effects in Adult Learners

    PubMed Central

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1–L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., “grammaticalization”) are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641

  14. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    PubMed

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641

  15. Age and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Lucien

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the differences between first and second language acquisition and the relationship between age and second language learning. The stages in native language acquisition and the advantages of an early start in second language learning are discussed. (AMH)

  16. English Learning Predictors of Listening and Speaking Self-Efficacy for Adult Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafals, Zoraida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was conducted to compare English communicative competency achievement between two different models of instruction. Adult English language learners (AELLs) participated in either the communicative task-based (CTB) or in a more traditional (MT) language instructional approach. The goal of the…

  17. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

  18. Short Research Note: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon--A Web-Based Interface to Calculate Phonological Similarity among Spanish Words in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The…

  19. Predictors of Spoken Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We…

  20. Learning of Grammar-Like Visual Sequences by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…

  1. Cultural Fantasy Narratives and Heritage Language Learning: A Case Study of Adult Heritage Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Clark, M. Carolyn; Pomerantz, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the case of 7 female heritage learners of Spanish who have chosen, as adults, to enroll in online Spanish language instruction at the postsecondary level. Drawing on symbolic convergence theory, it identifies a cultural fantasy metanarrative that participants collectively constructed as they made sense of their language…

  2. Examining English Language Learning Motivation of Adult International Learners Studying Abroad in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…

  3. Speaking the Same Language: A CILT Guide to Partnership in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Henriette; Swanton, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The conflicting pressures of supply and demand often raise significant challenges for providers of languages for adults. Numbers of learners are inconveniently patchy, trends in take-up often short lived and provision vulnerable due to funding pressures. This makes institution-based curriculum planning very precarious. The answer, it seems more…

  4. Modern Languages and Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD): Implications of Teaching Adult Learners with Dyslexia in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallardo, Matilde; Heiser, Sarah; Arias McLaughlin, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    In modern language (ML) distance learning programmes, teachers and students use online tools to facilitate, reinforce and support independent learning. This makes it essential for teachers to develop pedagogical expertise in using online communication tools to perform their role. Teachers frequently raise questions of how best to support the needs…

  5. Predictors of spoken language learning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We found those who were successful to have higher activation in bilateral auditory cortex, larger volume in Heschl’s Gyrus, and more accurate pitch pattern perception. All of these measures were performed before training began. In the second set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned a phonological grammatical system governing the formation of words of an artificial language. Again, neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, and cognitive factors predicted to an extent how well these adults learned. Taken together, these experiments suggest that neural and behavioral factors can be used to predict spoken language learning. These predictors can inform the redesign of existing training paradigms to maximize learning for learners with different learning profiles. Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to: (a) understand the linguistic concepts of lexical tone and phonological grammar, (b) identify the brain regions associated with learning lexical tone and phonological grammar, and (c) identify the cognitive predictors for successful learning of a tone language and phonological rules. PMID:21601868

  6. Resting-state qEEG predicts rate of second language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Yamasaki, Brianna L; Kluender, Reina A; Stocco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA) is important for research on bilingualism, learning, and neural plasticity. The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to predict SLA in college-aged individuals. Baseline, eyes-closed resting-state qEEG was used to predict language learning rate during eight weeks of French exposure using an immersive, virtual scenario software. Individual qEEG indices predicted up to 60% of the variability in SLA, whereas behavioral indices of fluid intelligence, executive functioning, and working-memory capacity were not correlated with learning rate. Specifically, power in beta and low-gamma frequency ranges over right temporoparietal regions were strongly positively correlated with SLA. These results highlight the utility of resting-state EEG for studying the neurobiological basis of SLA in a relatively construct-free, paradigm-independent manner. PMID:27164483

  7. Language Experience Changes Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual…

  8. Second Language Acquisition and First Language Loss in Adult Early Bilinguals: Exploring Some Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially "eroded" first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make…

  9. Sex Differences in English Language Acculturation and Learning Strategies among Vietnamese Adults Age 40 and over in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1988-01-01

    Examines sex differences in English language acculturation and learning strategies among older Vietnamese refugees using data from a national sample. Finds that females had more language problems than males, and that males were more likely than females to use various learning strategies to improve their language skills. (FMW)

  10. Teaching Pronunciation to Adult English Language Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Low, Ee Ling

    2009-01-01

    Adult English language learners in the United States approach the learning of English pronunciation from a wide variety of native language backgrounds. They may speak languages with sound systems that vary a great deal from that of English. The pronunciation goals and needs of adult English language learners are diverse. These goals and needs…

  11. Reflections on Native Language Use in Adult ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Macias, Ana; Kephart, Kerrie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of native language (L1) use in adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes, re-examining the belief that use of the students' L1 is detrimental to target language learning. We discuss research that (a) documents language use in several adult ESL classes in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, and (b) presents survey…

  12. Adult English Language Learners with Limited Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Martha; Schwarz, Robin Lovrien

    2010-01-01

    Adult English language learners who lack print literacy or experience with formal education encounter a unique set of challenges in their lives and their efforts to learn English. Educators and policymakers are similarly challenged by how best to help these adults acquire English literacy. This paper reviews a variety of research, including that…

  13. Elderly Refugees and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grognet, Allene Guss

    For elderly refugees, coming from a variety of cultural situations and with varied educational backgrounds, transplantation to a new culture is an especially difficult process. There is no research evidence to suggest that older adults can not succeed in learning another language, although more deliberate efforts must be made to achieve this. In…

  14. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    PubMed Central

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  15. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention. PMID:27422443

  16. Language and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Norman, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a 1993 International Conference on Language in Education include: "A Language Development Approach to Education" (M. A. K. Halliday); Text, Talk, and Inquiry: Schooling as a Semiotic Apprenticeship" (G. Wells); "Chinese Orthography and Reading" (O. J. L. Tzeng); "Task-Centred Assessment in Language Learning" (G. Brindley); "Task as a…

  17. The Learning of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carroll E., Ed.

    Current thinking of specialists in the study of language learning provides the basis of this book. The 12 chapters of the book and their authors are as follows: 1. Introduction--Charles A. Ferguson; 2. The Acquisition of Language in Infant and Child--Martin D. S. Braine; 3. Development of Native Language Skills beyond the Early Years--John B.…

  18. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  19. Simultaneous Learning of Two Foreign Languages, English and French, by Adult Persian-Speaking Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Farshadjou, Mahdieh

    2013-01-01

    In today's world, a good command of more than two foreign languages is a commonplace necessity. However, this is not the case for the majority of language learners in Iran. The foreign languages which could be of any avail to them are neither close to Persian nor have any daily social usage. The present research aims at promoting this linguistic…

  20. The Beginning Spanish Lexicon: A Web-based interface to calculate phonological similarity among Spanish words in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon. The present report describes the words contained in this web-accessible resource, and the information about those words provided by the interface. This information is freely accessible at: http://www.people.ku.edu/~mvitevit/BegSpanLex.html PMID:25342870

  1. Literacy Education for Low-Educated Second Language Learning Adults in Multilingual Contexts: The Case of Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jinyoung; Ziegler, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Mastery of literacy skills in the language(s) of the host country is considered a key element for the successful integration of immigrants. The current paper focuses on possibly one of the most challenging aspects of the issues of linguistic integration of immigrants, i.e., literacy acquisition by "low-literate" adult immigrants in a…

  2. Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilling, Sarah, Ed.; Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Adult language learners have specific learning goals that reflect their lives within a global society, and adults negotiate multiple and changing identities throughout their personal, academic, and professional lives. Chapters in "Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Adult Learners" highlight how teachers have the ability to…

  3. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  4. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  5. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  6. Early Dual Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  7. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  8. Reading and Adult English Language Learners: The Role of the First Language. ERIC Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    This brief describes how literacy in the first language (L1) can affect the acquisition of reading skills in English, examining ways that instruction should be developed. It explains that learning to read is especially difficult for adults learning to read in a second language. According to the research, all English language learners (ELLs),…

  9. Easifying Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Aphek, Edna

    A study was conducted to investigate some basic learning activities in order to identify strategies that make learning more effortless. Study topics focus on acquisition of new second-language vocabulary, students' organization of their notebooks, studying for tests, observation of classroom communication, and test-taking strategies. Nineteen…

  10. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  11. Promoting ESP language learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, S. A.

    2003-10-01

    The article focuses on the current problem of teaching English for Specific Purposes(ESP) language vocabulary taking into consideration the ways how learners store and recall words and the influence of their mother tongue. Through incidental learning and explicit vocabulary instructions the elaborated vocabulary learning occurs involving the creation of an affective semantic network.

  12. One Right Way, Intercultural Participation, and Language Learning Anxiety: A Qualitative Analysis of Adult Online Heritage and Nonheritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Clark, M. Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated self-assessed anxious learners who enrolled in online Spanish courses to determine if their anxiety was mediated by the lack of face-to-face (F2F) and other synchronous learning interactions. Participants were enrolled in courses at two postsecondary institutions located in south-central Texas. Narrative analysis was used…

  13. From Refugee Camp to Solitary Confinement: Illiterate Adults Learn Swedish as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmeroth, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Studied the factors that govern immigrants' acquisition of a second language through 22 interviews with illiterate Kurdish refugees in Sweden and immigrants with at least 6 years of schooling. The pedagogic conclusions that can be drawn relate mainly to measures for increasing motivation and the need for achieving greater contact with target…

  14. Agency in the Making: Adult Immigrants' Accounts of Language Learning and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers language learner agency from a poststructuralist perspective, focusing on how agency is discursively constituted as individuals position themselves and are positioned as (potential) agents within ideologically defined spaces. As such, I regard agency as inherently unstable and as a discursively mobilized capacity to act.…

  15. Age and Learning Environment: Are Children Implicit Second Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study…

  16. CHILDHOOD AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY. Foreign Language Program Research Center.

    THE REPORT OF A MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION-SPONSORED CONFERENCE ON CHILDHOOD AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING (MAY 5-6, 1956) SUMMARIZES THE DISCUSSIONS. THE TOPICS INCLUDE (1) HOW CHILDREN NORMALLY LEARN THEIR MOTHER TONGUE, (2) IMITATION AND ANALYSIS IN THE LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS, (3) RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE LEARNING OF A FIRST AND A SECOND…

  17. Phonetic and Phonological Acquisition in Endangered Languages Learned by Adults: A Case Study of Numu (Oregon Northern Paiute)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Erin Flynn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation compares the phonetic and phonological features of adult non-speakers' productions of words in an endangered Native American language, Oregon Northern Paiute (also known, and hereafter referred to, as Numu), to productions by fluent speakers. The purpose of this comparison is two-fold. The first purpose is to examine the…

  18. Adult Education: Resource Guide and Learning Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This guide is designed to link New York's learning standards with curriculum goals and objectives developed by adult education (AE) practitioners. It includes learning standards for English language arts (ELA) and mathematics, two areas identified by AE practitioners as the most important for beginning adult learners. Also provided are curriculum…

  19. Do Children and Adults with Language Impairment Recognize Prosodic Cues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jennifer; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Gerken, LouAnn; Glattke, Theodore J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Prosodic cues are used to clarify sentence structure and meaning. Two studies, one of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and one of adults with a history of learning disabilities, were designed to determine whether individuals with poor language skills recognize prosodic cues on par with their normal-language peers. Method:…

  20. Career Adventures from Learning Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning and using languages has been a central feature of most of Paul Kaye's working life. In his current job, he helps to promote multilingualism, language learning, and the language industry in the UK, as well as to raise awareness of careers in the EU civil service for those with language knowledge. He is on temporary secondment from the…

  1. Language Learning Strategies for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleppegrell, Mary; Oxford, Rebecca

    The handbook, designed for Peace Corps volunteers but adaptable for other adult learners, offers ideas about how to improve one's own language learning through effective learning strategies. The handbook intended as a reference, not a text, for when the learner becomes discouraged with his rate of progress, is progressing well but looking for new…

  2. Learning Language on Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Norman

    1995-01-01

    Presents a comparison of two types of compact disc (CD-ROM) foreign language tutorials: (1) those made by publishers who favor an immersion approach; and (2) those made by publishers who use grammar-based approaches. Both types of CD-ROMs address various age groups, skill levels, and learning styles. (JMV)

  3. Thinking and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The importance of thinking for language learning has been recognized for some time. ELT activities which encourage active mental processing have become increasingly common. However, there is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how…

  4. Learning Languages through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    While posing important questions about how learning proceeds with new technologies, this volume demonstrates how teachers captivate the imagination of learners, from schoolchildren to postgraduates, by providing real-world purposes for language. The authors are from educational institutions in many regions of the world, and describe technology use…

  5. Language Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Two programs that have been successful at integrating a number of suitable conditions for learning a foreign language in the online environment are Spanish at Rio Salado Community College in Tempe, Arizona, and French at Coastline Community College in Fountain Valley, California. Discussion includes instructional delivery; course lab experience;…

  6. Second Language Teaching & Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The purpose of this volume is to provide a contemporary portrait of second language learning and teaching, to identify major trends and issues, to show where these trends and issues have come from, and to illustrate ways teachers can incorporate these ideas in their own teaching practice. The book is a personal account, tracing the author's…

  7. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  8. Computer Assisted Language Learning: A Shortcut to Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Kathleen K.

    A study investigated the attitudes of language program students, teachers, and administrators concerning the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) instruction for adults, and specifically concerning EXITO courseware, a Spanish language program developed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Interviews with an adult language…

  9. Approaches to Self-Assessment in Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskarsson, Mats

    This study was designed to outline possible forms of guided self-assessment in adult language learning and to suggest steps that might be taken in order to further develop methods judged to be suitable for use within the European unit/credit scheme for foreign language learning by adults. The report includes a review of relevant literature and…

  10. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  11. Contributions of Language and Memory Demands to Verbal Memory Performance in Language-Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low,…

  12. Processing Narratives for Verbatim and Gist Information by Adults with Language Learning Disabilities: A Functional Neuroimaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Elena; Ramage, Amy E.; Magloire, Joel

    2006-01-01

    How verbal information is processed and recalled appears to be influenced by the structure of the information presented (e.g., unrelated sentences vs. narratives) and the processes the listener uses to encode the information (e.g., verbatim encoding vs. gist extraction). Twenty adults, half with a history of learning disabilities (HLD) and half…

  13. Students and Their Teachers of Arabic: Beliefs about Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated beliefs about second language learning held by 27 adult students and 10 teachers of Arabic at the Yemen Language Center. The survey instrument consisted of 5 demographic statements and 47 statements concerning language learning in a Likert-type scaled response format. Results indicate students and teachers generally agreed…

  14. The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coreil, Clyde, Ed.; Napoliello, Mihri, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Articles on second language teaching and learning include: "Creativity with a Small 'c'" (Alan Maley); "National Standards & the Role of the Imagination in Foreign Language Learning" (Rebecca M. Valette); "Who Am I in English? Developing a Language Ego" (Jean Zukowski/Faust); "Steps to Dance in the Adult EFL Classroom" (David M. Bell); "Connecting…

  15. The Storage and Composition of Inflected Forms in Adult-Learned Second Language: A Study of the Influence of Length of Residence, Age of Arrival, Sex, and Other Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Laura; Stowe, John C.; Maloof, Christopher J.; Brovetto, Claudia; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear whether adult-learned second language (L2) depends on similar or different neurocognitive mechanisms as those involved in first language (L1). We examined whether English past tense forms are computed similarly or differently by L1 and L2 English speakers, and what factors might affect this: regularity (regular vs. irregular…

  16. The Complexity of Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also…

  17. Technology and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Current technology provides new opportunities to increase the effectiveness of language learning and teaching. Incorporating well-organized and effective technology into second language learning and teaching for improving students' language proficiency has been refined by researchers and educators for many decades. Based on the rapidly changing…

  18. Conceptions of Language and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil; Lor, Winnie

    1999-01-01

    Questions whether the notion of learner beliefs as conceived in the second-language-acquisition literature is adequate to capture the complexity of learners' thinking about language learning. Proposes, as an alternative, an analytical framework based on three levels: conception, approach, and belief. Data are drawn from Hong Kong university…

  19. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  20. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  1. English as a Second Language for Adults: A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mary; And Others

    To help improve English as a Second Language (ESL) programs for adult learners, this curriculum guide provides informative materials for the teacher and 30 sections of lessons suitable for adaptation by the teacher. Teacher information includes materials on language teaching and learning, use of the guide, needs assessment, adapting lesson plans,…

  2. Adult Literacy, Numeracy and Language: Policy, Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Hillier, Yvonne, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place;…

  3. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

  4. Helping Adults Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Phyllis J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased attention to preparing addictions counselors and related professionals to use evidence-based practices has brought new attention to the preparation programs for addictions counselors. Research and theory about adult learning emphasizes the importance of students as active participants in problem and experience based learning. This paper…

  5. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

  6. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal…

  7. Practitioner Toolkit: Working with Adult English Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieshoff, Sylvia Cobos; Aguilar, Noemi; McShane, Susan; Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Terrill, Lynda; Van Duzer, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This document is designed to give support to adult education and family literacy instructors who are new to serving adult English language learners and their families in rural, urban, and faith- and community-based programs. The Toolkit is designed to have a positive impact on the teaching and learning in these programs. The results of two…

  8. English as a Second Language Handbook for Adult Education Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook is designed to assist classroom teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) in meeting the needs of their adult students. The handbook is intended for use in a variety of settings and with a variety of teaching styles. The first chapter discusses adult learners' characteristics and the factors affecting their learning. The second…

  9. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p < .05) for the two tests that required participants to recall and produce spoken Hungarian phrases. The differences in performance were not explained by potentially influencing factors such as age, gender, mood, phonological working memory ability, or musical ability and training. These results suggest that a "listen-and-sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases. PMID:23860945

  10. "Learning Communities" and the Language of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The language of the world of learning is popularised, trivialised and reduced in the meaning of some central terms and concepts. Much of the new communities and cities and social capital language of learning comes from a disinterested search for understanding, but too much is also innocent about social structures and political power, reluctant to…

  11. Spatial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  12. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  13. Practice Theory in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.

    2013-01-01

    Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language…

  14. The Nature of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UWM Magazine, 1968

    1968-01-01

    Four behavioral scientists in a colloquium at the University of Wisconsin discussed various aspects of language learning. Concerned primarily with pre-high-school pupils and addressing their remarks to language teachers, the scientists offered these proposals: (1) language teaching is more effective if taught in a natural setting, (2)…

  15. Drama Techniques in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Alan; Duff, Alan

    The drama activities in this teaching guide are designed to develop second language learning skills by constructing situations that require the student to concentrate on the meaning and emotional content of language rather than on its structure. In an attempt to involve the whole personality of the learner in the acquisition of language, the…

  16. Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

  17. Learning the Language of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes learning to teach as a task involving learning to think and act in ways appropriate to the profession's demands. Describes the language of practice, using common sense and practical analyses of knowledge and action. Illustrates these concepts with a study of student teachers and applies architecture's pattern language to teaching.…

  18. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction. PMID:26915737

  19. Adult Literacy Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…

  20. Learning Values about Languages in the Multilingual Preschools of Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Ellen C.

    In multilingual nations, young children learn early about the social and educational importance that adults attribute to different languages. In Malaysia, parents express their values about languages by choosing specific kindergartens. Preschools' language values are reflected in the amount of time devoted and the seriousness of approach to each…

  1. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  2. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  3. Learning Ancestral Languages by Telephone: Creating Situations for Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taff, Alice

    This paper reports on the progress of a group of adults who have been connecting by telephone to learn to speak Deg Xinag, the language of the Deg Hit'an (Ingalik Athabaskan). The Deg Hit'an are the westernmost of the Athabaskan peoples, living near the confluence of the Yukon and Innoko Rivers in Alaska. Since Deg Xinag speakers, all elders,…

  4. The Effects of Frequency, Distribution, Mode of Presentation, and First Language on Learning an Artificial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Munehiko

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents results from a series of experiments investigating adult learning of an artificial language and the effects that input frequency (high vs. low token frequency), frequency distribution (skewed vs. balanced), presentation mode (structured vs. scrambled), and first language (English vs. Japanese) have on such learning.…

  5. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    PubMed Central

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2013-01-01

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor. PMID:24027521

  6. Intelligence and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    "Understanding Adult Intelligence" (Robert Sternberg) focuses on the nature of intelligence. It explains Sternberg's triarchic theory, in which he posits three main aspects of intelligence: its relation to the internal or mental world of the learner, its relation to experience, and its relation to the surrounding world. "Strategies and Learning"…

  7. Learning a Language in the Field: Problems of Linguistic Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catford, J.C.

    The author feels that there is no reason to suppose that adults are less capable than children in learning a second language, given adequate opportunity and motivation. In terms of amount learned in comparable time, the adult is about five times as efficient as the child. This is what would be expected of any other kind of intellectual or rational…

  8. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  9. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  10. Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack

    This book presents a theory of how adults learn by making meaning of their experiences. Chapter 1 gives an overview of an emerging transformation theory of adult learning, compares it with other theories of adult learning, and describes the dynamics of the process through which one makes meaning of one's experience. Chapter 2 examines the way…

  11. A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

  12. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  13. Language Games and Activities. Netword 2: Teaching Languages to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langran, John; Purcell, Sue

    This guide discusses the use of games in the second language classroom and describes a number of games language teachers can use. An introductory chapter outlines different types of games and explains the use of the book. Chapter 1 offers a rationale for classroom use of games for second language learning. Chapter 2 suggests classroom techniques…

  14. Bots as Language Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Luke; Carpenter, Rollo

    2006-01-01

    Foreign Language Learning (FLL) students commonly have few opportunities to use their target language. Teachers in FLL situations do their best to create opportunities during classes through pair or group work, but a variety of factors ranging from a lack of time to shyness or limited opportunity for quality feedback hamper this. This paper…

  15. Journal of Celtic Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Laoire, Muiris, Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal is an international review for researchers and teachers of modern Celtic languages. This volume contains seven articles. There are three research articles: "Issues in the Design of Irish Credited Courses" (Thomas W. Ihde); "Learning Irish for Participation in the Irish Language Speech Community outside the Gaeltacht" (Muiris O…

  16. Social Learning, Language and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Ian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article supports the claim that there are strong interactive links between children's language development, cognitive reasoning and their success in school achievement. These links are best facilitated within a social learning framework where children's language and talk is encouraged, accepted and respected. This talk is the most authentic…

  17. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  18. Learning Styles and Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Obdulia; Peck, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify what other elements besides linguistic deficits could be playing a role in foreign language learning difficulties, the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory was administered to students enrolled in regular and modified Spanish classes at a major U.S. university. Preliminary results gathered as part of a longitudinal study on learning…

  19. Will Mobile Learning Change Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile phones and other portable devices is beginning to have an impact on how learning takes place in many disciplines and contexts, including language learning. Learners who are not dependent on access to fixed computers can engage in activities that relate more closely to their current surroundings, sometimes crossing the border…

  20. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  1. Written Narrative Characteristics in Adults with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddarth, Rachael; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Adults with language-based disabilities are known to have deficits in oral language; however, less is known about their written language skills. Two studies were designed to characterize the writing of adults with language-based disabilities. Method: In Study 1, 60 adults, 30 with language impairment and 30 with typical language,…

  2. Adult Learning Strategies in an Onsite Training Program in Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayachi, Zeineb

    2015-01-01

    The new market place has dictated on adults the use of English as it is the first international language used in business. However, learning a foreign language becomes more and more complicated as the learner gets older, is in a mature command of L1 and L2, and does not have enough time to learn due to professional responsibilities. Contrary to…

  3. Differences Between Children and Adults in Learning BASIC on Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada-Adler, Renee; White, Mary Alice

    Do children and adults who are novices in their use of microcomputers differ in their approaches when learning a computer language? Ten fourth- and fifth-grade students and 10 graduate students were observed learning the language BASIC on microcomputers. All sessions were tape recorded and verbalizations subsequently coded. Verbalizations, the…

  4. Emerging Technologies in Adult Literacy and Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Liaw, Meei-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Although information and communication technologies have become an integral part of life in the United States, they have not yet been adequately integrated into adult language and literacy programs. This raises concerns because of the potential value of technology for enhancing learning and because of the vital role of technological proficiency as…

  5. Language Learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss language learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson. Starting from a remark by Bakhurst, I hold that both Wittgenstein and Davidson's philosophies of language contain responses to the problem of language learning, albeit of a different form. Following Williams, I hold that the concept of language learning can explain…

  6. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the field of intelligent computer assisted language learning (ICALL) and relates them to current practice in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and second language learning. Points out that ICALL applies expertise from artificial intelligence and the computer and cognitive sciences to the development of language learning…

  7. Assessment Matters in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Jan; Napper, Rosemary

    This handbook was developed to give tutors of adult education information and ideas about assessing adult learning. It can be used as a reference for information about assessment and as a practical tool for tutors. Section 1, Introduction to Assessment in Adult Learning, includes information on these topics: what assessment is, how to assess, why…

  8. Learning a Third Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiste, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Reports on three investigations concerning the acquisition of a third language in bilingual immigrant students in Germany and Sweden. The results suggest that immigrant students who always use Swedish at home but have passive knowledge of their first language clearly perform better in English than do Swedish monolingual students. (SL)

  9. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning…

  10. Reflections on Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Scott, Mike, Ed.

    The collection of papers, dedicated to Maria Antonieta Alba Celani, a celebrated English professor in Brazil, consists of writings by colleagues on four themes: developments stemming from Dr. Celani's Brazilian national project for the teaching of English for special purposes; language teacher training; language processing; and analysis of…

  11. Language Learning and Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Michael, Ed.

    This collection of original papers draws upon work in linguistics, psychology, and education to highlight the relationship between language acquisition in deaf and hearing populations. The book's 11 chapters are divided into 2 sections, Theoretical Issues and Research Reports. Titles and authors are as follows: "Language Varieties in the Deaf…

  12. Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students' own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to…

  13. Learning a Community Language as a Third Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Michael; Hunt, Claudia Rossi; Isaakidis, Tina

    2004-01-01

    This study is part of a larger action research project on the role of secondary school language programmes in the maintenance and spread of community languages in Melbourne. The study focuses on bilinguals learning another community language (Greek or Spanish) as a third language, some of them having a home language with a connection to the target…

  14. Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…

  15. Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2011-01-01

    For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

  16. Language and Learning Science in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probyn, Margie

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a multilingual country with 11 official languages. However, English dominates as the language of access and power and although the Language-in-Education Policy (1997) recommends school language policies that will promote additive bilingualism and the use of learners' home languages as languages of learning and teaching, there has…

  17. The Acquisition of /R/ and /L/ by Japanese Children and Adults Learning English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, R. McCrae

    1980-01-01

    Describes two experiments to evaluate acquisition of /r/ and /l/ involving native Japanese children and adults residing in the United States. The first required subjects to produce and discriminate English /r/ and /l/ in listening and speaking. Children's performance was better than adults'. In the second, the subject received programed training.…

  18. Biculturalism through Experiential Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Pamela; Donoghue, Anna Acitelli

    This paper describes the English as a Second Language Program developed for educationally disadvantaged Mexican-American adults as part of the educational offerings of Project Step-Up, an OEO-funded demonstration program in San Diego. Project Step-Up features a multifold methodological approach incorporating techniques from (1) life skills…

  19. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  20. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal system. The findings showed that variance in language abilities is associated with performance on different domains of procedural memory, including the motor domain (as shown in the pursuit rotor task), the cognitive domain (as shown in the weather prediction task), and the linguistic domain (as shown in the nonword repetition priming task). These results implicate the corticostriatal system in individual differences in language. PMID:26190949

  1. Speech and Language Therapists' Approaches to Communication Intervention with Children and Adults with Profound and Multiple Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. Aims: To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the…

  2. Reviewing the Evidence on How Adult Students Learn: An Examination of Knowles' Model of Andragogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    While there may be similarities between adults and children in how they learn (such as language, interaction and communication), many writers argue that adult learners are different from child learners in a number of ways. This article aims to review how adults learn through examining one particular theory of adult learning. Two conflicting…

  3. Language and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, James

    This book is based upon the theory that we use language as a means of organizing a representation of the world--each for himself--and that the representation so created constitutes the world we operate in, the basis of all the predictions by which we set the course of our lives. Chapter 1 discusses this theory; Chapter 2 relates what is relevant…

  4. First Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallen, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Preface: The Acquisition of Celtic Languages" (Jeffrey L. Kallen); "The Development of Finiteness in Early Welsh" (Robert D. Borsley and Bob Morris Jones); "Acquiring Subject and Object Relatives; Evidence from Irish" (Helen Goodluck, Eithne Guilfoyle, and Sile Harrington); "The Language…

  5. Language Learning with Laser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppard, Herb

    1989-01-01

    Describes a laser videodisc program which helps non-native English learners gain confidence and language skills in social contact or casual conversation situations by having them interact with a variety of "characters" at a backyard barbecue. Describes production problems and problems associated with making a workable interactive system. (RS)

  6. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  7. Talking Yourself into Spanish: Intrapersonal Communication and Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P.; Yanez, Maria-del-Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of intrapersonal communication in connection with second language learning through internalization. In internalization, learners imitate the linguistic affordances made available by the classroom community. Presents an analysis of a case study of an adult learner of Spanish and discusses its implications for learning. (AS)

  8. Second Language Learning vs. Pidginization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, William C.; Gilbert, Glenn G.

    This paper examines the differences between second language learning and pidginization to better understand the mechanisms involved in each process. Current research suggests similarities between the two. Both are characterized by reduction and simplification. Grammatical transformations tend to be eliminated, along with inflectional markers of…

  9. Effective Motivation in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Mehmet Ali; Engin, Ali Osman

    2008-01-01

    This research is about the importance of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidance motivation in second language learning and being successful. Firstly, we had a motivation questionnaire then we applied this questionnaire and the achievement test to 90 students in Education Faculty English Department. Before the motivation questionnaire…

  10. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  11. Metacognition and Second/Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raoofi, Saeid; Chan, Swee Heng; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Rashid, Sabariah Md

    2014-01-01

    Metacognition appears to be a significant contributor to success in second language (SL) and foreign language (FL) learning. This study seeks to investigate empirical research on the role metacognition plays in language learning by focusing on the following research questions: first, to what extent does metacognition affect SL/FL learning? Second,…

  12. Error Analysis of Present Simple Tense in the Interlanguage of Adult Arab English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses errors on present simple tense among adult Arab English language learners. It focuses on the error on 3sg "-s" (the third person singular present tense agreement morpheme "-s"). The learners are undergraduate adult Arabic speakers learning English as a foreign language. The study gathered data from…

  13. Notes & Quotes on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    This document is a review of literature on adult learning, assembled in a computer-printout format. It brings together brief statements made by authors on the various major aspects of individual and social (associational) learning, as well as information on planning and evaluation. The document also contains a glossary of adult education terms and…

  14. Adult Immigrants' Media Usage and Its Function in Host Language Training Opportunities: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Media promotes to what extent immigrants learn the host language and cultural values. Consequently, the overall aim of this paper is to identify predictors among adult immigrants in language training and its effect on host language training. The participants (n = 186)-- many of them refugees--were recruited purposefully for the study from one…

  15. Foreign Language Learning Strategy Choice: Naturalistic versus Instructed Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem

    2007-01-01

    This study explores whether there are differences in the choice of language learning strategy and in the frequency of its use in the concurrent acquisition of two foreign languages, one being learned in a tutored and the other in a non-tutored manner. Specifically, it investigates the tutored learning of English in a formal setting and the…

  16. Language Learning Strategies of Language e-Learners in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…

  17. Do Language Proficiency Levels Correspond to Language Learning Strategy Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…

  18. When It Hurts (and Helps) to Try: The Role of Effort in Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Amy S.; Lee, Taraz; Kraus, Allison; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to children, adults are bad at learning language. This is counterintuitive; adults outperform children on most measures of cognition, especially those that involve effort (which continue to mature into early adulthood). The present study asks whether these mature effortful abilities interfere with language learning in adults and further, whether interference occurs equally for aspects of language that adults are good (word-segmentation) versus bad (grammar) at learning. Learners were exposed to an artificial language comprised of statistically defined words that belong to phonologically defined categories (grammar). Exposure occurred under passive or effortful conditions. Passive learners were told to listen while effortful learners were instructed to try to 1) learn the words, 2) learn the categories, or 3) learn the category-order. Effortful learners showed an advantage for learning words while passive learners showed an advantage for learning the categories. Effort can therefore hurt the learning of categories. PMID:25047901

  19. "What about Me? I'm Not Like Chinese but I'm Not Like American": Heritage-Language Learning and Identity of Mixed-Heritage Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines heritage-language (HL) experience and identity of 12 adults of mixed-heritage backgrounds through in-depth autobiographical interviews. Each participant has an English-speaking American parent and an HL (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, or Vietnamese)-speaking immigrant parent. The interviews explored each participant's…

  20. Waystage English: An Intermediary Objective below Threshold Level in a European Unit/Credit System of Modern Language Learning by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, J. A. Van; And Others

    This book is a response to the recognition that the achievement of the threshold level of second language proficiency is for many adults an overly ambitious objective. The degree of communicative competence that will be imparted by the waystage approach will be about halfway between zero and the threshold level. This degree of competence will…

  1. Language Learning Ability in Adults: A Study on the Acquisition of Prosodic and Articulatory Features. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Gerald G.

    This paper reports on a study in which twenty young adults were tested for their ability to accurately reproduce the articulatory and prosodic features of three non-Indo-European languages in which they had received instruction. The first of two basic goals of this research was to test, at the purely phonetic level, the "critical period for…

  2. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  3. Learning: Statistical Mechanisms in Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    The grammatical structure of human languages is extremely complex, yet children master this complexity with apparent ease. One explanation is that we come to the task of acquisition equipped with knowledge about the possible grammatical structures of human languages—so-called "Universal Grammar". An alternative is that grammatical patterns are abstracted from the input via a process of identifying reoccurring patterns and using that information to form grammatical generalizations. This statistical learning hypothesis receives support from computational research, which has revealed that even low level statistics based on adjacent word co-occurrences yield grammatically relevant information. Moreover, even as adults, our knowledge and usage of grammatical patterns is often graded and probabilistic, and in ways which directly reflect the statistical makeup of the language we experience. The current chapter explores such evidence and concludes that statistical learning mechanisms play a critical role in acquisition, whilst acknowledging holes in our current knowledge, particularly with respect to the learning of `higher level' syntactic behaviours. Throughout, I emphasize that although a statistical approach is traditionally associated with a strongly empiricist position, specific accounts make specific claims about the nature of the learner, both in terms of learning mechanisms and the information that is primitive to the learning system. In particular, working models which construct grammatical generalizations often assume inbuilt semantic abstractions.

  4. Sleep Disorders as a Risk to Language Learning and Use

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.; Alper, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Clinical Question Are people with sleep disorders at higher risk for language learning deficits than healthy sleepers? Method Scoping Review Study Sources PubMed, Google Scholar, Trip Database, ClinicalTrials.gov Search Terms sleep disorders AND language AND learning; sleep disorders language learning –deprivation –epilepsy; sleep disorders AND verbal learning Number of Included Studies 36 Primary Results Children and adults with sleep disorders were at a higher risk for language problems than healthy sleepers. The language problems typically co-occurred with problems of attention and executive function (in children and adults), behavior (in children), and visual–spatial processing (in adults). Effects were typically small. Language problems seldom rose to a level of clinical concern but there were exceptions involving phonological deficits in children with sleep-disordered breathing and verbal memory deficits among adults with sleep-disordered breathing or idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Conclusions Case history interviews should include questions about limited sleep, poor-quality sleep, snoring, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Medical referrals for clients with suspected sleep disorders are prudent. PMID:26664651

  5. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults

    PubMed Central

    Weikum, Whitney M.; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  6. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  7. Regularization of languages by adults and children: A mathematical framework.

    PubMed

    Rische, Jacquelyn L; Komarova, Natalia L

    2016-02-01

    The fascinating ability of humans to modify the linguistic input and "create" a language has been widely discussed. In the work of Newport and colleagues, it has been demonstrated that both children and adults have some ability to process inconsistent linguistic input and "improve" it by making it more consistent. In Hudson Kam and Newport (2009), artificial miniature language acquisition from an inconsistent source was studied. It was shown that (i) children are better at language regularization than adults and that (ii) adults can also regularize, depending on the structure of the input. In this paper we create a learning algorithm of the reinforcement-learning type, which exhibits patterns reported in Hudson Kam and Newport (2009) and suggests a way to explain them. It turns out that in order to capture the differences between children's and adults' learning patterns, we need to introduce a certain asymmetry in the learning algorithm. Namely, we have to assume that the reaction of the learners differs depending on whether or not the source's input coincides with the learner's internal hypothesis. We interpret this result in the context of a different reaction of children and adults to implicit, expectation-based evidence, positive or negative. We propose that a possible mechanism that contributes to the children's ability to regularize an inconsistent input is related to their heightened sensitivity to positive evidence rather than the (implicit) negative evidence. In our model, regularization comes naturally as a consequence of a stronger reaction of the children to evidence supporting their preferred hypothesis. In adults, their ability to adequately process implicit negative evidence prevents them from regularizing the inconsistent input, resulting in a weaker degree of regularization. PMID:26580218

  8. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  9. What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

  10. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    PubMed

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-09-01

    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge. PMID:27233808

  11. Aptitude for Learning a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard; Ganschow, Leonore

    2001-01-01

    Review research on foreign language aptitude and its measurement prior to 1990. Describes research areas in the 1990s, including affective variables, language learning strategies, learning styles as contributors to aptitude and aptitude as a cognitive construct affected by language variables. Reviews research on individual differences and the…

  12. Video and Second Language Learning. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Junetta B., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The extent to which video has come of age with respect to language learning is the focus of this special issue, which provides information on sources of materials and offers practical ideas for the effective and creative use of those materials in second language instruction. Articles include: "Video and Language Learning: A Medium Comes of Age"…

  13. Language Learning Impairment in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize empirical evidence at the intersection of two populations: children with language learning impairment (LLI) and children from immigrant families who learn a single language from birth and a second language beginning in early childhood. LLI is a high incidence disorder that, in recent years, has been referred to by…

  14. Programmed Learning and the Language Laboratory 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bung, Klaus, Ed.

    The author has compiled these papers in an attempt to show (1) the relevance of programed learning research for language teaching, (2) how better materials for the language laboratory can be developed, and (3) how the language laboratory can be used more efficiently. The first part of this two-part volume contains papers on programed learning in…

  15. Student Modeling and Ab Initio Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Provides examples of student modeling techniques that have been employed in computer-assisted language learning over the past decade. Describes two systems for learning German: "German Tutor" and "Geroline." Shows how a student model can support computerized adaptive language testing for diagnostic purposes in a Web-based language learning…

  16. Beliefs and Emotions in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragao, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    From the argument that in languaging worlds are created (Aragao, 2005; Kalaja, 1995, 2003; Maturana and Varela, 2001; Nunez, 1997), this article aims at reflecting about the relationship between emotions and beliefs in foreign language learning. It is argued that beliefs and emotions in language learning/teaching are inter-related and can be…

  17. LANGUAGE LEARNING, THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE PROCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAJAM, EDWARD W.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIANA-PURDUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES AND INTRODUCED BY DIEKHOFF'S SPEECH ADVOCATING TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE REVISION OF PROGRAM POLICY TO MEET CONTINUOUS SOCIAL CHANGE. IN THE FIRST SECTION, THE INTERRELATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING, ARE…

  18. Web-Based English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarica, Gulcin Nagehan; Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of another language is an advantage and it gives people to look at the world and in particular to the world's cultures with a broader perspective. Learning English as a second language is the process by which students learn it in addition to their native language. Today, internet is an important part of our lives as English. For this…

  19. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  20. Generative Learning: Adults Learning within Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaides, Aliki

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which ambiguity can serve as a catalyst for adult learning. The purpose of this study is to understand learning that is generated when encountering ambiguity agitated by the complexity of liquid modernity. "Ambiguity," in this study, describes an encounter with an appearance of reality that is at first…

  1. Promoting Learning. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Kate

    This document is intended to help adult educators in the United Kingdom promote learning. The guide presents practical advice, case studies, and tips for undertaking and implementing effective promotional work. Sections 1 through 11 discuss the following topics: recognizing the increasing need for lifelong learning; the rationale for campaigns…

  2. Learning Strategies Used by Successful Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thu, Tran Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the language learning strategies employed by successful learners of English as a foreign and second language. Two successful English learners whose first languages are Mandarin were interviewed, and asked to complete a questionnaire and a self-evaluation measure to indicate their perceived level of language proficiency as well…

  3. Flipped Approach to Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Junko

    2013-01-01

    There are abundant possibilities for using smart phones and tablet computers for foreign language learning. However, if there is an emphasis on memorization or on technology, language learners may not develop proficiency in their target language. Therefore, language teachers should be familiar with strategies for facilitating creative…

  4. Learning Asian Languages in Australia: Which Languages and When?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Andy

    1995-01-01

    States that the difficult Asian languages such as modern standard Chinese, Japanese and Korean, should not be taught in primary or lower secondary schools to non-background speakers of those languages, that is, those whose mother tongue is related to the language being learned. Maintains that time should be spent in primary and secondary schools…

  5. Second Language Learning and Second Language Learners: Growth and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1989-01-01

    An exploration of second language acquisition research's traditionally separate focus on learners or learning, covering the development-as-sequence model, the development-as-growth model, learning style, cognitive orientation, and affective orientation, argues that a "whole" approach to language teaching must consider both the structural nature of…

  6. Learning to Learn. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 30. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses learning to learn. It is designed to help instructors explain and demonstrate how learning is part of life and provide a valuable opportunity for them to engage their students in…

  7. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  8. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  9. Weblogs for English Language Learning: Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Juida; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in…

  10. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  11. Technology and Second Language Learning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willetts, Karen

    Increasingly, technology is incorporated into second language teaching and learning both in and out of classroom situations. The computer alone has many capabilities for enhancing language learning, but when combined with other technologies, the possibilities multiply for information retrieval, interactive audio- and video-assisted learning, use…

  12. Einige psychologische Besonderheiten der Erwachsenen und die Erlernung einer Fremdsprache (Some Psychological Peculiarities of Adults and the Learning of a Foreign Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witlin, Sh. L.

    1974-01-01

    Reports on 2 investigations of problems of teaching adults (ages 18-40) vs. teaching pupils 10 and 11 years old. Differences are observed in character, temperament, motivation, work capacity, mental processes. Learning ability increases with degree of education rather than age alone. This fact must be considered in a differentiated methodology.…

  13. Input Variability Facilitates Unguided Subcategory Learning in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Plante, Elena; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method: Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half…

  14. Adult Learning in a Computer-Based ESL Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karen Renee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…

  15. Language Alternation and Language Norm in Vocational Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontio, Janne; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The present article deals with language choice as communicative strategies in the language learning environment of an English-medium content and language integrated learning (CLIL) workshop at an auto mechanics class in a Swedish upper secondary school. The article presents the organisation and functions of language alternations (LAs) which are…

  16. Classroom Learning Styles and Their Effect on Second Language Acquisition: A Study of Two Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of the learning styles of two adult classroom learners of German as a second language. The extent to which, and in what ways, learners' learning style varies, whether one learning style results in more effective learning, and the effect of instructional style on the subjects' learning outcomes are explored. (29 references)…

  17. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning in the workplace. The first paper, "Measuring Critical Thinking: Is There a Single Instrument?" (Patricia K. Leitsch, Carol A. Lentz), examines two issues: the relationship between tests measuring critical thinking and those measuring readiness for self-directed learning and the…

  18. Adult Learning. ARIS Information Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Australia, Melbourne (Victoria). Adult Education Resource and Information Service.

    Adults may seek out learning at different times in their lives, for different reasons, and for vastly different purposes. Some of the reasons are to achieve pre-determined goals; to fill education gaps; to explore options and make choices; to develop personally; to perform a job or role better; or to enhance employment prospects. Learning itself…

  19. The Older Adult and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger

    According to recent census figures, 10% of today's population are over 65 years old. It has often been stated that individual learning needs and capabilities decline with age. To challenge this idea, a study was conducted to gather information about older adults, their learning interests, activities, and obstacles. Four hypotheses were tested…

  20. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between HRD…

  1. The Arlington Adult Learning System (AALS) Curriculum: A Transitional ESL Curriculum for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlington County Public Schools, VA. REEP, Arlington Education and Employment Program.

    The English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) curriculum of the Arlington (Virginia) Adult Learning System (AALS) is presented. AALS is a consortium in which an adult education provider (the public school system) coordinates efforts of its own organization with a community-based organization, a vocational institute, and a university to transition…

  2. Access to Adult Learning Opportunities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 6. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in an adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course, focuses on access to adult learning opportunities. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  3. Behavioural Objectives in Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Peter

    1976-01-01

    Behavioral objectives are discussed in relation to second language learning. They are broken down into cognitive and affective objectives, and difficulties in setting such objectives are discussed. (RM)

  4. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document, comprising volume 5, issues 1-3 of Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL), includes the following articles: "Poverty, Race, and Foreign Language Immersion: Predictors of Math and English Language Arts Performance" (Stephen J. Caldas, Nicole Boudreaux); "Meet a Foreign Language…

  5. Cooperative Language Learning: Increasing Opportunities for Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes cooperative language learning, group instruction which is under the learner-centered approach where the groups are formed in such a way that each member performs his or her task to achieve the goal. Previous research indicates that cooperative language learning doesn't only improve learners' language skills, but also…

  6. Literacy and Language Education: The Quantification of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes international policy contexts of adult literacy and language assessment and the shift toward standardization through measurement tools. It considers the implications the quantification of learning outcomes has for pedagogy and practice and for the social inclusion of transnational migrants.

  7. Critical Geragogy and Foreign Language Learning: An Exploratory Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Gómez, Danya

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes an exploratory application of the principles of critical geragogy (Formosa, 2002, 2011, 2012) to foreign language (FL) education (i.e., L2 learning in the L1 community). Critical geragogy is an educational, practical framework intended to empower older adults and lead them to emancipate from age strictures (Glendenning &…

  8. The Changing Face of Language Learning: Learning beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two important dimensions to successful second language learning: what goes on inside the classroom and what goes on outside of the classroom. While language teaching has always been seen as a preparation for out-of-class uses of language, much of the focus in language teaching in the past has typically been on classroom-based language…

  9. Statistical learning of a tonal language: the influence of bilingualism and previous linguistic experience

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2014-01-01

    While research shows that adults attend to both segmental and suprasegmental regularities in speech, including syllabic transitional probabilities as well as stress and intonational patterns, little is known about how statistical learning operates given input from tonal languages. In the current study, we designed an artificial tone language to address several questions: can adults track regularities in a tonal language? Is learning enhanced by previous exposure to tone-marking languages? Does bilingualism affect learning in this task? To address these questions, we contrasted the performance of English monolingual adults (Experiment 1), Mandarin monolingual and Mandarin–English bilingual adults (Experiment 2), and non-tonal bilingual adults (Experiment 3) in a statistical learning task using an artificial tone language. The pattern of results suggests that while prior exposure to tonal languages did not lead to significant improvements in performance, bilingual experience did enhance learning outcomes. This study represents the first demonstration of statistical learning of an artificial tone language and suggests a complex interplay between prior language experience and subsequent language learning. PMID:25232344

  10. Input Skewedness, Consistency, and Order of Frequent Verbs in Frequency-Driven Second Language Construction Learning: A Replication and Extension of Casenhiser and Goldberg (2005) to Adult Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Recent usage-based models of language acquisition research has found that three frequency manipulations; (1) skewed input (Casenhiser & Goldberg 2005), (2) input consistency (Childers & Tomasello 2001), and (3) order of frequent verbs (Goldberg, Casenhiser, & White 2007) facilitated construction learning in children. The present paper addresses…

  11. Learning to Learn an Additional Language: A Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the New Zealand experience of second language acquisition as it applies to learning the Maori language and also to new immigrants learning English. The article describes the te kohanga reo movement and also outlines the government policy as it relates to the learning of English as an additional language…

  12. Adult Second-Language Reading Research: How May It Inform Assessment and Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Maria S.; Sylvester, Ellen Skilton

    Research studies on how adults learn and develop second-language reading competence were considered in the context of a componential theory of reading. In particular, C. A. Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory (VET) was used as a framework in which to organize and evaluate the studies' contribution to the field of second-language reading. The…

  13. Journal of Celtic Language Learning. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihde, Thomas W., Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This annual journal offers research articles, a teaching forum, and announcements on Celtic language learning. The publication's mission is to provide a forum where teachers and applied linguists can contribute to the literature presently available on second language acquisition as well as increase communication among Celtic language teachers and…

  14. Exploring Language Learning with the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agor, Barbara J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a problem-solving computer program, "The Refrigerator Game," designed for second language learners, which focuses on the meaning of language, rather than its form. The success of this program proves that students can learn well by focusing on a game's goal, rather than on language itself. (SL)

  15. OBJECTIVES AND PROCESSES OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIZEMORE, MAMIE

    THE OBJECTIVES OF SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING, AND SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS FOR PRESENTING AND DRILLING STRUCTURES BY THE USE OF CERTAIN GESTURES, WERE PRESENTED. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONCENTRATING EFFORTS ON THE ESSENTIALS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING REVOLVED AROUND AN EMPHASIS ON THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGE ITSELF RATHER THAN ABOUT ITS HISTORY, VOCABULARY,…

  16. Speech Analysis and Visual Image: Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Alfred; Chung, C. W.; Lam, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Students will speak a second language with an accent if they learn the language after the age of six. It does not matter how motivated and clever they are, the accent will not go away. Only a few gifted students can speak a second language flawlessly. The exact reasons for this phenomenon are unknown. Although a large number of hypotheses have…

  17. Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively…

  18. Technologies in Use for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the technologies in use for second language learning, in relation to the major language areas and skills. In order, these are grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, pronunciation, listening, speaking, and culture. With each language area or skill, the relevant technologies are discussed with examples that illustrate how…

  19. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  20. The Neurolinguistics of Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D., Ed.

    These proceedings are a collection of papers by researchers in neurology, bilingualism, linguistics, and the neurolinguistics of bilingualism. Topics are addressed using neurolinguistic data for second language learning, learning models for second language acquisition, and implications for teaching and research. Summaries of the following papers…

  1. Autonomous Language Learning: The Teachers' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a large-scale study on learner autonomy in language learning carried out with students and English teachers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Examines the teachers' views of their roles and responsibilities, their assessment of their students'decision-making abilities and the autonomous language learning activities that they have…

  2. Language Distance Learning for the Digital Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran-Cerda, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to shed light on the potential of distance learning to overcome challenges in distance, space, time, and human and economic resources that limit access to language learning opportunities in cultural, literary, historical, geographical, and cross-cultural frames. Language and literature educators collectively have…

  3. Narrative Research in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkhuizen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Narrative research in language teaching and learning (LTL) is concerned with the stories teachers and learners tell about their lived and imagined experiences. Teachers typically tell about their professional development and their practices, and learners about their experiences of learning and using languages. What stories are, and indeed what…

  4. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  5. Investigating University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohebi, Sanaz Ghobadi; Khodadady, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate beliefs students usually held about language learning, based on the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire (Horwitz, 1988). For this purpose, 423 University learners of English in Iran were selected. Running descriptive statistics and the scree plot test, five factors were extracted:…

  6. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  7. Second Language Acquisition, Culture Shock and Language Stress of Adult Latina Students in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…

  8. Incidental Language Learning in Foreign Language Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Daryl M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which 40 students enrolled in upper level foreign language literary/cultural studies content courses showed evidence of incidental language learning over the course of a semester. Students completed a cloze passage and provided both writing and speaking samples at the beginning and end of the semester. In…

  9. Appropriate Language Assessment in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a small-scale research project in two schools using content and language integrated learning (CLIL), one English and one Austrian, where in both cases there had been considerable misgivings about appropriate forms of assessment to match the different kinds of language skill developed in the CLIL process. Teachers were…

  10. "Facebook" for Informal Language Learning: Perspectives from Tertiary Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Antonie

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of "Facebook" for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish) completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1) their perceptions of "Facebook" as a multilingual environment, (2) their online writing…

  11. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  12. Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

  13. Investigating the Language and Literacy Skills Required for Independent Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to investigate the threshold levels of literacy and language proficiency necessary for adult learners to use the Internet for independent learning. The report is triangulated around learning from large-scale surveys, learning from the literature, and learning from the field. Reported findings include: (1)…

  14. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. PMID:24211437

  15. Electrophysiological Investigations of Second Language Word Learning, Attrition and Bilingual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkanen, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation examined changes in brain activity associated with learning, forgetting and using a second language. The first experiment investigated the changes that occur when novice adult second language learners acquire and forget second language words. Event-related brain potentials were measured while native…

  16. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject—One Language Rule

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish—adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)—learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject—one language rule. PMID:26107624

  17. Systems of Goals, Attitudes, and Self-Related Beliefs in Second-Language-Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…

  18. Learner Centred Development of a Mobile and iTV Language Learning Support System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Lyn; Fallahkhair, Sanaz; Masthoff, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Interactive television (iTV) is a new media technology that has great potential for supporting second language learning, particularly for independent adult learners. It has many characteristics demanded by modern second language (L2) learning theories and is technologically quite sophisticated. However, in order for it to succeed it needs to fit…

  19. Media, Information Technology, and Language Planning: What Can Endangered Language Communities Learn from Created Language Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreyer, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…

  20. Adult Learning Theories Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A student-centered nontraditional learning program was proposed to better prepare fire department military personnel in obtaining their 911 dispatch certification at a Florida military installation. Maintaining an adequate number of dispatched qualified military personnel, in addition to current civilian dispatchers at the same location, improves…

  1. Overcoming Exclusion through Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian; Walshe, John

    Strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based…

  2. Is Adult Learning Demanding Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a fascinating time for adult learning in the UK. With a plethora of reviews reaching report stage alongside ongoing discussion about funding, qualifications and quality and the review of post-16 planning and funding in Wales, there is a real sense that things are about to change after a decade of well-meant but often misfocused reform.…

  3. Where Now for Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

  4. A Critical Appraisal of Foreign Language Research in Content and Language Integrated Learning, Young Language Learners, and Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Published in Spain (2003-2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…

  5. The Internet, Language Learning, and International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…

  6. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Language Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…

  7. Mobile Learning: A Powerful Tool for Ubiquitous Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Nelson; Lopes, Sérgio; Araújo, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, e-readers, etc.) have come to be used as tools for mobile learning. Several studies support the integration of such technological devices with learning, particularly with language learning. In this paper, we wish to present an Android app designed for the teaching and learning of Portuguese as a foreign…

  8. The ELAA 2 Citizen Science Project: The Case for Science, Equity, and Critical Thinking in Adult English Language Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basham, M.

    2012-08-01

    This article summarizes a paper presented at the recent ASP conference Connecting People to Science in Baltimore 2011. This action research study currently in progress aims to explore the impact of integrating science into English language instruction (English Language Acquisition for Adults, or ELLA) serving largely Hispanic immigrants at an adult learning center based in Phoenix, Arizona.

  9. The Community College: Bridge or Roadblock to Higher Education for US Adult Immigrant English-Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janis, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While community colleges have been accessible for adult learners with an immigrant and an English Language Learning (ELL) background, there is a gap between preparation and academic success on the college level among these students. Within community colleges, older adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students have the lowest first-semester…

  10. Do Inequalities in Adult Learning Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona; Iain Murray; Berry, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) Adult Participation in Learning Survey 10 years ago showed that two-fifths of the adult population said that they had taken part in learning in the last three years. A decade later, the 2012 survey shows that little has changed--active participation in learning remains a minority…

  11. Barriers to Adult Learning: Bridging the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falasca, Marina

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…

  12. Interview Schedule for Studying Why Adults Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Allen

    Designed for use in a 1968 study of why adults learn, this interview schedule contains situation-description and question sheets for use by the interviewer and subject for examining thirteen reasons why adults begin and why they continue a learning project. (The study, "Why Adults Learn: A Study of the Major Reasons for Beginning and Continuing a…

  13. Language Learning: A Worldwide Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Donna; Pufahl, Ingrid U.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous reports and articles have decried the mediocrity of U.S. students' foreign language skills and have called for improved language education. One study that looked at foreign language education in 19 countries suggests several characteristics of successful foreign language programs: starting early, providing an articulated framework,…

  14. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  15. Suggestopedia: An Innovation in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Used primarily for second language learning, Suggestopedia is a learning method which facilitates whole brain learning by using the arts--music, drawing, and theatrical presentations--to reduce negative and increase positive suggestive factors. Stages in a lesson are discussed and sources of information and suggestopedia music selections are…

  16. Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses theoretical and practical issues connected with implicit and explicit learning of languages. Explicit learning is knowledge expressed in the form of rules or definitions; implicit knowledge can be inferred to exist because of observed performance but cannot be clearly described. Hypothesizes why explicit learning can lead to implicit…

  17. Semantic Generalization in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether…

  18. So, What's Behind Adult English Second Language Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) grammatical knowledge to English second language reading (ESLR), with the objective of understanding this relationship in the context of the transfer of L1 skills to second language (L2) academic processes. Fifty-five adult, native Spanish-speaking English-language learners were given…

  19. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  20. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  1. Applied Language Learning, 1989-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woytak, Lidia, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal is intended to be a vehicle for professional communication, discussion, and debate in the field of foreign language education, with a special emphasis on the instruction of adults in both commonly taught and less commonly taught languages, for functional purposes, in an intensive setting. Topics in this volume include the following:…

  2. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This review of the current literature on second language learning was to inform the following four questions: (1) what are the effects of learning a second language on the first language? (2) What is the role of content instruction in offering a second language? (3) What are the effects of learning a second language on students with special needs?…

  3. Learner Experiences in Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jeong-Bae

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web offers a global database of authentic materials that can enhance language learning and teaching. This study examines the use of the web for language learning through a study of English as a second language (ESL) learners' experiences in web-based language learning (WBLL) activities in an English language intensive course for…

  4. Learning About Living: Youth and Adult Education on Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Helen P., Ed.; And Others

    Presented is an instructional guide designed for use in training young people and adults who may have children with learning problems. Included are five modules dealing with the following topics (with sample sub-topics in parentheses): child development (toilet training), home activities to enhance school performance (language development),…

  5. Adults Who Learn Differently: Help through a Volunteer Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Louise; Gillespie, Phyllis; Balkam, Lynda

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of preservice volunteer training at READ/San Diego, an adult literacy program. It discusses the program's informal assessment procedures that help identify possible language/learning disabilities and provide valuable information for instructional planning. Also described are selected multisensory teaching techniques designed…

  6. Introducing Advanced Clinical Reasoning to an Adult Learning Disability Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…

  7. Learning to Read through a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1980-01-01

    Reports on a study in which 12 Asian children's performance in reading aloud a story to their teacher was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Draws tentative conclusions about strategies used by children in learning to read a second language. (GT)

  8. The Challenge of Measuring Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the usefulness of using generic strategy inventories to assess language learning strategies (LLSs) across contexts. A review of the LLS research is presented with a critique of extant studies in relation to classification of strategies, methodological issues, and the predictability of language performance. The present…

  9. Mobile Sign Language Learning Outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kimberly A.; Starner, Thad

    2012-01-01

    The majority of deaf children in the United States are born to hearing parents with limited prior exposure to American Sign Language (ASL). Our research involves creating and validating a mobile language tool called SMARTSign. The goal is to help hearing parents learn ASL in a way that fits seamlessly into their daily routine. (Contains 3 figures.)

  10. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  11. Games for Language Learning. New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Andrew; And Others

    To help students practice and manipulate a newly learned language, games that help the teacher create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful are presented in this book. The introduction provides answers to questions teachers may have--including why and for whom games are useful--and also offers practical pointers for explaining…

  12. Learner Perspectives on Fully Online Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Susan Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on this author's 2011 article in which the author reflects on the pedagogical challenges and resultant changes made while teaching two fully online foreign language papers over a four-year period (Y. H. S. Sun (2011). Online language teaching: The pedagogical challenges. "Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An…

  13. Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

  14. Second Language Learning; Investigating the Classroom Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rosamond

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a number of second-language (L2) classroom-based research projects undertaken at the University of Stirling in Scotland. It is argued that a full understanding of classroom-based L2 learning requires the integration of sociolinguistic studies of the classroom context with psycholinguistic studies of second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  15. Gesture in Modern Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane

    2007-01-01

    For decades there have been linguists who proclaimed the significant role of kinesic expression in carrying the meaning of spoken language (e.g. Efron, 1941; Birdwhistell, 1952; Kendon, 1972). Drawing on such studies, there have also been pioneer studies of gesture in second language learning and use (McNeill, 1992; Gullberg, 1998, 2006), and…

  16. Suggestology as an Effective Language Learning Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MaCoy, Katherine W.

    The methods used and the results obtained by means of the accelerated language learning techniques developed by Georgi Lozanov, Director of the Institute of Suggestology in Bulgaria, are discussed. The following topics are included: (1) discussion of hypermnesia, "super memory," and the reasons foreign languages were chosen for purposes of…

  17. Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Fox, Roy F.; Almarza, Dario J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates international students' perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have…

  18. Light in the Tunnel: Language Learning Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Discusses why there has been a decline in the political and educational pressure to learn languages other than English in Australia. Recent political, economic, and educational changes are outlined that encourage the study of European and Asian languages. (Author/CB)

  19. Foreign Language Learning: Fact or Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belasco, Simon

    Von Humboldt wrote in 1836 that "....one cannot really teach language but can only present the conditions under which it will develop spontaneously in the mind in its own way..." The author critically illustrates his reasons for supporting this theory of language learning. Concluding remarks summarize advantages and disadvantages of using…

  20. Operationalizing Multilingualism: Language Learning Motivation in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…

  1. Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2003-10-01

    Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

  2. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  3. FAQs: Learning Languages through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Sarah L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a format of frequently asked questions about teaching foreign languages using drama, this article explores the evolution of this approach, its benefits and drawbacks, and the various theatrical activities that can be used to teach languages. After describing how drama fits into the communicative approach to language teaching, the article…

  4. Empathy and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiora, Alexander Z.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Research performed pursuant to a contract with the Defense Language Institute. Complete report of this research is available on request from Defense Language Institute Headquarters, R and S Division, Anacostia Naval Annex, Washington, D.C.; Reference: Final Report -- The Role of Personality Variables in Second Language Behavior.'' (RS)

  5. Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

  6. Does Learning Spanish Grammatical Gender Change English-Speaking Adults' Categorization of Inanimate Objects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurinski, Elena; Sera, Maria D.

    2011-01-01

    Second language acquisition studies can contribute to the body of research on the influence of language on thought by examining cognitive change as a result of second language learning. We conducted a longitudinal study that examined how the acquisition of Spanish grammatical gender influences categorization in native English-speaking adults. We…

  7. A Role for Chunk Formation in Statistical Learning of Second Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Humans are remarkably sensitive to the statistical structure of language. However, different mechanisms have been proposed to account for such statistical sensitivities. The present study compared adult learning of syntax and the ability of two models of statistical learning to simulate human performance: Simple Recurrent Networks, which learn by…

  8. Language Evolution by Iterated Learning with Bayesian Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Kalish, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Languages are transmitted from person to person and generation to generation via a process of iterated learning: people learn a language from other people who once learned that language themselves. We analyze the consequences of iterated learning for learning algorithms based on the principles of Bayesian inference, assuming that learners compute…

  9. Myths about Foreign Language Learning and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in education has suggested that students who are classified as learning disabled (LD) will exhibit inordinate difficulties learning a foreign language (FL). Even when not explicitly stated, the notion that those classified as LD have a disability for FL learning is implied. However, while beliefs about this purported disability…

  10. Technically Speaking: Transforming Language Learning through Virtual Learning Environments (MOOs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Emde, Silke; Schneider, Jeffrey; Kotter, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Draws on experiences from a 7-week exchange between students learning German at an American college and advanced students of English at a German university. Maps out the benefits to using a MOO (multiple user domains object-oriented) for language learning: a student-centered learning environment structured by such objectives as peer teaching,…

  11. Beyond Rhetoric: Adult Learning Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Drawing on the experience of Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, this document identifies effective adult education policies and practices. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) issues in adult learning and why adult learning is important; (2) patterns of participation and…

  12. "I Learn More at School": A Critical Perspective on Workplace-Related Second Language Learning In and Out of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandwall, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a student involved in language learning at a work placement, as part of the basic Swedish language programme for adult immigrants, Svenska for invandrare (Sfi), in Gothenburg, Sweden. In accordance with the predominant economic agenda, this system is assumed to accelerate labour market entrance as well as…

  13. Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relatively new field of materials development for language learning and teaching. It reports the origins and development of the field and then reviews the literature on the evaluation, adaptation, production and exploitation of learning materials. It also reviews the literature, first, on a number of…

  14. Crosslinguistic Differences in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janny H. C.; Williams, John N.

    2014-01-01

    We report three experiments that explore the effect of prior linguistic knowledge on implicit language learning. Native speakers of English from the United Kingdom and native speakers of Cantonese from Hong Kong participated in experiments that involved different learning materials. In Experiment 1, both participant groups showed evidence of…

  15. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  16. Pragmatics and Language Learning, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.; Kachru, Yamuna, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Monographs on pragmatics and language learning include: "Do We All Apologize the Same?--An Empirical Study on the Act of Apologizing by Spanish Speakers Learning English" (Montserrat Mir); "Conversational Openings in Kiswahili: The Pragmatic Performance of Native and Non-Native Speakers" (Alwiya S. Omar); "Experimental and Observational Data in…

  17. ELT Documents: 103-Individualisation in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    Articles on individualization in English language learning, a bibliography and list of selected additions to the English Teaching Information Centre archives (October 1977 - April 1978), and a list of recent publications are presented. An introduction by Elizabeth Smyth and the following articles are included: "Autonomy, Self-Directed Learning and…

  18. Language Learning Strategy Use and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences across the varying levels of EFL learners in the frequency and choice of learning strategies. Using a reading test, questionnaire, and parametric statistical analysis, the findings yielded up discrepancies among the participants in the implementation of language-learning strategies concerning their…

  19. Adult Learning and the Future of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

  20. Language Disorders Are Learning Disabilities: Challenges on the Divergent and Diverse Paths to Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…

  1. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch); "Bring Back Childhood…

  2. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, General Language Learning Outcome, and Beliefs about Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the probable relationship between Iranian students' socioeconomic status, general language learning outcome, and their beliefs about language learning. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English for specific courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were…

  3. Learning a Second Language. What Parents Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Kathleen M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines several key issues that parents must know about their children learning a second language, including the benefits of knowing a second language; the benefits of learning second languages in elementary school; how languages are taught to children; whether second languages will interfere with English ability; how parents can help; and how…

  4. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  5. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  6. The Latent Speaker: Attaining Adult Fluency in an Endangered Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, Charlotte; Fathman, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how latent knowledge of an ancestral or heritage language affects subsequent acquisition by adults. The "latent speaker" is defined as an individual raised in an environment where the ancestral language was spoken but who did not become a speaker of that language. The study examines how attitudes, latent knowledge and…

  7. Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Edith, Ed.

    The immediate stimulus for this collection of papers was a conference, Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner, organized by the Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research (CILT) and the Language Centre of the University of Cambridge in December 1992 at Queen's College, Cambridge. Several 1-day conferences on the same theme were…

  8. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  9. Working with Young Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carol

    This document explains how adult educators and others in the United Kingdom can increase levels of participation and achievement in learning for young adults by providing informal learning opportunities for those young people who are least inclined to participate in formal education and training programs. The guide outlines a step-by-step approach…

  10. What Do We Learn When We Learn a Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Rejects the assumptions which underlie the audiolingual method and offers two alternative propositions: (1) successful use of language requires the acquisition of communicative as well as linguistic competence and (2) first and second language learning are analogous processes. (Author/FB)

  11. Gesture’s role in speaking, learning, and creating language

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Alibali, Martha Wagner

    2013-01-01

    When speakers talk, they gesture. The goal of this chapter is to understand the contribution that these gestures make to how we communicate and think. Gesture can play a role in communication and thought at many timespans. We explore, in turn, gesture’s contribution to how language is produced and understood in the moment; its contribution to how we learn language and other cognitive skills; and its contribution to how language is created over generations, over childhood, and on-the-spot. We find that the gestures speakers produce when they talk are integral to communication and can be harnessed in a number of ways. (1) Gesture reflects speakers’ thoughts, often their unspoken thoughts, and thus can serve as a window onto cognition. Encouraging speakers to gesture can thus provide another route for teachers, clinicians, interviewers, etc., to better understand their communication partners. (2) Gesture can change speakers’ thoughts. Encouraging gesture thus has the potential to change how students, patients, witnesses, etc., think about a problem and, as a result, alter the course of learning, therapy, or an interchange. (3) Gesture provides building blocks that can be used to construct a language. By watching how children and adults who do not already have a language put those blocks together, we can observe the process of language creation first hand. Our hands are with us at all times and thus provide researchers and learners with an ever-present tool for understanding how we talk and think. PMID:22830562

  12. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  13. Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

  14. Language Views on Social Networking Sites for Language Learning: The Case of Busuu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Álvarez Valencia, José Aldemar

    2016-01-01

    Social networking has compelled the area of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) to expand its research palette and account for new virtual ecologies that afford language learning and socialization. This study focuses on Busuu, a social networking site for language learning (SNSLL), and analyzes the views of language that are enacted through…

  15. The Emergence of Learning Societies: Who Participates in Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Paul, Ed.; Valdivielso, Sofia, Ed.

    This book contains nine papers in which data from the Adult Education Participation Survey (a part of the International Adult Literacy Survey) are used to identify and compare trends in organized learning in seven countries. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Who Participates in Organized Adult Learning?" (Paul Belanger, Sofia…

  16. Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…

  17. Transformational Learning: Reflections of an Adult Learning Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning, narrative learning, and spiritual learning frame adult experiences in new and exciting ways. These types of learning can involve a simple transformation of belief or opinion or a radical transformation involving one's total perspective; learning may occur abruptly or incrementally. Education should liberate students from…

  18. Reading and Adult English Language Learners: A Review of the Research. Series on Preparing Adult English Language Learners for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Adams, Rebecca

    This book summarizes the research on adult English language learners (ELLs) reading English, offering English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers and administrators suggestions for instruction and noting areas where further research is needed. It is based on an annotated bibliography of research on reading development for adult learners of English…

  19. Learning to Learn a Foreign Language. Principles of Second Language Acquisition: An Orientation for Foreign Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuche, Anthony; And Others

    The manual designed to accompany an orientation seminar for students concerning language learning processes and strategies and the design of their program includes materials for five sessions, in three sections. The first section covers language learning and acquisition in general and contains a survey of the participants' foreign language…

  20. Electronic Tandem Language Learning (eTandem): A Third Approach to Second Language Learning for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cziko, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    Tandem language learning occurs when two learners of different native languages work together to help each other learn the other language. First used in face-to-face contexts, Tandem is now increasingly being used by language-learning partners located in different countries who are linked via various forms of electronic communication, a context…

  1. Sabemos y Podemos: Learning for Social Action. Adult Education Curriculum. English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rachel

    This adult education curriculum, part of the Aprender Es Poder (To Learn Is Power) program, explores the themes of school success for Latino children, expands the work options and improves the working conditions of Latino adults, and identifies community issues. It is meant to be a resource for English as a Second Language Literacy and adult basic…

  2. Using Language Learning Conditions in Mathematics. PEN 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoessiger, Rex

    This pamphlet reports on a project in Tasmania exploring whether the "natural learning conditions" approach to language learning could be adapted for mathematics. The connections between language and mathematics, as well as the natural learning processes of language learning are described in the pamphlet. The project itself is described--small…

  3. Developmental Comparisons of Implicit and Explicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that children learn languages implicitly whereas older learners learn languages explicitly, and some have claimed that after puberty only explicit language learning is possible. However, older learners often receive more explicit instruction than child L2 learners, which may affect their learning strategies. This study…

  4. Strategy Inventory for Language Learning-ELL Student Form: Testing for Factorial Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Tretter, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    As the school-aged English language learner (ELL) population continues to grow in the United States and other English-speaking countries, psychometrically sound instruments to measure their language learning strategies (LLS) become ever more critical. This study adapted and validated an adult-oriented measure of LLS (50-item "Strategy…

  5. Post-Structuralist Potentialities for Studies of Subjectivity and Second Language Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a proliferation of studies investigating, complicating, and reimagining the relationship between second language learning and identity. Yet, with only a handful of exceptions, these studies are limited to adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article, the author proposes that identity research with…

  6. Language Learning in Cyberspace: Teleporting the Classroom into the Target Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Randall P.; Kotter, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Reports a study that tested the possibility of language instruction in a MOO (Multiple-User Domain, Object-Oriented). The experiment consisted of two groups: adult evening-school participants in Germany learning English-as-a-Second-Language and American college students in their fourth semester of college German. Partnerships were formed with one…

  7. Morphological learning in a novel language: A cross-language comparison.

    PubMed

    Havas, Viktória; Waris, Otto; Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Being able to extract and interpret the internal structure of complex word forms such as the English word dance+r+s is crucial for successful language learning. We examined whether the ability to extract morphological information during word learning is affected by the morphological features of one's native tongue. Spanish and Finnish adult participants performed a word-picture associative learning task in an artificial language where the target words included a suffix marking the gender of the corresponding animate object. The short exposure phase was followed by a word recognition task and a generalization task for the suffix. The participants' native tongues vary greatly in terms of morphological structure, leading to two opposing hypotheses. On the one hand, Spanish speakers may be more effective in identifying gender in a novel language because this feature is present in Spanish but not in Finnish. On the other hand, Finnish speakers may have an advantage as the abundance of bound morphemes in their language calls for continuous morphological decomposition. The results support the latter alternative, suggesting that lifelong experience on morphological decomposition provides an advantage in novel morphological learning. PMID:25396284

  8. Learning English as Thai Adult Learners: An Insight into Experience in Using Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwanarak, Kasma

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to understand language learning strategies of Thai adult learners and factors affecting their strategy use. The participants are forty officers of General Service Division of the Council of State of Thailand, attending an English training course for developing their work potential. The data were collected through the…

  9. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  10. OECD Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Norway. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangen, Fride

    Adult learning in Norway was examined in a thematic review that focused on the following areas: the contexts of adult learning; the participants in, providers of, and returns from adult learning; issues and problems facing adult learning; and good practices. The following are among the main findings of the review: (1) adult learning has a long…

  11. Teaching Grammar to Adult English Language Learners: Focus on Form. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallup Rodriguez, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Many adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar. Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that…

  12. Mixed Ability Teaching: Meeting Learners' Needs. Netword 3: Teaching Languages to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainslie, Susan

    This guide, designed for teachers of second languages to adults, discusses instruction for student groups of mixed abilities. The first chapter examines the factors that determine mixed ability, including: student motivation, interests, and needs; linguistic ability; general educational background; learning style; age; external pressures and time…

  13. Preparing Adult Educators: The Need to Develop Communicative Language Teaching Skills in College-Level Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines why communicative language teaching (CLT) fails to improve student learning in certain contexts by assessing two adult educators' communicative and noncommunicative practices through qualitative case studies, interviews, and participant observations. Results show no inherent CLT problems that prevent teachers from grasping…

  14. Why Words are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. METHOD: Sixty-nine 18-25-year-olds with LI or without (ND) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings immediately after training (encoding) and 12-hours, 24-hours, and 1-week later (remembering). Half of the participants trained in the morning and half in the evening. RESULTS: At immediate posttest, those with LI performed more poorly on form and meaning than those with ND. Poor performance was more likely among those with more severe LI. The LI and ND groups demonstrated no difference in remembering word meanings over one week. In both groups, participants who trained in the evening, and therefore slept shortly after training, demonstrated greater gains in meaning recall than those who trained in the morning. In contrast, the LI-ND gap for word form recall widened over the week. CONCLUSIONS: Some adults with LI have encoding deficits that limit the addition of word forms and meanings to the lexicon. Similarities and differences in patterns of remembering in the LI and ND groups motivate the hypothesis that consolidation of declarative memory is a strength for adults with LI. PMID:24023376

  15. Learning and Long-Term Retention of Large-Scale Artificial Languages

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael C.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Gibson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Recovering discrete words from continuous speech is one of the first challenges facing language learners. Infants and adults can make use of the statistical structure of utterances to learn the forms of words from unsegmented input, suggesting that this ability may be useful for bootstrapping language-specific cues to segmentation. It is unknown, however, whether performance shown in small-scale laboratory demonstrations of “statistical learning” can scale up to allow learning of the lexicons of natural languages, which are orders of magnitude larger. Artificial language experiments with adults can be used to test whether the mechanisms of statistical learning are in principle scalable to larger lexicons. We report data from a large-scale learning experiment that demonstrates that adults can learn words from unsegmented input in much larger languages than previously documented and that they retain the words they learn for years. These results suggest that statistical word segmentation could be scalable to the challenges of lexical acquisition in natural language learning. PMID:23300975

  16. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  17. Brief Training with Co-Speech Gesture Lends a Hand to Word Learning in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Spencer D.; McDevitt, Tara; Esch, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in psychology and neuroscience has demonstrated that co-speech gestures are semantically integrated with speech during language comprehension and development. The present study explored whether gestures also play a role in language learning in adults. In Experiment 1, we exposed adults to a brief training session presenting novel…

  18. Adult Perspectives of Learning Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn; Jutras, Peter; Kim, Seon Joo

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults' perceptions and experiences of learning musical instruments. Conducted in the south-east United States, 15 adults who were learning instruments were recruited via community music groups and private instrumental teachers. Analysis of transcripts of semi-structured interviews…

  19. National Resources for Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Belinda, Ed.; Riviere, Adrienne, Ed.

    This guide contains a selection of national resources to assist adults who suspect they may have a learning disability. The guide begins with information on assessing learning disabilities, recommendations for locating a qualified professional to conduct assessments appropriate for adults, and a list of questions to ask qualified professionals. A…

  20. Adults with Learning Disabilities: Definitions and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC. National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center.

    This fact sheet provides a definition of learning disability (LD) in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults. The background of the concept of "learning disability" is briefly reviewed, followed by the definition of the Interagency Committee on…

  1. The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes recent psychological research and theory on the topic of consciousness, and looks at three questions in second-language learning related to the role of consciousness in input processing. The discussion involves the requirement in learning a second language of subliminal learning, implicit learning, and incidental learning. (142…

  2. Using Oral Language Skills to Build on the Emerging Literacy of Adult English Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradov, Patsy; Bigelow, Martha

    2010-01-01

    In addition to learning to read and write for the first time, adult English language learners with limited or emerging literacy skills must acquire oral English. Often, learners with limited print literacy in their first language have oral skills in English that exceed their English literacy skills (Geva & Zadeh, 2006). While this mismatch of oral…

  3. Use of the Initial Teaching Alphabet in English as a Second Language. Classes for Spanish Speaking Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Byrl Elmer

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of the initial teaching alphabet (ITA) would have a beneficial effect upon English language learning when used with adult Spanish speaking students. The study consisted of five randomly selected English as a Second Language classes in the Los Angeles City Unified School District divided…

  4. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These six issues of a periodical intended for teachers and tutors of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students offer articles and features including the following: readers' comments and questions; in-class map practice ideas; songs for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning; suggested films to show in class; conversation activities;…

  5. Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

  6. Autonomous Language Learning with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) wants English language education to be more communicative. Japanese teachers of English (JTEs) need to adapt their instructional practices to meet this goal; however, they may not feel confident enough to teach speaking themselves. Using technology, JTEs have the ability…

  7. Blending Language Learning with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 10% of American students are identified as "Limited English Proficient" (NCELA 2011). To serve this diverse population of English Language Learners (ELLs), teachers need proven instructional strategies. One prevalent approach is sheltered instruction, defined as "teaching content to English learners in strategic ways that…

  8. Beyond Babel: Language Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Uschi

    The book and accompanying CD-ROM is designed to assist teachers who want to develop their own materials on the World Wide Web, are interested in integrating interesting Web sites and ideas into their curriculum, or are interested in students' perspectives of the Web. It is also for anyone who wishes to refresh a language or get a feel for a new…

  9. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  10. Authenticity, Culture and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; Dasli, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In philosophy, authenticity has been used with two meanings: one entails the notion of correspondence; the other entails the notion of genesis (Cooper, 1983: 15). As in certain branches of philosophy, language teaching has perhaps clung too long to the first of these notions of authenticity at the expense of the other. This paper reviews four key…

  11. Learning the Language of Copernicus.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Copernicus Initiative was a bold and important undertaking by the Arthroscopy Association of North America to help further our learning the art of arthroscopy in a controlled setting. Understanding arthroscopic learning, training, and simulation research requires mastery of a lexicon of new terms, which AANA Copernicus researchers define in a glossary. Learning requires practice to develop proficiency. Developing new ability is a rewarding challenge. Metrics may be used to quantitatively measure objective performance, and is a key component of the Copernicus Initiative. A dedicated group of AANA researchers and educators have taken on an important and challenging task to help us improve in the realm of surgical education. PMID:26239780

  12. Leading Online Learning Initiatives in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen-Tracey, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Adult learners often face barriers to participation in traditional classroom instruction. As technology access grows and adults naturally incorporate technology into their daily lives, adult education programs are finding innovative ways to blend technology with instruction through quality online learning opportunities. This article highlights the…

  13. ILA: Individualized Learning for Adults. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    Individualized Learning for Adults (ILA), a program designed to meet the needs of adults enrolled in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes, is presented. The curriculum of the ILA program consists of two carefully constructed continuums sequenced along two dimensions: area and level. There are 257 performance objectives, or skills, in the…

  14. Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sally

    The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

  15. Making the Jump: 'We Can Do a Good Job'. A Pack for Adults with Learning Difficulties Who Want To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Yola

    This document uses clear language and pictures to help adults with learning disabilities learn how other adults with learning difficulties have made the jump from courses and training into jobs and kept working. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1 through 9: (1) the objectives and activities of the Making the Jump project…

  16. Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... the details of a story's plot or a classroom lecture Reading and comprehending material Learning words to ... stories to the child? Observe the child during classroom activities. Evaluate the child's ability to understand verbal ...

  17. Autonomous Language Learning against All Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualizing learners' individuality as dynamic and contextually situated, this paper reports on an inquiry that examined the genesis of a disabled learner's success in learning foreign languages on the Chinese mainland. Using source texts such as the learner's published diaries, letters and her autobiography, the inquiry revealed that language…

  18. Language Learning Strategies and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shomoossi, Nematullah; Kooshan, Mohsen; Ketabi, Saeed

    2008-01-01

    The role of learner's strategies and skills in learning a foreign language has been investigated in the last three decades. However, the part it plays in ESP achievement tests is not seriously treated. Moreover, as students take the final exam, their chief complaint concerns the idea of test anxiety as a debilitating factor. Therefore, the present…

  19. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  20. Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

  1. Language Learning--An Intellectual Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis E.

    1985-01-01

    Looks at the debate over whether foreign language study is intellectually challenging. Examines four points in the debate: the contrast between content and skill; the nature of the learning and teaching material; the nature of classroom interaction; and the idea of osmosis. (SED)

  2. Language and Learning across the Curriculum Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Ken, Comp.; And Others

    Aimed at classroom teachers, researchers, staff developers, and policymakers, this bibliography of approximately 375 items is intended as a resource for the development of curricula that explicitly employ oral and written language to support learning across the curriculum. The journal articles, theses, and books in the annotated bibliography were…

  3. Games in Language Learning: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the interest in using digital games for language learning. This coincides with the explosive growth in multiplayer online gaming and with the proliferation of mobile games for smart phones. It also reflects the growing recognition among educators of the importance of extramural, informal…

  4. Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

  5. Language and Literacy Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Elaine R., Ed.; Wilkinson, Louise C., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents evidence-based practices for integrating language and literacy knowledge to enhance children's learning in today's standards-based classrooms. While grounded in theory and research, the book focuses on day-to-day concerns in instruction and intervention. Identified are models for effective collaboration among speech-language…

  6. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  7. Agency, Language Learning, and Multilingual Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of agency in language learning and use as discursively, historically, and socially mediated. It further explores how agency can be understood as variously enabled and constrained as individuals move from one cultural, linguistic, and/or geographical space to another. These explorations focus on how agency is…

  8. Student Language Learning Strategies across Eight Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Matthew; Ho, Belinda

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the use of 50 common second language learning strategies by English for academic purposes students across eight disciplines--building, business, computing, engineering, English, mathematics, primary education, and science--in a university in Hong Kong. Compared and contrasted strategy use across disciplines and examined relationships…

  9. Tutorial Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    "Sometimes maligned for its allegedly behaviorist connotations but critical for success in many fields from music to sport to mathematics and language learning, 'practice' is undergoing something of a revival in the applied linguistics literature" (Long & Richards 2007, p. xi). This research timeline provides a systematic overview of…

  10. Predictor Variables in Computer Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Stephen K.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates several instruments measuring intelligence and prior conceptual knowledge/achievement to determine how well they predict outcomes in computer assisted language learning. Concludes that a non-verbal intelligence test was a significant predictor, but that prior conceptual knowledge of course content was low. Level of prior achievement…

  11. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  12. Foreign Language Learning and the Stutterer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David

    1979-01-01

    Recommendations for the alleviation of problems of the stutterer in foreign language learning include: involvement of the stutterer in the lesson; openness about the problem; good listening habits on the part of the teacher and the other students; and the use of techniques like choral speaking, dramatization, and singing. (SW)

  13. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  14. Language Learning in Virtual Reality Environments: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…

  15. The Use of Technology for Second Language Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes distance learning (DL) for languages within the context of recent advances and research findings in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In addition to reviewing the different DL modalities, theoretical underpinnings, and the most appropriate technological applications to second language learning, the issues of…

  16. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  17. Pedagogy of Language Learning in Higher Education: An Introduction. Advances in Foreign Language Pedagogy, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauer, Gerd, Ed.

    This second volume in the series "Advances in Foreign and Second Language Pedagogy" is an introduction to the pedagogy of language learning in higher education focusing on learner motivation, classroom environments, relationships for learning, and the future of language education. The book reveals numerous links to language education on the…

  18. Language across the Curriculum: The Language Learning Potential in a Science Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vine, Elaine W.

    A discussion of second language learning through science content focuses on English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning at the elementary and secondary levels. Principles for integrating language and content instruction are identified, and the benefits of the language-across-the-curriculum approach for ESL learners are examined as they relate to…

  19. Does Recreational Reading in Native Language Influence Foreign Language Learning Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2011-01-01

    Limited studies have been conducted on the effects on recreational reading in native language on foreign language learning, whereas no findings exist on the effects of recreational reading in Turkish as a native language (L1) on English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of recreational reading…

  20. Language Learner Strategy Research and Modern Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a…

  1. Which Methodology Works Better? English Language Teachers' Awareness of the Innovative Language Learning Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether English language teachers were aware of the innovative language learning methodologies in language learning, how they made use of these methodologies and the learners' reactions to them. The descriptive survey method was employed to disclose the frequencies and percentages of 175 English language teachers'…

  2. The Effects of the Language for Learning Program on the Receptive Language Skills of Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Trout, Alexandra; Nordness, Philip D.; Nelson, J. Ron; Epstein, Michael H.; Knobel, Maria-Louisa; Epstein, Alice; Maguire, Ken; Birdsell, Rodney

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the effects of the Language for Learning (formerly DISTAR) program on the receptive language skills of a general sample of kindergarten children. Indicates that the Language for Learning program produced both statistically and educationally significant effects on the receptive language skills of children. Discusses results, limitations,…

  3. Native Language Literacy and Phonological Memory as Prerequisites for Learning English as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufva, Mia; Voeten, Marinus J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effects of phonological memory and native-language (NL) literacy acquisition on learning English as a foreign language. Subjects were Finnish first graders, who were age 7 at the beginning of the study. Results suggest NL literacy is highly significant for foreign-language learning and that one way to promote foreign-language learning…

  4. Literacy Development and Language Expression for Adult Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Moon, Ji Yoon Christine

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides examples of transitions that learners face connected to their participation in adult education and English literacy instruction. It describes their efforts to attain relevant language expression skills.

  5. Sleep and native language interference affect non-native speech sound learning.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-12-01

    Adults learning a new language are faced with a significant challenge: non-native speech sounds that are perceptually similar to sounds in one's native language can be very difficult to acquire. Sleep and native language interference, 2 factors that may help to explain this difficulty in acquisition, are addressed in 3 studies. Results of Experiment 1 showed that participants trained on a non-native contrast at night improved in discrimination 24 hr after training, while those trained in the morning showed no such improvement. Experiments 2 and 3 addressed the possibility that incidental exposure to perceptually similar native language speech sounds during the day interfered with maintenance in the morning group. Taken together, results show that the ultimate success of non-native speech sound learning depends not only on the similarity of learned sounds to the native language repertoire, but also to interference from native language sounds before sleep. PMID:26280264

  6. Language Acculturation among Older Vietnamese Refugee Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1990-01-01

    Examined English language acculturation among older Vietnamese refugees (aged 40 and older). Found that age, sex, education in Vietnam, health, and length of residence in United States had some significant relationships with language acculturation. Older Vietnamese people had more problems with language acculturation than younger counterparts, and…

  7. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 2. These issues contain the following major articles: "Minneapolis and Brittany: Children Bridge Geographical and Social Differences Through Technology" (Janine Onffroy Shelley); "Student Reasons for Studying Language: Implications for…

  8. From gesture to sign language: conventionalization of classifier constructions by adult hearing learners of British Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Chloë R; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has long been interest in why languages are shaped the way they are, and in the relationship between sign language and gesture. In sign languages, entity classifiers are handshapes that encode how objects move, how they are located relative to one another, and how multiple objects of the same type are distributed in space. Previous studies have shown that hearing adults who are asked to use only manual gestures to describe how objects move in space will use gestures that bear some similarities to classifiers. We investigated how accurately hearing adults, who had been learning British Sign Language (BSL) for 1-3 years, produce and comprehend classifiers in (static) locative and distributive constructions. In a production task, learners of BSL knew that they could use their hands to represent objects, but they had difficulty choosing the same, conventionalized, handshapes as native signers. They were, however, highly accurate at encoding location and orientation information. Learners therefore show the same pattern found in sign-naïve gesturers. In contrast, handshape, orientation, and location were comprehended with equal (high) accuracy, and testing a group of sign-naïve adults showed that they too were able to understand classifiers with higher than chance accuracy. We conclude that adult learners of BSL bring their visuo-spatial knowledge and gestural abilities to the tasks of understanding and producing constructions that contain entity classifiers. We speculate that investigating the time course of adult sign language acquisition might shed light on how gesture became (and, indeed, becomes) conventionalized during the genesis of sign languages. PMID:25329326

  9. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  10. Classroom noise and children learning in a second language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Sabur, Sabina; Shaw, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The presence of background noise affects children more negatively than adults. Understanding speech in noise is a skill that continues to develop well into a child's adolescent years. Childrens' experience with a specific language also may affect their ability to make sense of incoming speech. Research suggests that even for adults the presence of background noise negatively affects the ability to listen in a second language. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of classroom noise on attention and speech perception in native Spanish-speaking second graders learning English as their second language (L2), as compared to English-only speaking peers (EO). In Study 1 we measured childrens' on-task behavior during instructional activities with and without soundfield amplification. In Study 2 we measured the effects of noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio) using an experimental English word-recognition task. Findings indicate although there were no effects of amplification on on-task behavior, word-recognition performance declined significantly for both EO and L2 groups in the noise condition. In particular, the impact of the noise was disproportionately greater for the L2 group. Children learning in their L2 appear to be at a distinct disadvantage when listening in rooms with typical noise and reverberation.

  11. LEARNING AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KUHLEN, RAYMOND G.; AND OTHERS

    THIS RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OVER 1,500 ITEMS IS LARGELY DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF ADULT LEARNING AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR (CONDITIONING, SKILL LEARNING, DISCRIMINATION, VERBAL LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, AND SET), TO STUDIES ON INTELLIGENCE AND TEST BEHAVIOR (AGE CHANGES, CORRELATIONAL AND FACTOR…

  12. Adult and Community Learning Fund Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 2002

    2002-01-01

    Twelve articles describe projects supported by Britain's Adult and Community Learning Fund, including employment skills and information technology for disadvantaged groups, heritage restoration skills, alcohol rehabilitation, basic skills through media-based learning, guidance for female ex-offenders, access to learning for socially excluded…

  13. Rehearsal Effects in Adult Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the…

  14. Interdisciplinary Handbook of Adult Lifespan Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D., Ed.

    This book is divided into three parts: theories and models, learning in specific life contexts, and the influence of aging on learning. Chapters include: "Chaos Theory as a Framework for Understanding Adult Lifespan Learning" (John C. Cavanaugh, Lisa C. McGuire); "The Future Impact of the Communication Revolution" (Lynn Johnson); "The Educated…

  15. Characteristics of Adult Learners with Implications for Online Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The online educational environment is increasingly being used by adults and should be designed based on the needs of adult learners. This article discusses andragogy, an important adult learning theory, and reviews three other adult learning theories: self-directed learning, experiential learning, and transformational learning. During this…

  16. The Varieties of Adult Civic Engagement in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2012-01-01

    Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…

  17. The role of language in learning physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, David T.

    Many studies in PER suggest that language poses a serious difficulty for students learning physics. These difficulties are mostly attributed to misunderstanding of specialized terminology. This terminology often assigns new meanings to everyday terms used to describe physical models and phenomena. In this dissertation I present a novel approach to analyzing of the role of language in learning physics. This approach is based on the analysis of the historical development of physics ideas, the language of modern physicists, and students' difficulties in the areas of quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and thermodynamics. These data are analyzed using linguistic tools borrowed from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar. Specifically, I combine the idea of conceptual metaphor and grammar to build a theoretical framework that accounts for: (1) the role and function that language serves for physicists when they speak and reason about physical ideas and phenomena, (2) specific features of students' reasoning and difficulties that may be related to or derived from language that students read or hear. The theoretical framework is developed using the methodology of a grounded theoretical approach. The theoretical framework allows us to make predictions about the relationship between student discourse and their conceptual and problem solving difficulties. Tests of the theoretical framework are presented in the context of "heat" in thermodynamics and "force" in dynamics. In each case the language that students use to reason about the concepts of "heat" and "force" is analyzed using the theoretical framework. The results of this analysis show that language is very important in students' learning. In particular, students are (1) using features of physicists' conceptual metaphors to reason about physical phenomena, often overextending and misapplying these features, (2) drawing cues from the grammar of physicists' speech and writing to categorize physics

  18. Integrating Volunteering into the Adult Immigrant Second Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    For immigrants, the acquisition of language, specifically the ability to communicate effectively, is one prerequisite of full integration into the host society. For an adult immigrant second language (L2) learner in Canada, access to opportunities that may enhance communicative ability are often limited to the ESL classroom. However, while…

  19. Is Developing Employability Skills Relevant to Adult Language Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaven, Tita

    2016-01-01

    Open University (OU) students are typically mature students who combine studying part-time with work or caring responsibilities; the average age of OU language students has been dropping, and about 30% of our new students are now under 25. The traditional view of adult learners who study languages is that they often study for pleasure or personal…

  20. "Language Immersion Tepee" as a Facilitator of Sámi Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Due to the history of assimilation, power relations, and their sociolinguistic situation, the Sámi languages are categorized as endangered. The position of the Sámi languages in Sámi education is reviewed, and language immersion as a teaching method and as a means of language maintenance is discussed. Sámi language learning is described through…

  1. Papers in Language Learning and Language Acquisition. AFinLA Yearbook 1980. No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    Papers include: (1) "Language Acquisitional Universals: L1, L2, Pidgins, and FLT" (Henning Wode); (2) "Language Acquisition, Language Learning and the School Curriculum" (Norman F. Davies); (3) "Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication" (Kari Sajavaara, Jaakko Lehtonen); (4) "On the Distinction between Second-Language Acquisition and…

  2. Language Diversity & Practice in Higher Education: Can Discipline-Specific Language Instruction Improve Economics Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Trien; Trimarchi, Angela; Williams, Julia

    2012-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition, discipline-specific language instruction is becoming widely known as Content and Language Integrated Learning. This method includes any activity that involves teaching a subject in a second language for the purpose of teaching both the subject content and the language. Research has shown that this two…

  3. Transformations: Mobile Interaction & Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita; Thomas, Nathan; Dunning, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices and the interactions that these technologies afford have the potential to change the face and nature of education in our schools. Indeed, mobile technological advances are seen to offer better access to educational material and new interactive ways to learn. However, the question arises, as to whether these new technologies are…

  4. Learning the Languages of Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In his work with schools and other workplaces, psychologist Paul White has learned that many programs designed to appreciate employees fall flat because the appreciation is too generic or involves something the employees don't want (such as getting up in front of a group). Effective appreciation is (1) offered regularly, (2) valued by the…

  5. Sharing the Language of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Patti R.

    2005-01-01

    Educating newcomers to help themselves provides the knowledge and security they will need to function better in the community, but it can also be a learning experience for students. This article describes an integrated curriculum at Community High School in West Chicago, Illinois, that combines Spanish native speaking (SNS) students and child…

  6. Mnemotechnics in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the keyword method, which divided vocabulary learning into two stages: (1) the subject associates the spoken foreign word with the keyword, and association that is formed quickly because of the acoustic similarity between the words, and, (2) the subject forms a mental image of the keyword "interacting" with the English translation.…

  7. Content-Learning Tasks for Adult ESL Learners: Promoting Literacy for Work or School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Doreen E.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of English as a second language (ESL) are often on the frontline of working with adult ESL learners who are facing a difficult developmental pathway to academic and/or economic success. These learners come to the task of learning English with widely varying schooling experiences, degrees of first language literacy, and English language…

  8. The Acquisitional Value of Recasts in Instructed Second Language Speech Learning: Teaching the Perception and Production of English /?/ to Adult Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of recasts together with form-focused instruction (FFI) on the development of second language speech perception and production of English /?/ by Japanese learners. Forty-five learners were randomly assigned to three groups--FFI recasts, FFI only, and Control--and exposed to four hours of communicatively…

  9. Trauma and the Adult English Language Learner. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isserlis, Janet

    English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) practitioners are familiar with adult learners' stories of disruption, political trauma, and mental upheaval. Until recently, however, little attention has been paid to personal trauma and domestic abuse. Acknowledgement of the prevalence of violence generally, and of that experienced by those in the adult ESL…

  10. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  11. Literacy, Language and Community Publishing. Essays in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains an introduction and 11 essays describing reading and writing projects in which adult literacy learners enrolled in the following types of programs participated: adult literacy and/or language classes, refugee groups, oral history and reminiscence projects, and community publishing and writing workshops. The following essays are…

  12. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Their Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Fereshteh Khaffafi; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' learning strategies use and their language learning beliefs. A sample of 200 Iranian EFL learners who were all English language learners at different language institutes participated in this study. Two instruments, Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and…

  13. A Working Model for Intercultural Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Online Language Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…

  14. Assessing the Literacy Skills of Adult Immigrants and Adult English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck; Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; Soroui, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics and performance of adult immigrants and adult English language learners on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. These factors are related to key social outcomes such as involvement in the labor force, income, and welfare participation, and the data reported can be used in making decisions about…

  15. Second Language Learning of Complex Inflectional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored learning and generalization of parts of the Russian case-marking paradigm, an inflecting-fusional system in which affixes simultaneously mark several grammatical features (case, gender, number, animacy). In Experiment 1, adult English speakers (N = 43) were exposed to nouns with transparent gender marking in the nominative case…

  16. Telling the Life Stories of Adult Immigrants Learning English as a Second Language in the Midwest: A Chronotopic Approach Informed by Bakhtin's "Forms of Time and of the Chronotype in the Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yin Lam

    2013-01-01

    Adult immigrants are invaluable assets to our society as they bring along their cultural capital across borders. However, little is known about how their rich life histories reflect and refract their plights as ESL learners. This study is an investigation of three adult immigrants' English learning in an immigration center in the Midwest. The…

  17. Learning Autonomously: Contextualising Out-of-Class English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the out-of-class English language learning activities of student teachers in Hong Kong, using questionnaires, interviews and learner diaries. The study found that while many of the students devoted considerable time to studying and practising English outside the classroom, much of this time was spent on more receptive…

  18. Bayesian Learning of a Language Model from Continuous Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubig, Graham; Mimura, Masato; Mori, Shinsuke; Kawahara, Tatsuya

    We propose a novel scheme to learn a language model (LM) for automatic speech recognition (ASR) directly from continuous speech. In the proposed method, we first generate phoneme lattices using an acoustic model with no linguistic constraints, then perform training over these phoneme lattices, simultaneously learning both lexical units and an LM. As a statistical framework for this learning problem, we use non-parametric Bayesian statistics, which make it possible to balance the learned model's complexity (such as the size of the learned vocabulary) and expressive power, and provide a principled learning algorithm through the use of Gibbs sampling. Implementation is performed using weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs), which allow for the simple handling of lattice input. Experimental results on natural, adult-directed speech demonstrate that LMs built using only continuous speech are able to significantly reduce ASR phoneme error rates. The proposed technique of joint Bayesian learning of lexical units and an LM over lattices is shown to significantly contribute to this improvement.

  19. Facilitating the Immigrant's Learning a Second Language in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, W. K.

    The paper discusses the major second language teaching methods used to date in contrast with the strategies and techniques all children so successfully employ in first language acquisition. Second language acquisition for adults is not identical to first language acquisition but research seems to support the theory that it is similar. Successful…

  20. Learning to Read Words in a New Language Shapes the Neural Organization of the Prior Languages

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one's prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects’ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects’ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. PMID:25447375

  1. Early gesture selectively predicts later language learning

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively predicted lexical versus syntactic skills at 42 months, even with early child speech controlled. Specifically, number of different meanings conveyed in gesture at 18 months predicted vocabulary at 42 months, but number of gesture+speech combinations did not. In contrast, number of gesture+speech combinations, particularly those conveying sentence-like ideas, produced at 18 months predicted sentence complexity at 42 months, but meanings conveyed in gesture did not. We can thus predict particular milestones in vocabulary and sentence complexity at age 3 1/2 by watching how children move their hands two years earlier. PMID:19120426

  2. At Home on Babel Tower: Or, Why Should Children Learn a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Donald G.

    1990-01-01

    A philosophical and historical reflection on the values of learning a second language explores the stages of language acquisition. Language fluency, second language instruction, and the Western cultural traditions associated with learning a second language are discussed. (CB)

  3. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  4. The Arlington Adult Learning System (AALS) Final Report, October 1992-December 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlington County Public Schools, VA. REEP, Arlington Education and Employment Program.

    The Arlington (Virginia) Adult Learning System (AALS), a program designed to link resources and enhance services of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) providers, is described. The AALS is a consortium in which an adult education provider (the public school system) coordinates efforts of its own organization with a community-based organization, a…

  5. Should All Deaf Children Learn Sign Language?

    PubMed

    Napoli, Donna Jo; Mellon, Nancy K; Niparko, John K; Rathmann, Christian; Mathur, Gaurav; Humphries, Tom; Handley, Theresa; Scambler, Sasha; Lantos, John D

    2015-07-01

    Every year, 10,000 infants are born in the United States with sensorineural deafness. Deaf children of hearing (and nonsigning) parents are unique among all children in the world in that they cannot easily or naturally learn the language that their parents speak. These parents face tough choices. Should they seek a cochlear implant for their child? If so, should they also learn to sign? As pediatricians, we need to help parents understand the risks and benefits of different approaches to parent-child communication when the child is deaf [corrected]. PMID:26077481

  6. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

  7. ERPs Recorded During Early Second Language Exposure Predict Syntactic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In the present study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners’ proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared to closed-class function words, while low proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners’ L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

  8. The Relationship Between Artificial and Second Language Learning.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-05-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we considered these questions by examining the relationship between performance in an ALL task and second language learning ability. Participants enrolled in a Spanish language class were evaluated using a number of different measures of Spanish ability and classroom performance, which was compared to IQ and a number of different measures of ALL performance. The results show that success in ALL experiments, particularly more complex artificial languages, correlates positively with indices of L2 learning even after controlling for IQ. These findings provide a key link between studies involving ALL and our understanding of second language learning in the classroom. PMID:26201508

  9. The Distance Learning of Foreign Languages: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Research into the distance learning of languages is now established as a significant avenue of enquiry in language teaching, with evident research trajectories in several domains. This article selects and analyses significant areas of investigation in distance language learning and teaching to identify new and emerging gaps, along with research…

  10. Modern Foreign Language Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Foreign Language Standards of Learning identify essential content, processes, and skills for each level of language learning in Virginia's secondary schools. Included are specific standards for levels I through IV of French, German, Spanish, and Latin, as well as generic standards adaptable for levels I through IV of other modern languages,…

  11. Foreign Language Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Foreign Language Standards of Learning identify essential content, processes, and skills for each level of language learning in Virginia's secondary schools. Included are specific standards for levels I through IV of French, German, Spanish, and Latin, as well as generic standards adaptable for levels I through IV of other modern languages,…

  12. Learning Strategy Instruction in the Foreign Language Classroom: Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Anna Uhl; And Others

    This resource guide is designed to provide foreign language teachers with suggestions for helping ineffective students learn how to become better language learners and for already effective students to become superior language learners. The four chapters of the guide for teaching reading skills are as follows: (1) Teaching Learning Strategies…

  13. E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgalas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

  14. The Discourse of Language Learning Strategies: Towards an Inclusive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alexander Harris

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…

  15. Age Differences in the Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate language learning strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners at different educational levels and explored the influence of age on the use of language learning strategies. A total of 1,023 students participated in the study. Out of the participants, there were 250 primary students…

  16. Innovative Learning Modules for Language in Context: MIMEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Angelika; Ahn, Seongmee; Hillman, Sara; Fei, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Students learning foreign languages in the United States generally have little exposure to the target language outside the classroom. Web-based technology can facilitate language learning in context by offering easily accessible, authentic materials. This paper introduces MIMEA (Multimedia Interactive Modules for Education and Assessment), an…

  17. Individual Differences and Universals in Language Learning Aptitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Karl C., Ed.

    The following articles are included: (1) "Neurolinguistic Considerations on the Optimum Age for Second Language Learning" by Terence M. Walsh and Karl C. Diller; (2) "Major Variation in Language Skills Apparently under Genetic Influence (Discussed from the Viewpoint of Human Evolution)" by Brenda K. Sladen; (3) "Language Learning Strategies: Does…

  18. Foreign Language Learning and Inclusion: Who? Why? What? -- and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    The presumption of mainstream schooling and the removal of core status for foreign language learning at Key Stage 4 are presenting new challenges to our ideal of foreign language learning for all. In the current climate, the case for including children with special educational needs in foreign language classes has to be made with greater clarity…

  19. Formulaic Sequences and the Implications for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is a review of literature in relation to formulaic sequences and the implications for second language learning. The formulaic sequence is a significant part of our language, and plays an essential role in both first and second language learning. The paper first introduces the definition, classifications, and major features of…

  20. Should I Learn the Local Language When Teaching Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    For practical reasons, teachers of English as a second language abroad may choose not to learn the local language. However, the advantages of learning even a little of the language far outweigh any inconvenience caused by extra study time. First, teachers abroad lead more comfortable lives when not depending on others for basic needs such as…

  1. A Note on Internationalisation, Internationalism and Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the editorial of "The Language Learning Journal" of July 2011, readers' attention is drawn to the decline in language teaching and learning in British schools and universities, and to the attempt of the British Academy to promote language teaching against this decline. The British Academy paper makes seven recommendations of which the second…

  2. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  3. Languages in a Global World: Learning for Better Cultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesa, Bruno Della, Ed.; Scott, Jessica, Ed.; Hinton, Christina, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or…

  4. Adults' and 8-Year-Olds' Learning in a Foreign Word Repetition Task: Similar and Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Service, Elisabet; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Maury, Sini; Kim, Jeong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although the significance of age in second language acquisition is one of the most hotly debated issues in the field, very few studies have directly addressed age differences in the language learning process. The present study investigated learning in a foreign-word repetition task. Young Finnish adults and 8-year-olds repeated back Korean words.…

  5. Learning Disabled Adults in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Rhona C.; Krulwich, Maxine T.

    Options in postsecondary education for adults and young adults with learning disabilities (LD) are examined. An introductory section considers characteristics of LD that present special problems, including difficulties in reading, writing, spelling, and/or using numerical concepts; distractability; difficulties with understanding or following…

  6. Interrupting Adult Learning through Online Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Buttle, Ros

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers online pedagogy in relation to Christian adult learning and asks how this might be interpreted by theological educators. The online community of inquiry is proposed as one recognized pedagogical approach and illustrated by reference to a continuing professional development programme for online adult learners across the church…

  7. Reflections on Adult Learning in Cultural Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Marilyn McKinley

    2010-01-01

    Cultural institutions are rich locations for adult learning. Despite apparent differences in mission, they are similar in many ways. Similarities include social and historical development, educational philosophy and objectives, epistemological tensions and contestations, and challenges associated when attracting and educating adult visitors. In an…

  8. Shopping. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on shopping is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with reading levels of 4.0-7.5. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each module is a complete instructional package, including Adult Performance Level…

  9. Budgets. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on budgets is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with reading levels of 4.0-7.5. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each module is a complete instructional package, including Adult Performance Level…

  10. Paychecks. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on paychecks is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with reading levels of 4.0-7.5. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each module is a complete instructional package, including Adult Performance Level…

  11. Housing. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on housing is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with reading levels of 4.0-7.5. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each module is a complete instructional package, including Adult Performance Level…

  12. Adult Education--Learning Unlimited. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinek, James John; Eyre, Gary Allen

    This three-part annual report examines the challenges facing Arizona and the nation in the "war on adult illiteracy" and describes the state's responses to the multiple aspects of lifelong learning. Demographic data in Part I point out the basic elements of the challenges in adult education in Arizona. These challenges include cultural lag, the…

  13. Adult Degrees and the Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehl, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This overview of the adult degree movement since World War II focuses on factors of creation before 1970, the adult degree revolution of the 1970s, the post-baby boomer enrollments in the 1980s, and globalization and technology-based distance learning in the 1990s.

  14. Adult Learning and Learners. PREL Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timarong, Alvina; Temaungil, Marianne; Sukrad, Wilma

    A survey of literature on adult learning and learners conducted for Palau Community College (PCC), Koror, Palau, found a lack of literature specific to the United States-affiliated Pacific region. Background information was compiled on development of formal education in Palau. A survey was administered in fall 2001 to adult learners working toward…

  15. Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Linda

    2001-01-01

    In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

  16. Why Words Are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. Method: Sixty-nine 18-to 25-year-olds with LI or without (the normal development [ND] group) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings…

  17. Beliefs about Second Language Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Learning Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Osaimi, Saleh; Wedell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In…

  18. Two-Way Bilingual Programs: Language-Learning-as-Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Richard E.; Coletti, Charles D.

    A study assessed the performance of language-minority and language-majority children in a two-way Spanish-English bilingual education program in Port Chester, New York. The program treats language learning as a resource for all students, with each group of children teaching their native languages to the other. Second- and third-grade classes are…

  19. Automatic Selection of Suitable Sentences for Language Learning Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilán, Ildikó; Volodina, Elena; Johansson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In our study we investigated second and foreign language (L2) sentence readability, an area little explored so far in the case of several languages, including Swedish. The outcome of our research consists of two methods for sentence selection from native language corpora based on Natural Language Processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML)…

  20. Applying a Multimedia Storytelling Website in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsou, Wenli; Wang, Weichung; Tzeng, Yenjun

    2006-01-01

    Storytelling is a practical and powerful teaching tool, especially for language learning. Teachers in language classrooms, however, may hesitate to incorporate storytelling into language instruction because of an already overloaded curriculum. English foreign language (EFL) teachers in Taiwan report additional problems such as having little prior…