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Sample records for adult laying hens

  1. Effects of maternal care and selection for low mortality on tyrosine hydroxylase concentrations and cell soma size in hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale in adult laying hen.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, R E; Zeinstra, E C; Rodenburg, T B; van der Staay, F J

    2013-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism in farm-kept laying hens are damaging behaviors both in terms of animal welfare and economic loss, and a major challenge in modern poultry farming. Both rearing with a foster hen and genetic selection have been demonstrated to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. We examined the effects of rearing with a foster hen, genetic selection for low mortality from cannibalism, and interactions between both, using cellular morphology and levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) as a potential measure for laying hen welfare. Hens from the second generation of a sib-selection scheme line derived from a pure-bred White Leghorn line, selected for low mortality and for production characteristics, or their control line (CL) selected only for production characteristics, were housed with or without a foster Silky hen for the first 7 wk of life. Aside from the presence or absence of a foster Silky hen during the first 7 wk of life, housing conditions were identical for all hens. The hens were then sacrificed and brains were removed at 52 wk of age. Brains were sectioned and stained using a Nissl staining to reveal cell soma morphology, or using immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxlase. A greater degree of lateralization in the hippocampus was observed in hens reared without a foster hen, as measured by absolute difference in cell soma size between hemispheres (P<0.05). The low mortality line showed decreased concentrations of tyrosine hydroxylase in the NCL compared with the CL (P<0.005). Our results indicate that morphological changes in brain induced in very early life can be detected in adult hens, and that genetic selection against mortality due to cannibalism impacts tyrosine hydroxylase in the NCL of laying hens. These observations strengthen the notion that brain measures may be useful as potential readouts for animal welfare. PMID:23048145

  2. Serotonin release in the caudal nidopallium of adult laying hens genetically selected for high and low feather pecking behavior: an in vivo microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Kops, Marjolein S; Kjaer, Joergen B; Güntürkün, Onur; Westphal, Koen G C; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Olivier, Berend; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Korte, S Mechiel

    2014-07-15

    Severe feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behavior causing welfare problems in laying hens. Divergent genetic selection for FP in White Leghorns resulted in strong differences in FP incidences between lines. More recently, it was shown that the high FP (HFP) birds have increased locomotor activity as compared to hens of the low FP (LFP) line, but whether these lines differ in central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) release is unknown. We compared baseline release levels of central 5-HT, and the metabolite 5-HIAA in the limbic and prefrontal subcomponents of the caudal nidopallium by in vivo microdialysis in adult HFP and LFP laying hens from the ninth generation of selection. A single subcutaneous d-fenfluramine injection (0.5 mg/kg) was given to release neuronal serotonin in order to investigate presynaptic storage capacity. The present study shows that HFP hens had higher baseline levels of 5-HT in the caudal nidopallium as compared to LFP laying hens. Remarkably, no differences in plasma tryptophan levels (precursor of 5-HT) between the lines were observed. d-fenfluramine increased 5-HT levels in both lines similarly indirectly suggesting that presynaptic storage capacity was the same. The present study shows that HFP hens release more 5-HT under baseline conditions in the caudal nidopallium as compared to the LFP birds. This suggests that HFP hens are characterized by a higher tonic 5-HT release.

  3. Perch width preferences of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Odberg, F; Sonck, B; Duchateau, L

    2009-07-01

    1. In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 and 10.5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate short perches differing in width were placed in the test cages. In each experiment 12 groups of 4 hens were filmed during day and night. The behaviour and location of the hens were recorded and whether the nest box affected hen distribution over the perches was investigated. 2. During daytime, in EXP-2P, there was an increase in perch use with increasing perch width. Hens spent less time on perches of 1.5 cm wide compared to perches of 9.0 and 10.5 cm wide. In EXP-7P, the 1.5-cm wide perch was also used the least (but only the difference with 4.5-cm wide perches was statistically significant) but perch use did not increase linearly with perch width. During the night, there were no significant perch width preferences in either experiment. 3. The percentage of active behaviours (preening, walking, drinking, pecking at hen) versus passive behaviours (standing, sitting, sleeping) did not differ significantly according to perch width. 4. In EXP-7P, there was a trend for perch use to decrease with greater distances to the nest box in the morning. 5. A perch width of 1.5 cm is not recommended for laying hens. For wider perch widths, results were equivocal: they tend to support rather than challenge the widespread use of 4.5-cm wide perches in commercial units.

  4. Heterosis in normal versus dwarf laying hens.

    PubMed

    Merat, P; Minvielle, F; Bordas, A; Coquerelle, G

    1994-01-01

    The effect of genotype at the sex-linked dwarf locus on heterosis in crosses between a White Leghorn and a brown egg line for body weight, egg production, and related traits was studied. Heterozygous Dw/dw males were used to produce normal and dwarf pullets in each of the pure lines and their reciprocal crosses (eight genotype-line combinations). There were 54 pullets per combination. Line differences were significant for shank length, body weights at 8, 17, and 52 wk, age at first egg, egg number, clutch length, rate of lay, and egg weight. Heterosis was observed for all of these traits. Body weight as a covariate was not important in analyses of egg number, clutch length, and egg weight. The egg production reduction associated with the dw gene in pure lines was smaller in F1 hens. This discovery may be adequate to warrant use of dwarf crossbred hens for egg production.

  5. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-08-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens' movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the 'dark' observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the 'light' observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  6. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. L. M.; Makagon, M. M.; Swanson, J. C.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens’ movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the ‘dark’ observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the ‘light’ observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  7. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  8. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  9. Wheat middlings as an alternative feedstuff for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Sunde, M L; Cook, M E

    1992-06-01

    Three long-term experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of using wheat middlings (WM) for laying hens and to study the responses of six strains of commercial laying hens fed WM diet. In Experiment 1,320 layers maintained in floor pens were fed diets containing 45% WM with .25 or .75% salt, or 89% WM with .25% or 1.5% salt. Salt supplementation did not show any beneficial effect on egg production. Hen-day egg production by hens fed the 45% WM diet was significantly higher for hens fed 45% WM than for those fed the 89% WM diet (79 versus 67.5%, 44-wk period). Feed, limestone, and water intakes were increased by the 89% WM diet. Yolk color, Haugh units, hen livability, and reproductive parameters were not different among the dietary treatments. In Experiments 2 and 3, laying hens from six commercial strains (four strains each experiment, 240 hens per strain) were maintained in laying cages in each year, and fed either a corn and soybean meal (CSM) or a 25% WM diet. Results show that neither diet nor strain had effects on hen-day egg production; however, egg weights from Strains A, C, and F were heavier than those from Strains B, D, and E. Feed intakes and feed utilizations were similar among the s trains. The 25% WM diet increased egg weight, feed intake, and feed utilization compared with the CSM diet. Livability of hens was 93.8 to 97.5% and was not affected by either strain or diet. It is concluded that commercial strains of laying hens can be fed diets containing 25 to 45% WM and still have normal hen-day egg production although feed utilization will be poorer.

  10. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  11. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes.

  12. Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D

    1991-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

  13. Quantitative genetic analysis of traits related to fear and feather pecking in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Grams, Vanessa; Bögelein, Stefanie; Grashorn, Michael A; Bessei, Werner; Bennewitz, Jörn

    2015-03-01

    Feather pecking is a well known problem in flocks of laying hens. It is partially controlled by genetics. Fear is frequently reported to be related with feather pecking. The present study reports the result from a quantitative genetic analysis of feather pecking and three fear test traits in laying hens. Fear was recorded by the tonic immobility test, the open field activity and the emergence box test. These were recorded at a juvenile and adult age of the hens. The heritability of feather pecking was 0.16, and in the range between 0.07 and 0.14 for the fear test traits. Genetic correlations between fear measured in the juvenile and in the adult age point to different but correlated traits. Tonic immobility measured early in life was moderately correlated with feather pecking and might be used as a breeding criterion to reduce feather pecking.

  14. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  15. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes. PMID:24706955

  16. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  17. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  18. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on laying hen performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, J.W.; Reece, F.N.; Lott, B.D.

    1982-09-01

    In periods of extremely cold weather, energy conservation in a pit-type laying house usually results in a restricted ventilation rate and an increase in air pollutants particularly ammonia. Results show that 200 ppm ammonia for 17 days causes a significant loss in percent egg production and the hens lose a significant amount of weight with a reduced feed intake. Although not satisfactory, it appears that lesser amounts of ammonia (100 ppm) can be tolerated for short periods without an immediate drastic loss in laying performance if a choice has to be made between frozen waterers and cold stress versus atmospheric ammonia in the laying house.

  19. [Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler. PMID:825006

  20. Erysipelas in laying hens is associated with housing system.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, H; Nyman, A-K; Fellström, C; Wallgren, P

    2013-07-01

    Following the change from conventional cages to non-cage housing systems and furnished cages, which in Sweden was finalised by 2005, problems caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae increased in laying hen flocks. This study aimed to investigate possible associations between housing systems for laying hens and outbreaks of erysipelas. Also, sera from 129 flocks in different housing systems, collected during 2005-2007, were analysed for the presence of antibodies to E rhusiopathiae using an indirect ELISA test. Antibodies were detected in all housing systems. The mean flock absorbance values from free-range flocks were significantly higher than corresponding values from other housing systems. Data on the Swedish laying hen population were compared with the recorded number of erysipelas outbreaks during 1998-2011. Outbreaks occurred on 15 farms with indoor litter-based systems (n=87 farms in 2011). No outbreak was diagnosed on farms with flocks in conventional or furnished cages. The results indicate that the risk for an outbreak was higher in free-range systems than in indoor litter-based systems, and lowest for flocks housed in cages. Absence of erysipelas in the majority of subsequent flocks on the affected farms suggested that proper measures, including vaccination, were undertaken. PMID:23542656

  1. Erysipelas in laying hens is associated with housing system.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, H; Nyman, A-K; Fellström, C; Wallgren, P

    2013-07-01

    Following the change from conventional cages to non-cage housing systems and furnished cages, which in Sweden was finalised by 2005, problems caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae increased in laying hen flocks. This study aimed to investigate possible associations between housing systems for laying hens and outbreaks of erysipelas. Also, sera from 129 flocks in different housing systems, collected during 2005-2007, were analysed for the presence of antibodies to E rhusiopathiae using an indirect ELISA test. Antibodies were detected in all housing systems. The mean flock absorbance values from free-range flocks were significantly higher than corresponding values from other housing systems. Data on the Swedish laying hen population were compared with the recorded number of erysipelas outbreaks during 1998-2011. Outbreaks occurred on 15 farms with indoor litter-based systems (n=87 farms in 2011). No outbreak was diagnosed on farms with flocks in conventional or furnished cages. The results indicate that the risk for an outbreak was higher in free-range systems than in indoor litter-based systems, and lowest for flocks housed in cages. Absence of erysipelas in the majority of subsequent flocks on the affected farms suggested that proper measures, including vaccination, were undertaken.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G

    2011-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. PMID

  3. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  4. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  5. Do Laying Hens with Keel Bone Fractures Experience Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Mohammed A. F.; Nicol, Christine J.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  6. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Nicol, Christine J; Murrell, Joanna C

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  7. Effects of dietary L-isoleucine on laying performance and immunomodulation of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T

    2016-10-01

    Isoleucine may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with a lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance and the immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible isoleucine levels during the peak production period. A total number of 400 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens per replicate (4 cages / replicate; 80 hens / treatment). L-isoleucine was added to the experimental diet (14% CP) containing synthetic amino (methionine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine) by zero, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding to 0.54%, 0.64%, 0.74%, 0.84, and 0.94% digestible isoleucine, respectively. At the end of the experiment (wk 40), dietary isoleucine did not affect laying performance or egg quality. Serum albumin concentration increased quadratically (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Serum free isoleucine and lysine increased (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Digestible dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). There was no significant (P > 0.05) response of excess digestible isoleucine level on the serum level of IgG, IgA, or IgM. In addition, dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), or interleukin (IL-2 and IL-6) in the ileum. Also, expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA, sIgA mRNA, and IL-1β mRNA were not changed (P > 0.05) by excess digestible isoleucine level. Furthermore, excess digestible isoleucine level did not change mRNA expression of ileal tight junction protein (claudin-1 and occludin). No effect occurred when isoleucine was supplemented, suggesting that it is

  8. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  9. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-f...

  10. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  11. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling.

  12. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling. PMID:26354762

  13. Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-12-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  14. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  15. Genetic variations alter physiological responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Felver-Gant, J N; Mack, L A; Dennis, R L; Eicher, S D; Cheng, H W

    2012-07-01

    Heat stress (HS) is a major problem experienced by the poultry industry during high-temperature conditions. The ability to manage the detrimental effects of HS can be attributed to multiple factors, including genetic background of flocks. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variation in HS effects on laying hens' physiological homeostasis. Ninety 28-wk-old White Leghorn hens of 2 strains were used: a commercial line of individually selected hens for high egg production, DeKalb XL (DXL), and a line of group-selected hens for high productivity and survivability, named kind gentle bird (KGB). Hens were randomly paired by strain and assigned to hot or control treatment for 14 d. Physical and physiological parameters were analyzed at d 8 and 14 posttreatment. Compared with controls, HS increased hen's core body temperature (P < 0.05) and decreased BW (P < 0.05) at d 8 and 14. Heat shock protein 70 concentrations in the liver were greater in hens exposed to HS (P < 0.05). Compared with DXL hens, KGB hens had higher heat shock protein 70 concentrations (P < 0.05). The hens' liver weight decreased following HS, with less of a response in the KGB line (P < 0.05). The data indicate HS has detrimental effects on the physiology of laying hens due to genetic variations. These data provide evidence that is valuable for determining genetic interventions for laying hens under HS.

  16. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  17. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  18. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on the behavior of caged White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Hester, P Y; Garner, J P; Enneking, S A; Cheng, H W; Einstein, M E

    2014-10-01

    Enriched cages, compared with conventional cages, allow egg laying strains of chickens to meet some behavioral needs, including a high motivation to perch. The objective of this study was to determine if perch availability during rearing affected perch use as adults and if perch presence affected eating and drinking in caged White Leghorn hens. Chickens were assigned to 14 cages each with and without 2 round metal perches from hatch to 16.9 wk of age. At 17 wk of age, pullets were assigned to laying cages consisting of 1 of 4 treatments. Treatment 1 chickens never had access to perches (controls). Treatment 2 chickens only had access to 2 round metal perches during the laying phase (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 3 chickens only had access to 2 round perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens had access to the perches during both the pullet and laying phase. Each treatment during the adult phase consisted of 9 cages with 9 birds/cage for a total of 36 cages. Automatic infrared cameras were used to monitor behavior of hens in each cage for a 24-h period at 19, 24, 29, 34, 39, 44, 49, 54, 59, 64, and 69 wk of age. Behavior was also recorded twice weekly by an observer in the room where the hens were housed during photophase from 25 to 68 wk of age. Behavioral data were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures and the MIXED model procedure. A greater proportion of hens without perches as pullets used the rear perch more during both photophase and scotophase than hens with prior pullet perching experience. Eating and drinking activities of caged adult Leghorns were not impaired by their prior experience to perches as pullets or by the presence of perches in laying cages. It is concluded that providing perches in cages to White Leghorns during pullet rearing did not facilitate use of perches as adults. PMID:25125558

  19. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on the behavior of caged White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Hester, P Y; Garner, J P; Enneking, S A; Cheng, H W; Einstein, M E

    2014-10-01

    Enriched cages, compared with conventional cages, allow egg laying strains of chickens to meet some behavioral needs, including a high motivation to perch. The objective of this study was to determine if perch availability during rearing affected perch use as adults and if perch presence affected eating and drinking in caged White Leghorn hens. Chickens were assigned to 14 cages each with and without 2 round metal perches from hatch to 16.9 wk of age. At 17 wk of age, pullets were assigned to laying cages consisting of 1 of 4 treatments. Treatment 1 chickens never had access to perches (controls). Treatment 2 chickens only had access to 2 round metal perches during the laying phase (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 3 chickens only had access to 2 round perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens had access to the perches during both the pullet and laying phase. Each treatment during the adult phase consisted of 9 cages with 9 birds/cage for a total of 36 cages. Automatic infrared cameras were used to monitor behavior of hens in each cage for a 24-h period at 19, 24, 29, 34, 39, 44, 49, 54, 59, 64, and 69 wk of age. Behavior was also recorded twice weekly by an observer in the room where the hens were housed during photophase from 25 to 68 wk of age. Behavioral data were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures and the MIXED model procedure. A greater proportion of hens without perches as pullets used the rear perch more during both photophase and scotophase than hens with prior pullet perching experience. Eating and drinking activities of caged adult Leghorns were not impaired by their prior experience to perches as pullets or by the presence of perches in laying cages. It is concluded that providing perches in cages to White Leghorns during pullet rearing did not facilitate use of perches as adults.

  20. A pecking device as an environmental enrichment for caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Moroki, Yuko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    To improve the welfare of caged laying hens, a pecking device made of stones was introduced on the cage floor. Twenty-four White Leghorn hens aged 15 months were divided into four groups: single-housed hens with device, single-housed control hens, pair-housed hens with device and pair-housed control hens. Hens housed with the device pecked at various pecking objects less often than control hens. Agonistic behavior was also lower in hens with the device than in hens without the device, implied a possibility of improvement in quality of pecking stimuli with the device. Not only time spent pecking, but also quality of pecking might be important to fill their need for stimulation. Both single- and pair-housed hens more often pecked at the device in the evening. Response to various pecking objects also showed that pecking behaviors were most frequently expressed in the evening. Increased foraging at dusk is a well-known habit; therefore, the increase in pecking behavior in the evening might reflect the hens' general circadian rhythm. These results indicate that the device made of stones could promote some instinctive behavior. Enhancement of behavioral repertories and reduced agonistic behavior with the pecking device might improve the welfare of caged laying hens. PMID:27436770

  1. A pecking device as an environmental enrichment for caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Moroki, Yuko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    To improve the welfare of caged laying hens, a pecking device made of stones was introduced on the cage floor. Twenty-four White Leghorn hens aged 15 months were divided into four groups: single-housed hens with device, single-housed control hens, pair-housed hens with device and pair-housed control hens. Hens housed with the device pecked at various pecking objects less often than control hens. Agonistic behavior was also lower in hens with the device than in hens without the device, implied a possibility of improvement in quality of pecking stimuli with the device. Not only time spent pecking, but also quality of pecking might be important to fill their need for stimulation. Both single- and pair-housed hens more often pecked at the device in the evening. Response to various pecking objects also showed that pecking behaviors were most frequently expressed in the evening. Increased foraging at dusk is a well-known habit; therefore, the increase in pecking behavior in the evening might reflect the hens' general circadian rhythm. These results indicate that the device made of stones could promote some instinctive behavior. Enhancement of behavioral repertories and reduced agonistic behavior with the pecking device might improve the welfare of caged laying hens.

  2. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  3. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  4. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  5. Different soil media for free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Sossidou, E N; Rose, S P; Silva, S S P; Hall, N W; Tserveni-Goussi, A; Christodoulou, V

    2008-07-01

    1. A replicated experiment compared bird use, soil structure, grass wear and free-moving nematode populations in 4 different soil media (recycled vegetable compost, 90% recycled vegetable compost and 10% sand, re-used topsoil and sterilised topsoil) all with established grass swards within the range area of a large free-range laying hen unit. 2. The birds initially spent a greater proportion of their time on the two topsoil swards in comparison to the two compost-based swards. However, once the whole flock of hens had prolonged access to the different swards (unfenced areas) there were no significant differences in the number of birds that frequented the different sward types. 3. The two compost-based soil media had 33% fewer nematodes per g of dry soil compared to the two topsoil-based media. However, the rate of loss of grass from the subplots was greater with the two compost-based soil media; this was probably due to the greater porosity of these types of soil media.

  6. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed

  7. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on musculoskeletal health of caged White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Hester, P Y; Enneking, S A; Haley, B K; Cheng, H W; Einstein, M E; Rubin, D A

    2013-08-01

    A major skeletal problem of conventionally caged hens is increased susceptibility to osteoporosis mainly due to lack of exercise. Osteoporosis is characterized by a progressive decrease in mineralized structural bone. Whereas considerable attention has been given to enriching laying cages, little research has been conducted on providing caged pullets with furnishments, in particular perches. The objective of the current study was to determine if metal perches during all or part of the life cycle of White Leghorns affected hen musculoskeletal health, especially at end of lay. Treatments during the pullet phase (hatch to 16.9 wk) entailed cages with and without perches. Four treatments were used during the laying phase (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 1 chickens never had access to perches at any point during their life cycle, typical of egg industry practices in the United States for conventional cages. Treatment 2 chickens had access to perches only during the egg-laying phase, which was from 17 to 71 wk of age. Treatment 3 chickens had access to perches only during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens had perch access throughout their entire life cycle (0 to 71 wk of age). Musculoskeletal health was assessed by measuring muscle weights, bone mineralization, bone fracture incidence, and keel bone deviations. Muscle deposition of 71-wk-old hens increased when given access to perches as pullets. Bone mineralization of 71-wk-old hens also increased if given perch access as adults. However, the disadvantage of the adult perch was the higher incidence of keel deviations and keel fractures at end of lay. The increase in bone mineralization of the keel bone as a result of perch access during the pullet and laying phases was not great enough to prevent a higher incidence of keel bone fractures at end of lay. Perch redesign and placement of perches within the cage to minimize keel fractures and deviations are possible solutions. PMID:23873543

  8. Failed landings after laying hen flight in a commercial aviary over two flock cycles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Goodwin, S L; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many egg producers are adopting alternative housing systems such as aviaries that provide hens a tiered cage and a litter-covered open floor area. This larger, more complex environment permits expression of behaviors not seen in space-limited cages, such as flight. Flight is an exercise important for strengthening bones; but domestic hens might display imperfect flight landings due to poor flight control. To assess the potential implications of open space, we evaluated the landing success of Lohmann white laying hens in a commercial aviary. Video recordings of hens were taken from 4 aviary sections at peak lay, mid lay and end lay across two flock cycles. Observations were made in each focal section of all flights throughout the day noting flight origin and landing location (outer perch or litter) and landing success or failure. In Flock 1, 9.1% of all flights failed and 21% failed in Flock 2. The number of flights decreased across the laying cycle for both flocks. Proportionally more failed landings were observed in the double row sections in Flock 2. Collisions with other hens were more common than slipping on the ground or colliding with aviary structures across sections and flocks. More hens slipped on the ground and collided with physical structures at peak lay for Flock 2 than at other time points. More collisions with other hens were seen at mid and end lay than at peak lay for Flock 2. Landings ending on perches failed more often than landings on litter. These results indicate potential for flight-related hen injuries in aviary systems resulting from failed landings, which may have implications for hen welfare and optimal system design and management.

  9. Failed landings after laying hen flight in a commercial aviary over two flock cycles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Goodwin, S L; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many egg producers are adopting alternative housing systems such as aviaries that provide hens a tiered cage and a litter-covered open floor area. This larger, more complex environment permits expression of behaviors not seen in space-limited cages, such as flight. Flight is an exercise important for strengthening bones; but domestic hens might display imperfect flight landings due to poor flight control. To assess the potential implications of open space, we evaluated the landing success of Lohmann white laying hens in a commercial aviary. Video recordings of hens were taken from 4 aviary sections at peak lay, mid lay and end lay across two flock cycles. Observations were made in each focal section of all flights throughout the day noting flight origin and landing location (outer perch or litter) and landing success or failure. In Flock 1, 9.1% of all flights failed and 21% failed in Flock 2. The number of flights decreased across the laying cycle for both flocks. Proportionally more failed landings were observed in the double row sections in Flock 2. Collisions with other hens were more common than slipping on the ground or colliding with aviary structures across sections and flocks. More hens slipped on the ground and collided with physical structures at peak lay for Flock 2 than at other time points. More collisions with other hens were seen at mid and end lay than at peak lay for Flock 2. Landings ending on perches failed more often than landings on litter. These results indicate potential for flight-related hen injuries in aviary systems resulting from failed landings, which may have implications for hen welfare and optimal system design and management. PMID:26527703

  10. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Désirée S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results

  11. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  12. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities.

  13. Laying hen performance and well-being over two flock cycles on different litter substrates in an aviary housing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The momentum to move toward aviary housing has continued to increase in the past eight months. The pressure to find consistent bedding sources for meat birds may impact litter substrate for the laying hen industry as the number of cage-free hens increases in the next nine years. Molting laying hens ...

  14. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P < 0.05). Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P < 0.05). Moreover, hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P < 0.05), indicating that hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted.

  15. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P < 0.05). Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P < 0.05). Moreover, hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P < 0.05), indicating that hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted. PMID:26009753

  16. The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J

    2011-08-01

    Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery.

  17. The development of sausage including meat from spent laying hen surimi.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Kim, I S; Jung, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, Y J; Hur, S J

    2007-12-01

    The sausage samples were made from pork with spent laying hen breast surimi. The samples were divided into 4 groups [sausage made from pork (control) and sausage made from pork with 20% (T1), 40% (T2), and 60% (T3) of spent laying hen breast surimi]. In proximate compositions, the moisture and ash contents of the control were higher than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples in all storage periods. The pH and cooking loss were higher in T3 compared with other sausage samples. However, there was no significant difference in water-holding capacity among the sausage samples, whereas shear force was significantly higher in T2. In meat color, sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples (T1, T2, and T3) have shown to have higher lightness (L) compared with control, and redness (a) was significantly higher in control and T1. Total amino acid content and essential amino acids were increased in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples at 0 d of storage. In fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acid was higher in control than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was lower in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples than control at 2 and 4 wk of storage. Cholesterol content was lower in control compared with sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. In sensory evaluation, most test items were not significantly different among the sausage samples although tenderness was higher in T2 and T3 at 0 d of storage.

  18. Effect of foraging material and food form on feather pecking in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Aerni, V; El-Lethey, H; Wechsler, B

    2000-03-01

    1. The aim was to test whether provision of foraging material and food form influence feather pecking and feather damage in laying hens. 2. From week 19 of age, 16 groups of 11 hens (white Lohman Selected Leghorn hybrids) were kept in pens with or without access to long-cut straw as foraging material and fed on either mash or pellets. 3. Foraging behaviour was increased in hens with access to straw and time spent feeding was increased in hens fed on mash. In addition, hens fed on mash had longer feeding bouts and higher rates of pecking at the food during feeding than hens fed on pellets. 4. There were interaction effects of foraging material and food form on both feather pecking and feather damage. High rates of feather pecking and pronounced feather damage were only found in hens housed without access to straw and fed on pellets. In groups characterised by high rates of feather pecking the hens also showed more severe forms of this behaviour. 5. Differences in the time budgets of hens kept in different housing conditions suggested that birds fed on mash used the food not only for feeding but also as a substrate for foraging behaviour. 6. In order to avoid problems with feather pecking it is recommended that laying hens are provided with foraging material and fed on mash.

  19. Binding profile of spiramycin to oviducal proteins of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N

    2000-12-01

    In vitro protein binding of spiramycin (SP) in the plasma and oviducts of laying hens was studied. The data for SP were compared with those for oxytetracycline (OTC), sulphadimidine (SDD), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM) and sulphaquinoxaline (SQ). The two oviduct segments, magnum (M) and isthmus plus shell gland (IS), were collected. The soluble (cell sap) fractions from the magnum (M-S9) and the isthmus plus shell gland (IS-S9) were used as samples. Plasma protein binding was highest for SQ (81.4%) (P < 0.01), and lowest for SDD (30.9%) (P < 0.01). No M-S9 protein binding of OTC was found. The IS-S9 protein binding of SP (60.4%) was very much higher than those of OTC (0.8%), SDD (4.1%), SMM (4.0%) and SQ (12.3%) (P < 0.01). Biological half-lives of these drugs in egg albumen were directly correlated to the extent of their binding to IS proteins. Of plasma, M-S9 and IS-S9, variation in SP concentration in the ranges from 1 to 20 micrograms/ml did not alter the binding properties of the drug. PMID:11199206

  20. Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ERα and ERβ. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low

  1. Active substance from the serum of laying hens and its effect on uterine smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, A

    1989-01-01

    Blood serum from laying hens has an excitatory effect on isolated uterine smooth muscles of laying hens. This excitatory effect is not observed for the blood serum of pullets and cocks. After ultrafiltration and gel filtration on Sephadex G25, it was found that the excitatory effect of the blood serum was due to a low-molecular substance (m.w. below 5000 Da). The effect of this active substance was found to be inhibited by indomethacin, brufen and SC 19220. The presence of this substance in the serum of laying hens and its contractile effects, which are probably associated with prostaglandin mechanisms of regulation in the uterine smooth muscles, suggests that it is associated in the processes of oviposition in hens.

  2. Comparison between anthelmintic treatment strategies against Ascaridia galli in commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tarbiat, B; Jansson, D S; Tydén, E; Höglund, J

    2016-08-15

    The efficacy of a sustainable deworming strategy based on targeted treatments (TT) against Ascaridia galli was investigated for the first time in laying hen flocks on a Swedish commercial farm. Three experimental protocols with different levels of treatment, e.g. targeted treatment (TT), conventional treatment (CT) and untreated (UT), were tested in randomly allocated flocks of two different bird hybrids. Every second week faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined from pooled faecal materials collected on trays (20×27cm) placed for a maximum of 12h on the litter belts. In the TT, anthelmintic administration (fenbendazole, 1mg/kg body weight for 5days) started at 22 weeks post placement (wpp) and was repeated twice when the pooled FECs surpassed the assigned threshold of 200 egg per gram faeces (EPG). The CT flocks were treated once at 27wpp using the same anthelmintic. Hens in the UT were not dewormed and served as controls. Additionally, FECs on cloacal contents, worm fecundity and worm burdens were determined at 19, 35 and 45wpp. None of the flocks became infected until after 16wpp. The cumulative pooled FECs at the end of the study were significantly (p<0.01) lower in the TT compared to both CT and UT. Although repeated treatment in the TT protocol did not affect the fecundity, a worm density-dependent increase in fecundity was observed. Cloacal FECs and the number of adult A. galli in TT at 35 and 45wpp were significantly lower compared to other flocks. This study provides evidence that the TT strategy is better in terms of lower worm burden and decreased cumulative environmental parasite egg numbers compared to CT strategy. The TT strategy should be considered as an alternative to the CT strategy with regard to A. galli control in commercial laying hens. PMID:27514895

  3. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens.

  4. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

    2009-01-16

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change.

  5. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

    2009-01-01

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change. PMID:19284708

  6. Effects induced by feeding organochlorine-contaminated carp from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, to laying White Leghorn hens. I. Effects on health of adult hens, egg production, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Summer, C L; Giesy, J P; Bursian, S J; Render, J A; Kubiak, T J; Jones, P D; Verbrugge, D A; Aulerich, R J

    1996-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of consumption of halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, primarily polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), contained in Great Lakes fish by the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). In this article we report the results of feeding White Leghorn hens for a period of 8 wk diets that contained 31-35% ocean fish and/or carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, MI, which provided 0.3 (control), 0.8 (low-dose group), or 6.6 (high-dose group) mg PCB/kg, wet weight (ww). These concentrations were analogous to 3.3, 26, or 59 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs)/g diet, ww, respectively. There were no significant effects on feed consumption among the groups. An unexpectedly high incidence of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) was observed in hens from the control (78% FLHS) and low-dose (75% FLHS) groups when compared to the high-dose group (15% FLHS). Birds in the control and low-dose groups had a significant increase in liver and body weights. Significant decreases in egg production, weight, and fertility were immediate in all dose groups, with the effect being permanent in the control and low-dose groups. Although the incidence of FLHS was an unexpected complication, the fact that there were no significant effects on egg production, egg weights, or fertility in the high-dose group suggests that the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) for these parameters is in excess of 26 mg total weathered PCBs/kg egg, ww. This value was the average concentration of PCBs in the high-dose group eggs during the last week of the study. PMID:8931740

  7. Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S

    2014-11-01

    Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations.

  8. Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S

    2014-11-01

    Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations. PMID:25172929

  9. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) different levels of aerobic organisms dependent on housing system. Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic contamination in relation to hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P < 0.01) levels of Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system. PMID:23873573

  10. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) different levels of aerobic organisms dependent on housing system. Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic contamination in relation to hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P < 0.01) levels of Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  11. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, mu...

  12. Housing conditions alter properties of the tibia and humerus during the laying phase in Lohmann white Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Regmi, P; Smith, N; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis in caged hens is one driving factor for the United States egg industry to explore options regarding alternative housing systems for laying hens. The aim of our research was to study the influence of housing systems on tibiae and humeri of 77-week-old Lohmann White hens. Pullets raised in an aviary system were either continued in aviary hen systems (AV) or conventional cages (AC) whereas pullets reared in conventional cages continued in conventional hen cages (CC) or enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. From each group, 120 hens were randomly euthanized and right and left tibae and humeri were excised for structural and mechanical analysis. Volumetric density of the cortical bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Aviary (AV) hens had greater cortical thickness and density but similar outer dimensions to AC hens (P < 0.05). Hens in EN system had humeri with similar cortical thickness and density but wider outer dimensions than the humeri of CC hens (P < 0.05). Cortical geometry of the tibiae was the same for the EN and CC hens, whereas EN hens had denser tibial cortex than CC hens (P < 0.05). Geometrical changes in the humeri suggest that hens in the AV system were better able to protect their structure from endosteal resorption during the laying phase. Humeri of AV and EN hens had increased second moment of area compared to the AC and CC hens; however, the changes were not observed in tibiae. Mechanical property differences were observed, with bones of AV hens having greater failure moment and stiffness than AC hens and the same difference was observed between the EN and CC hens, (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that movement limitation causes loss of bone mass and density whereas provision of moderate movement increases certain bone quality parameters during adulthood in laying hens.

  13. General behaviors and perching behaviors of laying hens in cages with different colored perches.

    PubMed

    Chen, D H; Bao, J

    2012-05-01

    Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was

  14. Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mack, L A; Felver-Gant, J N; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2013-02-01

    Genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens' responses and their ability to adapt to a stressor. This study examined the effects of genotypic variations on the productivity and behavior of laying hens following heat stress (HS). Two strains of White Leghorn hens were used: DXL (Dekalb XL), a commercial strain individually selected for egg production and KGB (kind, gentle bird), a strain selected for high group productivity and survivability. Ninety hens (48 DXL and 42 KGB) at 28 wk of age were randomly assigned to either a hot (H: mean = 32.6°C) or control (C: mean = 24.3°C) treatment and housed in pairs by strain for 9 d. Egg production and quality, behavior, body and organ weights, and circulating hormone concentrations were measured. Heat-stressed hens had lower egg production [adjusted (adj) P < 0.001] than their respective controls. Among H-DXL hens, egg weight tended to be reduced at d 1 and was reduced at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), but was reduced only at d 9 among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.007). Eggshell thickness was also reduced among H hens at d 9 (adj P = 0.007), especially among H-KGB hens (adj P = 0.01). Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was reduced among H-hens (adj P = 0.01), especially among H-DXL hens (adj P = 0.01). Neither temperature nor strain affected the plasma thyroxine and plasma and yolk corticosterone concentrations. Heat-stressed hens spent less time walking (adj P = 0.001) and more time drinking (adj P = 0.007) and resting (adj P = 0.001) than C-hens. The results indicate that although HS reduced production and caused behavioral changes among hens from both strains, the responses differed by genotype. The data provide evidence that genetic selection is a useful strategy for reducing HS response in laying hens. The results provide insights for conducting future studies to develop heat-resistant strains to improve hen well-being, especially under the current commercial conditions.

  15. Assessment of lighting needs by W-36 laying hens via preference test.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Xin, H; Zhao, Y; Li, B; Shepherd, T A; Alvarez, I

    2016-04-01

    Light intensity, spectrum and pattern may affect laying hen behaviors and production performance. However, requirements of these lighting parameters from the hens' standpoint are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate hens' needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of <1, 5, 15, 30 or 100 lux. The hens were able to move freely among the respective compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 to 30 weeks of age) were tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding data on daily time spent, daily feed intake, daily feeding time, and eggs laid under each light intensity and daily inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens generally spent more time in lower light intensities. Specifically, the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4%) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.1%) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.2%) at 30 lux and 1.5 h (10.3%) at 100 lux under light condition; and an accumulation of 10.0 h in darkness (<1 lux) per day. The 10-h dark period was distributed intermittently throughout the day, averaging 25.0±0.4 min per hour. This hourly light-dark rhythm differs from the typical commercial practice of providing continuous dark period for certain part of the day (e.g. 8 h at night). Distributions of daily feed intake (87.3 g/hen) among the different light conditions mirrored the trend of time spent in the respective light intensity, that is, highest at 5 lux (28.4 g/hen, 32.5% daily total) and lowest at 100 lux (5.8 g/hen, 6.7%). Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0%. Most of the eggs were laid in <1 lux (61.9% of total) which was significantly higher than under other light intensities (P<0.05). Findings from this study offer insights into preference of fluorescent light intensity by the laying hens. Further studies to assess or verify welfare and performance responses of the hens to

  16. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated wheat to laying hens and roosters of different genetic background on the reproductive performance and health of the newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Ebrahem, Mohammad; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Breves, Gerhard; Beineke, Andreas; Hermeyer, Kathrin; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-08-01

    A total of 216 23-week-old laying hens from two different genetic backgrounds (half of the birds were Lohmann brown [LB] and [LSL] hens, respectively) and 24 adult roosters were assigned to a feeding trial to study the effect of increasing concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the diet (0, 5, 10 mg/kg) on the reproductive performance of hens and roosters, and the health of the newly hatched chicks. Hatchability was adversely affected by the presence of DON in LB hens' diet, while the hatchability of the LSL chicks was significantly higher than LB chicks. An interaction effect between DON in the hens' diet and the breed was noticed on fertility, as the fertility was decreased in the eggs of LB hens receiving 10 mg/kg DON in their diet and increased in the eggs of LSL hens fed 10 mg/kg DON. Moreover, spleen relative weight was significantly decreased in the chicks hatched from eggs of hens fed contaminated diets, while gizzard relative weight was significantly decreased in LB chicks with 10 mg/kg DON in their diet compared with the control group. On the other hand, the chicks' haematology and organ histopathology were not affected by the dietary treatment. Additionally, the presence of DON in the roosters' diet had no effect on fertility (the percentage of fertile eggs of all laid eggs). Consequently, the current results indicate a negative impact of DON in LB hens' diet on fertility and hatchability, indicating that the breed of the hens seems to be an additional factor influencing the effect of DON on reproductive performance of the laying hens.

  17. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. PMID:26787920

  18. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion.

  19. Comparison of bones of 4 strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Singh, R; Cheng, K M; Korver, D R

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of bone strength has been an important issue in the debate over cage use for laying hens. Bone strength depends on adequate mechanical load and cages restrict movement. Four laying crosses (Lohmann White, Lohmann Brown, H&N White, and Rhode Island Red × Barred Plymouth Rock cross hens) were housed in conventional cages or in floor pens equipped with perches and nest boxes to measure the effect of the housing system on bone strength. Approximately 15 hens of each genotype from each housing system were killed at 50 wk of age and the radius and tibia of each were removed for analysis. There were no differences between the Lohmann White and H&N White (White Leghorn) hens, likely because of their similar genetic background. The Lohmann Brown and the cross hens (brown-egg layers) were larger and they had heavier bones, but the bone density was not different from that of the other lines. The radius was heavier for hens kept in floor pens than for those kept in cages, but the tibia was not. When hens were kept in floor pens, both bones had greater cortical bone density and cross-sectional area, but the difference between housing systems in cortical bone cross-sectional area was much greater for the radius than it was for the tibia. Although the movement of hens in cages is limited, they spend a great deal of time standing, which puts a mechanical load on the tibia. Hens in floor pens are able to stretch their wings or fly, in contrast to hens kept in cages, which likely explains why the difference between housing systems in cortical bone was greater for the radius than for the tibia.

  20. Risk Factors Associated With Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms: Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Denagamage, Thomas; Jayarao, Bhushan; Patterson, Paul; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evidence-based overview of potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination of laying hens, layer premises, and shell eggs. This systematic literature search was conducted using AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed databases. Observational studies that identified risk factors for Salmonella contamination of layer flocks and shell eggs were selected, and best evidence was synthesized to summarize the results. Altogether, 13 cross-sectional studies and four longitudinal studies published in English were included in the review. Evidence scores were assigned based on the study design and quality of the study to grade the evidence level. The strength of association of a risk factor was determined according to the odds ratios. In this systematic review, the presence of previous Salmonella infection, absence of cleaning and disinfection, presence of rodents, induced molting, larger flock size (>30,000 hens), multiage management, cage housing systems, in-line egg processing, rearing pullets on the floor, pests with access to feed prior to movement to the feed trough, visitors allowed in the layer houses, and trucks near farms and air inlets were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of laying hen premises, whereas high level of manure contamination, middle and late phase of production, high degree of egg-handling equipment contamination, flock size of >30,000, and egg production rate of >96% were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of shell eggs. These risk factors demonstrated strong to moderate evidence of association with Salmonella contamination of laying hens and

  1. Risk Factors Associated With Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms: Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Denagamage, Thomas; Jayarao, Bhushan; Patterson, Paul; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evidence-based overview of potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination of laying hens, layer premises, and shell eggs. This systematic literature search was conducted using AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed databases. Observational studies that identified risk factors for Salmonella contamination of layer flocks and shell eggs were selected, and best evidence was synthesized to summarize the results. Altogether, 13 cross-sectional studies and four longitudinal studies published in English were included in the review. Evidence scores were assigned based on the study design and quality of the study to grade the evidence level. The strength of association of a risk factor was determined according to the odds ratios. In this systematic review, the presence of previous Salmonella infection, absence of cleaning and disinfection, presence of rodents, induced molting, larger flock size (>30,000 hens), multiage management, cage housing systems, in-line egg processing, rearing pullets on the floor, pests with access to feed prior to movement to the feed trough, visitors allowed in the layer houses, and trucks near farms and air inlets were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of laying hen premises, whereas high level of manure contamination, middle and late phase of production, high degree of egg-handling equipment contamination, flock size of >30,000, and egg production rate of >96% were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of shell eggs. These risk factors demonstrated strong to moderate evidence of association with Salmonella contamination of laying hens and

  2. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

  3. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  4. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  5. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  6. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mullens, B A; Chen, B L; Owen, J P

    2010-12-01

    Adult White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line strain W-36) were inoculated with either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, and the ectoparasite populations were monitored over periods of 9 to 16 wk. Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) were tested. Populations of both ectoparasites were at least 10 times lower on beak-intact hens compared with populations on beak-trimmed hens. Cage density did not influence mite numbers, but higher numbers of lice (2 to 3 times) developed on hens held at the higher cage density. Louse distribution on the body and louse population age structure were also influenced by host beak condition. Beak-intact hens had a higher proportion of lice under the wings, whereas beak-trimmed hens had the majority of lice on the lower abdomen. Louse populations on beak-trimmed hens also comprised relatively more immature stages than populations found on beak-intact hens. The effects are likely related to decreased grooming efficiency by beak-trimmed hens and, in the case of lice, the higher host density. The high mite and louse populations on most commercial caged laying hens are probably a direct result of beak trimming. However, selection of more docile breeds that can be held without trimming may allow the hens themselves to reduce ectoparasites below economically damaging levels. This could benefit producers, animal welfare advocates, and human health by reducing 1) costs of beak trimming, 2) pesticide treatment costs (including human and bird chemical exposure concerns), and 3) objections to beak trimming from the animal welfare community. PMID:21076093

  7. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Guard, J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Gast, R K; Abdo, Z; Rigsby, L L; Plumblee, J R; Karcher, D M; Robison, C I; Blatchford, R A; Makagon, M M

    2015-03-01

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89-100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0-41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety. PMID:25480737

  8. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens’ behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, −II, and −III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  9. Effects of feather pecking phenotype (severe feather peckers, victims and non-peckers) on serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in four brain areas of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kops, Marjolein S; de Haas, Elske N; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ellen, Esther D; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Olivier, Berend; Güntürkün, O; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Korte, S Mechiel

    2013-08-15

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in laying hens is a detrimental behavior causing loss of feathers, skin damage and cannibalism. Previously, we have associated changes in frontal brain serotonin (5-HT) turnover and dopamine (DA) turnover with alterations in feather pecking behavior in young pullets (28-60 days). Here, brain monoamine levels were measured in adult laying hens; focusing on four brain areas that are involved in emotional behavior or are part of the basal ganglia-thalamopallial circuit, which is involved in obsessive compulsive disorders. Three behavioral phenotypes were studied: Severe Feather Peckers (SFPs), Victims of SFP, and Non-Peckers (NPs). Hens (33 weeks old) were sacrificed after a 5-min manual restraint test. SFPs had higher 5-HIAA levels and a higher serotonin turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the dorsal thalamus than NPs, with intermediate levels in victims. NPs had higher 5-HT levels in the medial striatum than victims, with levels of SFPs in between. 5-HT turnover levels did not differ between phenotypes in medial striatum, arcopallium and hippocampus. DA turnover levels were not affected by feather pecking phenotype. These findings indicate that serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal thalamus and striatum of adult laying hens depends on differences in behavioral feather pecking phenotype, with, compared to non-pecking hens, changes in both SFP and their victims. Further identification of different SFP phenotypes is needed to elucidate the role of brain monoamines in SFP.

  10. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Veldkamp, T; Binnendijk, G P; de Veer, R

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP was determined in Lohmann Brown layers. Hens (n = 132) were housed in 22 cages (6 hens/cage) and allotted to 5 dietary treatments. In the PAP diets (4 replicates/treatment), 100 g/kg of CP of animal origin was added, replacing soybean meal and corn (Zea mays) in the basal diet (6 replicates/treatment). The PAP sources differed largely in chemical composition and digestibility coefficients. Energy content (AME(n)) varied from 1,817 (Daka-40) to 3,107 kcal/kg (Sonac-60), and digestible lysine varied from 15.4 (Daka-40) to 28.3 g/kg (Sonac-50). Subsequently, the effect of a control diet (without PAP) vs. 4 PAP diets (50 g/kg of CP of animal origin from the same batches as used in the digestibility study) on performance was determined. All diets were isocaloric (AME(n) = 2,825 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (digestible lysine = 6.8 g/kg). Hens were housed in 40 floor pens (12 hens/pen, 8 pens/treatment) from 20 to 40 wk of age. Feed intake levels of the hens fed the meat and bone meal diets were reduced compared with those of hens fed the meat meal diets, whereas the feed intake level of hens fed the control diet was intermediate. Laying hen performance differed between treatments, being was most favorable for the Sonac-50 treatment and most adverse for the Daka-40 treatment. Differences in laying hen performance seemed to be related partly to differences in feed intake and corresponding amino acid intake.

  11. Microbiological differences between laying hen strains housed in various production systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sister flocks of three strains of laying hens were housed in conventional cage, free range, and cage free production systems. All flocks were located on a single, commercial-style research facility and provided the same dietary and lighting regimens. Once a season, a sample of shell eggs was asept...

  12. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  13. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections.

  14. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections. PMID:26518645

  15. Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens. PMID:25049929

  16. Effect of dietary phytase transgenic corn on physiological characteristics and the fate of recombinant plant DNA in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens.

  17. Behavioral Differences of Laying Hens with Fractured Keel Bones within Furnished Cages.

    PubMed

    Casey-Trott, Teresa M; Widowski, Tina M

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens is reported in all housing systems. Keel fractures have been associated with pain and restricted mobility in hens in loose housing. The objective was to determine whether keel fractures were associated with activity of hens in furnished cages. Thirty-six pairs of LSL-Lite hens (72 weeks) were enrolled in the study. One hen with a fractured keel and one hen without were identified by palpation in each of 36 groups of hens housed in either 30- or 60-bird cages stocked at 750 cm(2)/hen. Behavioral activity of each hen was recorded by four observers blind to keel status using focal animal sampling for 10 min within a 2-h period in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (12:00-14:00), and evening (17:00-19:00). All hens were observed during each of the three sample periods for 3 days totaling 90 min, and individual hen data were summed for analysis. Hens were euthanized 48 h after final observations, dissected, and classified by keel status: F 0 (no fracture, N = 24), F 1 (single fracture, N = 17), and F 2 (multiple fractures, N = 31). The percentages of time hens performed each behavior were analyzed using a mixed procedure in SAS with fracture severity, body weight, cage size, rearing environment, and tier in the model. Fracture severity affected the duration of perching (P = 0.04) and standing (P = 0.001), bout length of standing (P < 0.0001), and location (floor vs. perch) of resting behaviors (P = 0.01). F 2 hens perched longer than F 0 hens, 20.0 ± 2.9 and 11.6 ± 3.2%. F 2 hens spent less time standing, 15.2 ± 1.5%, than F 0 and F 1 hens, 20.7 ± 1.6 and 21.6 ± 1.8%. F 2 hens had shorter standing bouts (22.0 ± 4.2 s) than both F 0 and F 1 hens, 33.1 ± 4.3 and 27.4 ± 4.4 s. Non-fractured hens spent 80.0 ± 6.9% of total resting time on the floor, whereas F 1 and F 2 hens spent 56.9 ± 12.4 and 51.5 ± 7.7% resting on the

  18. Behavioral Differences of Laying Hens with Fractured Keel Bones within Furnished Cages

    PubMed Central

    Casey-Trott, Teresa M.; Widowski, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens is reported in all housing systems. Keel fractures have been associated with pain and restricted mobility in hens in loose housing. The objective was to determine whether keel fractures were associated with activity of hens in furnished cages. Thirty-six pairs of LSL-Lite hens (72 weeks) were enrolled in the study. One hen with a fractured keel and one hen without were identified by palpation in each of 36 groups of hens housed in either 30- or 60-bird cages stocked at 750 cm2/hen. Behavioral activity of each hen was recorded by four observers blind to keel status using focal animal sampling for 10 min within a 2-h period in the morning (08:00–10:00), afternoon (12:00–14:00), and evening (17:00–19:00). All hens were observed during each of the three sample periods for 3 days totaling 90 min, and individual hen data were summed for analysis. Hens were euthanized 48 h after final observations, dissected, and classified by keel status: F0 (no fracture, N = 24), F1 (single fracture, N = 17), and F2 (multiple fractures, N = 31). The percentages of time hens performed each behavior were analyzed using a mixed procedure in SAS with fracture severity, body weight, cage size, rearing environment, and tier in the model. Fracture severity affected the duration of perching (P = 0.04) and standing (P = 0.001), bout length of standing (P < 0.0001), and location (floor vs. perch) of resting behaviors (P = 0.01). F2 hens perched longer than F0 hens, 20.0 ± 2.9 and 11.6 ± 3.2%. F2 hens spent less time standing, 15.2 ± 1.5%, than F0 and F1 hens, 20.7 ± 1.6 and 21.6 ± 1.8%. F2 hens had shorter standing bouts (22.0 ± 4.2 s) than both F0 and F1 hens, 33.1 ± 4.3 and 27.4 ± 4.4 s. Non-fractured hens spent 80.0 ± 6.9% of total resting time on the floor, whereas F1 and F2 hens spent 56.9 ± 12.4 and 51.5 ± 7.7% resting on the floor

  19. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae contamination in the poultry house environment during erysipelas outbreaks in organic laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Helena; Bagge, Elisabeth; Båverud, Viveca; Fellström, Claes; Jansson, Désirée S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated organic laying hen farms for the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the house environment and from potential carriers (i.e. insects and mice) during ongoing erysipelas outbreaks, and compared the obtained isolates with those from laying hens. The samples were investigated by selective culture followed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction on cultures. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, jejunal contents, manure, dust and swabs from water nipples. Three more samples from the house environment tested positive by polymerase chain reaction compared with selective culture alone. Selected isolates were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One farm was represented by isolates from laying hens only, and one of these isolates differed in one PFGE band from the others. Different banding patterns were observed for isolates from laying hens and manure on one farm. On the remaining two farms, the isolates from the house environment and laying hens were identical but differed between farms. Outbreaks reoccurred in the next flock on two of the farms, and different PFGE types were isolated from consecutive flocks. Our results suggest an external source of infection, which would explain the previously reported increased risk of outbreaks in free-range flocks. Contaminated manure and dust may represent sources of transmission. For the isolates, MALDI-TOF MS and biochemical typing results were in agreement but, since the type strain of Erysipelothrix tonsillarum was typed as E. rhusiopathiae using MALDI-TOF MS, further studies into this method are needed.

  20. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Musgrove, M T; Richardson, L J; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2011-07-01

    These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log(10) cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log(10) cfu/mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log(10) cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log(10) cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log(10) cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). PMID:21673176

  1. Relation between social order and use of resources in small and large furnished cages for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, T; Azuma, T; Hirahara, S; Eguchi, Y; Uetake, K; Tanaka, T

    2008-09-01

    1. The objective was to determine the relation between social rank and use of resources in a small furnished cage with sufficient resources per hen (SF) and a commercial large one with less adequate allowance of facilities per hen (LF). 2. Ninety-two cross layers were used. At the age of 16 weeks, the hens were divided at random into two groups. There were 4 furnished cages with 5 birds per cage and 4 large furnished cages with 18 birds per cage. The dominance hierarchy was determined, in which highest, medium and lowest ranking hens in each cage were identified. Behaviour, use of facilities and physical conditions of these hens were measured (one in each rank category in SF, two in each in LF). 3. Dustbathing and litter scratching were more frequent in the high ranking hens than the medium and low ranked hens in LF, while no significant difference was found between them in SF. 4. No significant difference between SF and LF was found in use of nest boxes. However, pre-laying sitting tended to be less frequent in low ranking than medium and high ranking hens in LF (Social order x Cage design). In the nest box most of time was spent in pre-laying sitting by SF hens, LF high and medium ranked hens (average 94.9%). However, LF low ranking hens spent their time escaping (33.1%), pre-laying sitting (27.7%) standing (25.7%) and moving (13.5%) in the nest. 5. In the large furnished cages with less facilities per hen, high ranking hens may be expected to have priority using the dust bath. In contrast, low ranking hens rarely performed nesting behaviour fully, and spend more time using the nest box as a refuge than for laying.

  2. Determination of residues of sulphonamide in eggs and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Shazia; Ahmad, H B; Nawaz, R

    2007-07-01

    Eggs were collected from different areas of Faisalabad city. The quantity of sulphonamides was determined in yolk, white and whole egg and compared with the permissible limit 1 microg/ml for sulphadimethoxine available in literature. In another experiment, a group of hens were kept at a poultry farm after medicating them with darvisal liquid to see if the residues of sulphonamide pass into the eggs of poultry. The period of existence of residues was noted. PMID:17545104

  3. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Guard, J; Gast, R K; Buhr, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Abdo, Z; Plumblee, J R; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Robison, C I; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2016-05-01

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-free aviary, conventional cage, and enriched colony cage systems. Environmental and eggshell pool samples were collected from selected cages/segments of the housing systems throughout the production cycle and monitored for Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence. At 77 wk of age, 120 hens per housing system were examined for Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in the: adrenal glands, spleen, ceca, follicles, and upper reproductive tract. All isolates detected from environmental swabs, eggshell pools, and tissues were identified for serotype. Two predominant Salmonella were detected in all samples:S.Braenderup andS.Kentucky.Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni were the only Campylobacter detected in the flocks. Across all housing systems, approximately 7% of hens were colonized with Salmonella, whereas >90% were colonized with Campylobacter Salmonella Braenderup was the isolate most frequently detected in environmental swabs (P<0.0001) and housing system impacted Salmonella spp. shedding (P<0.0001).Campylobacter jejuni was the isolate most frequently found in environmental swabs (P<0.01), while housing system impacted the prevalence of C. coli and jejuniin ceca (P<0.0001). The results of this study provide a greater understanding of the impact of hen housing systems on hen health and product safety. Additionally, producers and academia can utilize the findings to make informed decisions on hen housing and management strategies to enhance hen health and food safety. PMID:26976901

  4. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Guard, J; Gast, R K; Buhr, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Abdo, Z; Plumblee, J R; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Robison, C I; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2016-05-01

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-free aviary, conventional cage, and enriched colony cage systems. Environmental and eggshell pool samples were collected from selected cages/segments of the housing systems throughout the production cycle and monitored for Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence. At 77 wk of age, 120 hens per housing system were examined for Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in the: adrenal glands, spleen, ceca, follicles, and upper reproductive tract. All isolates detected from environmental swabs, eggshell pools, and tissues were identified for serotype. Two predominant Salmonella were detected in all samples:S.Braenderup andS.Kentucky.Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni were the only Campylobacter detected in the flocks. Across all housing systems, approximately 7% of hens were colonized with Salmonella, whereas >90% were colonized with Campylobacter Salmonella Braenderup was the isolate most frequently detected in environmental swabs (P<0.0001) and housing system impacted Salmonella spp. shedding (P<0.0001).Campylobacter jejuni was the isolate most frequently found in environmental swabs (P<0.01), while housing system impacted the prevalence of C. coli and jejuniin ceca (P<0.0001). The results of this study provide a greater understanding of the impact of hen housing systems on hen health and product safety. Additionally, producers and academia can utilize the findings to make informed decisions on hen housing and management strategies to enhance hen health and food safety.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  6. The residue levels of narasin in eggs of laying hens fed with unmedicated and medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Rokka, Mervi; Eerola, Susanna; Perttilä, Ulla; Rossow, Laila; Venäläinen, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Valaja, Jarmo; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Laying hens were fed contaminated feed containing narasin 2.5 mg/kg for 21 days followed by a 7 day withdrawal period, hens in the control group were fed unmedicated feed. Eggs were collected during trial days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and after the withdrawal period of 7 days. The concentration of narasin in yolks and egg whites was analyzed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Narasin was found to accumulate in yolks, where the narasin concentration increased during the treatment. The concentration of narasin varied from 5.9 to 13.8 microg/kg (mean 10.6 microg/kg) in yolks after 21 day feeding periods. The concentrations of narasin ranged from < 0.9 to 1.4 microg/kg after the withdrawal period. Narasin residues were not found in egg whites of the laying hens fed contaminated feed nor in either yolks or egg whites of the laying hens fed unmedicated feed. The effect of cooking was also tested on the amount of narasin residues in eggs. Cooking for 10 min did not significantly influence the narasin residues in eggs. Traces of lasalocid were also found in the yolks. The traces of lasalocid are attributable to an accidental contamination of the feed during its manufacture.

  7. The hypocholesterolemic agent dichloroacetate increases egg cholesterol content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Beyer, R S; Jensen, L S

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether a diet with added dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, would influence plasma and egg cholesterol concentrations when fed to laying hens. In the first experiment, 62-wk-old laying hens (10 hens per treatment) were fed a control diet containing 0, 350, 700, or 1,400 ppm DCA for an 8-wk period. Egg production and size, feed intake, weight gain, and plasma and egg cholesterol were determined at biweekly intervals. In a second experiment, 36-wk-old laying hens (eight hens per treatment) received diets with 0, 3,000, or 6,000 ppm added DCA for a period of 6 wk. Production parameters and cholesterol measurements were conducted as in Experiment 1. Egg production and feed intake were significantly decreased with increasing levels of DCA in Experiment 1. In the second experiment, 6,000 ppm DCA sharply reduced feed intake, body weight, and egg production. Yolk weight and percentage yolk were significantly decreased by the higher levels of DCA used in Experiment 2. Total plasma cholesterol was not affected by dichloroacetate in either of the experiments. In contrast, egg cholesterol concentration increased by 10 and 37% in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, in response to diets with added DCA when compared with the unsupplemented controls. Total egg cholesterol increased in response to dietary DCA in Experiment 1, but not consistently in Experiment 2 due to the decreased yolk size of the hens fed DCA. The results of these studies indicate that dietary DCA was not effective in reducing egg cholesterol concentrations. PMID:8321813

  8. Influence of the type of management system on corticosterone transfer into eggs in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Sas, B; Domány, G; Gyimóthy, Ilse; Gaál Kovácsné, Katalin; Süth, M

    2006-09-01

    The effect of free-range versus cage management system on corticosterone transfer into the eggs was studied in laying hens. Hungarian Yellow laying hens (age: 21 weeks, body weight: 2.0 +/- 0.5 kg) were divided into two groups in the spring: Group I, free-range keeping (n=15 layers, density: > 0.5 bird/m2) in outdoor runs, with continuous access to a commercial layer feed; Group II, hens kept in battery cages (n=17 layers, density: 2 birds/m2, natural light, continuous access to feed and water). Eggs were collected after a one-week adaptation period on days 2, 7 and 16. Corticosterone (CST) was extracted from homogenised egg samples using an ASE-200 Accelerated Solvent Extractor and then assayed by liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) [Thermo Quest Surveyor high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced via Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI) ion source to Finnigan/Thermo Quest LCQ Deca MS/MS] using dexamethasone as internal standard with positive APCI ionisation. CST concentrations of whole eggs laid by free-range hens on days 2, 7 and 16 were 0.370 +/- 0.218, 0.259 +/- 0.066 and 0.915 +/- 0.745 ng x g(-1), respectively, while those of eggs laid by caged hens were 0.206 +/- 0.157, 0.223 +/- 0.165 and 0.184 +/- 0.110 ng x g(-1) at the above sampling times. It is concluded that in free-range laying hens the sharp changes of environmental weather conditions significantly increased the corticosterone content of eggs, while the environmentally controlled and closed battery cage management technology resulted in relatively uniform corticosterone concentrations in the whole eggs.

  9. Effects of aflatoxin chronic intoxication in renal function of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de-Anda, A; Valdivia, A G; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Reyes, J L; Ortiz, R; Quezada, T; de Luna, M C; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) have a high impact in both human and animal health, causing significant economic losses in the poultry industry, especially by diminution of avian growth, feed efficiency, and product quality. Aflatoxins affect the whole organism, particularly liver and kidney. The objective of this study was to evaluate renal function alterations in laying hens during chronic AF ingestion. Randomly, 84 Leghorn Hy-Line laying hens (13 wk old) were assigned into 4 experimental groups (n = 21): 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of AF/kg of feed. The AF (B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) was obtained from 2 toxicogenic local strains of Aspergillus flavus grown in corn grains; the grain was sterilized, ground, and added to basal diets to achieve the selected AF concentrations. Hens ingested, during 17 and 42 wk, feed contaminated with AF. Data were analyzed in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Hens were anesthetized, ureteral urine samples were collected, and arterial blood samples were taken. The renal functional tests were evaluated by spectrophotometric and flame photometric methods, including a) Na, K, Ca, and phosphate fractional excretions; b) renal hemodynamic studies, glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances, respectively; and c) identification of macroscopic and histopathologic lesions. The hens intoxicated at all levels of AF showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in Ca, Na, and phosphate fraction excretions. Sodium and phosphates were excreted in a pattern of response time-dose. However, glomerular filtration rate exhibited a significant reduction (P < 0.05). The K fractional excretion and renal plasma flow remained unchanged. These results suggest that AF chronic ingestion affects renal functions of laying hens and induces Ca(++), (-3)PO(4), and Na(+) losses, which are of great concern to the poultry industry. PMID:20634516

  10. Variations of clinical biochemical parameters of laying hens and broiler chickens fed aflatoxin-containing feed.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Verde, M T; Gascon, M; Ramos, J; Gomez, J; Luco, D F; Chavez, G

    1994-03-01

    Two groups of 32 laying hens (Hyssex Brown) and two groups of 32 23-day-old (Hybro) broiler chickens were fed 2.5 and 5 parts/10(6) of aflatoxin in their diet for 4, 8, 16 and 32 days; 16 hens and 32 chicks were maintained as control groups (0 parts/10(6)). After the intoxication period, a clearance period was established of 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. Relative weights of liver and kidneys significantly increased in intoxicated hens, but not in broiler chickens. Histological lesions in both types of bird consisted of hepatic cell vacuolation with fatty infiltration. There was a significant decrease (P< 0.001) in egg production in the 5 parts/10(6) group, which started to recover during the clearance period. No morbidity or mortality due to the aflatoxicosis were observed in either type of bird. In intoxicated laying hens, cholesterol levels were not significantly (P> 0.05) different from control values, but triglyceride levels decreased (P< 0.001) in both intoxicated groups. The effect of aflatoxin on calcium and phosphorus levels was important, because on the 4th day their values decreased significantly. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels remained normal, whereas alanino aminotransferase (ALT) activity decreased in both intoxicated groups. The activity of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and gammaglutamil transferase (GGT) increased significantly. In intoxicated broiler chickens, aflatoxins did not alter (P> 0.05) the biochemical parameters studied, except that the serum calcium concentration was lower in the 5 parts/10(6) group. These data indicated that in intoxicated laying hens, a severe clinical biochemical alteration was produced, and that this together with the hepatic lesions observed in hens and broilers may aid disease diagnosis.

  11. Egg production and welfare of laying hens kept in different housing systems (conventional, enriched cage, and free range).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz Dikmen, B; İpek, A; Şahan, Ü; Petek, M; Sözcü, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare egg production performance and welfare traits of laying hens kept in conventional cage (CC), enriched cage (EC), and free range (FR). Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480 with 160 per housing type) were studied across a production cycle from placement at 17 wk until depopulation at 66 wk. The hens were randomly allocated into cages or pens of housing system groups; within each system there were four replicates with 40 hens in each pen or cage. The hen day egg production (P = 0.037), feed intake (FI) (P < 0.001), egg mass (EM) (P < 0.001), and dirty egg ratio of hens were higher in the FR system but similar in the CC and EC systems. The highest mortality ratio was found in EC system hens (P = 0.020). The best feather score was found in FR system hens (P < 0.001). The worse body wound score was found in EC system hens (P = 0.038). On the other hand, the worse bumble foot and footpad lesions were found in FR system hens (P < 0.001). The highest tibia breaking strength was found in FR system hens compared with in CC and EC system hens (P < 0.001). The highest Heterophil/Lymphocyte ( H/L: ) ratio was found in CC system hens (P = 0.006) but the blood phosphorus ( P: ) level was higher in FR system hens (P = 0.013). The tonic immobility, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and Ca values of hens were found to be similar in all systems (P > 0.05). The hens in the FR system had additional space for optimum comfort and better feather and bone traits, but the dirty egg ratio, feed consumption, and foot lesions were higher than in CC and EC systems. PMID:26994200

  12. Effect of excess dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on excreta moisture of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Rose, S P; Wells, R G; Pirgozliev, V

    2000-12-01

    1. Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium or phosphate on the water intake and excreta moisture of laying hens. A fifth experiment examined the effect on these variables of increasing amounts of 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate) and the interactions with 2 levels of dietary phosphorus. 2. All experiments involved individually caged laying hens fed on diets varying in 1 or 2 minerals in replacement for washed sand. The experimental diets contained mineral concentrations that either met or exceeded the expected requirement of the hens. The diets were given for a 7 or 8 d feeding period and food and water intakes were measured and excreta were collected for the last 48 h of each feeding period. These data were corrected for evaporative water loss to the environment during the collection period. 3. Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus gave linear increases (P<0.001) in the water intake of the laying hens and linear increases (P<0.01) in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of the excreta by 9.04 (+/- 1.57), 11.95 (+/- 2.02) and 5.59 (+/- 0.31) g/kg (+/- standard error) for sodium, potassium and phosphorus, respectively. Increasing concentrations of dietary calcium did not significantly affect the water intakes or excreta moisture levels of the laying hens. 4. The fifth experiment showed that, although there was a sodium x phosphorus interaction (P<0.05), the effects of the 2 mineral additions were approximately additive. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in water intakes or excreta moisture contents due to the 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate).

  13. Hepatic cholinesterase of laying hens naturally infected by Salmonella Gallinarum (fowl typhoid).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Boiago, Marcel M; Bottari, Nathieli B; do Carmo, Guilherme M; Alves, Mariana Sauzen; Boscato, Carla; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Casagrande, Renata A; Stefani, Lenita M

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that may cause foodborne gastroenteritis in humans and animals consisting of over 2000 serovars. The serovar Salmonella Gallinarum is an important worldwide pathogen of poultry. However, little is known on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Salmonella in chickens. The aim of this study was to evaluate cholinesterase and myeloperoxidase activities in hepatic tissue of laying hens naturally infected by S. Gallinarum. Twenty positive liver samples for S. Gallinarum were collected, in addition to seven liver samples from healthy uninfected laying hens (control group). The right liver lobe was homogenized for analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the left lobe was divided into two fragments, one for histopathology and the other for Salmonella isolation. The results showed changes in AChE and BchE activity in the liver of infected laying hens compared to the control group (P < 0.05), i.e. reduced AChE and increased BChE activities in liver samples. Infected animals showed increased MPO activity compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the histopathological findings showed fibrinoid necrosis associated to the infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages,heterophils in the liver of infected hens. These findings suggest that the inflammatory process was attenuated providing a pro-inflammatory action of both enzyme analyzed in order to reduce the free ACh, a molecule which has an anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, our results lead to the hypothesis that cholinesterase plays an important role on the modulation of immune response against S. Gallinarum with an inflammatory effect, contributing to the response against this bacterium. This study should contribute to a better understanding on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in laying hens infected by S. Gallinarum.

  14. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  15. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  16. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  17. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  18. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  19. Behaviour, health and integument of four hybrids of laying hens in modified and conventional cages.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, P; Tauson, R; Appleby, M C

    1996-07-01

    1. In 2 trials the health and behaviour of a total of 3552 caged laying hens of 4 hybrids, Dekalb XL, Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Shaver 288 in trial 1 and ISA Brown and LSL in trial 2, were studied. The cage designs were Get-away cages (GA) with 15 hens per cage, a special version of the 'Edinburgh modified cage' called 'Modified and enriched cage' (ME) with 4 ISA or 5 Leghorn hens per cage, conventional metal cages with 4 hens per cage without (CO) and with a perch (PC) and conventional plastic cages (PL) with three hens per cage. GA and ME included nests, perches and sandbaths. 2. In the first trial f1p4nest models were used, artificial turf and welded wire floor. In the second trial both nest models were used in GA, while all nests in ME were equipped with artificial turf. In the second trial there were 4 sandbath treatments in ME; no sandbath, sandbath (25 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks of age, sandbath first opened at 26 weeks and double size sandbath (50 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks. Hens in GA were allowed access to the sandbaths from 26 weeks. 3. At 35 and 55 weeks the best plumage condition (feather cover) was found in PL and GA but plumage condition in ME was not significantly inferior than in GA. Hens in GA had the dirtiest plumage and most bumble foot but no toe pad hyperkeratosis. Some toe pad hyperkeratosis occurred in the other systems. Most keel bone lesions were found in systems with perches. The highest mortality was registered in GA. Hens in systems with perches, sandbaths and nests had increased strength of humerus at slaughter. 4. More eggs were laid in nests with artificial turf than in welded wire floor nests. LSL hens laid larger proportions of eggs in the nests (94% and 92% in the two trials) than the other hybrids. Less than 1% of the eggs in ME and 2% in GA were laid in the sandbaths. 5. The use of perches in ME and PC was approximately 30% in the day time. At night the use was 93% in ME and 89% in PC in trial 1 and 96% in

  20. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough and perch access at the lowest stocking density (treatment D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (P<0.05) in D12 compared with the other stocking densities (90.6% v. 94.3% (± 0.7)), most likely due to the concomitant reduction in nest space and drinker availability per hen. No systematic effects of density were found on other laying variables (egg weight, eggs laid outside nests, aviary side preferences). Number of hens using the veranda increased with stocking density. Hens primarily used the range near the house (within 50 m) and hens kept at the lowest stocking density and the smallest group size appeared to use the outdoor area more extensively, based on an assessment of vegetation cover (P<0.05). For the measures reported here, the welfare consequences of increased stocking density were assessed to be minor; additional results are reported in the associated article (Steenfeldt and Nielsen, 2015).

  1. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough and perch access at the lowest stocking density (treatment D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (P<0.05) in D12 compared with the other stocking densities (90.6% v. 94.3% (± 0.7)), most likely due to the concomitant reduction in nest space and drinker availability per hen. No systematic effects of density were found on other laying variables (egg weight, eggs laid outside nests, aviary side preferences). Number of hens using the veranda increased with stocking density. Hens primarily used the range near the house (within 50 m) and hens kept at the lowest stocking density and the smallest group size appeared to use the outdoor area more extensively, based on an assessment of vegetation cover (P<0.05). For the measures reported here, the welfare consequences of increased stocking density were assessed to be minor; additional results are reported in the associated article (Steenfeldt and Nielsen, 2015). PMID:25990512

  2. Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.

    PubMed

    Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B

    2012-07-01

    Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and

  3. Effect of snack food by-product inclusion on production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Van Wyhe, R C; Fraley, S E; Szybisty, C A; Karcher, D M; Karcher, E L

    2012-06-01

    The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies into animal diets, specifically that of laying hens, could be significantly more cost effective for both the human food manufacturers and the agricultural producers. The study's objective is to evaluate laying hen diets containing snack food by-product, consisting mostly of expired potato chips, and the effect on hen performance. In total, 192 White Leghorn laying hens (45 wk old) were selected from the Michigan State University Poultry Farm. Hens were housed in conventional cages (3 birds/cage) and received 1 of 4 diets for 5 wk: 1) industry control corn-soybean meal, 2) control with 3% by-product, 3) control with 6% by-product, and 4) control with 9% by-product. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and balanced for sodium. Feed intake was measured for 3 consecutive days each week, and no overall differences between treatments were observed. However, during the first week, feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed the 6% and 9% diets compared with those fed control (P < 0.05). Birds fed the 6% had a higher feed intake than that of the control again during the fourth week (P < 0.01). Egg production, egg weight, and specific gravity were measured weekly. Hen BW was measured on d 1, 14, 28, and 35. Egg production, egg weight, specific gravity, and BW were not significantly affected by the addition of snack food by-products to the diet. In conclusion, the addition of expired snack food by-product into poultry diets does not significantly affect laying hen egg production and has the potential to be used as an alternative feed stuff in the future. PMID:22582300

  4. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  5. Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization.

  6. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (P<0.001), in aviaries with no red mite infestation (P=0.004), and in free-range systems (P=0.011) compared to plastic slatted aviaries, in houses with red mite infestations, and those without a free-range area. Furthermore, hens in aviaries with wire mesh flooring had fewer wounds on the back (P=0.006) and vent (P=0.009), reduced mortality (P=0.003), and a better laying performance (P=0.013) as compared to hens in aviaries with plastic slatted flooring. Flocks with better feather cover had lower levels of mortality (P<0.001). Red mite infestations were more common in plastic slatted aviaries (P=0.043). Other risk factors associated with plumage condition were genotype, number of diet changes, and the presence of nest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better

  7. The effects of water deprivation on the behavior of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Cree, Shelby; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Freedom from thirst is one of the most undeniable welfare requirements. Nevertheless, the welfare implication of water deprivation because of a particular situation (e.g., transport) or as an involuntary consequence (e.g., sick, injured, or subordinate animals) remains unclear. This experiment investigated the behavioral changes in laying hens following various durations of water deprivation by using a motivation test based on passing through a narrow, vertical gap to access water. Twenty laying hens were subjected to water deprivation for various durations (0, 12, 18, 24, or 32 h) and the cost of access was varied by changing the width of the vertical gap (150, 135, 120, or 100 mm) to access the water side of the testing cage. An incomplete randomized block design was used with two tests per hen per wk for 5 wk. The testing apparatus was identical to their home cage but with two cages connected through an adjustable vertical gap and a drinker on the other side. Hens spent more time in the control side rather than the water side at 100 mm compared to 120 mm (P = 0.03). The hens' willingness to pass through a narrow vertical gap in order to access water did not vary according to the duration of water deprivation. Nonetheless, water-deprivation duration had a marked effect on the hens' location and behavior. Hens spent more time in the vicinity of the drinker at 18, 24, and 32 h compared to 0 and 12 h (P < 0.05). Hens spent more time drinking at 24 h and 32 h, followed by 18, 12, and finally 0 h (P < 0.05). Drinking latency and frequency were higher for all water-deprivation durations as compared to the 0 h control (P < 0.05). Water deprivation can be characterized by behavioral changes such as drinking duration, reaching a plateau at 24 h. Complementary physiological data are warranted to fully assess the impact of water deprivation on hen welfare. PMID:26628345

  8. Distribution of 15N-chlorocholine chloride in eggs of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Songsang, A; Chakeredza, S; Thinggaard, G; Vearasilp, T; ter Meulen, U

    2002-06-01

    The distribution of Chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in the eggs of laying hens was studied using 15N-CCC. Twelve layers (37 weeks old) were divided into four groups and used in this study consisting of three feeding phases. In phase one (7 days), all the hens received a CCC-free diet [165 g CP/kg dry matter (DM); 11.58 MJ ME/kg DM]. In phase two (11 days), four levels of 15N-CCC: 0, 5, 50 and 250 ppm were added to the respective diets, while in phase three (7 days), CCC-free feed was again offered. Egg samples were taken and the 15N content of egg yolk and albumin were determined. At the end of phase two, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in 15N content in egg yolk from hens fed the 50 and 250 ppm CCC diets and in albumin from hens fed the 250 ppm CCC diet. The estimated 15N-CCC residue was 1.71, 6.64, 28.80 ppm in egg yolk and 1.58, 1.08 and 4.50 ppm in albumin from hens fed 5, 50 and 250 ppm CCC, respectively. The CCC residue, from quantitative analysis ranged from 0.21 to 0.93 and 0.93 to 2.43 ppm in yolk of hens fed 50 and 250 ppm CCC, respectively, whereas a range of 0.40-1.46 ppm, was found in the albumin of hens fed 250 ppm. The difference in measured CCC in yolk and albumin and that estimated from 15N-CCC could have been due to breakdown products of 15N-CCC. Seven days after withdrawal of 15N-CCC, the estimated 15N-CCC residue in egg yolk decreased to 0.43, 2.45 and 15.59 ppm, on 5, 50 and 250 ppm CCC dietary treatments, respectively, and to 2.46 ppm in albumin from hens fed 250 ppm CCC. The higher increase in 15N content could have been due to a higher incorporation of 15N-CCC into yolk than albumin during the process of rapid yolk deposition. This experiment showed that consumed CCC is distributed both into yolk and albumin in a dose dependent manner and that CCC is metabolized in laying hens. However, the level of CCC in the diet which could lead to accumulation of detectable CCC levels in eggs as observed in this study, is much higher than the

  9. Porous concrete block as an environmental enrichment device increases activity of laying hens in cages.

    PubMed

    Holcman, A; Gorjanc, G; Stuhec, I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of simple and cheap environmental enrichment such as porous concrete on the behavior of laying hens in conventional cages. Forty brown laying hens were housed in individual wire mesh cages: 20 in experimental cages with porous concrete block provided for pecking and 20 in a control group without concrete block provided. Porous concrete block (5 cm length x 5 cm width x 5 cm height) was mounted on the side wall at the height of the hen's head. Behavior was studied from 42 to 48 wk of age. A group of 8 hens was filmed for 24 h, and the camera was moved each day so that all 40 hens were recorded over 5 d each wk. Videotaping was performed in wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the experiment. States (long-term behavior) were observed with 5-min interval recording (feeding, preening, resting, and remaining inactive), whereas events (short-term activities) were observed with instantaneous recording (drinking, pecking concrete, pecking neighbors, pecking cage, and attempting to escape). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution for states, and Poisson distribution for events. Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods were used to estimate model parameters. Because posterior distributions of quantities of interest were skewed, medians and standard errors are reported. Hens in experimental cages were more active in long-term behavior than controls (64.9 +/- 1.9 and 59.3 +/- 1.9% of the light period, respectively). Correspondingly, hens in the control group showed more long-term inactivity. In addition to pecking the porous concrete block, hens in experimental cages also showed other short-term activities with greater frequency (4.10 +/- 0.31 and 3.51 +/- 0.25 events per h, respectively). Our hypothesis that hens in enriched cages would have a greater level of activity was confirmed. Provision of a piece of porous concrete block as a pecking substrate enriched the environment of the birds at negligible

  10. Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Chilpa-Galván, N C; Avila-González, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2)) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1)) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB(1), and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB(1) dosages: 30 µg·kg(-1) (low) or 500 µg·kg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (µg·kg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB(1) (18); AFG(1), AFM(2), and AFL (0); AFG(2) (1.3); AFM(1) (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (16); AFG(2) (72); AFM(1) (0); AFM(2) (18); AFP(1) (145); and AFL (5 µg·kg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (512); AFG(2) (7); AFM(1) (4,775); AFM(2) (0); AFP(1) (661); and AFL (21 µg·kg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ng·mL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ng·mL(-1).

  11. Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Chilpa-Galván, N C; Avila-González, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2)) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1)) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB(1), and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB(1) dosages: 30 µg·kg(-1) (low) or 500 µg·kg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (µg·kg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB(1) (18); AFG(1), AFM(2), and AFL (0); AFG(2) (1.3); AFM(1) (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (16); AFG(2) (72); AFM(1) (0); AFM(2) (18); AFP(1) (145); and AFL (5 µg·kg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (512); AFG(2) (7); AFM(1) (4,775); AFM(2) (0); AFP(1) (661); and AFL (21 µg·kg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ng·mL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ng·mL(-1). PMID:25352677

  12. Ivermectin Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, and Tissue/Egg Residue Profiles in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Laura; Dominguez, Paula; Farias, Cristina; Canton, Lucila; Virkel, Guillermo; Maté, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-12-01

    The goals were to determine the ivermectin (IVM) plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue and egg residue profiles, and in vitro metabolism in laying hens. Experiments conducted were (1) 8 hens were intravenously treated with IVM and blood samples taken; (2) 88 hens were treated with IVM administered daily in water (5 days) (40 were kept and their daily eggs collected; 48 were sacrificed in groups (n = 8) at different times and tissue samples taken and analyzed); (3) IVM biotransformation was studied in liver microsomes. Pharmacokinetic parameters were AUC = 85.1 ng·day/mL, Vdss = 4.43 L/kg, and T1/2el = 1.73 days. Low IVM tissue residues were quantified with the highest measured in liver and skin+fat. IVM residues were not found in egg white, but significant amounts were quantified in yolk. Residues measured in eggs were greater than some MRL values, suggesting that a withdrawal period would be necessary for eggs after IVM use in laying hens. PMID:26553292

  13. Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5% DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5% or 15% DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results The 15% DFA diet decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, egg production, and plasma uric acid concentrations as compared with the control diet, but increased (P < 0.05) egg albumen weight and height compared with the 7.5% DFA diets. The two levels of DFA produced dose-dependent (P < 0.05) changes in three color measures of egg yolk, without affecting four hen plasma biochemical indicators of health. Conclusions Feeding laying hens with 7.5% DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15% inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization. PMID:24401600

  14. The influence of Datura ferox alkaloids on egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kovatsis, A; Kotsaki-Kovatsi, V P; Nikolaidis, E; Flaskos, J; Tzika, S; Tzotzas, G

    1994-04-01

    Seeds of the weed Datura ferox are frequent contaminants of raw materials used for animal feed. In this study a mixture of scopolamine and hyoscyamine (98:2), the 2 main alkaloids of Datura ferox seeds, was incorporated at 4 total alkaloid levels (1.5, 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg feed) into a control diet fed to 100 egg-laying hens for 3 mo. Alkaloid doses of 150 mg/kg feed reduced egg production for the first 5-6 w of feeding, whereas lower doses had no effect. Egg weight, eggshell thickness and body weight of hens were unaffected at all doses. Doses of 150 mg/kg feed produced significant increases in the cardiac rate of hens after 5 w. Breathing frequency at all doses was unaffected. Determination of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activities, as well as autopsy and histological examinations, revealed no obvious alkaloid-related toxic effects. It was concluded that a total alkaloid dose as high as 75 mg/kg feed can be safely administered to egg-laying hens. PMID:8197722

  15. Restriction of cadmium transfer to eggs from laying hens exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shin; Okabe, Masashi; Emoto, Tadasu

    1997-09-01

    The transfer of Cd to eggs of white Leghorn laying hens has been shown to be restricted. After Cd was injected ip into laying hens, the Cd concentrations in the blood, livers, ovaries, and eggs were measured, Although the Cd concentrations in the maternal blood and livers increased remarkably at certain levels of administrations, the Cd concentration in the yolks of eggs was not significantly increased, and was less than 0.04 {mu}g/g wet weight. After egg production stopped in the highest injected group (7.5 mg Cd/kg), Cd in the yolks of eggs had an accumulated range of 0.02-0.03 {mu}g/g wet weight. This was despite the high Cd accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, the Cd concentration in the follicle walls of the ovary increased and was 13- to 52-fold higher than in the follicle yolks. An additional experiment was conducted in order to estimate whether hatching success is affected by the Cd in the laid eggs of Cd-injected laying hens, The ratio of hatching success in the 0.3 or 1.2 {mu}g Cd/egg-injected groups was similar to that in the saline- injected group, indicating that a small amount of Cd in the eggs might exert no marked influence on the hatching success. In conclusion, Cd transfer from laying hen to eggs was restricted after the maternal bird was exposed to Cd. Furthermore, Cd accumulates in the follicle walls of ovary. These results suggest that the follicle walls might play a role in protecting the follicle yolks against Cd toxicity. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A(1), (2), (3)), semiautomatic systems (S(1), (2)), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S(1)--without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms.

  17. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A(1), (2), (3)), semiautomatic systems (S(1), (2)), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S(1)--without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms. PMID:26446089

  18. Broiler chick and laying hen tolerance to sodium hypochlorite in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Damron, B L; Flunker, L K

    1993-09-01

    Two broiler and two laying hen experiments were conducted to establish threshold levels for sodium hypochlorite use in poultry drinking water. Both broiler experiments were of 21-days duration, and the first and second hen experiments ran for 8 and 4 wk, respectively. A 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution was used to provide chloride levels of 0, 10, 100, or 500 ppm in the first broiler study and 0, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, or 450 ppm in the second study. Comparable sodium levels from sodium bicarbonate were additional treatments in the first broiler experiment. The initial hen study had drinking water treatments of 0, 50, or 100 ppm chloride whereas in the second study, treatments varied from 0 to 70 ppm chloride at 10-ppm intervals. In chick experiments, water intake was reduced by 100 ppm chloride and body weight by 300 ppm. Hen experiments demonstrated the adverse effect level to be 40 ppm for water consumption and 60 ppm for egg production when the application was to pullets producing eggs at a high rate in warm weather. Water consumption of older hens in cooler weather was adversely affected by 50 ppm chloride, but egg production, egg weight, or daily feed intake was not reduced by 100 ppm.

  19. Biological and economic optimum level of calcium in White Leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Cuca, M; Pro, A; González, M; Morales, E

    2004-06-01

    Calcium is important in eggshell formation; inadequate levels in the diet of laying hens may affect shell quality and egg production. An experiment with 250 Leghorn Hy-Line W-98 hens was conducted to evaluate 5 dietary Ca levels (2.96, 3.22, 3.83, 4.31, and 4.82%) in 3 laying periods. The evaluated variables were egg production (EP), egg mass (EM), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion (FC), and specific gravity (SG). The biological optimum level (BOL) of Ca for maximum egg production and specific gravity, and the economic optimum level (EOL) to maximize profits were calculated. There was no interaction between Ca level and laying period. The results show that the Ca level of the diet (P < 0.05) affected the intake of this nutrient (3.34, 3.68, 4.26, 4.89, and 5.39 g bird/day), ADFI (113, 114, 111, 113, and 111 g bird/day), and SG (1.080, 1.081, 1.082, 1.083, and 1.083). As the hens aged, EP and SG diminished (P < 0.05). BOL for maximum EP and SG were 4.34 and 4.62%, and EOL was 4.38%. PMID:15206611

  20. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  1. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  2. Safety evaluation of daidzein in laying hens: part I. Effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organs development.

    PubMed

    Shi, S R; Gu, H; Chang, L L; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

    2013-05-01

    Daidzein, an estrogen-like product, becomes increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals seeking a safe natural alternative to play a role of estrogen. However, there is little available safety data of it for raisers and consumers. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if the high-dose daidzein could affect the safety of hens selves, including laying performance, clinical blood parameters and organs development. Seven hundred and sixty-eight 56-week-old Hyline Brown were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 8 replicates of 24 birds each and 3weeks later fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg of daidzein/kg for 12weeks. The mortality was significantly decreased (P<0.05). No treatment related adverse clinical signs were observed. Mean egg production, egg mass and feed conversion of whole experiment period was significantly influenced by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05), showing significant quadratic response to increasing dietary daidzein supplement (P=0.029, P=0.003 and P=0.019, respectively). There was no statistically significant changes in haematology (P>0.05). In clinical chemistry parameters, total protein, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus were significantly affected by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05). The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be 50mg/kg. PMID:23391597

  3. Spatiotemporal expression profile of a putative β propeller WDR72 in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhangguo; Li, Bingyi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the expression profile of a novel gene WDR72 in laying hens. Sixty-week old Hy-line Brown layers with similar laying sequence, egg weight, and shell strength, were selected and divided into 5 groups. The oviduct segments, such as magnum, white isthmus, and uterus, were sampled from each group of hens which were killed at 3 h post-oviposition (3 h P.O.), 4.15-4.5 h P.O., 8.5-9 h P.O., 12 h P.O. and 18 h P.O., respectively. To the 8.5-9 h P.O. hens, additional organs were also sampled besides oviduct tissues. Moreover, another group of hens with weak shell strength were selected and their oviduct segments were sampled at 12 h P.O. Then the expression profile of WDR72 was analyzed using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed as follows. (1) WDR72 transcripts specifically distributed in parts of organs investigated. At 8.5-9 h P.O., WDR72 appeared to be much more abundantly expressed in hens' oviduct sections, then followed in turn by brain, kidney, lung, glandular stomach and spleen. However, there were almost no WDR72 transcripts expressed in pectoral muscle, liver, heart and jejunum. (2) During the process of an "egg" passing through an oviduct, the expression of WDR72 in the magnum was greatly superior to that in the other two oviduct segments at 3 h P.O., 8.5-9 h P.O., and 12 h P.O.; while it was white isthmus in which WDR72 transcript levels were the highest at 4.15-4.5 h P.O. and 18 h P.O. (3) To any oviduct segment, not only uterus but also magnum and white isthmus, the expression of WDR72 in which was significantly up-regulated at the stages of active calcification. (4) WDR72 transcript levels in any oviduct segments of strong-shell hens were significantly higher than that of weak-shell layers (P < 0.01), which arose the possibility that WDR72 was positively associated with chicken eggshell strength. In conclusion, the expression profile of WDR72 gene in laying hens has been characterized

  4. Incidence, Severity, and Welfare Implications of Lesions Observed Postmortem in Laying Hens from Commercial Noncage Farms in California and Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kajlich, Anya S; Shivaprasad, H L; Trampel, Darrell W; Hill, Ashley E; Parsons, Rebecca L; Millman, Suzanne T; Mench, Joy A

    2016-03-01

    The egg industry is moving away from the use of conventional cages to enriched cage and noncage laying hen housing systems because of animal welfare concerns. In this study, the prevalence and severity of lesions in noncage laying hens from commercial farms in two of the largest egg-producing states, California and Iowa, were evaluated by postmortem examination. Hens that died or were culled were collected during early, mid, and late stages of the laying cycle from 16 houses on three farms. Of the 25 gross lesions identified for study, 22 were observed, with an average of four lesions per hen. Vent cannibalism, reduced feather cover, keel bone deformation, and beak abnormalities were the most frequent lesions, observed in ≥40% of hens. Other common lesions were cloacal prolapse (30.5%), footpad dermatitis (24.3%), and septicemia (23.1%). Beak abnormality and enteric disease had the highest proportion of severe lesions. Pearson chi-square analysis revealed a number of stage-of-lay effects (P ≤ 0.05), some of which differed by state. For both states combined, the lesions observed more frequently during early lay were beak abnormalities, northern fowl mite infestation, and cage layer fatigue, whereas during mid lay, they were poor feather cover, vent cannibalism, footpad dermatitis, keel bone deformation, respiratory disease and roundworms. Feather pecking and cloacal prolapse were most common during late lay. Although differences in hen genetics, farm management practices, and environmental factors could all have affected the results of this study, the information provides a better understanding of hen health in noncage housing systems and could help to identify potential interventions to reduce hen welfare problems. PMID:26953938

  5. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with a negative FL test. The risk of Salmonella infection increased when the age of laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation of bacteriophage on performance, egg quality and caecal bacterial populations in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Kim, J W; Shin, H S; Kim, M C; Lee, J H; Kim, G-B; Kil, D Y

    2015-01-01

    1. Bacteriophages (BP) have gained increasing attention as a treatment of bacterial infection for animals. However, the data pertaining to dietary application of BP for laying hens have been limited. 2. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary BP on laying performance, egg quality and caecal bacterial populations in laying hens. 3. The dietary BP used in this experiment was a mixture of individual BP targeting Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella derby and Staphylococcus aureus. 4. A total of 360 Hy-Line Brown laying hens of 32 weeks of age were allotted to one of three dietary treatments with 6 replicates in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was prepared, and 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg BP mixture was supplemented to the basal diet. Diets were fed to hens for 8 weeks. 5. Laying performance and egg quality were not affected by dietary treatments. As inclusion levels of BP mixture in diets were increased, the DNA copy numbers for Salmonella spp. in the caecal contents decreased linearly, whereas the DNA copy numbers for Escherichia coli in the caecal contents increased linearly. 6. Results indicate that dietary supplementation of BP mixture decreases the target Salmonella spp. populations but increases Escherichia coli populations in the gastrointestinal tract of laying hens with little impact on laying performance and egg quality.

  7. Soft Perches in an Aviary System Reduce Incidence of Keel Bone Damage in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Ariane; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J.; Würbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  8. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

    2015-01-01

    A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P < 0.001) at wk 14 and improved (P = 0.002) ileal total AA digestibility. Although DG or FD exhibited moderate effects on intestinal brush border protease activities and mRNA levels of duodenal transporters Pept1, Lat1, and Cat1, both substantially enhanced (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of hepatic protein synthesis key regulator S6 ribosomal protein (S6) and the ratio of phospho-S6 to S6 in the liver of hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived. PMID

  9. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

    2015-01-01

    A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P < 0.001) at wk 14 and improved (P = 0.002) ileal total AA digestibility. Although DG or FD exhibited moderate effects on intestinal brush border protease activities and mRNA levels of duodenal transporters Pept1, Lat1, and Cat1, both substantially enhanced (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of hepatic protein synthesis key regulator S6 ribosomal protein (S6) and the ratio of phospho-S6 to S6 in the liver of hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived.

  10. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements. PMID:26237715

  11. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns. PMID:26237714

  12. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns.

  13. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  14. Prediction of the metabolizable energy requirements of free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Brainer, M M A; Rabello, C B V; Santos, M J B; Lopes, C C; Ludke, J V; Silva, J H V; Lima, R A

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of estimating the ME requirements of free-range laying hens for maintenance, weight gain, and egg production. These experiments were performed to develop an energy requirement prediction equation by using the comparative slaughter technique and the total excreta collection method. Regression equations were used to relate the energy intake, the energy retained in the body and eggs, and the heat production of the hens. These relationships were used to determine the daily ME requirement for maintenance, the efficiency energy utilization above the requirements for maintenance, and the NE requirement for maintenance. The requirement for weight gain was estimated from the energy content of the carcass, and the diet's efficiency energy utilization was determined from the weight gain, which was measured during weekly slaughter. The requirement for egg production was estimated by considering the energy content of the eggs and the efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. The requirement and efficiency energy utilization for maintenance were 121.8 kcal ME/(kg∙d)and 0.68, respectively. Similarly, the NE requirement for maintenance was 82.4 kcal ME/(kg∙d), and the efficiency energy utilization above maintenance was 0.61. Because the carcass body weight and energy did not increase during the trial, the weight gain could not be estimated. The requirements for egg production requirement and efficiency energy utilization for egg production were 2.48 kcal/g and 0.61, respectively. The following energy prediction equation for free-range laying hens (without weight gain) was developed: ME /(hen ∙ d) = 121.8 × W + 2.48 × EM, in which W = body weight (kg) and EM = egg mass (g/[hen ∙ d]).

  15. [Occurence of salmonellae in laying hens in different housing systems and inferences for control].

    PubMed

    Methner, Ulrich; Diller, Roland; Reiche, Renate; Böhland, Karin

    2006-01-01

    As eggs represent now as ever the most important source for Salmonella infection in human beings and because of the currently occurring shift in housing conditions for laying hens from conventional cages to alternative systems it was studied whether the Salmonella prevalence in layers is influenced by the housing system. Following systems were considered: organic farming with free range management systems, floor management systems with free range, floor management systems without free range, conventional cages. 453 pooled faecal samples as single or double examination per herd from 329 flocks in different housing systems for table egg production from three Federal Lander were examined bacteriologically. The share of layer flocks which were Salmonella positive at least once independently of the housing system amounted to 32.2%. Analysis of the Salmonella findings in the single housing systems revealed that the share of Salmonella positive flocks was higher in conventional cage systems (46.3%) than in alternative housing systems (32.996% in organic farming with free range management systems, 21.9% in floor management systems with free range, 23.4% in floor management systems without free range). The results of the study clearly show that Salmonella Enteritidis (mostly phage type 4, other phage types rarely) presents with a share of 78% the dominant serovar in laying hens. The total number of all other serovars (apart from Salmonella Enteritidis and subspecies I rough) reached a share of ca. 14%, however, no other single serovar was dominant. As Salmonella Enteritidis is the predominant serovar in laying hens it is strongly recommended to use Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines for immunisation programmes of chickens during the rearing period. Because of the high prevalence of Salmonella organisms in the different housing systems, detailed information on the epidemiology of Salmonella in laying hens are needed to introduce effective control measures. Of particular

  16. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-02-01

    More human illnesses caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis throughout the world have been linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs than to any other food vehicle. Deposition of this pathogen in the edible contents of eggs occurs when systemic infections of laying hens involve colonization of reproductive organs. In recent years, the consequences of different housing systems for laying flocks have become the focus of international attention from both animal welfare and public health perspectives. Nevertheless, many questions remain unresolved regarding the food safety implications of various laying hen production systems. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing types (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching, nesting, and scratching areas) on the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens. In 2 trials, groups of laying hens housed in each cage system were orally inoculated with doses of 1.0 × 10(7) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. At 5 to 6 d postinoculation, hens were euthanized and samples of internal organs were removed for bacteriologic culturing. For both trials combined, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 95.3% of cecal samples, with no significant differences observed between housing systems. However, Salmonella Enteritidis was detected at significantly (P < 0.05) higher frequencies from hens in conventional cages than from hens in enriched cages for samples of livers (96.9 vs. 75.0%), spleens (93.8 vs. 53.1%), ovaries (25.0 vs. 10.4%), and oviducts (19.8 vs. 2.1%). These results demonstrate that differences in housing systems for egg-laying flocks can affect the susceptibility of hens to colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis. PMID:23300315

  17. [Degree of synchronous feeding behavior of two types of laying hybrid hens in battery cages with a feeder space of 12 cm per hen].

    PubMed

    Knierim, U

    2000-11-01

    There is a considerable lack of scientific evidence on the necessary feeder space with respect to the legal requirement that all hens of one battery cage must be able to feed simultaneously. Moreover it is likely that hens from different lines, differing in weight and width, have different space needs at the feeding trough. In order to ascertain the degree of simultaneous feeding in two types of laying hybrids with different weights, feeding activity was recorded in 29 cages, populated with four hens each with a feeder space of 12 cm per hen. Recordings took place over 6 days at seven feeding times under ad libitum feeding conditions. In all cages, the lighter and apparently slimmer LSL-hens (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, white) were able to feed simultaneously. However, for the somewhat heavier and apparently broader LT-hens (Lohmann Tradition, brown) this could not be observed in two of 16 cages. Nevertheless, was the average proportion of cages higher in LT-hens in which synchronous feeding of all hens could be noted at least once within each 30 minutes observation period. These were 35% of cages (LT) compared to 18% in LSL-hens (p < 0.001). Therefore, not only the physical space needs, but also possible differences in social and feeding behaviour may affect synchrony in different lines. In general, the proportion of observation time with simultaneous feeding was low (3.3% in LT, 1.7% in LSL, n.s.). As there are no comparable figures available for different feeder space allowances from the literature, an assessment of the presented data is not possible. Investigations on the synchrony of feeding behaviour in small groups of laying hens under varying environmental conditions and in different layer lines should be continued.

  18. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Deakin, Amanda; Browne, William J; Hodge, James J L; Paul, Elizabeth S; Mendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals' responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens' responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the 'screen-peck' task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue-P) to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue-N) to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive-NP; middle-M; near-negative-NN), and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias. PMID:27410229

  19. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  20. Reducing ammonia emissions from laying-hen houses through dietary manipulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Xin, Hongwei; Burns, Robert T; Roberts, Stacey A; Li, Shuhai; Kliebenstein, James; Bregendahl, Kristjan

    2012-02-01

    Feed additives can change the microbiological environment of the animal digestive track, nutrient composition of feces, and its gaseous emissions. This 2-yr field study involving commercial laying-hen houses in central Iowa was conducted to assess the effects of feeding diets containing EcoCal and corn-dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions. Three high-rise layer houses (256,600 W-36 hens per house) received standard industry diet (Control), a diet containing 7% EcoCal (EcoCal) or a diet containing 10% DDGS (DDGS). Gaseous emissions were continuously monitored during the period of December 2007 to December 2009, covering the full production cycle. The 24-month test results revealed that mean NH3 emission rates were 0.58 +/- 0.05, 0.82 +/- 0.04, and 0.96 +/- 0.05 g/hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. Namely, compared to the Control diet, the EcoCal and DDGS diets reduced NH3 emission by an average of 39.2% and 14.3%, respectively. The concurrent H2S emission rates were 5.39 +/- 0.46, 1.91 +/- 0.13, and 1.79 +/- 0.16 mg/ hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. CO2 emission rates were similar for the three diets, 87.3 +/- 1.37, 87.4 +/- 1.26, and 89.6 +/- 1.6 g/hen/day for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control, respectively (P = 0.45). The DDGS and EcoCal houses tended to emit less CH4 than the Control house (0.16 and 0.12 vs. 0.20 g/hen/day) during the monitored summer season. The efficacy of NH3 emission reduction by the EcoCal diet decreased with increasing outside temperature, varying from 72.2% in February 2009 to -7.10% in September 2008. Manure of the EcoCal diet contained 68% higher ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and 4.7 times higher sulfur content than that of the Control diet. Manure pH values were 8.0, 8.9, and 9.3 for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diets, respectively. This extensive field study verifies that dietary manipulation

  1. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E; Janczak, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  2. Effects of supplemental copper and chromium on the serum and egg traits of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lien, T F; Chen, K L; Wu, C P; Lu, J J

    2004-08-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of supplemental copper and chromium on the serum and egg traits of laying hens using 144 forty-five-week-old White Leghorn layers. The hens were randomly assigned into 9 groups to conduct this 3 copper (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg as copper sulphate) x 3 chromium (0, 800 and 1600 microg/kg as chromium picolinate) factorial trial. 2. Egg yolk cholesterol was significantly reduced by supplementary copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) and there was an interaction between Cu and Cr supplementation. Egg production, egg weight, eggshell strength and eggshell thickness were not influenced by Cu or Cr supplementation. 3. Serum cholesterol concentration was decreased by Cu supplementation and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was reduced markedly by both Cu and Cr. On the other hand, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased by Cu and Cr. Interaction occurred between Cu and Cr in the VLDL and HDL parameters. Supplmentary Cu also reduced VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and enhanced HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), while supplemental Cr had a contrary effect on these two parameters. 4. If minimum egg cholesterol content is the criterion, this study suggests that 125 mg/kg of Cu together with 800 to 1600 microg/kg of Cr provide adequate supplementary concentrations for laying hens. PMID:15484730

  3. Occurrence of viable Brachyspira spp. on carcasses of spent laying hens from supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Marc; Pasmans, Frank; Garmyn, An; De Zutter, Lieven; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2012-12-01

    Brachyspira spp. are frequent inhabitants of the chicken's intestine and some have been associated with enteric disease in humans. We studied contamination with Brachyspira spp. of carcasses of spent laying hens as a possible source of infections for humans and animals that may eat this meat. Eleven batches of hen carcasses, for a total of 110 carcasses, were bought in Belgian supermarkets during 2009-2010. Carcass rinse samples were examined for the presence of Brachyspira. Brachyspira spp. were cultured from some carcass in all batches. Besides presumably non-pathogenic species such as Brachyspira murdochii and Brachyspira innocens, the poultry pathogen Brachyspira intermedia and the poultry and suspected human pathogen Brachyspira pilosicoli were identified in 7/11 and 1/11 carcass batches, respectively, at high numbers, as shown using quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated the presence of 2 and 13 MLST types of B. pilosicoli and B. intermedia, respectively, with all strains belonging to novel MLST types. The findings show that carcasses of spent laying hens are commonly contaminated with high numbers of Brachyspira spp., including the suspected zoonotic agent B. pilosicoli.

  4. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  5. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  6. [Influence of chitosan feeding of laying hens on egg vitamin and cholesterol content].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Filimonova, I V; Kodentsova, O V; Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan feeding (10 and 20 mg per 1 kg body mass) of 19 week-age laying hens during 1.5 months caused a decrease in whole egg content of vitamin A for 13% and 20% (p < or = 0.05), vitamin E--for 30%, lutein--17% and didn't effect on vitamin B2 level. Chitosan intake lead to cholesterol content 1.5-2 fold decrease and didn't influence on egg yolk lipids concentration. Low dose chitosan-receiving hens had eggs with 1.8-fold increased egg yolk phospholipids level. The most optimal dose of chitosan for the improvement of eggs nutritive value was 10 mg. Under minimal loss in vitamins its administration lead to the pronounced cholesterol decrease and marked phospholipids elevation. PMID:16044838

  7. Tomato powder in laying hen diets: effects on concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, F; Orhan, C; Sahin, N; Sahin, K; Hayirli, A

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance, egg quality, serum and egg yolk carotenoids, vitamins and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in were investigated in laying hens in mid-lay. 2. A total of 90 laying hens, 49 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate cages, 5 birds per cage. Birds were randomly fed on one of three diets: basal diet and basal diet added with 5 or 10 g tomato powder per kg diet. 3. As tomato powder concentration increased, there were linear increases in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk colour and a linear decrease in feed conversion. Shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh unit remained unchanged in response to dietary treatments. 4. Concentrations of serum and egg yolk lycopene, β-carotene, lutein and vitamin A increased for both diets including tomato powder, whereas MDA decreased linearly with increasing supplemental tomato powder concentration. 5. Tomato powder supplementation increased egg production persistency and increased carotenoids and vitamin A contents in egg yolk, accompanied by reduced yolk lipid peroxidation. PMID:23281763

  8. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  9. Acaricide residues in laying hens naturally infested by red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Marangi, Marianna; Morelli, Vincenzo; Pati, Sandra; Camarda, Antonio; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    In the poultry industry, control of the red mite D. gallinae primarily relies worldwide on acaricides registered for use in agriculture or for livestock, and those most widely used are carbamates, followed by amidines, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Due to the repeated use of acaricides--sometimes in high concentrations--to control infestation, red mites may become resistant, and acaricides may accumulate in chicken organs and tissues, and also in eggs. To highlight some situations of misuse/abuse of chemicals and of risk to human health, we investigated laying hens, destined to the slaughterhouse, for the presence of acaricide residues in their organs and tissues. We used 45 hens from which we collected a total of 225 samples from the following tissues and organs: skin, fat, liver, muscle, hearth, and kidney. In these samples we analyzed the residual contents of carbaryl and permethrin by LC-MS/MS.Ninety-one (40.4%) samples were positive to carbaryl and four samples (1.7%) were positive to permethrin. Concentrations of carbaryl exceeding the detection limit (0.005 ppm) were registered in the skin and fat of birds from two farms (p<0.01), although these concentrations remained below the maximum residue limit (MRLs) (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01). All organs/tissues of hens from a third farm were significantly more contaminated, with skin and muscle samples exceeding the MRL (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01) of carbaryl in force before its use was banned. Out of 45 chickens tested, 37 (82.2%) were found to be contaminated by carbaryl, and 4 (8.8%) by permethrin. The present study is the first report on the presence of pesticides banned by the EU (carbaryl) or not licensed for use (permethrin) in the organs and tissues of laying hens, which have been treated against red mites, and then slaughtered for human consumption at the end of their life cycle.

  10. Acaricide Residues in Laying Hens Naturally Infested by Red Mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    PubMed Central

    Marangi, Marianna; Morelli, Vincenzo; Pati, Sandra; Camarda, Antonio; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    In the poultry industry, control of the red mite D. gallinae primarily relies worldwide on acaricides registered for use in agriculture or for livestock, and those most widely used are carbamates, followed by amidines, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Due to the repeated use of acaricides - sometimes in high concentrations - to control infestation, red mites may become resistant, and acaricides may accumulate in chicken organs and tissues, and also in eggs. To highlight some situations of misuse/abuse of chemicals and of risk to human health, we investigated laying hens, destined to the slaughterhouse, for the presence of acaricide residues in their organs and tissues. We used 45 hens from which we collected a total of 225 samples from the following tissues and organs: skin, fat, liver, muscle, hearth, and kidney. In these samples we analyzed the residual contents of carbaryl and permethrin by LC-MS/MS. Ninety-one (40.4%) samples were positive to carbaryl and four samples (1.7%) were positive to permethrin. Concentrations of carbaryl exceeding the detection limit (0.005 ppm) were registered in the skin and fat of birds from two farms (p<0.01), although these concentrations remained below the maximum residue limit (MRLs) (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01). All organs/tissues of hens from a third farm were significantly more contaminated, with skin and muscle samples exceeding the MRL (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01) of carbaryl in force before its use was banned. Out of 45 chickens tested, 37 (82.2%) were found to be contaminated by carbaryl, and 4 (8.8%) by permethrin. The present study is the first report on the presence of pesticides banned by the EU (carbaryl) or not licensed for use (permethrin) in the organs and tissues of laying hens, which have been treated against red mites, and then slaughtered for human consumption at the end of their life cycle. PMID:22363736

  11. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  12. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD in 4 of the 7 MBM samples. In 2 of the 3 SBM samples, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for most of the nonessential amino acids. Generally, hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Likewise, broilers had 4.1 and 1.5% units more Met and Lys digestibility of all the SBM samples evaluated compared with those from laying hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  13. Arsenic in eggs and excreta of laying hens in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Awal, M A; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M Z; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n = 248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r = 0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r = 0.716), feed and excreta (r = 0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r = 0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking

  14. Arsenic in Eggs and Excreta of Laying Hens in Bangladesh: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Awal, M. A.; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M. Z.; Rao, D. Ramkishan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n=248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p<0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r=0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r=0.716), feed and excreta (r=0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r=0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed

  15. Arsenic in eggs and excreta of laying hens in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Awal, M A; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M Z; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n = 248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r = 0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r = 0.716), feed and excreta (r = 0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r = 0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking

  16. Effects of dietary cottonseed meal and iron-treated cottonseed meal in different laying hen genotypes.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, S; Morris, T R

    1991-03-01

    The effects of dietary screw-pressed cottonseed meal (CSM) and iron-treated CSM on laying performance and discolourations in eggs were examined in a range of hen genotypes. In experiment 1, six genotypes, obtained at point-of-lay from various sources, were fed on a non-CSM diet, a diet with 300 g CSM/kg, and a diet containing iron-treated CSM at 300 g/kg. In experiment 2, two of these genotypes were reared together from day-old and were fed from 10 to 18 weeks on a non-CSM diet or a diet containing iron-treated CSM at 250 g/kg. They were then fed on a non-CSM layer diet or a diet containing iron-treated CSM at 300 g/kg, in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design that also examined the effects of the rearing diet. 2. The effects on food intakes and egg production of including CSM and iron-treated CSM in layer diets depended on the genotype of the hens. The strongest interaction between breed and diet was on food intake, the breed Hubbard Golden Comet (HGC) being the least tolerant of CSM and iron-treated CSM. 3. Inclusion of iron-treated CSM in the rearer diet to supply approximately 70% of the dietary protein had no adverse effects on growth or age at first egg. Food intake and egg production between 18 and 26 weeks were affected by the iron-treated CSM layer diet, but there were no carry-over effects attributable to the rearing diets. 4. Genotype was not a factor in the development of the gossypol-related brown yolk discolouration in fresh or warm-stored eggs of hens fed on a CSM-based diet containing 197 mg free gossypol/kg and 52 mg cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFA)/kg (experiment 1). 5. In both experiments, the susceptibility of eggs to the CPFA-related cold storage effects depended on the genotype of the hen, eggs from hens of the HCG breed being more affected than those of ISA hens. 6. Treatment of CSM with crystalline ferrous sulphate heptahydrate, at a 4:1 weight ratio of iron to free gossypol, prevented brown yolk discolourations in all genotypes tested, as assessed

  17. [Discussion of actual legal minimum requirements for feeder space and perch length in laying hen husbandry in the light of the body widths measured in Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown laying hens].

    PubMed

    Briese, Andreas; Spindler, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Legal requirements on space and dimensions regarding furnished cages and alternative systems in laying hen husbandry are subject of constant discussion. Further knowledge about basic measures of the hens might help to come to reasonable results in the future. Digital images of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens, housed at the Lehr- und Forschungsgut Ruthe, University for Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Foundation, in Big Dutchman Eurovent laying hen cages, were made at three stages (19th, 36th and 58th week) of production. All hens had been taken out of their cages by night and set on a perch in a special cage used to photograph the hens frontally under controlled conditions. Body widths were calculated by a python application Cdisto.py0 2009 Andreas Briese) to mark and measure the body width in the digital images of a total of 156 hens. Mean body widths of 133.77 mm in Lohmann-LSL hens (SD = 9.71; N = 64; mean weight: 1.73 kg) and of 152.55 mm in Lohmann-LB hens (SD = 10.31; N = 92; mean weight: 1.93 kg) respectively were found. Even slight changes in body weights had no effect on the body width. Nonetheless the differences between both hybrids were always statistically significant (Mann-Whitney p < 0,001). Using these preliminary results on body width in a mathematical model simultanious feeding behaviour becomes only possible if the number of animals is reduced by 10.3% to 89.7% in LSL and by 21.3% to 78.7% in LB breeds in relation to a calculated maximum on base of the minimum space requirements for furnished cages in the EU-Dir 74/1999/EC. PMID:23540200

  18. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Browne, William J.; Hodge, James J. L.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Mendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals’ responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens’ responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the ‘screen-peck’ task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue–P) to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue–N) to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive–NP; middle–M; near-negative–NN), and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias. PMID:27410229

  19. Hepatic lipid characteristics and histopathology of laying hens fed CLA or n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Gita; Goeger, Mary P

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary CLA and n-3 PUFA on hepatic TAG accumulation, histopathology, and FA incorporation in lipid classes by laying chickens was investigated. One hundred twenty 30-wk-old single comb white leghorn laying hens were distributed randomly to four treatments (3 replications of 10 birds) and were fed diets containing CLA and animal fat (Diet I), 18:3n-3 (Diet II), or long-chain n-3 FA (Diet III). A sunflower oil (n-6 FA)-based diet vvas the control. Feeding Diet I resulted in an increase in hepatic total lipids (P < 0.05). The liver TAG content was 32.2, 18.9, 29.4, and 18.7 mg/g for hens fed Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and the control diet, respectively (P< 0.05). The serum TAG was lowest in birds fed Diet II (P < 0.05). Diet I resulted in an increase in the total number of fat vacuoles and lipid infiltration in hepatocytes (P < 0.05). The number of cells with 75% or higher lipid vacuolation was observed only in birds fed Diet I. Feeding diets containing CLA resulted in an increase in the content of the c9,t11 CLA isomer in liver TAG and PC (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the CLA concentration of hepatic PE fractions. The content of DHA (22:6n-3) was higher in the TAG, PC, and PE of hens fed Diet II and Diet III than Diet I and the control (P < 0.05). Feeding CLA resulted in an increase in total saturated FA in the TAG and PC fractions (P < 0.05). Long-term feeding of CLA in laying birds leads to an increase in liver TAG and may predispose birds to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome.

  20. Assessment of the behaviour and welfare of laying hens on free-range units.

    PubMed

    Whay, H R; Main, D C J; Green, L E; Heaven, G; Howell, H; Morgan, M; Pearson, A; Webster, A J F

    2007-07-28

    The aims of this study were twofold: to develop and test an animal-based protocol for the assessment of the physical and emotional elements of the welfare of laying hens on free-range units and to investigate the effects of different approaches to housing and management on the welfare of the birds. The protocol was tested on 25 free-range units for laying hens, each of which was visited on four occasions by one of five trained observers; further information about husbandry, health and productivity was gathered from interviews with the farmers. Measures of the birds' attitude included arousal, noise, flight distance and response to a novel object, measures of their activity included feather pecking, aggression and use of range, and measures of their physical welfare included mortality, body condition and egg quality. Increased arousal was associated with increased flight distance, greater reluctance to approach a novel object and higher levels of feather pecking and feather loss, but the correlation between pecking and feather loss was low. The birds maintained body condition throughout the period of lay. Neither body condition, feather pecking nor feather loss was affected by the extent of beak trimming. Estimated losses (deaths and culls) ranged from 1.8 to 21.4 per cent (median 6.95 per cent). Few birds showed signs of ill health, limb lesions or red mite infestation. No feature of building design had a significant effect on mortality, but there were consistent differences in the birds' attitude, behaviour and performance attributable to the type of floor and the presence or absence of perches, which suggested that the welfare of the hens was inferior when they were housed on plastic floors with no perches.

  1. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen.

  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx and Esophagus with Pulmonary Metastasis in a Backyard Laying Hen.

    PubMed

    Laura, Nordio; Marta, Vascellari; Giacomo, Berto; Luca, Bano

    2016-09-01

    A backyard laying hen exhibiting muscular atrophy, dyspnea, and absence of egg production was analyzed for diagnostic insights. Gross findings revealed the presence of a large ulcerated mass with irregular edges involving the caudal part of the oropharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus, occluding the lumen of the esophagus and compressing the trachea. Small nodular lesions were detected also in the lungs. Histologically, both esophageal and pulmonary masses were characterized by nests of pleomorphic epithelial cells with squamous differentiation. The diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with the uncommon feature of pulmonary metastasis. PMID:27610733

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx and Esophagus with Pulmonary Metastasis in a Backyard Laying Hen.

    PubMed

    Laura, Nordio; Marta, Vascellari; Giacomo, Berto; Luca, Bano

    2016-09-01

    A backyard laying hen exhibiting muscular atrophy, dyspnea, and absence of egg production was analyzed for diagnostic insights. Gross findings revealed the presence of a large ulcerated mass with irregular edges involving the caudal part of the oropharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus, occluding the lumen of the esophagus and compressing the trachea. Small nodular lesions were detected also in the lungs. Histologically, both esophageal and pulmonary masses were characterized by nests of pleomorphic epithelial cells with squamous differentiation. The diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with the uncommon feature of pulmonary metastasis.

  4. Succession and replacement of bacterial populations in the caecum of egg laying hens over their whole life.

    PubMed

    Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Lukac, Maja; Faldynova, Marcela; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we characterised the development of caecal microbiota in egg laying hens over their commercial production lifespan, from the day of hatching until 60 weeks of age. Using pyrosequencing of V3/V4 variable regions of 16S rRNA genes for microbiota characterisation, we were able to define 4 different stages of caecal microbiota development. The first stage lasted for the first week of life and was characterised by a high prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae (phylum Proteobacteria). The second stage lasted from week 2 to week 4 and was characterised by nearly an absolute dominance of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae (both phylum Firmicutes). The third stage lasted from month 2 to month 6 and was characterised by the succession of Firmicutes at the expense of Bacteroidetes. The fourth stage was typical for adult hens in full egg production aged 7 months or more and was characterised by a constant ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes formed by equal numbers of the representatives of both phyla. PMID:25501990

  5. Investigations into an Outbreak of Botulism Caused by Clostridium botulinum Type C/D in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Lindgren, Ylva; Jansson, Désirée S

    2015-06-01

    This case report describes a recent botulism outbreak in commercial laying hens with a history of increased mortality and flaccid paralysis. Routine diagnostic gross examination and microscopy from seven hens were inconclusive, but botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in peripheral blood was neutralized with both type C and type D antitoxins in the mouse bioassay. During a farm visit, 10 additional hens from a 34-wk-old flock on the farm were selected for clinical examination and further sampling. Nine hens were observed in sternal recumbency, with flaccid paralysis of the neck, drooping wings and tail, inability to escape, and bilateral ptosis, and one hen showed nonspecific clinical signs. Samples from cecum and liver were collected, and the gene coding for BoNT was detected by PCR in all 10 cecal samples and in four of the liver samples. Clostridium botulinum mosaic type C/D was isolated from 5 out of 10 hens from either cecum or liver, and the isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. All five isolates produced the same banding pattern, which was identical or showed >90% similarity to isolates from three different outbreaks on broiler farms in Sweden and Denmark during the 2007-10 period. However, they were clearly distinguishable from the predominantly reported pulsotype associated with avian botulism outbreaks in Europe. The authors are unaware of any previous report of C. botulinum mosaic type C/D isolates from laying hens.

  6. Investigations into an Outbreak of Botulism Caused by Clostridium botulinum Type C/D in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Lindgren, Ylva; Jansson, Désirée S

    2015-06-01

    This case report describes a recent botulism outbreak in commercial laying hens with a history of increased mortality and flaccid paralysis. Routine diagnostic gross examination and microscopy from seven hens were inconclusive, but botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in peripheral blood was neutralized with both type C and type D antitoxins in the mouse bioassay. During a farm visit, 10 additional hens from a 34-wk-old flock on the farm were selected for clinical examination and further sampling. Nine hens were observed in sternal recumbency, with flaccid paralysis of the neck, drooping wings and tail, inability to escape, and bilateral ptosis, and one hen showed nonspecific clinical signs. Samples from cecum and liver were collected, and the gene coding for BoNT was detected by PCR in all 10 cecal samples and in four of the liver samples. Clostridium botulinum mosaic type C/D was isolated from 5 out of 10 hens from either cecum or liver, and the isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. All five isolates produced the same banding pattern, which was identical or showed >90% similarity to isolates from three different outbreaks on broiler farms in Sweden and Denmark during the 2007-10 period. However, they were clearly distinguishable from the predominantly reported pulsotype associated with avian botulism outbreaks in Europe. The authors are unaware of any previous report of C. botulinum mosaic type C/D isolates from laying hens. PMID:26473687

  7. Effect of dietary karaya saponin on serum and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2010-12-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary karaya saponin on cholesterol deposition in laying hens. 2. A total of 40 Boris Brown hens were randomly assigned at 20 weeks of age to 4 treatment groups and fed on diets supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg karaya saponin for an 8-week experimental period. 3. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation, karaya-saponin-treated groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol (23·0%) and triglycerides but increased high density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration than controls, irrespective of karaya saponin content in the diet. Egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced by dietary karaya saponin. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by karaya saponin but bile acids concentration in the faeces and liver were significantly increased by karaya saponin. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the yolk were greater in hens receiving karaya saponin than in controls. Karaya saponin significantly increased egg production, feed efficiency and yolk colour compared with controls. Karaya saponin tended to increase egg weight, feed consumption, Haugh units, albumen weight and yolk index. 4. In conclusion, karaya saponin is a potential agent for reducing yolk cholesterol concentration together with an overall increase of production performance and improvement in egg quality. PMID:21161787

  8. Elevated testosterone during meiotic segregation stimulates laying hens to produce more sons than daughters.

    PubMed

    Pinson, Sara E; Wilson, Jeanna L; Navara, Kristen J

    2011-11-01

    Biases in avian sex ratios have been documented in relation to a variety of social and environmental conditions. Previous studies suggest that treatment with hormones can stimulate females to manipulate offspring sex, and that this effect occurs before ovulation. For example, acute and chronic treatments with testosterone stimulated significant skews towards male offspring. Hormones may act by influencing which sex chromosome is donated by the heterogametic female bird into the oocyte. However, it is difficult to pinpoint when effects of testosterone on offspring sex occurred in previous experiments because testosterone treatments were given either chronically over the entire period of follicular development or many hours before the critical period of chromosome segregation. We injected laying hens with testosterone injections 5 h prior to ovulation to target this critical period and quantified the sexes of the subsequently ovulated eggs. We hypothesized that an injection of testosterone coincident with segregation of sex chromosomes would stimulate hens to produce more male than female offspring. As hypothesized, hens injected with testosterone produced a significant bias towards male offspring compared to controls, nearly 70%. These results suggest that acute testosterone elevation during meiotic segregation may mediate skews in avian primary sex ratios.

  9. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens. PMID:26954140

  10. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens.

  11. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. K.; Park, S.-B.; Kim, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens. PMID:26954140

  12. The association between plumage damage and feather-eating in free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hartcher, K M; Hemsworth, P H; Wilkinson, S J; Thomson, P C; Cronin, G M

    2016-05-01

    Severe feather-pecking (SFP) persists as a highly prevalent and detrimental behavioural problem in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) worldwide. The present experiment investigated the association between feather-eating and plumage damage, a consequence of SFP, in groups of free-range, ISA Brown laying hens. Single feathers were placed on the floor of the home pens. Feathers were sourced from seven different birds. A total of 50 birds in six pens with extensive plumage damage were compared with birds in six control pens with little plumage damage at 41 to 43 weeks of age (n=12 pens, 600 hens). Birds in pens with extensive plumage damage ingested more feathers (F=8.1, DF=1, 8, P=0.02), and also showed shorter latencies to peck at (χ 2=54.5, DF=1, P<0.001), and ingest feathers (χ 2=55.6, DF=1, P<0.001). Birds ingested feathers from a bird in the free-range facility, in which the testing took place, more quickly than from a bird housed in a separate cage facility (χ 2 = 39.0, DF=6, P<0.001). A second experiment investigated the predictive relationship between feather-eating and plumage damage. Feathers were presented to 16 pens of 50 pullets prior to the development of plumage damage, at 15 weeks of age, and then to the same hens after plumage damage had become prominent, at 40 weeks of age. Birds had a higher probability of ingesting feathers (F=142.0, DF=1, 231, P<0.001), pecked feathers more times (F=11.24, DF=1, 239, P<0.001), and also pecked (χ 2 = 127.3, DF=1, P<0.001) and ingested (χ 2=189.3, DF=1, P<0.001) the feathers more quickly at 40 than 15 weeks of age. There was a trend for an interaction, where birds pecked feathers from the rump more times than feathers from the back at 40 weeks of age (F=3.46, DF=1, 237, P=0.06). However, a lack of variability in plumage damage between pens in this experiment precluded investigation of the predictive relationship. The results from the present study confirm the association between feather-eating and plumage

  13. The association between plumage damage and feather-eating in free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hartcher, K M; Hemsworth, P H; Wilkinson, S J; Thomson, P C; Cronin, G M

    2016-05-01

    Severe feather-pecking (SFP) persists as a highly prevalent and detrimental behavioural problem in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) worldwide. The present experiment investigated the association between feather-eating and plumage damage, a consequence of SFP, in groups of free-range, ISA Brown laying hens. Single feathers were placed on the floor of the home pens. Feathers were sourced from seven different birds. A total of 50 birds in six pens with extensive plumage damage were compared with birds in six control pens with little plumage damage at 41 to 43 weeks of age (n=12 pens, 600 hens). Birds in pens with extensive plumage damage ingested more feathers (F=8.1, DF=1, 8, P=0.02), and also showed shorter latencies to peck at (χ 2=54.5, DF=1, P<0.001), and ingest feathers (χ 2=55.6, DF=1, P<0.001). Birds ingested feathers from a bird in the free-range facility, in which the testing took place, more quickly than from a bird housed in a separate cage facility (χ 2 = 39.0, DF=6, P<0.001). A second experiment investigated the predictive relationship between feather-eating and plumage damage. Feathers were presented to 16 pens of 50 pullets prior to the development of plumage damage, at 15 weeks of age, and then to the same hens after plumage damage had become prominent, at 40 weeks of age. Birds had a higher probability of ingesting feathers (F=142.0, DF=1, 231, P<0.001), pecked feathers more times (F=11.24, DF=1, 239, P<0.001), and also pecked (χ 2 = 127.3, DF=1, P<0.001) and ingested (χ 2=189.3, DF=1, P<0.001) the feathers more quickly at 40 than 15 weeks of age. There was a trend for an interaction, where birds pecked feathers from the rump more times than feathers from the back at 40 weeks of age (F=3.46, DF=1, 237, P=0.06). However, a lack of variability in plumage damage between pens in this experiment precluded investigation of the predictive relationship. The results from the present study confirm the association between feather-eating and plumage

  14. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs.

  15. Relationships between beak condition, preening behavior and ectoparasite infestation levels in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Mullens, Bradley A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-09-01

    The effects of beak condition on ectoparasite populations and preening in laying hens were investigated. Beak-trimmed and beak-intact caged Hy-Line W-36 hens were infested with either chicken body lice or northern fowl mites using a 2×2 factorial design with 4 replicate cages (each containing 2 hens)/treatment: 1) BTL: (beak-trimmed lice-infested); 2) BTM: (beak-trimmed mite-infested); 3) BIL: (beak-intact lice-infested); and 4) BIM: (beak-intact mite-infested). Mite scores and lice numbers were estimated weekly. Hens were video recorded the wk before infestation and at wk 6 and 9 post-infestation. Time spent preening on 6 body areas and in total were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. There was a wk×beak condition interaction for lice loads, with BTL harboring approximately 17 times more lice than BIL from wk 7 to 10 post-infestation (P<0.0001). Beak condition affected mite loads (P<0.0001), with BTM having a higher mite score (3.8±0.26) than BIM (1.4±0.26). At peak infestation, BTL spent more total time preening (P=0.02, s±SE: 232.1±37.6) than prior to infestation (33.9±37.6) and directed their preening behavior towards the vent. In contrast, BIL (73.9±37.6), BTM (9.4±1.6), and BIM (8.6±1.6) did not increase total time spent preening over pre-infestation levels (103.6±37.6, 5.8±1.6, 6.7±1.6 respectively), although BTM did redirect their preening behavior toward the vent. This study confirmed previous studies showing that an intact beak is important for reducing ectoparasite infestations. Preening behavior increased in response to lice infestation, but only in beak-trimmed hens; preening behavior and louse load were correlated at peak infestation. In contrast, mite infestation did not lead to increased preening, and there was no correlation between preening and mite load. However, both lice- and mite-infested hens directed preening behavior predominantly towards the vent where these parasites are typically found.

  16. Aerial dust concentration in cage-housed, floor-housed, and aviary facilities for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouquin, S; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Martin, S; Michel, V

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural workers, and pig and poultry farmers in particular, are exposed to airborne contaminants including organic dusts, gases, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxins that can have adverse effects on their respiratory health. To date, data comparing the aerial dust concentrations in the different hen-housing systems used by commercial poultry farmers are scarce. An epidemiological study was conducted in commercial housing facilities for laying hens, half of which were housed in a cage system without litter and the remaining half on an on-floor system with litter. The aims were to measure and compare the ambient dust concentrations in the different housing systems and identify any factors in building design and hen management that could influence the dust burden. An average concentration of respirable ambient dusts (≤4 μm) of 0.37 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.31-0.42]) was measured in the on-floor system, and this value was higher than average values in the cage system {0.13 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.11-0.14]) P = 0.01}. The highest dust concentration was observed in aviaries (1.19 mg/m(3) [0.80-1.59]). The type of housing and the presence of litter therefore had a preponderant effect on air quality. Dust concentrations in caged buildings were influenced by cage design and rearing practices, whereas litter management, the age of hens, and temperature control were determining factors for dust levels in on-floor houses. This study underlines the need for information and preventive measures to reduce the exposure of poultry workers to bioaerosols, particularly in alternative systems where high levels of ambient dust were observed. PMID:24135584

  17. Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Attia, Youssef A; Abd El-Hamid, Abd El-Hamid E; Abedalla, Ahmed A; Berika, Marfat A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Kazim; Abou-Shehema, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress had a negative effect on laying hens' performance, thus this research was to study the influences of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg betaine), vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid), and vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-Tocopherol acetate) and their possible combinations on egg production, digestibility of nutrients, plasma hormones and reproductive organs of dual-purpose hens exposed to chronic heat stress. Two hundred and eighty eight hens and thirty-six cocks from 32 to 48 weeks of age were divided into nine treatment groups of four replicates, each containing eight hens and one cock. One group was kept under thermo-natural condition and the eight others were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS). One of these eight was used as a negative control, while the others were supplemented with VC, VE and/or betaine and their possible combinations. Body weights, laying rate, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio in hens reared under CHS rooster without any supplementation during 32 to 48 weeks of impairment (P = 0.0052) were recorded. Hens reared under heat stress and fed a diet supplemented with either Bet, VC, VE or combination of the supplements increased production traits. However, hens supplemented with VC showed the greatest production traits. Plasma glucose, estradiol-17 (E2), progesterone (P4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) decreased in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation compared to the other treatments (P = 0.001). Liver weights, spleen weights, thyroid gland weights, ovary weights, oviduct weights and oviduct lengths were lowest in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation (P = 0.0480). In conclusion, dual purpose hens reared under CHS and supplemented with VC at 200 mg/kg diet and Bet at 1000 mg/kg enhanced the laying performance and combated CHS. PMID:27652192

  18. Effects of ambient temperature, feather cover, and housing system on energy partitioning and performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kwakkel, R P; van den Brand, H

    2014-11-01

    Environmental factors, such as ambient temperature (T), feather cover (FC), and housing system (HS), probably affect energy requirements of laying hens. Using a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, interaction effects of T (11, 16, and 21°C), FC (100 and 50%), and HS (cage and floor housing) on energy partitioning and performance of laying hens were investigated. Six batches of 70 H&N Brown Nick laying hens, divided over 2 respiration chambers, were exposed to the T levels in three 2-wk periods. Heat production (HP) was determined by indirect calorimetry. The ME intake was calculated by subtracting energy in manure/litter from that in feed and wood shavings. The NE was calculated by subtracting HP from ME. The ME intake increased by 1% for each degree reduction in T. In hens with intact plumage, HP was not affected by T, whereas at decreasing T, HP increased in hens with 50% FC (P < 0.01). At 21°C, HP was not affected by HS, whereas in the floor system, HP at 16 and 11°C was 5.8 and 3.0% higher, respectively, than in cages (P < 0.05). The NE for production was 25.7% higher in cages compared to the floor system (P < 0.05). In cages, 24.7% of NE for production was spent on body fat deposition, whereas in the floor system, 9.0% of NE for production was released from body fat reserves. The ME intake was predicted by the equation (R(2) = 0.74) ME intake (kJ/d) = 612 BW(0.75) - (8.54 × T) + (28.36 × ADG) + (10.43 × egg mass) - (0.972 × FC). Hen performances were not affected by treatments, indicating the adaptive capacity of young laying hens to a broad range of environmental conditions. PMID:25349350

  19. Individual Consistency of Feather Pecking Behavior in Laying Hens: Once a Feather Pecker Always a Feather Pecker?

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Swanson, Janice C.; Siegford, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    The pecking behavior [severe feather, gentle feather, and aggressive pecks (AP)] of individual White Shaver non-cage laying hens (n = 300) was examined at 21, 24, 27, 32, and 37 weeks. Hens were housed in 30 groups of 10 hens each and on 3 cm litter with access to a feeder, perch, and two nest boxes. The number of severe feather pecks given (SFPG) and received (SFPR) was used to categorize hens as feather peckers (P), victims (V), neutrals (N), or feather pecker-victims (PV) at each age. Hens categorized as PV exhibited pecking behaviors similar to P and received pecks similar to V. SFP given were correlated with APs given, but not with gentle feather pecks (GFP) given throughout the study. State-transition plot maps illustrated that 22.5% of P remained P, while 44% of PV remained PV throughout the duration of the study. Lifetime behavioral categories identified hens as a consistent feather pecker (5%), consistent neutral (3.9%), consistent victim (7.9%), consistent feather pecker-victim (29.4%), or inconsistent (53.8%) in their behavioral patterns throughout their life. Consistent feather peckers performed more SFP than hens of other categories, and consistent neutral hens received fewer GFP than consistent feather PV. No differences in corticosterone or whole blood serotonin levels were observed among the categories. Approximately, half of the population was classified as a feather pecker at least once during the study, while the remainder was never categorized as a feather pecker. Therefore, even if the development and cause of feather pecking may be multifactorial, once the behavior has been developed, some hens may persist in feather pecking. However, as some hens were observed to never receive or perform SFP, emphasis should be made to select for these hens in future breeding practices. PMID:26664935

  20. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens.

  1. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens. PMID:20852122

  2. The enrichment of eggs with folic acid through supplementation of the laying hen diet.

    PubMed

    House, J D; Braun, K; Ballance, D M; O'Connor, C P; Guenter, W

    2002-09-01

    In light of evidence supporting a need for humans to increase their dietary folate intakes, experiments were conducted to evaluate the extent to which egg folate levels could be increased. In Study 1, Hyline W36 hens (n = 6/diet) received a barley-based diet, containing 0 or 10 mg/kg of crystalline folic acid, to establish the potential for folate incorporation into table eggs. In Study 2, 70 hens were divided into seven treatment groups (n = 10 hens/diet) and received diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg folic acid/kg diet. In Study 3, 64 hens received the barley-based diet with or without 4 mg folic acid/kg diet. Eggs were collected and stored for 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 d, prior to folate determinations. The folate content of eggs was determined by HPLC for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (the sole form of folate in egg yolk). Results from Study 1 showed that a 10 mg/kg inclusion of folic acid increased folate incorporation into egg yolk (41.0 +/- 0.7 microg /egg) over that of an unsupplemented diet (17.5 +/- 0.7 microg /egg; P = 0.0001). In Study 2, the response of egg folate to dietary folic acid supplementation was saturable, with 90% of maximal egg folate levels established at approximately 4 mg folic acid/ kg diet. Results from Study 3 showed that folate levels are stable, in control and fortified eggs, during 28 d of storage at 4 C. In terms of its nutritional value, one large egg collected from a folic acid-supplemented hen provided approximately 12.5% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adult humans (RDA = 400 mg/d).

  3. Effects of long-term supplementation of laying hens with high concentrations of cholecalciferol on performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Persia, M E; Higgins, M; Wang, T; Trample, D; Bobeck, E A

    2013-11-01

    There is current interest in increasing human vitamin D dietary intake without having to modify human eating habits. One method to increase human dietary vitamin D intake is to generate eggs with increased concentrations of vitamin D through high-concentration vitamin D feeding in the diets of laying hens. Although eggs can be produced with high concentrations of vitamin D, the consequences of these diets on hen performance and egg quality have not been validated. The objective of this research is to quantify the effects of high concentrations of cholecalciferol (D3) on laying hen performance and egg quality. Hy-Line W36 laying hens were placed on 1 of 5 experimental diets for 40 wk: 1) control (contained 2,200 IU of D3/kg of diet), 2) control + 7,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (9,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 3) control + 15,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (17,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 4) control + 22,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (24,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), and 5) control + 100,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total). Egg production and hen mortality were monitored daily. Feed intake was determined weekly. Eggs were collected at predetermined points throughout the 40-wk period (19 to 58 wk of bird age) for assessment of egg weight, egg component weights, Haugh unit, yolk color score, specific gravity, egg mass, and feed efficiency. There were no consistent differences among the dietary treatments over the experimental period. Hens supplemented with up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet resulted in no significant reductions in egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg component weights, yolk color, Haugh units, and specific gravity in comparison with the control-fed hens (P > 0.05). These data suggest the addition of cholecalciferol to the diet of the laying hen at concentrations up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet had no consistent negative effects on laying hen performance or egg quality. PMID:24135597

  4. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Mesquita, Aline Lopes; de Paiva, Jaqueline Boldrin; Zotesso, Fábio; Berchieri Júnior, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3) received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG) were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well. Nevertheless, they must

  5. [The use of native triticale in poultry. 3. Use in laying hens].

    PubMed

    Richter, G; Lemser, A

    1993-01-01

    In three trials with a total of 3240 white laying hybrids, 10 to 72% Triticale of the variety "Grado" was used as a substitute for maize and wheat. The feeding of Triticale had no influence on feed consumption, laying performance, feed efficiency, mortality or weight gain. In two of three trials the egg weight was lowered with an increasing amount of Triticale in the diet. After supplementation of 1 or 1.5% sunflower oil to the diets with 50 resp. 72% Triticale the egg weight increased again to the level of the control group. With the exception of one group, there was no correlation between breaking strength and deformation of the eggs. The colour intensity of the egg yolk was decreased with increasing amounts of Triticale in the diet. It can be concluded, that laying hen feed supplemented with oil may contain up to 50% Triticale, but in non-supplemented diets the highest amount of Triticale should be only 20% because of the risk of linoleic acid shortage. PMID:8517768

  6. Towards a 'Good Life' for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Joanne L; Mullan, Siobhan M; Pritchard, Joy C; McFarlane, Una J C; Main, David C J

    2013-07-05

    The concept of a 'good life' recognises the distinction that an animal's quality of life is beyond that of a 'life worth living', representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a 'good life' could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a 'good life' in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation, alongside outcome parameters, that can help define and promote a future 'good life' for farm animals.

  7. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on musculoskeletal health of caged White Leghorn hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major skeletal problem of conventionally caged hens is increased susceptibility to osteoporosis mainly due to lack of exercise. Osteoporosis is characterized by a progressive decrease in mineralized structural bone. Whereas considerable attention has been given to enriching laying cages, little r...

  8. Colonization of marker and field strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in antibiotic treated and non-treated laying hen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of three trials, caged laying hens (76, 26, and 33 wk-of-age) were divided into 6 groups designated to receive either maker (nalidixic acid resistance) S. Enteritidis (SE-M), field S. Enteritidis (SE-F), or marker S. Typhimurium (ST-M), and half pretreated with vancomycin (VNC) (n=12). VNC t...

  9. The relationship between the immune response and susceptibilty to Salmonella infection in the laying hen, producing safe eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken eggs are one of the main sources of human salmonellosis, with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis the most frequent cause of human non-typhoid salmonellosis. Laying hens colonized with S. Enteritidis generally do not show clinical signs. The bacteria colonize and invade the intestinal ...

  10. Influence of Dermanyssus gallinae and Ascaridia galli infections on behaviour and health of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, O; Roepstorff, A; Permin, A; Nørgaard-Nielsen, G; Lawson, L G; Simonsen, H B

    2005-02-01

    (1) The effect of infections with Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite or chicken mite) and Ascaridia galli (roundworm) on the behaviour and health of laying hens was investigated. (2) Six groups of 15 pullets (Isa Brown) were kept in indoor pens from 18 weeks of age. Two groups were artificially infected with D. gallinae, two groups with A. galli and two groups were kept as uninfected controls. The hens were observed for behavioural reactions and physiological changes (weight gain and various blood variables) to the parasitic infections. (3) Infections with D. gallinae resulted in reduced weight gain, anaemia and even death of some of the hens. Behavioural changes were also observed, as the mite-infected hens showed higher self-grooming and head scratching both during the day and night. (4) A. galli resulted in a lower weight gain but no significant changes were seen in blood variables or behavioural activities.

  11. Effect of plant sterol-enriched diets on plasma and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol metabolism in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Zhao, H L; Thiessen, S; House, J D; Jones, P J H

    2010-02-01

    Egg exists as a major dietary source of cholesterol in Western diets. In North America, laying hen diets are usually devoid of cholesterol when diets are formulated to exclude animal-based products. Hence, laying hens meet their physiological cholesterol requirement through de novo synthesis. Plant sterols exert a cholesterol-lowering effect in humans by interfering with intestinal sterol absorption. However, it is unknown whether plant sterol supplementation could be effective in reducing intestinal reabsorption of biliary cholesterol in laying hens, thus modulating whole body cholesterol in favor of lower plasma and yolk cholesterol content. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of diets enriched with 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% plant sterols on cholesterol absorption, synthesis, as well as plasma, liver, and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. After 8 wk of plant sterol intervention (first 2 wk were acclimatization), feed intake, BW, egg weight, egg yolk weight, egg production, Haugh units, liver mass, plasma, and hepatic cholesterol concentrations did not differ as a function of plant sterol supplementation. Egg cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) fluctuated during the 6-wk experimental period. At wk 6, a minor reduction in egg yolk cholesterol concentration (mg per g of yolk, P<0.05, vs. control) was observed in hens fed 1 and 2% cholesterol-enriched diets, respectively. However, such result failed to affect total egg cholesterol content. No statistical difference was observed across treatments over 6 wk. Neither cholesterol absorption rates nor synthesis differed as a function of treatment. Results suggested that overall cholesterol content in egg yolk was not affected by feeding hens plant sterol-enriched diets over 6 wk. PMID:20075279

  12. Deterioration of eggshell quality in laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuefeng; Tan, Dan; Wu, Chengqi; Tang, Chao; Li, Tao; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Liu, Caihong; Li, Ruiqiao; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-02-25

    This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) affects eggshell quality. Thirty-week-old specific pathogen free egg-laying hens were inoculated with the chicken-origin H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) or with inoculating media without virus by combined intraocular and intranasal routes. The time course for the appearance of viral antigen and tissue lesions in the oviduct was coincident with the adverse changes in egg production in the infected hens. The viral loads of AIV have a close correlation with the changes in the uterus CaBP-D28k mRNA expression as well as the Ca concentrations in the eggshells in the infected hens from 1 to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Ultrastructural examination of eggshells showed significantly decreased shell thickness in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi (P < 0.05). Furthermore, obvious changes in the structure of the external shell surface and shell membrane were detected in the infected hens from 1 to 5 dpi as compared with the control hens. In conclusion, this study confirmed that H9N2 AIV strain (A/Chicken/shaanxi/01/2011) infection is associated with severe lesions of the uterus and abnormal expression of CaBP-D28k mRNA in the uteri of the infected hens. The change of CaBP-D28k mRNA expression may contribute to the deterioration of the eggshell quality of the laying hens infected with AIV. It is noteworthy that the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV strains may vary depending on the virus strain and host preference.

  13. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  14. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis.

  15. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  16. Tissue concentrations of sulphaquinoxaline administered in the food of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Tsuzukida, Y

    1998-12-01

    1. Sulphaquinoxaline (SQ) was fed to laying hens at a dietary level of 400 mg/kg for 3 successive days. SQ contents (mg/kg) in the blood, kidney, liver, ovary, muscle (thigh) and adipose tissue collected on 1, 2, and 3 d after the start of feeding were determined by HPLC. The relationship between the SQ content in the tissues and times (d) of SQ feeding was analyzed statistically. 2. Dietary SQ was distributed throughout the whole body. 3. Contents in tissues, except the kidney, had already reached a plateau by day 1 after the start of administration whereas in the kidney it increased linearly throughout the 3 days. 4. The plateau values of SQ in the tissues were much greater than those of sulphamonomethoxine and sulphadimethoxine. PMID:9925323

  17. An improved mathematical model of the ovulatory cycle of the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S A; Gous, R M

    2003-12-01

    1. The mathematical model of the hen's ovulatory cycle proposed by Etches and Schoch (British Poultry Science, 25: 65-76, 1984) predicts ovulation times for sequences of 2 to 9 ovulations only. 2. Continuous functions have been produced, representing the changes required to the parameters lambda1, lambda2, S1, S2, b1, b2 and b3, such that the prediction of any sequence length is now possible. 3. This improved ovulation model is capable of predicting ovulation times and intra-sequence ovulation intervals for any ovulation rate between 0.5 and 1.0. 4. The improved ovulatory model lends itself to stochasticity. The rate of lay of a population of hens at a time may be modelled with the use of means and standard errors for each of the parameters in the model. 5. Age-related changes in the ovulation rate of the population may be predicted using a combination of three methods, which are consistent with published theories that account for the decline in performance with time.

  18. Amino acid digestibility of different rye genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Tobias; Miedaner, Thomas; Rosenfelder, Pia; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the variability of amino acid (AA) digestibility of rye grains in laying hens. Relationships between AA digestibility and physical properties (thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number, and extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, and inositol phosphates), gross energy concentration, and in vitro solubility of nitrogen (N) of the grains were also examined. Twenty rye genotypes were grown under standardised agronomic and environmental conditions as part of a collaborative research project known as "GrainUp". Each genotype was added to a basal diet at 500 g/kg at the expense of maize starch to produce 20 rye diets. The experimental design comprised four Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed over two runs, resulting in 12 experimental periods. Caecectomised laying hens (LSL-Classic) were individually kept in metabolism cages. Excreta were collected quantitatively for 4 d, and AA digestibility of the rye genotypes was determined using a regression approach. The digestibility of AA was generally low but varied significantly among the 20 rye genotypes, especially for Lys (digestibility range 35-59%), Met (57-75%), Thr (34-54%), and Trp (36-71%). Nevertheless, physical and chemical characteristics as well as the in vitro solubility of N correlated in only a few cases with AA digestibility. Multiple linear regression was used to calculate equations to predict AA digestibility based on the analysed characteristics. However, their explanatory power, as judged by the adjusted R(2), was not sufficiently precise for practical application (below 0.6 for most AA). In conclusion, the AA digestibility of rye grain is generally low and varies significantly between crop genotypes. Equations based on its physical and chemical characteristics are not sufficiently precise to be useful for feed formulation. PMID:27618757

  19. Amino acid digestibility of different rye genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Tobias; Miedaner, Thomas; Rosenfelder, Pia; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the variability of amino acid (AA) digestibility of rye grains in laying hens. Relationships between AA digestibility and physical properties (thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number, and extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, and inositol phosphates), gross energy concentration, and in vitro solubility of nitrogen (N) of the grains were also examined. Twenty rye genotypes were grown under standardised agronomic and environmental conditions as part of a collaborative research project known as "GrainUp". Each genotype was added to a basal diet at 500 g/kg at the expense of maize starch to produce 20 rye diets. The experimental design comprised four Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed over two runs, resulting in 12 experimental periods. Caecectomised laying hens (LSL-Classic) were individually kept in metabolism cages. Excreta were collected quantitatively for 4 d, and AA digestibility of the rye genotypes was determined using a regression approach. The digestibility of AA was generally low but varied significantly among the 20 rye genotypes, especially for Lys (digestibility range 35-59%), Met (57-75%), Thr (34-54%), and Trp (36-71%). Nevertheless, physical and chemical characteristics as well as the in vitro solubility of N correlated in only a few cases with AA digestibility. Multiple linear regression was used to calculate equations to predict AA digestibility based on the analysed characteristics. However, their explanatory power, as judged by the adjusted R(2), was not sufficiently precise for practical application (below 0.6 for most AA). In conclusion, the AA digestibility of rye grain is generally low and varies significantly between crop genotypes. Equations based on its physical and chemical characteristics are not sufficiently precise to be useful for feed formulation.

  20. Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems.

    PubMed

    Huber-Eicher, B; Sebö, F

    2001-07-01

    Aviary systems for laying hens offer several advantages over battery cages. However, pecking the feathers of conspecifics remains a serious problem that negatively affects the welfare of the birds as well as the economy of a farm. From experimental studies with small groups, it has been shown that feather pecking and foraging behaviour are related and that both behaviour are influenced by early access to litter substrate. We, therefore, hypothesised, that feather pecking in aviaries can be reduced with an adequate management in the first 2 weeks of life.Each of seven pens on six commercial poultry farms, was divided into two identical compartments (matched pair design). In one of the compartments (experimental compartment) chicks were reared for the first 2 weeks of life with access to litter (wood shavings, in one case with additional straw), while the chicks in the other compartment (control) were kept on a plastic grid. Thereafter, all chicks had unrestricted access to litter and there were no differences between the two compartments neither in housing conditions nor in management procedures.Chicks in the experimental compartments spent significantly more time foraging (week 5), showed significantly less feather pecking (weeks 5 and 14) and significantly fewer birds had damaged tail feathers (weeks 5 and 14).The study demonstrates that in aviaries, under commercial conditions, early access to litter substrate has a significant effect on the development of feather pecking. In order to reduce feather pecking and to increase foraging behaviour, it is recommended that laying hen chicks raised in aviary systems do get access to litter from day 1 on.

  1. Analysis of risk factors for the occurrence of feather pecking in laying hen growers.

    PubMed

    Huber-Eicher, B; Audigé, L

    1999-12-01

    1. Potential risk factors for the occurrence of feather pecking in laying hen growers raised under commercial conditions were investigated on Swiss farms with more than 500 rearing places. On-farm interviews were conducted on a sample of 64 flocks which represented 42.6% of all farms concerned. 2. All variables considered were dichotomised and their univariate correlation with the occurrence of feather pecking was tested for significance at P <0.20 using chi2 tests. Logistic regression with backward elimination was then used with the significant variables to identify the potentially most important factors influencing feather pecking. These variables included stocking density, light intensity, intensity of care, access to elevated perches, access to a roofed and littered outdoor area ('bad weather run'), time of access to the feeding facilities of the housing system, stocking density in the restricted area at the beginning of the rearing period, additional open feeding areas in the beginning and air quality. 3. The final model contained stocking density and access to elevated perches as significant factors (P<0.05). Flocks kept in high density (> or = 10 birds per m2) and with no access to elevated perches were 6.4 (95% Confidence interval 1.7 to 24.2) and 4.0 (95% Confidence interval 1.2 to 12.9) times more likely to be affected by feather pecking, respectively. 4. The study identified 2 risk factors for the occurrence of feather pecking in flocks of laying hen growers reared under commercial conditions. It is concluded that in order to reduce feather pecking chicks should be reared at low density and with access to elevated perches.

  2. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake was lower than that of the controls for birds consuming the 4% HO diet but similar across other treatments. Final BW were not affected by diet, with the exception of being lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05) in hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary α-linolenic acid provision with the HS- or HO-based diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for docosahexaenoic acid levels in egg yolk in response to increasing dietary α-linolenic acid supply. The expression of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, key genes for the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly decreased (50-60% of controls; P < 0.05) as a result of feeding HS or HO diets. Based on the results from the current study, the inclusion of the hemp products HS or HO in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.

  3. The efficacy of flubendazole against different developmental stages of the poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tarbiat, B; Jansson, D S; Moreno, L; Lanusse, C; Nylund, M; Tydén, E; Höglund, J

    2016-03-15

    Infection with the poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli has increased in European countries due to the ban on battery cages. This study was conducted in two commercial laying hen flocks (F1 & F2) on different farms in central Sweden. The aims were to (1) investigate the efficacy of flubendazole (FLBZ, 1.43 mg/kg administered in drinking water for 7 days) against adult and larval stages including histotrophic larvae of A. galli, and (2) determine how long it took before the flocks were reinfected after deworming. Accordingly, 180 randomly selected hens were sacrificed before drug administration (bd), on day 3 and 7 during drug administration (dd), and on a weekly basis for up to five weeks post drug administration (pd). Intestinal contents and cloacal materials of each hen plus pooled faecal samples from manure belts were investigated to assess the worm burden and the parasite egg per gram faeces (epg). Additionally, drinking water, and serum and gastrointestinal digesta content samples obtained from ten treated animals were analyzed by HPLC to measure FLBZ and its reduced (R-FLBZ) and hydrolyzed (H-FLBZ) metabolites. No parasite eggs were observed in cloacal samples on day 21 and 28 pd on F1 and on day 21 pd on F2. The epg in manure decreased by 65% and 88% on day 3 dd and by 99% and 97% on day 35 pd on F1 and F2 respectively. Mean FLBZ concentrations quantified in duodenal contents ranged between 0.50 and 0.79 μg/g. Although, no histotrophic larvae were found dd, they reappeared one week pd (7 ± 7 F1, 0.5 ± 0.5 F2). Adult worms were found in both flocks before drug administration (44 ± 20 F1, 35 ± 25 F2), on day 3 dd (4 ± 3 F1, 2 ± 2 F2), and then not until day 35 (0.2 ± 0.6) on F1 and day 28 (0.4 ± 0.9) pd on F2. Thus, the only period in which no A. galli were found was on day 7 dd. Although FLBZ was highly efficient our results indicate that the birds were reinfected already within one week pd. PMID:26872930

  4. Dust-bathing behavior of laying hens in enriched colony housing systems and an aviary system

    PubMed Central

    Louton, H.; Bergmann, S.; Reese, S.; Erhard, M. H.; Rauch, E.

    2016-01-01

    The dust-bathing behavior of Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens was compared in 4 enriched colony housing systems and in an aviary system. The enriched colony housing systems differed especially in the alignment and division of the functional areas dust bath, nest, and perches. Forty-eight-hour video recordings were performed at 3 time-points during the laying period, and focal animal sampling and behavior sampling methods were used to analyze the dust-bathing behavior. Focal animal data included the relative fractions of dust-bathing hens overall, of hens bathing in the dust-bath area, and of those bathing on the wire floor throughout the day. Behavior data included the number of dust-bathing bouts within a predefined time range, the duration of 1 bout, the number of and reasons for interruptions, and the number of and reasons for the termination of dust-bathing bouts. Results showed that the average duration of dust bathing varied between the 4 enriched colony housing systems compared with the aviary system. The duration of dust-bathing bouts was shorter than reported under natural conditions. A positive correlation between dust-bathing activity and size of the dust-bath area was observed. Frequently, dust baths were interrupted and terminated by disturbing influences such as pecking by other hens. This was especially observed in the enriched colony housing systems. In none of the observed systems, neither in the enriched colony housing nor in the aviary system, were all of the observed dust baths terminated “normally.” Dust bathing behavior on the wire mesh rather than in the provided dust-bath area generally was observed at different frequencies in all enriched colony housing systems during all observation periods, but never in the aviary system. The size and design of the dust-bath area influenced the prevalence of dust-bathing behavior in that small and subdivided dust-bath areas reduced the number of dust-bathing bouts but increased the incidence of sham dust

  5. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part II—Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    David, Bruce; Mejdell, Cecilie; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Oppermann Moe, Randi

    2015-01-01

    The EU ban on conventional barren cages for laying hens from 2012 has improved many aspects of laying hen welfare. The new housing systems allow for the expression of highly-motivated behaviors. However, the systems available for intensive large-scale egg production (e.g., aviaries, floor housing systems, furnished cages) may cause other welfare challenges. We have reviewed the literature regarding the health, behavior, production characteristics, and welfare of laying hens when exposed to ammonia in their housing environment. Concentrations of ammonia gas are commonly high in aviaries and floor housing systems in which manure is not regularly removed, whereas they are usually lower in furnished cages. High levels are found during the cold season when ventilation flow is often reduced. Ammonia is a pungent gas, and behavioral studies indicate chickens are averse to the gas. High concentrations of gaseous ammonia can have adverse health effects and, when very high, even influence production performance. The most profound effects seen are the occurrence of lesions in the respiratory tract and keratoconjunctivitis. There is also evidence that high ammonia concentrations predispose poultry to respiratory disease and secondary infections. We conclude that there are animal welfare challenges related to high ammonia levels, and that immediate actions are needed. Development of improved systems and management routines for manure removal and ventilation will be important for the reduction of ammonia levels and hence will contribute to safeguarding hen welfare. PMID:26479391

  6. Selenium-Fertilized Tritordeum (× Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner) as Dietary Selenium Supplement in Laying Hens: Effects on Egg Quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Cazzato, E; Ceci, E; Laudadio, V

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of adding selenium (Se) in cereal production by fertilization on Se concentration in laying hen eggs. Tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner), a new cereal from the cross between durum wheat and a wild barley species having accreditation as natural crop species, was produced using selenate as Se-fertilizer. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments and fed for 10 weeks. Hens were fed two corn-soybean meal-based diets comprising a control basal diet including Tritordeum (100 g/kg diet) cv. Aucan grown without Se fertilization (containing background Se only from premix supplying 1,0 times birds' requirements) and a test-diet containing Se-enriched Tritordeum at the same level of the control diet. No difference was observed among dietary treatments on feed consumption and efficiency, egg mass, and laying rate, whereas egg yolk Se and vitamin E contents as well as liver and plasma Se levels were significantly influenced by dietary Se-enriched Tritordeum. Based on our findings, Se-enriched Tritordeum improved egg quality without affecting hens' productive performance. Thus, Se-fertilized Tritordeum may represent a valuable natural source of Se compared to conventional dietary supplements. PMID:26899320

  7. Characterization of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from laying hens and poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) from an outbreak of erysipelas.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Helena; Brännström, Sara; Skarin, Hanna; Chirico, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Infection with the zoonotic bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes severe disease outbreaks (erysipelas) in poultry flocks. As this bacterium has been isolated from the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), this parasite has been suggested as a possible means of transmission of E. rhusiopathiae on and between poultry farms. To further elucidate the capacity of the mite as a reservoir, we analysed and compared 56 bacterial isolates from laying hens and nine isolates from mites by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), using the restriction enzyme SmaI. The isolates originated from one outbreak in a laying hen flock housed in an indoor litter-based aviary system. Except for two isolates, a homogeneous banding pattern was obtained from all isolates analysed, suggesting that a single strain was the cause of the outbreak. Another finding was that isolates from individual hens could exhibit slightly different PFGE patterns. Mites collected from the same house at the end of the production period of the following flock were negative for the presence of E. rhusiopathiae. An increasing number of erysipelas outbreaks as well as escalating problems with D. gallinae are expected in other European countries related to the forthcoming changes in housing systems for laying hens. Consequently, further studies are needed to investigate the importance of erysipelas in poultry and the importance of D. gallinae in the transmission of E. rhusiopathiae.

  8. Changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens due to growth hormone and testosterone injection.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, H; Ansari-Pirsaraei, Z

    2014-06-01

    The experiment was designed to study the changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens after injection of different doses of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (Ts). A total of 160 old laying hens (HyLine W-36) at 73 weeks of age were weighed individually and randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates and 10 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Growth hormone and Ts hormones were injected subcutaneously. Treatment groups were as follows: treatment 1: injection of 100 μl distiled water (control group), treatment 2: injection of 500 μg Ts/kg live-weight + 50 μgGH/kg live-weight, treatment 3: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 100 μgGH/kg live-weight and treatment 4: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 150 μgGH/kg live-weight. Plasma levels of oestradiol, T4 , LDL, HDL and cholesterol significantly increased in treatment 3 in relation to the control group. All injected hens showed significantly higher levels of glucose in relation to control group. The results showed the positive effects of GH and Ts administration on production performance and blood parameters which are associated with egg production potentiality and in turn may improve reproductivity (egg production) in old laying hens. The positive results of the study may be useful in animal selection and breeding programmes.

  9. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  10. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P < 0.01) with the addition of TCDP, PA, and PB to the NC diets. The TCDP had higher residual activity (P < 0.05) in the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum as compared with the PA and PB activity. There was a decrease (P < 0.01) in the phytate P content of the digesta from all sources of phytase supplementation in the NC diets. Residual phytate P content decreased caudally along the GIT of hens. The results of this research indicate that phytase expressed in corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets.

  11. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  12. Risk factors associated with keel bone and foot pad disorders in laying hens housed in aviary systems.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, J L T; Delezie, E; Rodenburg, T B; Kempen, I; Zoons, J; Ampe, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-03-01

    Aviary systems for laying hens offer space and opportunities to perform natural behaviors. However, hen welfare can be impaired due to increased risk for keel bone and foot pad disorders in those systems. This cross-sectional study (N = 47 flocks) aimed to assess prevalences of keel bone and foot pad disorders in laying hens housed in aviaries in Belgium to identify risk factors for these disorders and their relation to egg production. Information on housing characteristics and egg production were obtained through questionnaire-based interviews, farm records, and measurements in the henhouse. Keel bone (wounds, hematomas, fractures, deviations) and foot pad disorders (dermatitis, hyperkeratosis) were assessed in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old laying hens per flock. A linear model with stepwise selection procedure was used to investigate associations between risk factors, production parameters, and the keel bone and foot pad disorders. The flock mean prevalences were: hematomas 41.2%, wounds 17.6%, fractures 82.5%, deviations 58.9%, hyperkeratosis 42.0%, dermatitis 27.6%, and bumble foot 1.2%. Identified risk factors for keel bone disorders were aviary type (row vs. portal), tier flooring material (wire mesh vs. plastic slats), corridor width, nest box perch, and hybrid. Identified risk factors for foot pad disorders were aviary type (row vs. portal), free-range, and hybrid. Percentage of second-quality eggs was negatively associated with keel bone deviations (P = 0.029) at the flock level. Keel bone and foot pad disorders were alarmingly high in aviary housing. The identification of various risk factors suggests improvements to aviary systems may lead to better welfare of laying hens. PMID:26628344

  13. Risk factors associated with keel bone and foot pad disorders in laying hens housed in aviary systems.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, J L T; Delezie, E; Rodenburg, T B; Kempen, I; Zoons, J; Ampe, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-03-01

    Aviary systems for laying hens offer space and opportunities to perform natural behaviors. However, hen welfare can be impaired due to increased risk for keel bone and foot pad disorders in those systems. This cross-sectional study (N = 47 flocks) aimed to assess prevalences of keel bone and foot pad disorders in laying hens housed in aviaries in Belgium to identify risk factors for these disorders and their relation to egg production. Information on housing characteristics and egg production were obtained through questionnaire-based interviews, farm records, and measurements in the henhouse. Keel bone (wounds, hematomas, fractures, deviations) and foot pad disorders (dermatitis, hyperkeratosis) were assessed in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old laying hens per flock. A linear model with stepwise selection procedure was used to investigate associations between risk factors, production parameters, and the keel bone and foot pad disorders. The flock mean prevalences were: hematomas 41.2%, wounds 17.6%, fractures 82.5%, deviations 58.9%, hyperkeratosis 42.0%, dermatitis 27.6%, and bumble foot 1.2%. Identified risk factors for keel bone disorders were aviary type (row vs. portal), tier flooring material (wire mesh vs. plastic slats), corridor width, nest box perch, and hybrid. Identified risk factors for foot pad disorders were aviary type (row vs. portal), free-range, and hybrid. Percentage of second-quality eggs was negatively associated with keel bone deviations (P = 0.029) at the flock level. Keel bone and foot pad disorders were alarmingly high in aviary housing. The identification of various risk factors suggests improvements to aviary systems may lead to better welfare of laying hens.

  14. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments and proteins in the digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens fed with phytase transgenic corn.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiugang; Gao, Chunqi; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhao, Lihong; Hao, Wenbo; Ji, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The trials were conducted to assess the effects of long-term feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) to hens on laying performance and egg quality, and investigate the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs. Fifty-week old laying hens (n = 144) were fed with a diet containing 62.4% PTC or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for 16 weeks. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on laying performance or egg quality (P>0.05) except on yolk color (P<0.05). Transgenic phyA2 gene and protein were rapidly degraded in the digestive tract and were not detected in blood, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, breast muscle, and eggs of laying hens fed with diet containing PTC. It was concluded that performance of hens fed diets containing PTC, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with CC. There was no evidence of phyA2 gene or protein translocation to the blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens.

  15. Detection of Transgenic and Endogenous Plant DNA Fragments and Proteins in the Digesta, Blood, Tissues, and Eggs of Laying Hens Fed with Phytase Transgenic Corn

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianyun; Zhao, Lihong; Hao, Wenbo; Ji, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The trials were conducted to assess the effects of long-term feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) to hens on laying performance and egg quality, and investigate the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs. Fifty-week old laying hens (n = 144) were fed with a diet containing 62.4% PTC or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for 16 weeks. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on laying performance or egg quality (P>0.05) except on yolk color (P<0.05). Transgenic phyA2 gene and protein were rapidly degraded in the digestive tract and were not detected in blood, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, breast muscle, and eggs of laying hens fed with diet containing PTC. It was concluded that performance of hens fed diets containing PTC, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with CC. There was no evidence of phyA2 gene or protein translocation to the blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens. PMID:23577200

  16. Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

    2013-04-01

    In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier

  17. Short-term exposure of laying hens to high dietary sodium chloride levels.

    PubMed

    Damron, B L; Kelly, L S

    1987-05-01

    Four replicate pens, each containing five individually caged hens received a corn-soy basal diet to which .4, 1, 2, 4, or 6% NaCl was added during two 21-day experiments. An additional bilevel treatment, approximating a reported commercial feed production problem, consisted of 6% NaCl for 7 days followed by .4% NaCl for the remaining 2 weeks. Egg production was significantly reduced by 4 and 6% NaCl in Experiment 1 and by 2, 4, and 6% NaCl in Experiment 2. The switchback treatment (6-.4% NaCl) did not statistically alter overall egg production in either experiment. Daily water consumption increased significantly when more than 1% NaCl was added, and subsequently with each feed addition. When 6% NaCl was fed for 7 days feed intake was quickly suppressed; this caused a rapid increase in water intake. Water intake returned to normal levels before the end of the second week. Daily feed intake was significantly reduced by a continuous feeding of 4% or more NaCl. A 1-week exposure to the 6% treatment suppressed feed intake quickly but intake recovered within one week. In both experiments, only the continuous 6% NaCl feeding regime of Experiment 1 resulted in a significant loss of body weight or a significant reduction of overall egg weight averages. Mortality was not a factor in either experiment. These data indicate that at least 2% NaCl in feed was required before any significant effects were noted, and that laying hens recovered from a 1-week exposure to 6% NaCl in feed within the following week.

  18. Blood flow through arteriovenous anastomoses and its thermal function in the laying hen.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenson, D

    1983-01-01

    1. Total (arteriovenous anastomoses + capillary) blood flow (t.b.f.) and capillary blood flow (c.b.f.) distribution were determined by 52 and 15 micron microspheres respectively, in body organs of six unanaesthetized laying hens, exposed to thermoneutral air temperatures. 2. Statistically significant differences between t.b.f. and c.b.f. were only found in the unfeathered metatarsal skin, comb and wattles. The c.b.f. constituted 22, 42 and 45% of t.b.f. respectively, indicating significant arteriovenous anastomoses (a.v.a.) blood flow. Differences between t.b.f. and c.b.f. were small in the two larger ovarian follicles and digestive tract and were negligible in reproductive tract, liver and kidney. 3. Microspheres of different size have been injected into the external ischiadic artery in order to examine the vasomotor responses of leg tissues in twenty-one hens kept in thermoneutral, cold or hot conditions. 4. In cold, thermoneutral and hot conditions 1, 16 and 35% of whole leg blood flow respectively passed through a.v.a. Only c.b.f. was present in bone and muscle in either treatment; cold and heat reduced it in bones and cold increased it in muscles. Arteriovenous anastomoses blood flow appeared mostly in unfeathered skin; it constituted 17, 53 and 83% of t.b.f. to this tissue in cold, thermoneutral and hot conditions, while t.b.f. increased from 1.4 to 14% and 30% of whole leg blood flow respectively. Blood flow to feathered skin decreased during heat and cold. PMID:6864561

  19. Survey of the prevalence of Salmonella species on laying hen farms in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hulaj, B; Çabeli, P; Goga, I; Taylor, N; Hess, C; Hess, M L

    2016-09-01

    A survey on the prevalence of Salmonella (S) species was carried out on 39 layer farms in Kosovo between April and September 2012. In total 367 samples, comprising feces, dust, eggs, and internal organs from dead birds, were investigated using bacteriological culture methods. Additionally, data on the location of the farm, the total number of birds on the farm, age of birds, and laying performance were collected. Salmonella were isolated from 38 samples obtained from 19 (49%) farms. The most common serovar identified was Salmonella enteritidis, found on 18 farms. The most common S. enteritidis phage type was PT29 followed by PT6, PT7, PT21, PT13a, PT8, PT14b, and PT4. One S. enteritidis isolate was not typable. Six farms had more than one phage type. Furthermore, serovar S. Bovismorbificans also was found in samples from 3 farms. Flock size or production stage was not associated with the probability of isolating Salmonella. The only flock factor found to be significantly associated was percent hen/day production: It was 2.8 times more likely to isolate Salmonella from flocks with production above 80% hen/day production compared to flocks producing at a lower level. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance patterns of 30 isolates revealed that all isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline, and 29 (97%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. All isolates showed intermediate resistance or were resistant to minocycline and cloxacillin. Twenty-six isolates (86%) had intermediate resistance to amoxicillin and 27 isolates (90%) were fully resistant to streptomycin. The present survey revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis in layer flocks in Kosovo, indicating that table eggs have to be suspected as an important source of human salmone-llosis. PMID:27252368

  20. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties.

  1. The Relationship between the Numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, or S. Hadar Colonizing Reproductive Tissues of Experimentally Infected Laying Hens and Deposition inside Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella deposition inside eggs results from reproductive tract colonization in laying hens. In the present study, groups of hens were orally infected with S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, or S. Hadar. No significant differences were observed between strains in either the frequency or numbers of Sal...

  2. Rearing without early access to perches impairs the spatial skills of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson; Yngvesson; Keeling; Forkman

    2000-04-01

    The effect of rearing with and without perches on the spatial ability of domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated. No access or late access to perches during rearing has been shown to increase the later prevalence of floor eggs and cloacal cannibalism in loose-housed laying hens. This may be explained by either the birds reared without perches have difficulty using perches due to low muscle strength, lack of motor skills, and inability to keep balance, or they have impaired spatial skills necessary for moving around in three-dimensional space. These alternative explanations are not mutually exclusive.Thirty, day-old chicks were randomly allocated into two equal groups and reared in litter pens, one with access to perches (P+) and one without (P-). At 8 weeks of age, all birds were given access to perches, and by 15 weeks, all birds were using perches for roosting at night. At 16 weeks, 10 birds from each group were tested in pens where food was presented on a wire mesh tier 40 cm above the ground (T40). Three consecutive tests, with increasing difficulty for the bird to reach the food, were then performed. Firstly, the food was presented at 80 cm above the ground but with the tier at 40 cm still present; secondly, food was presented on the tier at 80 cm; and then, finally, with the food on a 160 cm high tier with the tier at 80 cm still present. All birds were food deprived for 15 h before each test and the time from the bird entering the pen until reaching the food was recorded. There was no difference in the time to reach the food between P+ and P- birds in the T40 test. But as the difficulty of the task increased, the difference between the P+ and P- birds became significant, with the P- birds taking a longer time to reach the food or not reaching it at all. Since there was no difference between P+ and P- in the T40 test, it seems reasonable to suppose that the later differences did not depend on differences in physical ability. Therefore, the

  3. Influence of dietary boron supplementation on some serum metabolites and egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Eren, M; Uyanik, F

    2007-03-01

    The influence of dietary boron (B) supplementation on some serum parameters and egg-yolk cholesterol was studied in laying hens. A total of 224 eighteen-week-old hens of the Hyline Brown 98 strain were assigned to 7 groups with 4 replicates of 8 hens each after 10 days of adaptation, and they were fed commercial diets supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg (diet) B (H3BO3) for 8 weeks. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels were decreased with all B levels. Except in the group receiving 5 mg/kg B supplementation, decreases were found in serum triglycerides in all groups. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was decreased in the groups receiving 100 mg/kg or higher levels of B. All levels of B supplementation increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity at weeks 21 and 22, while 10 mg/kg or higher levels of B increased serum globulin, urea and egg-yolk cholesterol levels. The results demonstrate that B supplementation at levels exceeding 5 mg/kg affects serum biochemical parameters and increases egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

  4. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X

    2010-12-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:21161786

  5. Susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from laying hens in Belgium to antibiotics and disinfectants and integron prevalence.

    PubMed

    Oosterik, Leon H; Peeters, Laura; Mutuku, Irene; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Butaye, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes huge annual losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Multiresistance against antibiotics of APEC strains is increasingly seen in broilers, although much is still unknown about strains from laying hens where use of antibiotics is limited. Disinfection can reduce the infection burden. However, little is known about the presence of resistance against these products. Ninety-seven APEC strains were isolated from Belgian laying hens. The resistance to different classes of antibiotics was determined as well as the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC; agar and broth dilution) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of five disinfectants most often used in the poultry industry (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, hydrogen peroxide, and a quaternary ammonium compound). The presence of integrons was determined by PCR Resistance to ampicillin (35.1%), nalidixic acid (38.1%), sulfonamides (SULFA, 41.2%), and tetracycline (TET, 53.6%) was high but resistance to other tested antibiotics was low. Nevertheless, two extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers were found. The MIC of the disinfectants for the APEC strains showed a Gaussian distribution, indicating that there was no acquired resistance. MBCs were similar to MICs via the broth dilution method, showing the bactericidal effect of the disinfectants. Twenty-one strains (21.6%) were found positive for class 1 integrons and a positive association between integron presence and resistance to trimethoprim, SULFA, and TET was found. No association could be found between integron presence and phylogenetic group affiliation. Susceptibility of APEC strains from laying hens to antibiotics is, in general, very high. Phenotypic resistance to commonly used disinfectants could not be found, indicating that the current use of disinfectants in the laying hen industry did not select for resistance.

  6. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X

    2010-12-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers.

  7. [Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract].

    PubMed

    Soares, Nilce M; Tucci, Edna C; Guastalli, Elizabeth A L; Yajima, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite. PMID:19265573

  8. Manipulation of the phenotypic appearance of individuals in groups of laying hens: effects on stress and immune-related variables.

    PubMed

    Nazar, F N; Marin, R H; Liste, G; Campderrich, I; Estevez, I

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether phenotypic appearance (PA) alteration during two developmental phases in laying hens, reared in two different group sizes, affects stress and immune responses. After hatching, 750 chicks were randomly assigned to 30 pens at a group size of either 10 or 40 birds. Then, the appearance of 0, 30, 50, 70 or 100% of the chicks in each pen was altered by blackdyeing their head feathers (marked); remaining chicks were unmarked. At 32 weeks, basal and postacute stress plasma corticosterone concentration, leukocyte counts, phytohemagglutinin-p lymphoproliferative and primary antibody responses were measured in six birds/pen. Analysis of variances (ANOVAs) showed no differences among treatment combinations. In a second phase, birds within initially homogeneous pens were sequentially either marked or had dye bleached to alter PA of 70% of hens in each flock (= group in a pen). Hens within initially heterogeneous pens remained unaltered as controls. The above variables were remeasured. Hens in phenotypically manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts compared to hens in control pens, indicating a chronic stress reaction in all penmates (whether individual PA was altered or not). Social isolation increased plasma corticosterone concentration. However, within groups of n = 40, phenotypically unaltered hens had lower responses than their altered penmate counterparts, suggesting that remaining in a stable PA group aids better coping with challenges. Although all hens in manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts, their antibody and lymphoproliferative responses did not differ from controls suggesting that all groupmates were able to immunologically cope with the challenges presented, within the timeframe evaluated. PMID:26364806

  9. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  10. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  11. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Le Bouquin, S; Bex-Capelle, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Guillam, M-T; Squizani, F; Segala, C; Michel, V

    2011-10-01

    Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 µm) from cage and alternative system houses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experimental and commercial conditions. The endotoxin concentration was higher in experimental aviaries (median: 565 EU/m³, range: 362-1491 EU/m³) than in cage housing (98 EU/m³ (51-470)). In field conditions, the endotoxin concentration in the air of 13 alternative houses was higher (35 to 3156 EU/m³) than in cage system buildings (n = 8, 78-576 EU/m³). It was correlated to the respirable dust concentration (fraction below 5 µm) and to the temperature inside the hen house but no seasonal variation was observed. The present study emphasises that considerable worker exposure to endotoxins may occur in laying houses, especially in alternative systems. PMID:22029777

  12. The development of seasonal emission factors from a Canadian commercial laying hen facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert J.; Wood, David J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2014-04-01

    Pollutants emitted from poultry housing facilities are a concern from a human health, bird welfare, and environmental perspective. Development of emission factors for these aerial pollutants is difficult due to variable climatic conditions, the number and type of poultry, and the wide range of management practices used. To address these concerns, a study was conducted to develop emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter over a period of one year from a commercial poultry laying hen facility in Wellington County, Ontario, Canada. Instruments housed inside an on-site mobile trailer were used to monitor in-house concentrations of ammonia and size fractionated particulate matter via a heated sample line. Along with a ventilation profile, emission factors were developed for the facility. Average emissions of 19.53 ± 19.97, 2.55 ± 2.10, and 1.10 ± 1.52 g day-1 AU-1 (where AU is defined as an animal unit equivalent to 500 kg live mass) for ammonia, PM10, PM2.5, respectively, were observed. All emissions peaked during the winter months, with the exception of PM2.5 which increased in the summer.

  13. Polluting profiles of dieldrin and DDTs in laying hens of Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Morita, Y

    2000-09-01

    Contaminating/accumulating levels of organochlorine pesticides in extractable fats from a basal diet, eggs and seven tissues (adipose tissue, blood, kidney, liver, muscle, ovary and oviduct) and excreta of laying hens that were kept in a general poultry farm of Japan were examined. No benzene hexachlorides or aldrin was detected [< 1 part per billion (p.p.b.)] overall. Dieldrin and all DDTs (p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT) were contaminated in the dietary fats (mean range 10-70 p.p.b.). Although dieldrin (4-58 p.p.b.), p,p'-DDE (65-196 p.p.b.) and p,p'-DDT (30-73 p.p.b.) were found to be accumulated in all the tissue fats and egg yolk fats, they were not detected in the dried excreta. Accumulations of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD were found only in the liver fat (92 p.p.b.) and in the kidney fat (27 p.p.b.), respectively. In all the samples, p,p'-DDE levels were highest in comparison with the other compounds. For all organochlorine pesticides detected, the accumulated levels were well below the practical residue limits. PMID:11048432

  14. The feeding of leaf meal of Calliandra calothyrsus to laying hens.

    PubMed

    Paterson, R T; Roothaert, R L; Kiruiro, E

    2000-02-01

    A 67-day feeding experiment was conducted to study the effects of inclusion of 5%, 7.5% or 10% leaf meal of Calliandra calothyrsus (calliandra) in the diets of laying hens on feed intake, egg production, egg weights, yolk colour and the birds' weights. While no significant effects were seen on either egg numbers or egg size, feed intake increased and the efficiency of feed utilization decreased with increasing inclusion of the foliage. Absolute initial and final body weights did not show significant treatment differences but live weight changes over the course of the experiments were statistically significant, weight gains decreasing with increasing calliandra levels. The strength of colour of the yolks increased within 3 days of offering the calliandra, irrespective of the level of inclusion. The persistence of the colour change after withdrawal of the leaf meal ranged from 3 days at the 5% inclusion to over 10 days at the 10% level. While it may be possible to include calliandra leaf meal in poultry rations along with other, local, low-cost components, there would appear to be little advantage in using it in conjunction with commercial layers meal at levels higher than those necessary to provide the desired pigmentation level in the yolks (5% or less).

  15. Furnished cages for laying hens: study of the effects of group size and litter provision on laying location, zootechnical performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Guinebretière, M; Taktak, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V

    2011-05-01

    The furnished cage is a new housing system for layers. A current trend in furnished cage design is to increase group size and replace the litter box with a mat provided with litter. An experiment was set up to determine the effects of group size and litter provision on laying performance and egg quality of beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens housed in large furnished cages with more than 12 hens. Six treatments, each of 18 furnished cages (768 cm(2)/hen including nest and litter area) were compared in a 3 × 2 experimental trial: three group sizes (S20 (20 hens per cage), S40 (40) and S60 (60)), with or without feed as litter distributed on the mat of the litter area. The provision of facilities per hen was equal in all treatments. Mortality, laying rate, mean egg weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were unaffected by group size over the 53-week laying period, and performance exceeded the ISA production standards. The overall percentage of eggs laid in the nest exceeded 95% except that it was slightly lower in group S20 (92.0% ± 6.4% v. S40: 96.0% ± 3.3% and S60: 96.2% ± 2.7%) leading to a higher proportion of dirty eggs (S20: 1.6% ± 2.2%, S40: 1.4% ± 1.5%, S60: 1.0% ± 1.0%). At 66 to 70 weeks, eggs laid outside the nest had a slightly higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell (5.0 log CFU/egg ± 0.4) than those laid in the nest (4.8 log CFU/egg ± 0.5) but no difference in contamination was observed between group sizes. Litter provision had no effect on mortality, egg weight or egg quality traits except for a higher proportion of broken eggs in cages with litter (5.3% ± 6.2% v. 4.6% ± 5.7%). Providing hens with feed for litter was associated with a higher laying rate (97.3% ± 3.2% v. 94.8% ± 4.4% at 23 weeks) and an apparent improvement in feed efficiency at the beginning of the laying period (feed conversion ratio based on feed consumption at the trough: 2.18 ± 0.06 with litter v. 2.28 ± 0.09 without litter at 25 weeks). The results of

  16. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I-Dust.

    PubMed

    David, Bruce; Moe, Randi Oppermann; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban. PMID:26479370

  17. Mycotoxin-contaminated diets and deactivating compound in laying hens: 1. effects on performance characteristics and relative organ weight.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T; Jessen, K A; Beltran, R; Starkl, V; Schatzmayr, G; Borutova, R; Caldwell, D J

    2012-09-01

    The current experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mycotoxin-contaminated diets with aflatoxin (AFLA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and dietary inclusion of deactivation compound on layer hen performance during a 10-wk trial. The experimental design consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial with 4 toxin levels: control, low (0.5 mg/kg AFLA + 1.0 mg/kg DON), medium (1.5 mg/kg AFLA + 1.5 mg/kg DON), and high (2.0 mg/kg AFLA + 2.0 mg/kg DON) with or without the inclusion of deactivation compound. Three hundred eighty-four 25-wk-old laying hens were randomly assigned to 1 of the 8 treatment groups. Birds were fed contaminated diets for a 6-wk phase of toxin administration followed by a 4-wk recovery phase, when all birds were fed mycotoxin-free diets. Twelve hens from each treatment were subjected to necropsy following each phase. Relative liver and kidney weights were increased (P < 0.05) at the medium and high toxin levels following the toxin phase, but the deactivation compound reduced (P < 0.05) relative liver and kidney weights following the recovery period. The high toxin level decreased (P < 0.05) feed consumption and egg production during the toxin period, whereas the deactivation compound increased (P < 0.05) egg production during the first 2 wk of the toxin phase. Egg weights were reduced (P < 0.05) in hens fed medium and high levels of toxin. An interaction existed between toxin level and deactivation compound inclusion with regard to feed conversion (g of feed/g of egg). High inclusion level of toxins increased feed conversion compared with the control diet, whereas deactivation compound inclusion reduced feed conversion to a level comparable with the control. These data indicate that deactivation compound can reduce or eliminate adverse effects of mycotoxicoses in peak-performing laying hens.

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Borisuth, Lalita; Chinrasri, Orawan; Saenthaweesuk, Nattanan; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Thosaikham, Witphon; Sriart, Noppong; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2016-05-01

    Hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprouts (HPSeKS) are studied for their use as an alternative dietary Se supplement for poultry. The study experimented with different levels and sources of Se to determine toxicity and how the toxicity may affect productive performance, Se concentration in egg and tissues, and physiological responses of laying hens. One-hundred and twenty hens, 59 weeks of age, were divided into 5 groups. Each group consisted of 4 replicates and each replicate had 6 birds according to a 2 × 2 + 1 Augmented Factorial Experiment in a Completely Randomized Design. The experiment was conducted over a 4 week period, and 5 dietary treatments (T) were used: T1 basal diet, T2 and T3 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from sodium selenite (SS), T4 and T5 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results make clear that Se from HPSeKS, at 5-10mg/kg, did not affect (P>0.05) feed intake and egg production; however, Se bioavailability decreased (P<0.05). Egg, tissue and plasma Se concentrations, and GSH-Px activity in red blood cells increased (P<0.05) compared to those in T1. Final body weight, feed intake, Se bioavailability, concentration of Se in breast muscle and plasma of hens fed Se from SS were lower (P<0.05) than those of hens fed Se from HPSeKS. The findings demonstrate that dietary Se from HPSeKS at 5-10mg/kg is not considered a toxic level for laying hens. The toxicity of Se from HPSeKS was less than the toxicity of Se from SS.

  19. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I—Dust

    PubMed Central

    David, Bruce; Oppermann Moe, Randi; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban. PMID:26479370

  20. Assessment of Salmonella spp. in feces, cloacal swabs, and eggs (eggshell and content separately) from a laying hen farm.

    PubMed

    García, C; Soriano, J M; Benítez, V; Catalá-Gregori, P

    2011-07-01

    Microbial pathogens of the genus Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne illness in the world. The present study was done on a laying hen farm with a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis-positive result according to the testing specified by European regulation 2160/2003. The aim of this study was to compare the Salmonella contamination on a laying hen farm with the Salmonella presence in the hen eggs. The strains were isolated by ISO method 6579:2002 (standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the European regulation for food and animal feeding stuffs, animal feces, and environmental samples from the primary production stage, including poultry farms) and were confirmed as Salmonella Enteritidis by the Kauffmann-White method. In addition, strains were compared with genomic macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Four types of samples, namely, feces (n = 50), cloacal swabs (n = 150), eggshells (n = 50), and egg contents (n = 50), were taken from each of 50 randomly selected battery cages. Results demonstrated that feces (92%) were the most positive sample, followed by eggshells (34%) and cloacal swabs (4%). No Salmonella spp. were detected in the egg contents. Our results show that a Salmonella Enteritidis-positive result on a laying hen farm, according to the testing specified by European regulation 2160/2003, did not imply the presence of the pathogen in the egg contents. Additionally, XbaI-digested genomic DNA of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from several samples resulted in the same pattern, so were probably of the same origin. PMID:21673175

  1. Effect of different supplements on eggshell quality, some characteristics of gastrointestinal tract and performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Shalaei, Mosayeb; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Zergani, Emel

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on performance, egg shell quality, pH value of gastrointestinal (GI) tract and small intestinal morphology of laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain (W-36) from 32 to 42 weeks of age, with five treatments, four replicates and eight hens in each replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of: 1-basal diet, 2-basal diet + 150 g per ton antibiotic (oxytetracycline), 3-basal diet + 3 kg per ton mixture of organic acids supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g per ton probiotic (protoxin) and 5-basal diet + 2 kg per ton prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide). During the experimental period, performance characteristics were evaluated. At the end of experiment two birds per replicate was sacrificed for small intestinal morphology. The results showed that organic acid and mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased average egg weight. Also feed conversion ratio significantly improved by mannan oligosaccharide. Eggshell quality was not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Regarding gastrointestinal tract characteristics, pH value of different parts of GI tract were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Villi height in duodenum by probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. Villi width in duodenum by antibiotic and probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. The number of goblet cells in duodenum by addition of antibiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. It was concluded that the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharide could have positive effects on performance of laying hens. PMID:25610579

  2. Influence of genetic strain and access to litter on spatial distribution of 4 strains of laying hens in an aviary system1

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A. B. A.; Campbell, D. L. M.; Karcher, D. M.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Many laying hen producers are transitioning from conventional cages to new housing systems including multi-tier aviaries. Aviary resources, such as litter areas, are intended to encourage hens’ expression of natural behaviors to improve their welfare. Little research has examined the influence of laying hen strain on distribution and behavior inside aviaries, yet differences could influence a strain's suitability for an aviary design. This research examined how laying hens of 4 strains (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) distributed themselves among 3 enclosed aviary tiers and 2 litter areas at peak lay (25 to 28 wk of age) and after gaining access to litter on the floor (26 wk). Observations of hens’ spatial distribution were conducted immediately before and after, and 3 wk after hens gained access to litter. More HB and BB hens were in upper tiers in morning compared to DW and W36 (all P ≤ 0.05). However, DW and W36 hens roosted in upper tiers in larger numbers than HB and BB during evening (all P ≤ 0.05). More DW and W36 hens were on litter compared to BB and HB, particularly when litter was first accessible (all P ≤ 0.05). The number of hens on litter increased over time for all strains (P ≤ 0.06). White hens on litter occupied open areas in higher numbers (P ≤ 0.05), while more brown hens occupied litter under the aviary after acclimation (P ≤ 0.05). In the dark period, W36 and DW hens were present in higher numbers in upper tiers than HB and BB, while HB and BB showed higher tier-to-tier movement than DW and W36 (P ≤ 0.05). In general, more white hens roosted higher at night and explored litter sooner, while more brown hens were near or in nests in the morning and moved at night. Distinct strain differences indicate that attention should be paid to the match between configuration of the aviary design and strain of laying hen. PMID:27444438

  3. Production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of two strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Onbaşılar, E E; Ünal, N; Erdem, E; Kocakaya, A; Yaranoğlu, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of 2 strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages. Lohmann Brown Classic (LB, n=532) and Lohmann LSL Classic (LW, n=532) hens were housed from 16 to 73 wk in either conventional cages or enriched cages. Enriched cages had a nesting area, scratch pad, perch, and nail shortener. Body weight (BW), hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), cracked and dirty eggs, use of nest box for lay, and external appearance were determined. Laying period influenced the hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Cage type affected the hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, while strain affected the egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Laying period×cage type and laying period×strain interactions affected egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio. Both strains preferred to lay in the nest box. Percentages of cracked and dirty eggs of LW hens in enriched cages were higher than that in conventional cages. Most of the dirty eggs laid by both strains were found outside of the nest box. The LW hens laid more dirty eggs than the LB hens. Cage type and cage type×strain interaction were important for total feather score. Final claw length was affected by cage type, strain, and cage type×strain interaction. This study suggests that cage type, strain, and also cage type×strain and period×strain interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are used. PMID:25667426

  4. Production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of two strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Onbaşılar, E E; Ünal, N; Erdem, E; Kocakaya, A; Yaranoğlu, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of 2 strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages. Lohmann Brown Classic (LB, n=532) and Lohmann LSL Classic (LW, n=532) hens were housed from 16 to 73 wk in either conventional cages or enriched cages. Enriched cages had a nesting area, scratch pad, perch, and nail shortener. Body weight (BW), hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), cracked and dirty eggs, use of nest box for lay, and external appearance were determined. Laying period influenced the hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Cage type affected the hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, while strain affected the egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Laying period×cage type and laying period×strain interactions affected egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio. Both strains preferred to lay in the nest box. Percentages of cracked and dirty eggs of LW hens in enriched cages were higher than that in conventional cages. Most of the dirty eggs laid by both strains were found outside of the nest box. The LW hens laid more dirty eggs than the LB hens. Cage type and cage type×strain interaction were important for total feather score. Final claw length was affected by cage type, strain, and cage type×strain interaction. This study suggests that cage type, strain, and also cage type×strain and period×strain interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are used.

  5. The use of selected plasma enzyme activities for the diagnosis of fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Diaz, G J; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1999-01-01

    Profiles of plasma enzymes were compared in two strains of single comb white leghorn laying hens, a normal commercial strain and strain UCD-003, which is highly susceptible to fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome. Plasma activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK) averaged 194 +/- 27, 4.0 +/- 2.8, 146 +/- 20, 1.0 +/- 1.0, and 1041 +/- 268 U/liter, respectively in normal birds. Activities of LDH, GDH, AST, and ALT, but not CK, were significantly higher in UCD-003 than in normal hens. A bimodal distribution of activities of all enzymes was found in the UCD-003 hens, with some birds showing activities comparable with those of the normal hens and others with values that were 2-10 times greater than those found in normal hens. These results are consistent with the extensive hepatic lesions observed in the UCD-003 strain of birds. Average gross hemorrhagic scores from visual inspection (scale of 0-3) were 0.28 +/- 0.45 in normal birds and 1.63 +/- 0.94 in the UCD-003 birds. Even though no clear relationship was found between plasma enzyme activities and the extent of liver hemorrhage in individual birds, the UCD-003 hens consistently had average values significantly higher for plasma enzymes that indicate liver damage. The results suggest that measurement of enzyme activities indicative of liver damage in birds, particularly AST, LDH, and GDH, is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome in a flock of layers.

  6. Surface wetting and its effect on body and surface temperatures of domestic laying hens at different thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Mutaf, S; Kahraman, N Seber; Firat, M Z

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of surface wetting at different thermal conditions on core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures in laying hens. Hens were sprinkled on the head and dorsal surface by releasing a sprinkling dosage of 10 mL.bird(-1). The first measurement was taken presprinkling, and the second was taken immediately postsprinkling and then repeated every 5 min for 20 min. The cooling water needs for intermittent partial surface wetting to relieve acute heat stress in the laying hens were quantified for 48 domestic laying hens under 4 experimental thermal conditions. The hens were kept at 4 thermal conditions at average dry-bulb temperatures of 31.30 +/- 0.03, 33.20 +/- 0.08, 36.01 +/- 0.12, and 40.24 +/- 0.08 degrees C; RH of 67.68 +/- 0.37, 51.78 +/- 1.98, 24.59 +/- 0.90, and 16.12 +/- 1.55%; and air velocities of 0.09 +/- 0.00, 0.07 +/- 0.00, 0.08 +/- 0.00, and 0.09 +/- 0.00 m.s(-1), respectively. The differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal groups were 0.15, 0.18, 0.23, and 0.22 degrees C for core body temperature; 1.63, 1.44, 2.51, and 0.97 degrees C for core head temperature; and 1.23, 1.37, 1.41, and 0.64 degrees C for core dorsal temperature at thermal conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. There were significant differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal condition groups. It was concluded that the spraying interval was directly proportional to the product of the vapor pressure deficit and the thermal resistance of convective mass transfer of the wetted hens, because there were no significant differences in the air velocity among the 4 thermal condition groups and the air velocity was very low. PMID:19038798

  7. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  8. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  9. Method for the preparation of mucosal flaps from the jejunum of laying hens for transporter studies in Ussing chambers.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Meyer, Wilfried; Kröger, Susan; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Ussing chambers are frequently used for in vitro evaluation of intestinal transport physiology. The current study describes investigating the jejunal tissue from laying hens using a specific preparation method and evaluates the effect of glutamine in the maintenance buffer. Tunica mucosa was stripped from 104 jejunal samples from 10 hens and stabilised by a net device. Fifty samples were maintained with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (Control), 54 samples with additional 5 mM glutamine (Group Gln). The percentage of responding samples varied between 87 and 100%. Mean short circuit current (ΔI sc,) [µA/cm(2)] of samples exposed to 10 mM glucose in the Control group and Group Gln was 17.0 and 14.6 (p = 0.836), respectively, of samples exposed to 100 µM phloridzin -13.3 and -11.8 (p = 0.712), respectively, and of samples exposed to 100 µM carbachol 4.7 and 3.7 (p = 0.450), respectively. In conclusion, the net-supported method enabled a reliable investigation of jejunum from laying hens. Glutamine in the maintenance buffer was of no significant benefit.

  10. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  11. Anaemia, Serum Iron Concentrations and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Laying Hens Infected Naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Boiago, M M; do Carmo, G M; Bottari, N B; Araujo, D N; Giuriatti, J; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C; Casagrande, R A; Wisser, C S; Stefani, L M; Alves, M S; Da Silva, A S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anaemia, serum iron concentrations and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in laying hens infected naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum and having severe hepatic lesions. Liver and serum samples were collected from 27 laying hens (20 infected and seven uninfected). The δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations were evaluated. There were significant decreases in δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations (P <0.01) in birds infected by S. Gallinarum when compared with uninfected birds. There was a positive correlation (P <0.001) between serum iron concentration, haematocrit (r(2) = 0.82) and δ-ALA-D activity (r(2) = 0.75). A positive correlation was also observed between δ-ALA-D activity and haematocrit (r(2) = 0.78; P <0.01). Liver samples showed moderate focal coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells, macrophages and heterophils. The anaemia in the infected hens may be related to reduction in δ-ALA-D activity and serum iron concentrations, since both are important for haemopoiesis.

  12. Diet supplementation with a specific melon concentrate improves oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Carillon, J; Barbé, F; Barial, S; Saby, M; Sacy, A; Rouanet, J-M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a specific melon concentrate on oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics of laying hens.Lohmann Brown hens were assigned to 2 treatment groups (n = 16 in each). One group was supplemented with the melon concentrate (26 mg/kg of feed) during 6 wk. The other group was composed of untreated hens, which served as control. Eggs were collected, weighed (yolk, albumen, shell), and analyzed (Haugh unit and albumen pH relevant for egg freshness) at the end of the supplementation period. Antioxidant status was evaluated in the oviduct measuring antioxidant enzymes by western blotting.This study demonstrated that the melon concentrate could ameliorate egg weight, and particularly yolk contribution to egg weight and egg shell weight. An increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses in the oviduct after this melon concentrate supplementation could explain the better egg characteristics. The improvement of egg quality, due to melon concentrate, may have important economic implications for future breeding programs, particularly if these effects generalize from hens to other poultry species, or even other livestock animal species.

  13. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  14. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production. PMID:27154844

  15. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production.

  16. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  17. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E; Karcher, Darrin M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic analyses have linked the frequency of human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis to the consumption of contaminated eggs and thus to the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial egg-laying flocks. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs by Salmonella Enteritidis is a consequence of the colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. The animal welfare implications of laying hen housing systems have been widely debated, but no definitive consensus has yet emerged about the food safety significance of poultry housing options. The present study sought to determine the effects of two different bird stocking densities on the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas. In two trials, groups of laying hens were distributed at two different stocking densities into colony cages and (along with a group housed in conventional cages) orally inoculated with doses of 1.0 × 10(7) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. At 5 to 6 d post-inoculation, hens were euthanized and samples of internal organs were removed for bacteriologic culturing. For both trials combined, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered at a significantly (P < 0.05) greater frequency from hens in enriched colony cages at the higher stocking density than at the lower density from livers (75.0% vs. 51.4%) and ovaries (51.4% vs. 30.6%). However, spleens from hens in enriched colony cages at the higher stocking density were significantly less often positive for Salmonella Enteritidis than from hens in conventional cages at that same density (90.3% vs. 68.1%). These results suggest that stocking density can influence the susceptibility of hens to Salmonella Enteritidis, but other housing systems parameters may also contribute to the outcome of infections. PMID:26944976

  18. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p < 0.05) egg production. The CTTAD of nitrogen was increased (linear, p < 0.05) with increasing dietary level of RY. In week 55, yolk height and Haugh units were increased linearly (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary RY content. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of excreta emissions and excreta microbiota in laying hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RY improved egg production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production. PMID:26250098

  19. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p < 0.05) egg production. The CTTAD of nitrogen was increased (linear, p < 0.05) with increasing dietary level of RY. In week 55, yolk height and Haugh units were increased linearly (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary RY content. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of excreta emissions and excreta microbiota in laying hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RY improved egg production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production.

  20. Effects of dietary Crotalaria pallida seeds on the health and performance of laying hens and evaluation of residues in eggs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Almeida, Leidy X; Gardner, Dale R

    2014-10-01

    The effect of three dietary concentrations of Crotalaria pallida (C. pallida) seeds (0, 1, 2, and 3% w/w) of their normal diet were investigated in commercial laying hens during a 35 day feeding trial. All concentrations of C. pallida decreased body weight and feed intake (P < 0.05). Egg mass production and average egg weight were decreased by feeding of ≥ 2% C. pallida seeds (P < 0.05). All concentrations of C. pallida increased relative lung weight and serum activity of ALT, AST and LDH (P < 0.05); 3% C. pallida seeds decreased liver weight (P < 0.05). Analysis of the C. pallida seeds for dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid content detected usaramine and its N-oxide at a total alkaloid concentration of 0.18% (dry weight). Usaramine was also detected in the eggs of all hens fed C. pallida seeds.

  1. Effect of the frizzle gene (F) on egg production and egg quality of laying hens kept in tropical villages.

    PubMed

    Adomako, K; Olympio, O S; Hagan, J K; Hamidu, J A

    2014-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of the frizzle gene (F) on the production and quality of chicken eggs kept on village farms in Ghana. 2. In the first experiment, 144 pullets, 72 each of Ff and ff pullets from F1 birds, were compared in a randomised complete block design (RCBD), with three villages and 4 batches of hatch as blocks and the two feather genotypes (Ff and ff) as the treatments. 3. The Ff pullets were superior (P < 0.05) to their ff counterparts in terms of the number of eggs per clutch, egg mass and hen-housed and hen-d rates of lay, whereas age at first egg was lower (P < 0.05) in ff layers compared to Ff ones. 4. The eggs of the F1 heterozygous frizzle (Ff) layers had higher values for albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk height compared with eggs from their normal feathered counterparts. 5. In the second experiment, 144 pullets, 48 each of FF, Ff and ff pullets, were compared in a RCBD, with three villages and 4 batches of hatch as blocks and the two feather genotypes (Ff and ff) as the treatments. 6. The F2 birds with genotypes Ff and FF were better than their ff counterparts in terms of the number of eggs per clutch, egg mass, and hen-housed and hen-d rates of lay. Age at first egg was significantly lower in ff layers compared to FF and Ff ones. 7. The Haugh unit value was higher in the homozygous and heterozygous frizzles compared to the normal feathered ones. 8. The presence of the frizzle gene (F) in egg type chickens led to an improvement in egg production and egg quality traits in village chickens, and the cross-breeding scheme evaluated in this project could contribute to improved productivity.

  2. Calcium and phosphorus dynamics in commercial laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cage systems.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; House, J D; Guenter, W; Kebreab, E

    2011-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) dynamics in Shaver White hens (19-63 wk of age) were compared between enriched (EC) and conventional cage (CC) systems. Calcium and P intake and their levels in egg components and excreta were considered. Using commercial levels of production (4,836 hens), 10 test cages/system (24 hens/test cage) were used as replicate units. Enriched cages provided a nesting area, scratch pad, perches, and more floor space (643 cm(2)/hen ) than CC (468 cm(2)/hen). All birds were offered similar phase-fed diets based on wheat-soybean formulation and housed under semicontrolled environmental conditions for 11 periods (28 d each). Egg weight, production, and shell quality indices (egg specific gravity, shell weight, thickness, and percentage shell) were also measured. Data were analyzed as a repeated measures design using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Egg production, weight, and shell quality measurements were not significantly different between the 2 systems. On a DM basis, EC hens exhibited lower feed disappearance than CC hens (92.5 vs. 95.0 ± 0.61 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.01), and lower Ca and P excretions in manure compared with CC hens (Ca: 2.11 vs. 2.29 ± 0.04 g/hen per day, respectively; P: 0.619 vs. 0.643 ± 0.005 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.01). Even though eggs from EC compared with CC had lower Ca deposition (2.07 vs. 2.13 ± 0.01 g/hen per day, respectively; P < 0.0001) and output (38.3 vs. 38.8 ± 0.15 mg/g of egg, respectively; P < 0.05), both EC and CC systems exhibited similar Ca outputs in eggs when expressed as a proportion of Ca intake (56.5 vs. 56.6 ± 0.51% Ca intake, respectively). The overall mean P retention between EC and CC hens was not significantly different (-7.22 vs. -7.45 ± 0.71% P intake, respectively), but Ca retention was higher in EC than CC hens (-1.37 vs. -4.76 ± 0.89% Ca intake, respectively; P < 0.05). In addition to providing environmental enrichment, EC systems may help to reduce Ca and P

  3. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (P<0.05). The results of this study show that it is possible to replace 75% of soya bean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  4. Earlier Metabolizable Energy Intake Level Influences Heat Production during a Following 3-Day Fast in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Guo, Y M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW)(0.75) per d) with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI), HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP) and retained energy (RE). The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (p<0.05). Based on the regression of HP on ME intake, the estimated ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) was 113.09 kcal/kg BW(0.75) per d when ME intake equals HP. The FHP was decreased day by day with the lowest value on the third day of starvation. Except for lowest ME intake level, the FHP increased with ME intake level on the first day of starvation (p<0.05). The FHP at the two higher ME intake levels were greater than that at the two lower ME intake levels (p<0.05) but no difference was found between the two lower ME intake levels. Linear regression of HP from the fed state to zero ME intake yielded a value of 71.02 kcal/kg BW(0·75) per d, which is higher than the extrapolated FHP at zero ME intake (60.78, 65.23 and 62.14 kcal/kg BW(0.75) per d for the first, second and third day of fasting, respectively). Fasting time, lighting schedules, calculation methods and duration of adaptation of hens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens.

  5. Influence of dietary copper proteinate on performance, selected biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, liver, and egg copper content in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Beyaz, Latife; Uyanik, Fatma; Eren, Meryem; Atasever, Ayhan

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of copper proteinate on performance, blood chemistry, lipid peroxidation status, and organs as well as copper deposition in the liver and eggs of laying hens. Seventy-two 30-week-old Bovans laying hens were distributed into four groups with three replicates. Animals were fed basal diet containing at least 17% crude protein and 2,800 kcal/kg metabolizable energy supplemented with either 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/kg copper as copper proteinate. Supplementation of 150 and 300 mg/kg copper increased egg production, whereas 450 mg/kg copper decreased (p < 0.001). Liver copper levels were elevated in 300 and 450 mg/kg copper-supplemented groups (p < 0.001). Egg copper contents increased in all treatment groups (p < 0.01). An increase in glucose (p < 0.001) and decreases in albumin (p < 0.01) and total cholesterol (p < 0.05) levels were determined with 300 and 450 mg/kg copper. Supplementation of 450 mg/kg copper increased alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities (p < 0.05), malondialdehyde, and high-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.01) but decreased alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities (p < 0.01). No gross and microscopic changes were observed in the liver and kidneys. These results indicated that 150 and 300 mg/kg copper increased egg production without having marked adverse effects, but 450 mg/kg copper altered some blood chemistry variables and reduced egg production in laying hens. PMID:18536874

  6. Influence of Flaxseed Oil on Fecal Microbiota, Egg Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolks in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Kang, Sang-Kee; Heo, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Do-Woon; Park, Tae-Eun; Han, Geon Goo; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Ho-Bin; Jung, Eojin; Kim, Hee Sung; Na, Yerim; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many attempts to produce ω-3 fatty acid-rich eggs using alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) that is a popular fatty acid in the poultry feed industry, only limited knowledge about the effects of ALA-enriched diets on chicken fecal microbiota is currently available. Herein we examined the changes in the fecal microbiota composition, egg quality traits and fatty acid composition of the egg yolks of laying hens fed ALA-rich flaxseed oil for 8 weeks. The animals fed the experimental diets that contained 0 % (group C), 0.5 % (group T1), and 1.0 % (group T2) of flaxseed oil, respectively, and eggs and feces were obtained for the analyses. ω-3 fatty acids, including ALA, were increased in T1 and T2 compared with C. Furthermore, the freshness of eggs was improved with no side effects on the eggs. The diet also changed the fecal microbiota; Firmicutes was increased in T1 and T2 (48.6 to 83 and 79.6 %) and Bacteroidetes was decreased (40.2 to 8.8 and 4.2 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that Lactobacillus, among the 56 examined genera, was the most influenced bacterial group in terms of the fecal microbial community shifts. These results indicate that ALA-rich diets influenced both the egg and fecal microbiota in beneficial manners in laying hens although the association between the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk and the fecal microbiota was not clear. This study is a first step to understand the effect of flaxseed oil as well as intestinal microbiota of laying hens. PMID:26613617

  7. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  8. Effect of dietary α-tocopherol on the bioavailability of lutein in laying hen.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M S; Khalil, M; Männer, K; Raila, J; Rawel, H; Zentek, J; Schweigert, F J

    2016-10-01

    Lutein and its isomer zeaxanthin have gained considerable interest as possible nutritional ingredient in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in humans. Egg yolk is a rich source of these carotenoids. As an oxidative sensitive component, antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (T) might contribute to an improved accumulation in egg yolk. To test this, chickens were fed lutein esters (LE) with and without α-tocopherol as an antioxidant. After depletion on a wheat-soya bean-based lutein-poor diet for 21 days, laying hens (n = 42) were equally divided into three groups and fed the following diets for 21 days: control (basal diet), a LE group (40 mg LE/kg feed) and LE + T group (40 mg LE plus 100 mg T/kg feed). Eggs and blood were collected periodically. Carotenoids and α-tocopherol in yolk and blood plasma were determined by HPLC. Egg yolk was also analysed for total carotenoids using a one-step spectrophotometric method (iCheck((™)) ). Lutein, zeaxanthin, α-tocopherol and total carotenoids in egg yolk were highest after 14 days of feeding and decreased slightly afterwards. At the end of the trial, eggs of LE + T group contained higher amount of lutein (13.72), zeaxanthin (0.65), α-tocopherol (297.40) and total carotenoids (21.6) compared to the LE group (10.96, 0.55, 205.20 and 18.0 mg/kg, respectively, p < 0.05). Blood plasma values of LE + T group contain higher lutein (1.3), zeaxanthin (0.06) and tocopherol (20.1) compared to LE group (1.02, 0.04 and 14.90 mg/l, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary α-tocopherol enhances bioavailability of lutein reflecting higher content in egg yolk and blood plasma. Improved bioavailability might be due to increased absorption of lutein in the presence of tocopherol and/or a greater stability of lutein/zeaxanthin due to the presence of α-tocopherol as an antioxidant.

  9. Using different ratios of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for moult induction and post-moult performance in commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, L; Sadeghi, Gh

    2009-03-01

    1. The applicability of different ratios of bitter vetch seed as a new method for moult induction in laying hens was studied. The effectiveness of bitter vetch seed on post-moult production and post-moult egg quality was also investigated. 2. A total of 120 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 78 weeks of age, were used in this study. The hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups of 24 birds each. The treatments were 30% bitter vetch seed (BV30) diet, 60% bitter vetch seed (BV60) diet, 90% bitter vetch seed (90BV) diet, feed withdrawal method (FW) and full-fed non-moulted control (CON). 3. Egg production ceased first in FW and BV90 treated hens and last in BV30 treated hens. As the percentage of bitter vetch seed increased in the moulting ration, feed intake decreased and body weight loss increased during the 10-d moult induction period. Time to first egg production was significantly greater in hens exposed to the FW and BV90 diets. 4. FW and BV90 treatment hens had significantly higher hen-d egg production than non-moulted control hens. Egg weight was significantly higher in BV30 and BV90 treatments. There were no differences in egg mass, feed intake and mortality among experimental treatments during the post-moult period. 5. No significant improvements were observed in exterior or interior egg quality in moulted hens, except for Haugh units, which were significantly higher in moulted hens when compared to the non-moulted control hens. 6. In conclusion, the present study showed ad libitum feeding of a layer ration with 90% of bitter vetch seed for 10 d proved to be effective for inducing moult, increasing post-moult egg production and improving some internal egg quality parameters.

  10. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ekelijn; Bouma, Annemarie; Klinkenberg, Don

    2011-02-23

    Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis). To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation.

  11. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  12. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  13. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    An, S H; Kim, D W; An, B K

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry. PMID:26954217

  14. Genetic selection to increase bone strength affects prevalence of keel bone damage and egg parameters in commercially housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, A; Fröhlich, E K F; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Harlander-Matauschek, A; Würbel, H; Toscano, M J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of keel bone damage as well as external egg parameters of 2 pure lines divergently selected for high (H) and low (L) bone strength were investigated in 2 aviary systems under commercial conditions. A standard LSL hybrid was used as a reference group. Birds were kept mixed per genetic line (77 hens of the H and L line and 201 or 206 hens of the LSL line, respectively, per pen) in 8 pens of 2 aviary systems differing in design. Keel bone status and body mass of 20 focal hens per line and pen were assessed at 17, 18, 23, 30, 36, 43, 52, and 63 wk of age. External egg parameters (i.e., egg mass, eggshell breaking strength, thickness, and mass) were measured using 10 eggs per line at both 38 and 57 wk of age. Body parameters (i.e. tarsus and third primary wing feather length to calculate index of wing loading) were recorded at 38 wk of age and mortality per genetic line throughout the laying cycle. Bone mineral density (BMD) of 15 keel bones per genetic line was measured after slaughter to confirm assignment of the experimental lines. We found a greater BMD in the H compared with the L and LSL lines. Fewer keel bone fractures and deviations, a poorer external egg quality, as well as a lower index of wing loading were found in the H compared with the L line. Mortality was lower and production parameters (e.g., laying performance) were higher in the LSL line compared with the 2 experimental lines. Aviary design affected prevalence of keel bone damage, body mass, and mortality. We conclude that selection of specific bone traits associated with bone strength as well as the related differences in body morphology (i.e., lower index of wing loading) have potential to reduce keel bone damage in commercial settings. Also, the housing environment (i.e., aviary design) may have additive effects. PMID:26944960

  15. Genetic selection to increase bone strength affects prevalence of keel bone damage and egg parameters in commercially housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, A; Fröhlich, E K F; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Harlander-Matauschek, A; Würbel, H; Toscano, M J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of keel bone damage as well as external egg parameters of 2 pure lines divergently selected for high (H) and low (L) bone strength were investigated in 2 aviary systems under commercial conditions. A standard LSL hybrid was used as a reference group. Birds were kept mixed per genetic line (77 hens of the H and L line and 201 or 206 hens of the LSL line, respectively, per pen) in 8 pens of 2 aviary systems differing in design. Keel bone status and body mass of 20 focal hens per line and pen were assessed at 17, 18, 23, 30, 36, 43, 52, and 63 wk of age. External egg parameters (i.e., egg mass, eggshell breaking strength, thickness, and mass) were measured using 10 eggs per line at both 38 and 57 wk of age. Body parameters (i.e. tarsus and third primary wing feather length to calculate index of wing loading) were recorded at 38 wk of age and mortality per genetic line throughout the laying cycle. Bone mineral density (BMD) of 15 keel bones per genetic line was measured after slaughter to confirm assignment of the experimental lines. We found a greater BMD in the H compared with the L and LSL lines. Fewer keel bone fractures and deviations, a poorer external egg quality, as well as a lower index of wing loading were found in the H compared with the L line. Mortality was lower and production parameters (e.g., laying performance) were higher in the LSL line compared with the 2 experimental lines. Aviary design affected prevalence of keel bone damage, body mass, and mortality. We conclude that selection of specific bone traits associated with bone strength as well as the related differences in body morphology (i.e., lower index of wing loading) have potential to reduce keel bone damage in commercial settings. Also, the housing environment (i.e., aviary design) may have additive effects.

  16. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  17. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. PMID:26174350

  18. The postrest performance of laying hens subjected to early or late water restriction during the feed withdrawal period.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R B; Harms, R H

    1983-12-01

    Two experiments initiated in December and April were conducted to determine the effect of water restriction on the performance of force-rested hens. Birds used in this study were housed in cages and were 74 weeks of age at the beginning of each study. Treatment assignments were 1) no water restriction, 2) water restriction on Days 1 and 2 (48 hr), and 3) water restriction on Days 9 and 10 (48 hr). All birds were subjected to identical 10 day feed withdrawal periods, were fed low protein and low calcium recovery diets to Day 35, and then were placed on a standard postrest feeding system for six 28-day production periods. With only three exceptions, within-experiment differences in postrest performance due to water restriction treatment were not significant regardless of criteria evaluated or season of force-rest initiation. When water was restricted on Days 9 and 10 in the experiment initiated in April, hens laid at a significantly lower rate with significantly heavier eggs than others in the same experiment. Hens that experienced either water restriction treatment during the April force-rest had poorer feed conversion when expressed in terms of egg numbers. Feed intake, feed conversion on a weight-for-weight basis, egg specific gravity, and mortality were not affected by water restriction treatment, regardless of season. Water restriction was not necessary for a successful force-rest of laying hens, and, in fact, could be detrimental when instituted in the later part of the feed withdrawal period in warm weather.

  19. Response of laying hens to asymmetrical interrupted lighting regimens: physiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Perry, G C

    1990-03-01

    1. There were no significant differences in the mean time of oviposition, distribution of ovipositions over the 24 h or proportion of eggs laid in the modal 8 h when conventionally-lit hens were compared with hens which received interrupted lighting with the same apparent daylength. 2. Intermittently-lit hens performed 25% less feeding activity than conventionally-lit hens, but without a significant reduction in mean food intake. There were genetic differences in response of feeding rate to interrupted lighting. 3. Intermittently-illuminated hens consumed about 20% of their food during the scotoperiods which interrupted the apparent day of a 1.5L:0.5D:10(0.5L:0.5D):4L:8D regimen, although there was significant genetic variation from 10 to 22%. None of the genotypes ate during the 8-h night. 4. Across 4 genotypes neither crop weight nor rate of crop emptying was affected by the lighting treatments, although a heavier mean crop weight under interrupted lighting approached significance in one breed (P less than 0.10). 5. Interrupted lighting did not cause any ocular disorders.

  20. Effect of dietary fish meal on production performance and cholesterol content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rowghani, E; Boostani, A D; Fard, H R Mahmoodian; Frouzani, R

    2007-05-15

    The effect of dietary fish meal (FM) on production and egg yolk cholesterol of commercial Hyline White Leghorn hens (24-week old) was studied for four weeks. Eighty birds were given a corn-wheat-soyabean meal diet that contained either 0% (control diet, C) or 3% fish meal (DM basis). Hens were randomly divided into two experimental treatments with four replicates (10 hens per replicate). Egg weight, daily egg production (g/hen/day), daily feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded. At the end of each week, 12 eggs from each group were randomly collected and egg yolk cholesterol, egg volume, shell thickness and Haugh unit (HU) were measured. There was no significant (p > 0.05) effect of feeding 3% FM on egg yolk cholesterol concentration (mg/100 g yolk or mg/yolk) compared with the control diet, but 3% FM, tended to decrease egg yolk cholesterol concentration (1930.93 vs 2021.48 mg/100 g yolk). Hens fed on 3% FM had higher (p < 0.05) egg production, egg weight, egg volume, shell thickness, HU and better feed conversion ratio. It was concluded that under the condition of the study, feeding 3% fish meal improved egg production traits but was not able to reduce cholesterol concentration of the egg yolk although tended to reduce cholesterol concentration. PMID:19086530

  1. Comparison of selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns of pheasant hens kept in different housing systems during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, Eva; Bedanova, Iveta; Radisavljevic, Katarina; Hrabcakova, Petra; Marsalek, Petr; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns were monitored in cage-housed pheasant hens during the peak-of-lay egg laying period. Lower counts of monocytes (p = 0.035) and concentrations of plasma biopterin (p = 0.020) and higher concentrations of plasma neopterin (p = 0.005) and plasma phosphorus (p = 0.025) were found in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages compared to non-spectacled hens kept in enriched cages. Even more pronounced effects of the housing system were revealed by analysis of the behaviour of pheasant hens: spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages exhibited higher occurrences of movement (p = 0.045), stereotyped behaviour (p = 0.039), and aggression (p = 0.004), and lower rates of feeding (p = 0.009), drinking (p < 0.001), defecation (p = 0.038), preening (p = 0.013), and feather pecking (p < 0.001). Our results show that the relatively easy and inexpensive enrichment of the cage environment (two perches, a simple hideout) where breeding groups of common pheasants are housed during the laying period can significantly contribute to the health and welfare (including the ability to express natural behaviour patterns) of pheasants kept in commercial cage systems.

  2. Evaluation of two novel biochemicals on plasma and egg yolk lipid composition and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Elkin, R G; Freed, M; Watkins, B A; Srebnik, M; Kieft, K A; Newton, R S

    1993-03-01

    PD132301-2, an inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT; EC 2.3.1.26), and 1-stearylboronic acid (SBA), a fatty acid analogue, were orally administered to White Leghorn hens in separate experiments to evaluate their effects on layer performance and plasma and egg yolk lipids. Five 60-wk-old hens each were fed either a corn-soybean meal basal layer ration, or the basal diet supplemented with .0121, .0363, or .1089% PD132301-2. In a second experiment, 12 37-wk-old hens each were fed either a basal layer ration, or the basal diet supplemented with .20 or .40% SBA. The duration of the experiments were 21 and 16 days, respectively. Neither compound significantly affected hen-day production, egg weight, yolk weight, BW gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, or egg yolk cholesterol content. PD132301-2 had no effect on yolk fatty acid profiles, and C22:6n3 was the only fatty acid altered by SBA. Although 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have been successful in reducing egg cholesterol, ACAT inhibitors and fatty acid analogues apparently hold little promise in this regard. The results of the present work also support the concept that, in order to pharmacologically alter the cholesterol content of eggs, direct inhibition of key enzymes in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is necessary. PMID:8464792

  3. The effects of housing environment on liver health of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of type of housing, including access to perches, on f...

  4. Effect of air velocity on laying hen performance and egg quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing convective cooling can improve performance and thermal comfort of commercial poultry when weather or system design limit cooling through other means such as evaporative cooling. Previous work in young hens showed increased egg production rate as feed intake is maintained under heat stres...

  5. The performance of laying hens as affected by copper sulfate and methionine level.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R B; Harms, R H

    1983-02-01

    Two strains of White Leghorn hens were subjected to seven copper treatments that included a negative control for the first week of each of five 28-day periods. The hens were approximately 500 days of age when the experiment began. Copper treatments were assigned to simulate the different levels of copper intake that might result from differences in daily feed intake similar to the practice followed with commercial industry. In order to simulate daily dietary intake ranging from a low of 73 to a high of 136 g per bird, levels of 76, 91, 100, 114, 129, and 143 mg of copper sulfate per kilogram were added to each of the basal diets. Treatments were administered across two methionine levels in a corn-soy basal diet. Hen-day egg production, egg weight, daily feed intake, and feed efficiency values were not affected by dietary levels of copper or methionine. Hens fed diets containing low methionine laid eggs with significantly poorer specific gravity.

  6. Oviposition time, flock age, and egg position in clutch in relation to brown eggshell color in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J; Chousalkar, K

    2016-09-01

    In Australia and other parts of the world, table eggs with uniform brown eggshell color are well regarded by consumers. Brown eggshell color has been positively correlated with certain egg characteristics such as shell strength and egg specific gravity, along with specific antibacterial functions. In the current study, the effect of hen oviposition time, flock age, and egg position in-clutch on the intensity of brown eggshell color was studied in commercial laying hens. The collected eggs were processed to measure egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell color (L*a*b*), quantification of protoporphyrin IX (PP IX), and shell thickness. Hen oviposition time had a statistically significant effect (P < 0.05) on egg weight, L*a*b*, amount of PP IX, and shell thickness. L* increased from 59.72 in the first half hour after lights on to 61.67 6 hours later, and PP IX per gram of eggshell decreased from 1.32×10(-7) mM to 1.26×10(-7) mM. Flock age had a significant effect on egg weight, L*a*b*, shell reflectivity, PP IX, and shell thickness. The mean egg weight increased from 55.4 g at 25 wk of flock age to 63.3 g at 75 wk of flock age. PP IX per gram of eggshell was 1.45×10(-7) mM at 25 wk and declined to 1.31×10(-7) mM at 75 wk of flock age. Individual hen clutch length was highly variable, ranging from 22 to 123 eggs in a single clutch. Egg position in a clutch had a significant effect on all egg quality variables measured; however, the R(2) values for each variable measured were low. The eggshell color declined to a greater extent with increasing position in a clutch for long clutches compared with short and medium clutches. In conclusion, hen oviposition time affected brown eggshell color with darker brown eggs laid early in the d and lighter colored brown eggs laid later in the morning. The intensity of brown color decreased with flock age, and egg position in-clutch had relatively little effect on brown eggshell color. PMID:27333974

  7. Effects of Prelay 6/85-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Alone or in Conjunction with the Inoculation of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum During Lay on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 6/85 Mycoplasma gallisepticum (6/85MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with F-strain M. Gallisepticum (FMG) overlays and their timing on the blood characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens were investigated. Control birds received sham inoculations at 10 wk of age. Birds in ...

  8. Evaluation of feeding various sources of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bland, Kelly; Utterback, Pam; Koelkebeck, Ken; Parsons, Carl

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted using 588 Hy-Line W-36 hens (68 wk of age) to evaluate if laying hens can be successfully molted by ad libitum feeding various levels of 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Treatment 1 consisted of a 47% corn (C):47% soy hulls (SH) molt diet (C:SH) fed for 28 d (positive control). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were molt diets containing 94% DDGS from the 3 sources fed for 28 d. Treatments 5, 6, and 7 were 32% C: 42% SH: 20% DDGS, from each of the 3 DDGS sources, also fed for 28 d. At the end of the 28-d molt period, all hens were fed a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet. Body weight loss during the molt period was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for hens fed the C:SH diet (26%) than hens fed the diets containing DDGS, and the reduction in BW loss varied among DDGS sources. Feed intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the C:SH control treatment compared with most DDGS treatments. Hens fed the C:SH diet had egg production near 0% during the last 3 wk of the molt period. Hens on the other treatments did not have mean egg production below 17% during the molt period (wk 1 to 4), and the reduction in egg production varied among DDGS sources. Postmolt hen-day egg production (5-41 wk) did not significantly differ among treatments; however, egg mass and egg specific gravity were generally reduced (P < 0.05) for hens fed the 94% DDGS molt diets compared with hens fed the C:SH diet. This study showed that molt and postmolt performance responses varied among DDGS sources; however, none of the molt diets containing 20 to 94% DDGS yielded molt period reductions in BW or egg production similar to a 47% C: 47% SH diet. PMID:24879692

  9. Effects of Time-Specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays on Prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum Vaccination on Blood Characteristics of Commercial Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. The following 4 treat...

  10. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has been linked to contaminated eggs and thus to SE prevalence in commercial egg-laying flocks. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs is a consequence of SE colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. T...

  11. Control of landing flight by laying hens: implications for the design of extensive housing systems.

    PubMed

    Moinard, C; Statham, P; Green, P R

    2004-10-01

    (1) Ten domestic hens (Lohmann Brown) were video-recorded while moving between perches at a horizontal distance of 0.6, 0.8 or 1.15 m apart. The take-off perch was either 0.2 m above or below the landing perch. (2) Weight and wing area of the hens were measured at the end of the experiment. The same measures where taken from 10 jungle fowls. (3) Clumsy or missed landings were observed on some downward flights over 0.8 and 1.15 m. (4) Hens' trajectories on take-off were closely related to the position of the target perch, and variation in take-off trajectory decreased as the distance between perches increased. (5) The standard deviation of the horizontal distance between head and perch, at the point when the feet first contacted the perch, did not vary with flight distance, suggesting that timing of foot extension was equally accurate at all distances. (6) The standard deviation of the vertical distance between head and perch, at the point when the feet first contacted the perch, did increase with distance, suggesting increasing difficulty in controlling the height of the flight trajectory above the landing perch. (7) Wing loading of the hens (mean 213 N/m2) was approximately twice that of the jungle fowl (mean 111 N/m2). (8) Loss of accuracy in hens' landings at greater distances can be attributed specifically to the effects of high wing loading on the ability to generate and control lift.

  12. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Áprily, S; Bajzik, G; Sütő, Z

    2015-01-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16 weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n = 20), lowest (n = 20) and average (n = 20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens.

  13. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Lohakare, J D; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

  14. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Lohakare, J D; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens.

  15. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p < 0.05) by SFM treatment. Egg production rate was improved in hens fed the SFM diet (p < 0.05), as well as the percentage of medium-size eggs that was higher for SFM treatment (p < 0.05). Steroid hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  16. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics. PMID:24795312

  17. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics.

  18. Digital Gene-Expression Profiling Analysis of the Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Alfalfa Saponin Extract on Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Liang, Minggen; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Background To prevent cardiovascular disease, people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol to less than 300 mg/day. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE) in yolk and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using digital gene-expression profiling analysis. Liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. Results The cholesterol content of the yolks of eggs from hens fed 120 mg/kg ASE declined considerably on day 60. Other groups (60, 240, 480 mg/kg ASE group) also showed decreases, but they were not significant. Digital gene expression generated over nine million reads per sample, producing expression data for least 12,384 genes. Among these genes, 110 genes showed greater than normal expression in the liver and 107 genes showed greater than normal expression in the ovary. Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) and apolipoprotein H (Apoh), which act in the synthesis of bile acid and cholesterol efflux, showed more expression in the livers of hens given dietary ASE supplementation. In the ovary, levels of very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), apolipoprotein B (Apob), apovitellenin 1 (ApovldlII) and vitellogenin (VtgI, VtgII and VtgIII) in ovary decreased with dietary ASE supplementation. Conclusion Transcriptome analysis revealed that the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE were partially mediated by enhancement of cholesterol efflux in the liver and this reduced of cholesterol deposition in the ovary. PMID:24886784

  19. Enterotoxin production and serogroups of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from patients with diarrhea and from healthy laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, G B; Kaijser, B; Sjögren, E

    1989-06-01

    Enterotoxin production, a possible virulence factor, was determined in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by two different techniques, the CHO cell test and the GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency of enterotoxigenic Campylobacter strains was 32% in strains from both humans with acute enteritis and healthy laying hens, as measured by the CHO cell test. The CHO cell test was significantly more sensitive than the GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the detection of enterotoxigenic strains. Enterotoxin production was compared with the presence of heat-stable and heat-labile antigens. There was no significant correlation between enterotoxin production and serogroups for C. jejuni or C. coli. The difference in enterotoxigenicity between C. jejuni (34.1%) and C. coli (21.9%) was not significant.

  20. Impact of feed supplementation with different omega-3 rich microalgae species on enrichment of eggs of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lemahieu, Charlotte; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Muylaert, Koenraad; Buyse, Johan; Foubert, Imogen

    2013-12-15

    Four different omega-3 rich autotrophic microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella fusca, were supplemented to the diet of laying hens in order to increase the level of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) in egg yolk. The microalgae were supplemented in two doses: 125 mg and 250 mg extra n-3 PUFA per 100g feed. Supplementing these microalgae resulted in increased but different n-3 LC-PUFA levels in egg yolk, mainly docosahexaenoic acid enrichment. Only supplementation of Chlorella gave rise to mainly α-linolenic acid enrichment. The highest efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA enrichment was obtained by supplementation of Phaeodactylum and Isochrysis. Furthermore, yolk colour shifted from yellow to a more intense red colour with supplementation of Phaeodactylum, Nannochloropsis and Isochrysis, due to transfer of carotenoids from microalgae to eggs. This study shows that besides Nannochloropsis other microalgae offer an alternative to current sources for enrichment of hen eggs.

  1. Epidemiological aspects of lice (Menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, L Do Carmo; Martins, N R Da Silva; Teixeira, C M; Oliveira, P R De; Cunha, L M

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation. PMID:26642864

  2. Prevalence of nematode infection and faecal egg counts in free-range laying hens: relations to housing and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, C M; Nasr, M A F; Gale, E; Petek, M; Stafford, K; Turp, M; Coles, G C

    2013-01-01

    1. Faecal samples from 19 commercial, 65 week old free-range egg laying flocks were examined to assess the prevalence and number of parasitic nematode eggs. Data were collected to characterise the housing, husbandry, behaviour and welfare of the flocks to examine possible relationships with the egg counts. 2. Eggs of at least one genus of nematode were present in the faeces of all 19 flocks. Heterakis eggs were detected in 17 (89%) flocks, Ascaridia in 16 (84%), Trichostrongylus in 9 (47%), and Syngamus in 6 (32%). Faecal egg counts (FEC) were greatest for Ascaridia and Heterakis. 3. For each nematode genus, there was no significant difference in FEC between organic (N = 9) and non-organic (N = 10) flocks, or between static (N = 8) and mobile (N = 11) flocks. 4. FEC were correlated with a range of housing, husbandry and management practices which varied between the nematode genus and included depth of the litter, percentage of hens using the range, and number of dead hens. Statistical analysis indicated relationships with FEC that included light intensity above the feeder, indoor and outdoor stocking density, fearfulness in the shed and on the range, distance to the nearest shelter, and swollen toes. 5. None of the FEC for any of the genera was correlated with weekly egg production or cumulative mortality. 6. Although nematode FEC were highly prevalent among the flocks, the overall lack of relation to other welfare and production measures suggests that these infections were not severe.

  3. When continuous observations just won't do: developing accurate and efficient sampling strategies for the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-03-01

    Continuous observation is the most accurate way to determine animals' actual time budget and can provide a 'gold standard' representation of resource use, behavior frequency, and duration. Continuous observation is useful for capturing behaviors that are of short duration or occur infrequently. However, collecting continuous data is labor intensive and time consuming, making multiple individual or long-term data collection difficult. Six non-cage laying hens were video recorded for 15 h and behavioral data collected every 2 s were compared with data collected using scan sampling intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and subsamples of 2 second observations performed for 10 min every 30 min, 15 min every 1 h, 30 min every 1.5 h, and 15 min every 2 h. Three statistical approaches were used to provide a comprehensive analysis to examine the quality of the data obtained via different sampling methods. General linear mixed models identified how the time budget from the sampling techniques differed from continuous observation. Correlation analysis identified how strongly results from the sampling techniques were associated with those from continuous observation. Regression analysis identified how well the results from the sampling techniques were associated with those from continuous observation, changes in magnitude, and whether a sampling technique had bias. Static behaviors were well represented with scan and time sampling techniques, while dynamic behaviors were best represented with time sampling techniques. Methods for identifying an appropriate sampling strategy based upon the type of behavior of interest are outlined and results for non-caged laying hens are presented.

  4. When continuous observations just won't do: developing accurate and efficient sampling strategies for the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-03-01

    Continuous observation is the most accurate way to determine animals' actual time budget and can provide a 'gold standard' representation of resource use, behavior frequency, and duration. Continuous observation is useful for capturing behaviors that are of short duration or occur infrequently. However, collecting continuous data is labor intensive and time consuming, making multiple individual or long-term data collection difficult. Six non-cage laying hens were video recorded for 15 h and behavioral data collected every 2 s were compared with data collected using scan sampling intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and subsamples of 2 second observations performed for 10 min every 30 min, 15 min every 1 h, 30 min every 1.5 h, and 15 min every 2 h. Three statistical approaches were used to provide a comprehensive analysis to examine the quality of the data obtained via different sampling methods. General linear mixed models identified how the time budget from the sampling techniques differed from continuous observation. Correlation analysis identified how strongly results from the sampling techniques were associated with those from continuous observation. Regression analysis identified how well the results from the sampling techniques were associated with those from continuous observation, changes in magnitude, and whether a sampling technique had bias. Static behaviors were well represented with scan and time sampling techniques, while dynamic behaviors were best represented with time sampling techniques. Methods for identifying an appropriate sampling strategy based upon the type of behavior of interest are outlined and results for non-caged laying hens are presented. PMID:24269639

  5. Effects of genetic origin and social environment on behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, K A; Rodenburg, T B; Van Reenen, C G; Koopmanschap, R E; De Vries Reilingh, G; Engel, B; Buist, W G; Komen, H; Bolhuis, J E

    2011-08-01

    Purebred laying hen lines of White Leghorn (WL) origin have been found to be more flighty and to show more feather pecking than lines of Rhode Island Red (RIR) origin. It has been found, however, that when RIR birds were housed together with WL birds, RIR birds became more flighty and those mixed groups developed more feather damage than pure-line cage-housed groups. It is unknown, however, whether this effect of social environment is accompanied by changes in stress-related behavior and neurophysiological activity, which are assumed to be associated with increased feather damage. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of genetic origin (WL or RIR) and social environment (mixed or pure groups) on behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning. Monoamine functioning was measured by brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine turnover. Furthermore, correlations between 5-HT turnover in the brain and peripheral measures of 5-HT in the blood were calculated. Experimental birds, housed either with other birds from the same genetic origin (pure groups) or with both RIR and WL birds (mixed groups) from hatching onward, were subjected to a manual restraint test at 47 wk of age. The WL birds struggled less during restraint and had higher dopamine and 5-HT turnover levels after restraint than did RIR birds. The WL birds also showed higher levels of platelet 5-HT uptake than did RIR birds. No effects of social environment were found. Blood and brain 5-HT measures were found to be correlated, with correlations ranging from 0.34 to 0.57, which seems to offer opportunities for less invasive peripheral indicators of 5-HT activity. In conclusion, genetic origin, but not social environment, affected the behavioral response to manual restraint and monoamine functioning in laying hens. PMID:21753196

  6. Effects of a premolt calcium and low-energy molt program on laying hen performance, egg quality, and economics.

    PubMed

    Dickey, E R; Johnson, A K; Stalder, K J; Bregendahl, K

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effects of production, physiology, egg quality, and economics of laying hens housed in a cage system when offered a calcium premolt treatment and low-energy molt diets versus a traditional feed withdrawal (FW) treatment during and after molt. In total, 981 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens (85 wk of age) housed 3 per cage were used. Six treatments were compared in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 2 calcium premolt treatments (fine and coarse) and 3 molt diets (FW, soybean hulls, and wheat middlings). The coarse Ca was a 50:50 mix of fine (0.14-mm mean diameter) and coarse (2.27-mm mean diameter) CaCO(3), whereas the fine Ca was an all-fine CaCO(3). Both diets were formulated to contain 4.6% Ca, such that only the particle size of the CaCO(3) differed. Production parameters in experiment 1 included egg production, egg weight and mass, specific gravity, Haugh units, egg components, feed consumption and utilization, and BW. Physiological parameters in experiment 2 included ovary and oviduct weights, femur- and humerus-ash percentages, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma Ca and inorganic P concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase activity. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and P < 0.05 was significant. The fine-Ca premolt treatment was more effective than the coarse-Ca treatment at decreasing egg production during molt and increasing it postmolt, regardless of the molt diet. The FW molt diet resulted in the greatest decrease in production, but the soybean hulls diet resulted in lower production and ovary and oviduct weights during molt compared with those of the wheat middlings molt diet. Therefore, a fine-Ca premolt treatment and a low-energy molt diet, particularly soybean hulls, can be useful alternatives to a FW molt. PMID:22252340

  7. Preference and motivation of laying hens to eat under different illuminances and the effect of illuminance on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Prescott, N B; Wathes, C M

    2002-05-01

    1. In experiment 1, 10 laying hens were given the choice to eat food pellets from any of 4 food bowls illuminated by overhead, incandescent luminaires at <1, 6, 20 or 200 lux. During a trial hens were allowed to eat for 5 min. After each minute had elapsed (from the start of eating) the light sources were extinguished and the illuminances re-assigned to the food bowls in a random manner. Each hen received two trials, one where the food was freely available and another where it was hidden in a sand and gravel mix. 2. The hens chose to eat for most time in the brightest (200 lux) and least in the dimmest (<1 lux) environments for both free and hidden food (free: 5.9, 10.5, 10.4, 15.7s for increasing illuminance; Hidden: 5.5, 9.8, 9.1 and 15.7s. 3. In experiment 2, 9 hens were trained to peck at either an illuminated or unilluminated panel to access a food reward behind a guillotine door for 3 s. Five hens were trained to peck the illuminated panel to access food brightly lit (200 lux) or the unilluminated panel to access food dimly lit (<1 lux); 4 hens were trained vice versa. The flock was then divided into three groups of three, and three treatments imposed on each group in a Latin-square arrangement. In treatment 1, one peck at either panel allowed access to the chosen light environment (F1:F1). In treatment 2, 5 pecks were required to access food brightly lit on a variable ratio, but only one to access food dimly lit (ratio V5:F1). In treatment 3, the variable ratio was increased to V10:F1 to access food in the light. 4. Over 40 trials for each hen, the mean number of attempts to eat food in the light (where the panel which allowed access to food brightly lit was pecked at least once) was 34.5 for F1:F1, 12.1 for V5:F1 and 8.5 for V10:F1. The mean number of food rewards taken in bright light was 34.5, 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. For both variables, the difference between F1:F1 and V5:F1 was significant but not between V5:F1 and V10:F1. By interpolation of the

  8. Analysis of heterophil to lymphocyte ratios in laying hens kept in a small group housing system.

    PubMed

    Habig, Christin; Pendl, Helene; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to assess the level of stress imposed on two different layer lines kept in a small group housing system Eurovent German with two group sizes and three tiers. A total of 615 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and 633 Lohmann Brown (LB) hens were examined in four consecutive trials. Based on differential white blood cell counts, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) was calculated as an indicator of stress. The H/L-ratios significantly differed among the two layer lines, with 2.5-fold higher H/L-ratios in LB than in LSL. No significant differences across and within layer lines could be found between the different group sizes. A significant 0.7-fold decrease of the H/L-ratio could be shown in LSL layers when the space per hen was increased from 828 to 920 cm2.

  9. Modulation of energy and protein supplies in sequential feeding in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Traineau, M; Bouvarel, I; Mulsant, C; Roffidal, L; Launay, C; Lescoat, P

    2015-01-01

    Sequential feeding (SF) consists of splitting energy (E) and protein/calcium (P) fractions temporally, improving the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of hens compared with a continuous distribution during the day. In a previous study, the E fraction (with a low level of protein) was provided in the morning, whereas the P fraction (with low level of energy) was given in the afternoon. However, there is no clear evidence that a requirement in energy or proteins is connected to these distribution sequences, whereas the requirement for calcium is known to be required in the afternoon. To evaluate the effects on performances of the modulation of energy and protein supplies in SF, five different sequential treatments were offered: E0P0/E0P0; E+P+/E-P-; E+P-/E-P+; E0P+/E0P- and E+P0/E-P0 where E+ represents a high energy level, E0 a moderate one and E- a low one (with the same meaning for P regarding protein supply). Afternoon fractions were provided with particulate calcium. A total of 168 Hendrix hens were housed in individual cages from 20 to 39 weeks of age in two environmentally contrasted rooms. Feed intake in the morning and afternoon fractions, egg production, egg weight, BW and weight of digestive organs were recorded. No diet effect was observed concerning feed intake, egg production and BW. These results suggested that hens are not able to fit their feed intake on energy or protein level of fractions within half-day duration, whereas at the day scale same protein and energy intakes were observed. Moreover, the time of nutrient distribution in feeding did not seem to have an impact on birds' performances. These studies have also demonstrated that, despite strong environmental pressure, the hens with SF had attenuated performance but continue to produce eggs. PMID:25192221

  10. Variation in amino acid digestibility of rapeseed meal studied in caecectomised laying hens and relationship with chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, M; Kluth, H; Bulang, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2012-01-01

    1. The objectives were to study the variation in amino acid (AA) digestibility of rapeseed meal in laying hens and to investigate whether the variation in AA digestibility can be explained by chemical constituents of the rapeseed meal. Nine rapeseed meals from different processing plants operating in Germany were used. The crude protein and crude fibre concentrations of the meals ranged from 367 to 410 and 137 to 175 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. The concentrations of total glucosinolates varied between 5.1 and 12.9 mmol/kg DM. Each meal was included in one of the experimental diets at an inclusion level of 200 g/kg at the expense of maize starch. 2. A total of 16 Lohmann Brown laying hens were used for this experiment and were surgically caecectomised. They were housed individually in metabolism cages. Each of the 10 diets was fed to at least 6 hens in 4 periods of two weeks duration. Excreta were collected during the last 5 d of each period. The digestibility coefficient of AA was calculated for each diet. The digestibility of the rapeseed meals was calculated by multiple linear regression analysis. 3. Mean essential AA digestibility of rapeseed meals varied between 0.78 and 0.84. Among the essential amino acids, the ighest level of digestibility was found for arginine (0.88) and methionine (0.87), and the lowest for lysine (0.74) and threonine (0.75). The highest variation between rapeseed meals in digestibility was found for threonine (0.68 to 0.79) and lysine (0.68 to 0.78). The concentration of neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen of the rapeseed meals was negatively correlated with the digestibility of lysine, but was not significantly correlated with digestibility of any other AA. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly correlated with valine digestibility. 4. Multiple regression analysis showed that the concentrations of crude protein and ash together were the major factors considered to explain variation in digestibility of essential AA

  11. On-farm comparison of keel fracture prevalence and other welfare indicators in conventional cage and floor-housed laying hens in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Mike T; Guerin, Michele T; Widowski, Tina M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the flock-level prevalence of healed keel bone fractures and to benchmark other indicators of well-being in laying hens housed in conventional cages and single-tier floor housing systems at several points during the production period. Commercial farms in Ontario, Canada, that housed hens in cages (n=9) or floor barns (n=8) were included. Flocks were beak-trimmed brown hens of various strains. Each flock was visited at 20, 35, 50, and 65 wk of age. At each visit, 50 hens were weighed, palpated for healed keel fractures, and feather scored over 4 areas of the body. Data were collected from the farm records on cumulative mortality. Keel fracture prevalence was higher in floor-housed flocks compared to cage-housed flocks (48.3±0.04% vs. 24.8±0.03%; P<0.001). The majority of keel fractures occurred by 50 wk. Cumulative mortality tended to be higher in floor-housed flocks compared to cage-housed flocks (2.13±0.42% vs. 1.29±0.19%; P=0.078). Mean BW was lower (1,827±28.8 g vs. 1,888±26.8 g; P=0.02) yet more uniform (CV of BW 9.43±0.40% vs. 10.10±0.32%; P<0.001) in floor-housed flocks compared to cage-housed flocks. Feather condition was not affected by housing system type (P=0.618), although it declined with age (P<0.001). Individual hen factors assessed using Pearson partial correlations indicated that hens with fractures were heavier at 65 wk in both housing types (P<0.05) and that heavier hens housed on the floor had better feather scores (P<0.001) from 35 wk onward. Floor-housed hens with fractures had lower feather scores at 35 wk (P<0.05) but not at 50 or 65 wk. Housing hens in single-tier floor systems increased the flock-level prevalence of keel fractures and resulted in a lower, yet more uniform, BW compared to hens in conventional cages under commercial conditions in Ontario. Benchmarking welfare indicators from alternative housing systems for laying hens is important to ensure that progress is made in improving

  12. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) vs. fluorescent (FL) lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 2 - Egg quality, shelf-life and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Hansen, H; Ning, Z; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    In this 60-wk study, egg quality, egg shelf-life, egg cholesterol content, total yolk lipids, and yolk fatty acid composition of eggs produced by Dekalb white laying hens in commercial aviary houses with either light-emitting diode (LED) or fluorescent (FL) lighting were compared. All parameters were measured at 27, 40, and 60 wk of age, except for egg shelf-life, which was compared at 50 wk of age. The results showed that, compared to the FL regimen, the LED regimen resulted in higher egg weight, albumen height, and albumen weight at 27 wk of age, thicker shells at 40 wk of age, but lower egg weight at 60 wk of age. Egg quality change was similar between the lighting regimens during the 62-d egg storage study, indicating that LED lighting did not influence egg shelf-life. Eggs from both lighting regimens had similar cholesterol content. However, cholesterol concentration of the yolk (15.9 to 21.0 mg cholesterol/g wet weight yolk) observed in this study was higher than that of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database (10.85 mg/g). No significant differences in total lipids or fatty acid composition of the yolks were detected between the two lighting regimens.

  13. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, T. P.; Arango, J.; Wolc, A.; Brady, J. V.; Fulton, J. E.; Rubinoff, I.; Ehr, I. J.; Persia, M. E.; O'Sullivan, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm. PMID:26706355

  14. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on the behavior of caged White Leghorn hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enriched cages, compared to conventional cages, allow egg laying strains of chickens to meet some behavioral needs, including the high motivation to perch. The objective of this study was to determine if perch availability during rearing affected perch use as adults and if perch presence affected ea...

  15. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.05) and percentage of large-size eggs (P < 0.05) that were improved in hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that the replacement of conventional soybean with low-fiber sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  16. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    PubMed

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P < 0.001) increased with increasing yucca level up to 100 mg/kg diet. Dietary supplementation of yucca exhibited a positive impact on albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Comparing to the control group, yucca addition to laying hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P = 0. 010) decrease in blood ammonia-N and urea-N, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in serum were quadratically improved in yucca groups. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased with yucca addition in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, yucca supplemented up to 100 mg/kg diet can be used as effective feed additive to improve productive performance, blood profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in laying hens.

  17. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production.

  18. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production. PMID:25990629

  19. Is it possible to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs without affecting their technological and/or sensorial quality and the laying performance of hens?

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Lessire, M; Meteau, K; Chesneau, G; Guillevic, M; Mourot, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) content of eggs without affecting their sensorial and/or technological properties or the laying performance of hens. Laying hens from line 477 were divided into 5 groups corresponding to 5 different diets over the laying period: control diet (C) and diets containing extruded linseed with a high level of fibre (ELHF), extruded linseed with a low level of fibre (ELLF), microalgae, or a combination of 75% ELLF and 25% MA (ELLF+MA). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the laying performance, hen body weight or egg white viscosity. The egg yolks produced by hens fed the diet containing microalgae were redder than egg yolks from the other groups, suggesting the presence of red pigments in the microalgae preparation. However, the colour difference was low and not perceptible to the human eye. Moreover, colour measurement of egg yolks by sensorial analysis panellists using the Roche colour fan did not reveal a diet effect on this parameter. Egg yolk lipid content was not affected by diet. The egg yolk of hens fed on diets containing linseed and/or microalgae had greater n-3 FA content (×2.5 to 2.9 compared to group C). Linseed mainly increased the linolenic acid content (×3.0 to 3.4 compared to group C) and the microalgae increased the LC n-3 FA content (×4.1 compared to group C). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the sensorial quality of shell cooked eggs except for the "unusual flavour" criterion for which the score was higher for the MA group compared to the other groups and corresponded to a fishy flavour.

  20. Cholesterol and iron availability in yolk of laying hens feed with annatto ( Bixa orellana).

    PubMed

    Harder, M N C; Canniatti-Brazaca, S G; Coelho, A A D; Savino, V J M; Franco, C F O

    2007-03-01

    Pigmented egg yolks are more attractive. Popular culture treats annatto as a powerful anticholesterolemic agent, besides being widely used in the form of industry pigment. This work evaluated the effects of the addition of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in the feed of hens, verifying a possible alteration of cholesterol in the yolks, content of carotenes, and iron and available iron, over time. One hundred and twenty-five hens divided in control (0% - T1) and four annatto-added treatments (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4, and 2.0% - T5) were used. Eggs were collected at 23, 25, 27, 29 and 30 weeks. The animals were randomly separated into five groups of five animals each. The cholesterol was measured by the colorimetric method, vitamin A (β and α carotene) by spectrophotometry, total iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and dialysable iron by dialysis. Tukey's test was used at the 5% level for comparison of the averages. Regarding cholesterol, treatments T2 and T3 did not differ significantly. However, other treatments differed ( P ≤ 0.05) from the control, decreasing the cholesterol level as the percentage of annatto in the feed increased. In time, there was a significant increase ( P ≤ 0.05). For β and α carotene, T5 presented statistically higher values than the others ( P ≤ 0.05). With regard to total iron, T5 had higher values than the others. Dialysable iron was also higher, probably due to the increase in carotenes. Thus, we can conclude that the use of annatto in the feed of layer hens is useful, as it provokes the reduction of cholesterol and promotes an increase in the content of iron and carotenes in eggs. PMID:22444346

  1. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-10-01

    This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P < 0.01) ADFI than those fed the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets throughout the experimental period. During wk 4 to 6 and overall, hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P < 0.01) egg production, egg weight, and eggshell thickness than hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P < 0.01) by feeding hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P < 0.01) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower (P = 0.03) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations than hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P < 0.05) of energy and nutrient density and the

  2. Studies on the effect of feeding cupric sulfate pentahydrate to laying hens on egg cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that pharmacological levels of dietary Cu could reduce egg cholesterol content. White Leghorn hens 30 to 39 wk of age were fed corn and soybean meal diets with 0, 125, or 250 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (basal diet = 6.74 mg Cu/kg). Body weight, feed consumption, egg weights, egg specific gravity, and Haugh Units were not consistently affected during the 8-wk feeding trials. Egg production was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the second 4-wk period by supplemental Cu in both experiments. Egg yolk cholesterol concentrations were decreased by feeding 125 mg Cu/kg diet (11.7 vs 8.6 mg/g, average of two experiments); feeding 250 mg Cu/kg resulted in further declines in egg cholesterol but the differences were not significant (7.9 mg/g). Changes in plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar to those of yolk cholesterol. Small but significant amounts of Cu accumulated in the yolks and shells of eggs from Cu-supplemented hens; however, most of the Cu fed was found in the excreta. PMID:9776063

  3. Determination of 14C residue in eggs of laying hens administered orally with [14C] sulfaquinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, B; Rummel, N; Smith, D

    2004-06-01

    Ten layer hens were dosed for 5 consecutive days with 6.2 mg kg(-1) [14C] sulfaquinoxaline (SQX). Eggs were collected from the hens during the 5-day dosing period and during a 10-day post-dose withdrawal period. Egg yolk and albumen were separated and assayed for total radioactive residues (TRR) using a combustion oxidizer and liquid scintillation counting techniques. Significant amounts of radioactivity were detected on the second day of dosing (greater than 24h after the initial dose) in both egg yolk and albumen. First eggs were collected about 8 h after dosing; the second-day eggs were collected during 8-h period after the second dose. Radioactive residues reached a maximum on the fifth day of dosing in albumen, whereas on the second day of withdrawal in egg yolk, the peak TRR levels in albumen were about threefold higher than in yolk. Thereafter, the TRR levels declined rapidly in albumen and were detectable up to withdrawal day 6, whereas the TRR levels in egg yolk declined more slowly and were detectable up to withdrawal day 10. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the parent drug sulfaquinoxaline was the major component in both the egg albumen and yolk. Additionally, this work suggests that egg yolk is the appropriate matrix for monitoring SQX residues PMID:15204532

  4. Salmonella Enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to SE testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk reduction requires a detailed and...

  5. Salmonella Enteritidis Deposition inside Eggs after Experimental Infection of Laying Hens with Different Oral Doses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to risk reduction and testing programs for commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk reduction requires a detailed und...

  6. Detecting Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens and Eggs after Experimental Infection at Different Oral Dose Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attribution of human illness to eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis has led to substantial commitments of resources (by both government and industry) to risk reduction and testing programs in egg-laying flocks. Cost-effective application of testing requires a thorough understanding of ...

  7. Microbiological Consequences of Different Housing Systems for Laying Hens: Field and Experimental Infection Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. In response, substantial government and private industry resources are committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. Envi...

  8. The relationship between corn particle size and thermoregulation of laying hens in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Morais Oliveira, Vanessa Raquel; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; de Melo Silva, Aurora; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors affecting egg production. One way to improve egg production is physical processing of the feed ingredients, allowing for better utilization of nutrients. In this study, the relationship between the corn particle size, measured as the geometric mean diameter (GMD), and thermoregulation was evaluated by determining the effect of the GMD on performance, egg quality, and physiological responses. Feed intake, eggshell quality (weight and thickness), rectal temperature (T R), respiratory rate (R R), and surface temperature (T S) were recorded in sixty 20-week-old naked neck laying hens that were fed corn of different particle sizes. Ambient temperature (T A) was also recorded during the trial. The GMD of corn particles was determined using a screens granulometer, resulting in sizes of 605, 1,030, and 2,280 μm. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of a completely randomized design showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of GMD on feed intake, shell weight, and shell thickness. The ANOVA performed by the least squares method showed a highly significant effect (P < 0.01) of GMD on T R and R R. T A, categorized into three classes (24.0-26, 26.1-28.9, and 29.0-31.0 °C), had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on T R and T S. The interaction between the GMD of corn particles and the T A classes was not statistically significant. Coarser corn particles cause an increase in the rectal temperature of naked neck hens, and these birds increase their respiratory rate to dissipate excess metabolic heat. This increase in the respiratory rate causes a decrease in the eggshell quality. PMID:24696031

  9. The relationship between corn particle size and thermoregulation of laying hens in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Morais Oliveira, Vanessa Raquel; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; de Melo Silva, Aurora; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors affecting egg production. One way to improve egg production is physical processing of the feed ingredients, allowing for better utilization of nutrients. In this study, the relationship between the corn particle size, measured as the geometric mean diameter (GMD), and thermoregulation was evaluated by determining the effect of the GMD on performance, egg quality, and physiological responses. Feed intake, eggshell quality (weight and thickness), rectal temperature ( T R), respiratory rate ( R R), and surface temperature ( T S) were recorded in sixty 20-week-old naked neck laying hens that were fed corn of different particle sizes. Ambient temperature ( T A) was also recorded during the trial. The GMD of corn particles was determined using a screens granulometer, resulting in sizes of 605, 1,030, and 2,280 μm. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of a completely randomized design showed a significant effect ( P < 0.05) of GMD on feed intake, shell weight, and shell thickness. The ANOVA performed by the least squares method showed a highly significant effect ( P < 0.01) of GMD on T R and R R. T A, categorized into three classes (24.0-26, 26.1-28.9, and 29.0-31.0 °C), had a significant effect ( P < 0.01) on T R and T S. The interaction between the GMD of corn particles and the T A classes was not statistically significant. Coarser corn particles cause an increase in the rectal temperature of naked neck hens, and these birds increase their respiratory rate to dissipate excess metabolic heat. This increase in the respiratory rate causes a decrease in the eggshell quality.

  10. The relationship between corn particle size and thermoregulation of laying hens in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Morais Oliveira, Vanessa Raquel; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; de Melo Silva, Aurora; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors affecting egg production. One way to improve egg production is physical processing of the feed ingredients, allowing for better utilization of nutrients. In this study, the relationship between the corn particle size, measured as the geometric mean diameter (GMD), and thermoregulation was evaluated by determining the effect of the GMD on performance, egg quality, and physiological responses. Feed intake, eggshell quality (weight and thickness), rectal temperature (T R), respiratory rate (R R), and surface temperature (T S) were recorded in sixty 20-week-old naked neck laying hens that were fed corn of different particle sizes. Ambient temperature (T A) was also recorded during the trial. The GMD of corn particles was determined using a screens granulometer, resulting in sizes of 605, 1,030, and 2,280 μm. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of a completely randomized design showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of GMD on feed intake, shell weight, and shell thickness. The ANOVA performed by the least squares method showed a highly significant effect (P < 0.01) of GMD on T R and R R. T A, categorized into three classes (24.0-26, 26.1-28.9, and 29.0-31.0 °C), had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on T R and T S. The interaction between the GMD of corn particles and the T A classes was not statistically significant. Coarser corn particles cause an increase in the rectal temperature of naked neck hens, and these birds increase their respiratory rate to dissipate excess metabolic heat. This increase in the respiratory rate causes a decrease in the eggshell quality.

  11. Effect of Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis on the egg production, antioxidant status and immunity of laying hens during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui; Du, Juan; Song, Kai; Li, Jianping; Xu, Qiyou

    2005-12-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of two plants belonging to Chinese herbal medicines, Ligustrum lucidum (LL) and Schisandra chinensis (SC), on the laying performance, antioxidant status and immunity of hens during heat stress. The results showed that diets supplement with 1% of either LL or SC had beneficial effects on egg production and FCR of hens during heat stress (p < 0.05), compared with the control group. Either LL or SC significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of heart, liver, sera and egg yolk. In addition, glutathione reductase (GR) activity of tissues and sera of the birds was significantly elevated by supplementation LL or SC. Furthermore, LL or SC supplementation significantly elevated lymphoblastogenese of the birds and the antibody values against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The results suggest that diets supplement with 1% of either LL or SC may enhance egg production, immune function, and antioxidant status of hens during heat stress. PMID:16429829

  12. Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on maize- or barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Francesch, M; Broz, J; Brufau, J

    2005-06-01

    A 24-week performance trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus excretion in laying hens fed on either a maize- or a barley-based diet. At the end of the trial, an ileal absorption assay was conducted in order to determine the influence of phytase supplementation on the apparent absorption of calcium and total phosphorus (P). Each experimental diet was formulated either as a positive control containing 3.2 g/kg non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), with the addition of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), or as a low P one, without DCP addition. Both low P diets (containing 1.3 or 1.1 g/kg NPP) were supplemented with microbial phytase at 0, 150, 300 and 450 U/kg. The birds were housed in cages, allocating two hens per cage as the experimental unit. Each of 10 dietary treatments was assigned to 16 replicates. Low dietary NPP (below 1.3 g/kg) was not able to support optimum performance of hens during the laying cycle (from 22 to 46 weeks of age), either in maize or barley diets. Rate of lay, daily egg mass output, feed consumption, tibia ash percentage and weight gain were reduced in hens fed low NPP diets. The adverse effects of a low P diet were more severe in hens on a maize diet than in those on a barley diet. Low dietary NPP reduced egg production, weight gain, feed consumption and tibia ash content and microbial phytase supplementation improved these parameters. Hens given low NPP diets supplemented with phytase performed as well as the hens on positive control diets containing 3.2 g/kg of NPP. A 49% reduction of excreta P content was achieved by feeding hens on low NPP diets supplemented with phytase, without compromising performance. Phytase addition to low NPP diets increased total phosphorus absorption at the ileal level, from 0.25 to 0.51 in the maize diet and from 0.34 to 0.58 in the barley diet. Phosphorus absorption increased linearly with increasing levels of dietary phytase

  13. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W; van Niekerk, Thea G C M; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-12-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2-3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they were carried out in three replicates at each of three temperature regimes: 26, 30 (constant day and night) and 33-25 °C (day-night cycle). After 6 weeks total population sizes of poultry red mites and predatory mites were assessed. For the temperature regimes of 26 and 33/25 °C S. scimitus reduced the poultry red mite population relative to the control experiments by a factor 3 and 30, respectively, and A. casalis by a factor of 18 and 55, respectively. At 30 °C the predators had less effect on red mites, with a reduction of 1.3-fold for S. scimitus and 5.6-fold for A. casalis. This possibly reflected hen manure condition or an effect of other invertebrates in the hen feed. Poultry red mite control was not negatively affected by temperatures as high as 33 °C and was always better in trials with A. casalis than in those with S. scimitus. In none of the experiments predators managed to eradicate the population of poultry red mites. This may be due to a prey refuge effect since most predatory mites were found in and around the manure tray at the bottom of the cage, whereas most poultry red mites were found higher up in the cage (i.e. on the walls, the cover, the perch, the nest box and the food box). The efficacy of applying predatory mites in the poultry industry may be promoted by reducing this refuge effect, boosting predatory mite populations using alternative prey and prolonged predator release devices. Biocontrol success, however, will strongly depend on how the poultry is

  14. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W; van Niekerk, Thea G C M; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-12-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2-3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they were carried out in three replicates at each of three temperature regimes: 26, 30 (constant day and night) and 33-25 °C (day-night cycle). After 6 weeks total population sizes of poultry red mites and predatory mites were assessed. For the temperature regimes of 26 and 33/25 °C S. scimitus reduced the poultry red mite population relative to the control experiments by a factor 3 and 30, respectively, and A. casalis by a factor of 18 and 55, respectively. At 30 °C the predators had less effect on red mites, with a reduction of 1.3-fold for S. scimitus and 5.6-fold for A. casalis. This possibly reflected hen manure condition or an effect of other invertebrates in the hen feed. Poultry red mite control was not negatively affected by temperatures as high as 33 °C and was always better in trials with A. casalis than in those with S. scimitus. In none of the experiments predators managed to eradicate the population of poultry red mites. This may be due to a prey refuge effect since most predatory mites were found in and around the manure tray at the bottom of the cage, whereas most poultry red mites were found higher up in the cage (i.e. on the walls, the cover, the perch, the nest box and the food box). The efficacy of applying predatory mites in the poultry industry may be promoted by reducing this refuge effect, boosting predatory mite populations using alternative prey and prolonged predator release devices. Biocontrol success, however, will strongly depend on how the poultry is

  15. Feather eating and its associations with plumage damage and feathers on the floor in commercial farms of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Riber, A B; Hinrichsen, L K

    2016-07-01

    Feather eating has been associated with feather pecking, which continues to pose economic and welfare problems in egg production. Knowledge on feather eating is limited and studies of feather eating in commercial flocks of laying hens have not been performed previously. Therefore, the main objective was to investigate feather eating and its association with plumage damage and floor feather characteristics in commercial flocks of layers in barn and organic production systems. The study was performed in 13 flocks of barn layers and 17 flocks of organic layers. Each flock was visited at around 32 and 62 weeks of age. During both visits, the plumage condition was assessed and the density of floor feathers recorded. In week 62, droppings and floor feathers were collected. Droppings were examined for presence of feather content, whereas length, downiness and pecking damage were recorded for each floor feather. In week 62, a higher prevalence of hens with poor plumage condition was found in barn (22.2%) compared with organic production systems (7.4%; P<0.001), but the prevalence of droppings with feather content did not differ between the two production systems (8.5% in barn v. 4.3% in organic; P=0.99). Our hypothesis about a positive correlation between feather eating and plumage damage was not supported as no correlation was found between the prevalence of poor plumage condition and the prevalence of droppings with feather content. However, the prevalence of pecking damaged floor feathers was positively correlated both with prevalence of droppings with feather content (P<0.05) and poor plumage condition (P<0.01), indicating a possible association between feather eating and feather pecking. In conclusion, it was confirmed that feather eating occurs on-farm, but feather eating was only found to be positively correlated to the number of floor feathers with pecking damage and not as expected to the prevalence of plumage damage. More research is needed into the sources from

  16. Effect of different levels of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli colonization and jejunal morphology in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Boka, J; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, R

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli count and morphology of jejunal epithelial cells in laying hens. A total of 100 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) of 49 weeks old were randomly distributed among five cage replicates of five birds each. Experimental diets consisted of different levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3% of diet) of dietary black cumin inclusion. The experimental period lasted for a total of 10 weeks, and egg quality indexes and laying hens' performance were measured as two 35-day trial periods. At the final day, two hens per replicate were slaughtered to investigate the influence of dietary treatments on intestinal E. coli colonization and morphology of jejunal cells. Although dietary black cumin in all supplementation levels decreased (p < 0.05) the enumeration of ileal E. coli, the morphological and histological alterations in small intestine such as enhancement of villus height to crypt depth ratio, increased goblet cell numbers and proliferation of lamina propria lymphatic follicles were observed after dietary supplementation with at least 2% black cumin. Dietary treatments decreased (p < 0.05) the concentration of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increased (p < 0.05) serum HDL concentration and relative weight of pancreas; however, the egg yolk cholesterol was not influenced by dietary treatments. In addition, dietary supplementation with black cumin improved (p < 0.05) eggshell quality and Haugh unit. The best feed conversion ratio was obtained when diets were supplemented with 2% black cumin. This improvement was due to the increase (p < 0.05) in egg mass and contemporaneous decrease (p < 0.01) in feed consumption. The present results indicated that regardless of supplementation level, dietary inclusion of black cumin decreased E. coli enumeration in ileal digesta and improved serum lipid profile and eggshell quality, whereas the

  17. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P < 0.05), eggshell thickness, eggshell relative weight, and egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P < 0.01). Moreover, PA dietary supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of broken eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the number of downgraded eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period. PMID:22991559

  18. Zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite improves tissue zinc accumulation in laying hens by enhancing zinc transporter gene mRNA abundance.

    PubMed

    Li, Linfeng; Li, Ping; Chen, Yueping; Wen, Chao; Zhuang, Su; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (ZnCP), as an alternative for zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), on laying performance, tissue Zn accumulation and Zn transporter genes expression in laying hens. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allocated to three treatments, each of which had six replicates with 15 hens per replicate, receiving basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (control, 80 mg Zn/kg diet), 0.23% ZnCP (40.25 mg Zn/kg diet) and 0.46% ZnCP (80.50 mg Zn/kg diet) for 8 weeks, respectively. Compared with control, hens fed diet containing 0.23% ZnCP had similar Zn content in measured tissues (P > 0.05). A higher ZnCP inclusion (0.46%) enhanced Zn accumulation in liver (P < 0.05) and pancreas (P < 0.05). In addition, ZnCP inclusion increased blood iron (Fe) content (P < 0.05). ZnCP supplementation enhanced jejunal metallothionein-4 (MT-4) messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance (P < 0.05). ZnCP inclusion at a higher level (0.46%) increased mRNA expression of MT-4 in pancreas (P < 0.05) and zinc transporter-1 (ZnT-1) in jejunum (P < 0.05). The highest ZnT-2 mRNA abundance in jejunum was found in hens fed 0.23% ZnCP inclusion diet (P < 0.05). The results indicated that ZnCP reached a higher bioavailability as compared with ZnSO4 as evidenced by enhanced tissue Zn accumulation and Zn transporter genes expression.

  19. Residues of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON in eggs, plasma and bile of laying hens of different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Ebrahem, Mohammad; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Breves, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the potential for carry-over of deoxynivalenol (DON) into eggs and DON residues in plasma and bile of laying hens of different genetic backgrounds after long-term feeding trial was investigated. A total of 80, 23-week-old laying hens were assigned to a feeding trial with two diets, a control diet and a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (FUS) (0.4 and 9.9 mg DON kg(-1), respectively). In the 60th week of hen's life, 10 eggs from each group were collected. In the 70th week of hen's life, all hens were slaughtered and samples of blood and bile were collected. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for DON and de-epoxy-DON. DON was only detected in samples of hens which fed the FUS diet while none of the samples analysed had detectable levels of de-epoxy-DON. In plasma and bile samples, DON levels ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 ng ml(-1) and from 1.8 to 4.1 ng ml(-1), respectively. DON levels in egg yolk and albumen ranged between 0.0-0.46 ng g(-1) and 0.0-0.35 ng g(-1), respectively, corresponding to carry-over rates of DON into eggs from 0.0 to 0.000016. Moreover, no differences in DON levels or carry-over rates were noticed between the two tested breeds. These results show that very low levels of DON were transferred into eggs and indicate that although eggs could contribute to human exposure to DON, the levels are very low and insignificant.

  20. The Tissue Distribution of Lutein in Laying Hens Fed Lutein Fortified Chlorella and Production of Chicken Eggs Enriched with Lutein

    PubMed Central

    An, Byoung-Ki; Jeon, Jin-Young; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the dietary effects of conventional or lutein fortified chlorella on lutein absorptions, the tissue distributions and the changes in lutein content of eggs in laying hens. In Exp 1, a total of one hundred and fifty, 70 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were divided into three groups with five replicates and fed with each experiment diet (control diet, diet with 1% conventional chlorella or lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production in groups fed diets containing both chlorella powders were higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). With chlorella supplementations, the yolk color significantly increased, although there were no significant differences in the eggshell qualities. The lutein contents of serum, liver and growing oocytes were greatly increased by feeding conventional or lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). In Exp. 2, a total of ninety 60 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were assigned into three groups with three replicates per group (10 birds per replicate). The birds were fed with one of three experimental diets (0, 0.1 or 0.2% lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production was not affected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in the group fed with diet containing 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella was higher than that of the control (p<0.05). As the dietary chlorella levels increased, the daily egg mass linearly increased, although not significantly. The yolk colors in groups fed diets containing lutein fortified chlorella were dramatically increased as compared to the control (p<0.001). The lutein in chicken eggs significantly increased when fed with 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). These results suggested that the dietary lutein derived from chlorella was readily absorbed into the serum and absorbed by the liver with growing oocyte for commercial laying hens. Particularly, the lutein fortified chlorella was a valuable natural source for the

  1. Factors influencing bacterial eggshell contamination in conventional cages, furnished cages and free-range systems for laying hens under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Michel, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Le Bouquin, S

    2010-04-01

    1. The aim was to assess eggshell contamination in various laying hen-housing systems and to identify factors influencing this contamination. 2. Fifty-eight laying hen farms in France were studied, including 21 flocks housed in conventional cages, 7 in furnished cages and 30 kept on-floor. 3. Sixty eggs per flock were analysed to obtain counts of the total mesophilic flora. Data on equipment and hen management were collected. 4. Mean bacterial count on eggshells tended to be higher in on-floor systems (4.82 +/- 0.51 log CFU/eggshell) than in cage systems (4.57 +/- 0.58 log CFU/eggshell, P = 0.09). 5. Contamination increased with age of the hens, airborne dust concentration, manual packing of the eggs, and packing in plastic rather than in recycled-pulp egg-flats. 6. The effect of the housing system on eggshell contamination, previously described in experimental assays, was confirmed under production conditions.

  2. Changes in progesterone receptor isoforms expression and in the morphology of the oviduct magnum of mature laying and aged nonlaying hens.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva

    2016-09-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the morphology and expression of progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms in different cell subpopulations of the magnum region of the left oviduct of mature laying and aged nonlaying hens through histomorphometric and immunohistological methods. Histological results demonstrated several changes in the oviduct magnum of mature and aged hens, mainly in the mucosal tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both PR isoforms are expressed in all cell types of the oviduct magnum of mature laying hens. In contrast, in each cell type of the oviduct magnum of aged nonlaying hens only one PR isoform (PR-A or PR-B) was expressed. The results indicate that PR percentage and the PR-A and PR-B ratio change according to the cell type of the oviduct magnum and in an age-specific manner, and suggest that these variations contribute to the regulation of progesterone actions in the oviduct magnum with the normal aging of the animal. PMID:27526993

  3. Apoptosis induction and release of inflammatory cytokines in the oviduct of egg-laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Tang, Chao; Wang, Qiuzhen; Li, Ruiqiao; Chen, Zhanli; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Xu, Xingang

    2015-06-12

    The H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to severe egg-drop and poor egg shell quality. However, previous studies in relation to the oviductal-dysfunction resulted from this agent have not clearly been elucidated. In this study, apoptosis and pathologic changes in the oviducts of egg-laying hens caused by H9N2 AIV were evaluated. To understand the immune response in the pathogenic processes, 30-week old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens inoculated with H9N2 subtype of AIV through combined intra-ocular and intra-nasal routes. H9N2 AIV infection resulted in oviductal lesions, triggered apoptosis and expression of immune related genes accompanied with infiltration of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8α(+) cells. Significant tissue damage and apoptosis were observed in the five oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina) at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). Furthermore, immune-related genes, including chicken TLR3 (7, 21), MDA5, IL-2, IFN-β, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, XCL1, XCR1 and CCR5 showed variation in the egg-laying hens infected with H9N2 AIV. Notably, mRNA expression of IFN-α was suppressed during the infection. These results show distinct expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines amongst segments of the oviduct. Differential gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes aggregation occurring in oviducts may initiate the infected tissue in response to virus replication which may eventually lead to excessive cellular apoptosis and tissue damage. PMID:25911114

  4. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks. PMID:26316341

  5. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks.

  6. Apoptosis induction and release of inflammatory cytokines in the oviduct of egg-laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Tang, Chao; Wang, Qiuzhen; Li, Ruiqiao; Chen, Zhanli; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Xu, Xingang

    2015-06-12

    The H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to severe egg-drop and poor egg shell quality. However, previous studies in relation to the oviductal-dysfunction resulted from this agent have not clearly been elucidated. In this study, apoptosis and pathologic changes in the oviducts of egg-laying hens caused by H9N2 AIV were evaluated. To understand the immune response in the pathogenic processes, 30-week old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens inoculated with H9N2 subtype of AIV through combined intra-ocular and intra-nasal routes. H9N2 AIV infection resulted in oviductal lesions, triggered apoptosis and expression of immune related genes accompanied with infiltration of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8α(+) cells. Significant tissue damage and apoptosis were observed in the five oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina) at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). Furthermore, immune-related genes, including chicken TLR3 (7, 21), MDA5, IL-2, IFN-β, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, XCL1, XCR1 and CCR5 showed variation in the egg-laying hens infected with H9N2 AIV. Notably, mRNA expression of IFN-α was suppressed during the infection. These results show distinct expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines amongst segments of the oviduct. Differential gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes aggregation occurring in oviducts may initiate the infected tissue in response to virus replication which may eventually lead to excessive cellular apoptosis and tissue damage.

  7. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper

  8. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper

  9. Effect of different levels of dried citrus pulp on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in early phase of production.

    PubMed

    Nazok, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mansour; Sayyahzadeh, Hadi

    2010-04-01

    Utilization of agricultural wastes in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried citrus pulp (DCP) is a potential source of some valuable nutrients for animal and poultry. In an experiment with completely randomized design, the effect of different levels (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16%) of DCP was evaluated on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens from 25 to 37 weeks of age. The birds were randomly allocated to five groups with six replicates and three birds in each replicate. The results showed that with increasing the level of DCP up to 12%, there were no significant differences among treatments for feed intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, final body weight, yolk index, and yolk color. There were no significant differences between treatments in shell thickness, eggshell index, egg score, and Haugh unit. Utilization of DCP up to 16% significantly increased serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein and reduced cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Results of the present study indicated that use of 12% DCP in laying hen diets had no adverse effect on performance and egg quality of laying hens in early phase of production. PMID:19882229

  10. Effect of rearing factors on the prevalence of floor eggs, cloacal cannibalism and feather pecking in commercial flocks of loose housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, S; Keeling, L J; Svedberg, J

    1999-03-01

    1. Effects of rearing conditions on behavioural problems were investigated in a cohort study of commercial flocks of laying hens housed in 2 different loose housing systems. The sample population was 120 385 laying hens from 59 flocks of various hybrids at 21 different farms. 2. Logistic regression modelling was used to test the effects of selected factors on floor eggs, cloacal cannibalism and feather pecking. In addition to early access to perches or litter, models included hybrid, stocking density, group size, housing system, age at delivery, identical housing system at the rearing farm and at the production farm and, in models for floor eggs and cloacal cannibalism, nest area per hen. Odds ratios were calculated from the results of the models to allow risk assessment. 3. No significant correlations were found between the prevalence of floor eggs, cloacal cannibalism and feather pecking. 4. Access to perches from not later than the 4th week of age decreased the prevalence of floor eggs during the period from start-of-lay until 35 weeks of age, odds ratio 0-30 (P<0-001). Furthermore, early access to perches decreased the prevalence of cloacal cannibalism during the production period, odds ratio 0-46 (P=0.03). 5. No other factor had a significant effect in these models. Although it was not significant, early access to litter had a non-significant tendency to reduce the prevalence of feather pecking. PMID:10405030

  11. Is sequential feeding of whole wheat more efficient than ground wheat in laying hens?

    PubMed

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Mallet, S; Ali, M N; Tukur, H M; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2011-02-01

    The impact of sequential feeding of whole or ground wheat on the performance of layer hen was investigated using ISABROWN hens from 19 to 42 weeks of age. In addition, the effect of reduced dietary energy content of a complete diet was also investigated. Four treatments were tested. Whole wheat was alternated with a protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) in a treatment (sequential whole wheat: SWW), while another treatment alternated ground wheat (sequential ground wheat: SGW) with the same balancer diet. The control (C) was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Another treatment (low energy: LE) was fed a complete diet conventionally. The diet contained lower energy (10.7 v. 11.6 MJ/kg) compared to the C. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained five birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per day) and distributed twice (2 × 60.5 g) at 4 and 11 h after lights on. In the sequential treatment, only wheat (whole or ground) was fed during the first distribution and the balancer diet during the second distribution. Left over feed was always removed before the next distribution. The total feed intake was not different between SWW and SGW, but the two were lower than C (P < 0.05). Wheat intake was however, lowered with SGW compared to SWW (P < 0.05). Egg production and egg mass (EM) were not different between treatments. Egg weight was lower with SGW than with SWW (P < 0.05), but the two were similar to C. Body weight (BW) was lowered (P < 0.01) with SGW relative to SWW and C, SWW BW being also lower than the C one. The efficiency of egg production was increased (P < 0.01) with the SWW and SGW relative to the control. Birds fed LE had higher feed intake (P < 0.05) but they had similar egg production and EM compared to the two sequential treatments. The efficiency of feed utilization was also reduced (P < 0.01) with LE compared to SWW and SGW. It was concluded that sequential feeding is

  12. Effects of dietary copper on production and egg cholesterol content in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Balevi, T; Coskun, B

    2004-08-01

    1. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of diets supplemented with different amounts of copper on egg production, food intake, food conversion ratio, egg weight, damaged egg ratio, specific gravity, mortality and cholesterol concentration in yolk. The experiment lasted 90 d and 400 Hisex-Brown hens, aged 27 weeks at the start of the study, were used. 2. There were no statistically significant effects of supplementary copper on egg production, food intake or food conversion efficiency. 3. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of damaged eggs, egg weight, specific gravity and live weight. 4. At the end of the experiment, the lowest yolk cholesterol concentrations were obtained in the 150 kg/kg copper group and the greatest concentrations were in the control group. 5. Consequently, the use of supplementary copper to provide 150 kg/kg in poultry diets was concluded to decrease yolk cholesterol concentrations without any effect on production performance. PMID:15484729

  13. Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Kim, Jimin; Yoon, Hyung-Sook; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05) whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05). Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05) without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05) but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05), suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production. PMID:25925061

  14. Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Davies, A C; Radford, A N; Nicol, C J

    2013-10-24

    Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24513559

  15. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  16. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg-1 phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level. PMID:25610580

  17. Characterization of Egg Laying Hen and Broiler Fecal Microbiota in Poultry Farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products. PMID:25329397

  18. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products. PMID:25329397

  19. The effect of Marek's disease vaccination and day-old debeaking on the performance of growing pullets and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Reid, I S

    1977-05-01

    In a 2 X 2 completely randomized factorial design, four hundred day-old Single Comb White Leghorn pullets were randomly assigned to four treatment combinations of vaccinated, non-vaccinated, debeaked and non-debeaked groups. Vaccination and debeaking were performed at day-old by administering 2,000 P.F.U. of HVT vaccine/chick and by removing approximately 2/3 of the upper beak, respectively. All the data were analyzed at 5% level of probability. Vaccination reduced feed consumption significantly only during the early growing period of the first 12 weeks, whereas debeaking caused a significant reduction in feed consumption throughout the experimental period of 80 weeks. Mortality during the 20-week growing period was not affected by either vaccination or debeaking. During the laying period (20-80 weeks of age), vaccination reduced the mortality numerically, while debeaking reduced the mortality significantly. Final body weight, hen-day egg production, egg weight, albumen height and egg shell thickness were not influenced by either vaccination, debeaking or a combination of the two. Debeaking had no effect on the incidence of blood-spotting in the eggs. Vaccination, however, significantly reduced percent blood spots in the eggs. Day-old debeaking effectively prevented the occurrence of cannibalism. PMID:605052

  20. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rozenboim, I; Mahato, J; Cohen, N A; Tirosh, O

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens

  1. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y. Z.; Cheng, J. L.; Ren, M.; Yin, L.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying

  2. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Rozenboim, I; Mahato, J; Cohen, N A; Tirosh, O

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens

  3. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Z; Cheng, J L; Ren, M; Yin, L; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides on performance, blood metabolites, ileal nutrient digestibility, and gut microflora in Escherichia coli-challenged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Ashnagar, M

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of different levels of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) on performance, egg quality, immune responses, and gut microflora in laying hens exposed to Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. A total of 180 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens, 55 wk of age, were randomly distributed among 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 6 hens each. Experimental diets consisted of 5 graded levels of MOS (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2% of diet). The study lasted 77 d including 7 d for adaptation and 70 d as the main experimental period subdivided into two 35-d periods. The results showed increases (P<0.05) in egg production percentage and egg mass, and a decrease (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) in birds fed the diets containing 0.1 and 0.15% MOS compared with control birds during the first 35-d period. In addition, there were significant differences between dietary treatments for egg mass and FCR during the second 35-d, with the best (P<0.05) values observed for hens fed on 0.1% MOS-supplemented diet. Feed intake and egg weight, however, were not influenced by dietary treatments throughout the experimental period. Compared to control birds, supplemental MOS resulted in 9.8% (P<0.01) and 8.1% (P<0.05) increases in hen-day egg production and egg mass, respectively, during the entire experimental period. Dietary supplementation with 0.1 to 0.2% MOS decreased (P<0.01) serum triglycerides concentration compared with control birds. In addition, serum concentration of low-density lipoproteins was reduced (P<0.001) by all supplemental MOS levels. In contrast to Newcastle antibody titer, primary antibody response against sheep red blood cell was significantly (P<0.05) affected by supplemental MOS. Supplementation of MOS into the diet caused increases in digestibility coefficients of DM (P<0.05) and CP (P<0.01). In addition, there was a significant (P<0.01) difference between dietary treatments for ileal ether

  5. Performance, serum biochemical responses, and gene expression of intestinal folate transporters of young and older laying hens in response to dietary folic acid supplementation and challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Munyaka, P M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; O, K; House, J D

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation on performance, serum biochemical indices, and mRNA abundance of intestinal folate transporters in young and older laying hens after acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Two experiments were conducted separately involving 48 Shaver White young laying hens (24 wk of age) in experiment 1 and 48 Shaver White older laying hens (58 wk of age) in experiment 2. Birds were fed 2 diets in a complete randomized design. The diets were wheat-soybean meal based, with or without supplemental 4 mg of FA/kg of diet. Birds were fed for 8 wk, during which time feed consumption and egg production were monitored. At the end of each feeding experiment, 6 hens from each dietary treatment were injected intravenously with 8 mg/kg of BW of either Escherichia coli LPS or sterile saline. Four hours after injection, blood and intestinal samples were collected for further analysis. Compared with the control, dietary FA supplementation increased egg weight and egg mass and decreased serum glucose levels in the young laying hens, and reduced serum uric acid in the older laying hens (P < 0.05). Relative to saline injection, plasma homocysteine, serum calcium, and phosphorus levels were found to be lower in both young and older laying hens after LPS challenge (P < 0.05). Other serum biochemical variables and the mRNA expression of 2 folate transport genes in the small and large intestine were differentially affected by LPS challenge, and some of those responses varied with the age of the birds. Additionally, interactions between diet and LPS challenge were specifically found in the older laying hens. In summary, in addition to improving production performance, there were effects of dietary FA supplementation and its interaction with LPS challenge on biochemical constituents, and age played a role in the development of responses to diet and bacterial LPS infections. PMID:24570431

  6. Performance, serum biochemical responses, and gene expression of intestinal folate transporters of young and older laying hens in response to dietary folic acid supplementation and challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Munyaka, P M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; O, K; House, J D

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation on performance, serum biochemical indices, and mRNA abundance of intestinal folate transporters in young and older laying hens after acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Two experiments were conducted separately involving 48 Shaver White young laying hens (24 wk of age) in experiment 1 and 48 Shaver White older laying hens (58 wk of age) in experiment 2. Birds were fed 2 diets in a complete randomized design. The diets were wheat-soybean meal based, with or without supplemental 4 mg of FA/kg of diet. Birds were fed for 8 wk, during which time feed consumption and egg production were monitored. At the end of each feeding experiment, 6 hens from each dietary treatment were injected intravenously with 8 mg/kg of BW of either Escherichia coli LPS or sterile saline. Four hours after injection, blood and intestinal samples were collected for further analysis. Compared with the control, dietary FA supplementation increased egg weight and egg mass and decreased serum glucose levels in the young laying hens, and reduced serum uric acid in the older laying hens (P < 0.05). Relative to saline injection, plasma homocysteine, serum calcium, and phosphorus levels were found to be lower in both young and older laying hens after LPS challenge (P < 0.05). Other serum biochemical variables and the mRNA expression of 2 folate transport genes in the small and large intestine were differentially affected by LPS challenge, and some of those responses varied with the age of the birds. Additionally, interactions between diet and LPS challenge were specifically found in the older laying hens. In summary, in addition to improving production performance, there were effects of dietary FA supplementation and its interaction with LPS challenge on biochemical constituents, and age played a role in the development of responses to diet and bacterial LPS infections.

  7. Ovalbumin expression in the oviduct magnum of hens is related to the rate of egg laying and shows distinct stress-type-specific responses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Zhang, Q; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Jiang, M J; Luo, H; Lin, H

    2016-10-01

    Three trials were performed to evaluate the association of ovalbumin (OVA) abundance in the oviduct magnum with egg production and the underlying regulatory mechanism by glucocorticoids. In trial 1, twenty Hy-Line Brown layers (56-60 weeks of age) with different combinations (n = 5/combination) of laying rate (high or low) and egg weight (high or low) were selected from an initial group of 300. An upregulated expression of magnum OVA was observed (p < 0.05) in hens with higher laying rate, regardless of egg weight. In trial 2, eighty Hy-Line Brown layers (80-90 weeks of age) were subjected to the forced moulting (n = 8). The abundance of OVA transcript and protein in the magnum was significantly decreased during moulting (p < 0.01), and the same was true for laying rate (p < 0.01) and serum oestrogen (p < 0.05). In trial 3, forty-five 56-week-old Hy-Line Brown layers were kept individually (n = 15) in the following conditions for 10 days: constant optimal ambient temperature at 23 °C and ad libitum feeding, high ambient temperature at 32 °C for 6 h/day (10:00-16:00) and ad libitum feeding (32AL), and constant optimal ambient temperature at 23 °C and pair-fed to the 32AL hens. In spite of elevated corticosterone in circulation, OVA synthesis, blood oestrogen and laying rate were not affected by heat exposure (p > 0.05). These results allow concluding that OVA expression in the oviduct magnum of hens is related to the rate of egg laying and shows distinct stress-type-specific responses.

  8. Aerial perches and free-range laying hens: the effect of access to aerial perches and of individual bird parameters on keel bone injuries in commercial free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, C J; Ball, M E E; O'Connell, N E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of aerial perches on keel bone injuries and tibia bone characteristics in free-range laying hens. The relationship between keel bone injuries and individual bird parameters, such as weight, girth, wing:girth ratio, feather coverage, and tibia bone characteristics, was also assessed. Five commercial free-range houses, each containing between 7,000 and 8,000 birds, were used. The houses and range areas were divided in half; in half of the house, birds had access to aerial perches (P) and in the other half, they did not (NP). On 13 occasions between 17 and 70 wk of age, 20 birds per treatment were randomly selected from the slatted area and palpated for keel bone injury. At 72 wk of age, 30 birds per treatment in each of 4 houses were selected at random, weighed, and then euthanized. Girth and wing area and feather coverage were measured. The keel and left tibia bones were removed and keel bones were scored for injury. Tibia bones were weighed and diameter, length, breaking strength, and ash content recorded. Results indicated that access to aerial perches did not affect tibia bone measures (P > 0.05). Average palpated keel bone score increased with age of the hens (P < 0.001) but was not significantly affected by perch treatment (P > 0.05). There was a significant interaction between treatment and farm on keel bone injuries measured at dissection (P < 0.05), with the probability of birds having high keel-damage scores increasing in the perched treatment in some farms but not others. In general, as the keel bone injury score measured at dissection increased, the breaking strength (P < 0.001) and ash content (P < 0.05) of the tibia bone decreased. It is suggested that individual variation in bone strength contributes to differences in susceptibility to keel injury. No relationship existed between keel-injury score measured at dissection and individual parameters, such as weight, girth, or wing:girth ratio (P > 0

  9. The impact of phenotypic appearance on body weight and egg production in laying hens: a group-size- and experience-dependent phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Marin, R H; Liste, M G; Campderrich, I; Estevez, I

    2014-07-01

    Alterations of birds' phenotypic appearance (PA) may lead to unwanted behaviors, potentially impairing poultry welfare, health, and productive performance. Likewise, group size may play an important role modulating the expression of adaptive behaviors. This study evaluates whether changes in the PA of Hy-line Brown laying hens may affect their BW and egg production, and if so, whether these effects depend on group size. A total of 1,050 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 45 pens. Groups were of 10, 20, or 40 individuals (8 hens/m(2)). At arrival, the PA of 0, 30, 50, 70, or 100% of the birds within each group was artificially altered by marking the back of their heads black. The remaining birds within groups were unaltered. The 30% marked hens within groups of 10 individuals had a lower BW at 24 wk of age than their 70% unmarked counterparts, whereas the other groups showed similar BW. No differences were detected in egg laying performance during this phase. Next, within the initially homogeneous groups (0 and 100%), 30, 50, and 70% of the hens were either marked or unmarked (PA changed) sequentially at 34, 38, and 44 wk of age. Hens within the initially heterogeneous groups of 30, 50, and 70% marked birds remained unchanged and were used as controls. Groups of 40 individuals showed a reduction in BW gain and weekly hen-day-egg production after 30% PA changes, as compared with control counterparts. No differences were found in pens of 10 hens, and the groups of 20 showed intermediate results. A transient reduction in egg production was found after 50% PA changes. No further productive effects were observed after 70% changes. Our findings suggest that differences in hen appearance, which may occur due to variations in health status, injuries, and other natural causes, can be critical for production and welfare management practices depending both on the flock size and the birds' previous experience in exposure to group phenotypic heterogeneity.

  10. Productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens in the late phase of production as influenced by level and source of calcium in the diet.

    PubMed

    Safaa, H M; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Frikha, M; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Mateos, G G

    2008-10-01

    A total of 1,152 Lohmann Brown laying hens were used to study the influence of level (3.5 and 4.0%) and source (coded FIN, COA, and OYS) of Ca in the diet on productive performance and egg quality from 58 to 73 wk of age. The FIN diet contained all the Ca carbonate as fine limestone (LIM). In the COA and OYS diets, 40% of the fine LIM was substituted with either coarse LIM or oyster shell. Each treatment was replicated 8 times (24 hens). Productive performance and egg quality traits were recorded every 4 wk, and tibia characteristics and shell quality traits were determined at 73 wk of age. An increase in Ca intake from 4.08 to 4.64 g/hen per day improved egg production (71.2 vs. 74.9%; P < 0.001), egg mass (49.0 vs. 51.4 g; P < 0.05), and feed conversion ratio (2.43 vs. 2.30 kg of feed/kg of egg; P < 0.001). In addition, an increase in Ca intake improved shell weight (9.98 vs. 10.20%; P < 0.05), shell thickness (0.342 vs. 0.351 mm; P < 0.01), and shell density (82.0 vs. 83.8 mg/cm2; P < 0.001). Calcium source had no effect on productive performance, tibia characteristics, or egg quality except for shell density, which was greater for hens fed COA than for hens fed FIN, with hens fed OYS being intermediate (81.9 vs. 84.0 vs. 82.7 mg/cm2, respectively; P < 0.05). It was concluded that Brown egg-laying hens in the late phase of production require more than 3.5% Ca in the diet (4.08 g of Ca/hen per day) and that the substitution of 40% of fine LIM with COA or OYS does not affect productive performance and has little impact on shell quality and tibia characteristics.

  11. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  12. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne L.; Mullan, Siobhan M.; Pritchard, Joy C.; McFarlane, Una J. C.; Main, David C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Farm animals can be said to have a ‘good life’ if their quality of life is substantially higher than the current legal minimum and includes positive experiences such as pleasure. In commercial farms, animals can be provided with different resources such as bedding, exercise areas and enrichment objects. We used scientific evidence and expert opinion to determine which resources laying hens need to contribute to a ‘good life’. These resources were organised into three tiers, of increasing welfare, leading towards a ‘good life’. We describe how we developed the resource tiers and suggest how the overall framework might be used to promote a ‘good life’ for farm animals. Abstract The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation

  13. Risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French laying hens and broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Aury, Kristell; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Toquin, Marie-Thérèse; Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Le Nôtre, Yolène; Allain, Virginie; Petetin, Isabelle; Fravalo, Philippe; Chemaly, Marianne

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify potential risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French poultry production. Eighty-four flocks of layer hens kept in cages and 142 broiler flocks were included in this study. For each production type, a questionnaire was submitted to farmers and fecal samples were taken to assess the L. monocytogenes status of the flocks during a single visit to the farm. Two logistic regression models (specific to each production) were used to assess the association between management practices and the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of the flock. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes-positive flocks was 30.9% (95% CI: 21.0; 40.9) and 31.7% (95% CI: 24.0; 39.4) for cage-layers and broiler flocks, respectively. For layer flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when pets were present on the production site. When droppings were evacuated by conveyor belt with deep pit storage, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination decreased significantly. Feed meal was found to be associated with a higher risk of L. monocytogenes contamination than feed crumb. For broiler flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when farmers did not respect the principle of two areas (clean and dirty) at the poultry house entrance. A first disinfection by thermal fogging and the absence of pest control of the poultry house before the arrival of the next flock was found to increase the risk of contamination. When litter was not protected during storage and when farm staff also took care of other broiler chicken houses, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination increased significantly. In the case of the watering system, nipples with cups were found to decrease the risk of contamination. PMID:21176855

  14. An enrichment object that reduces aggressiveness and mortality in caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gvaryahu, G; Ararat, E; Asaf, E; Lev, M; Weller, J I; Robinzon, B; Snapir, N

    1994-02-01

    The effect on aggressive pecking activity and mortality by an environmental enrichment device was examined. In this study, 2955 White Leghorn chickens from three different lines were used in six separate experiments. Experiments were conducted with chickens during their first or second laying period. Half the cages in each experiment were equipped with colored key rings or an enrichment object manufactured by Gallus Ltd. (Israel). Experimental and control groups of cages were distributed in an alternate serial order for each experiment which lasted for 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 10 months. The enrichment devices significantly reduced aggressive head-pecking behavior and significantly decreased the mortality rate from 1.06% per month among the controls to 0.57% among the experimental groups.

  15. Field efficacy of phoxim 50% (ByeMite) against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae in battery cages stocked with laying hens.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Kühling, Borris; Pfister, Kurt; Müller-Lindloff, Jürgen; Heine, Josef

    2007-07-20

    Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and can affect egg layers worldwide. There is presently a lack of an ectoparasiticide in Europe for poultry which can assure a 0-day withholding period for eggs. In this study, ByeMite (phoxim 50%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health Division) was administered to treat a D. gallinae infestation in a poultry house stocked with egg-laying hens kept in a cage system. A layer house was sprayed twice within a 7-day interval using a solution containing 2000 ppm phoxim and a similar layer house was used as an untreated control unit. Specially developed D. gallinae traps made of cardboard were used to assess the mite density in both layer houses during a 49-day period after the treatment. In order to collect mites, the traps were placed on days--1, 2, 6, 9, 13, 20, 34 and 48 and always removed after 24 h. The collected mites were counted and differentiated according to their developmental stage (mite eggs, larvae, nymphs, adults). Three days after the first spray treatment, the efficacy against all mite stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) was 96.1%, and from day 7 post-treatment until the end of the trial (day 49) the efficacy exceeded 99%. In contrast, in the untreated layer house (negative control group) the mite population showed a 400% increase. No treatment-related side effects in chickens were detectable. It is concluded that two administrations of ByeMite within a 7-day interval are highly effective against D. gallinae infestations in a stocked poultry house.

  16. Infectious bronchitis virus and brown shell colour: Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus affect brown eggshell colour in commercial laying hens differently.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, Sami; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess any effect of wild and vaccine Australian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains on shell colour in brown-shelled eggs. In Experiment 1, eggs were collected from day 1 to day 13 post-inoculation (p.i.) from unvaccinated laying hens challenged with IBV wild strains T and N1/88 and from a negative control group of hens. In Experiment 2, eggs were collected from 2 to 22 days p.i. from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens challenged with either a wild or a vaccine strain of IBV. In Experiment 1, there was a significant effect (P < 0.05) of day p.i. and of viral strain on shell reflectivity, L* and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) in eggshells, with and without cuticle. The mean PP IX/g of shell with and without cuticle was significantly higher on day 1 p.i. compared to day 7, after which PP IX increased with day p.i. In Experiment 2, shell reflectivity and L* increased and PP IX decreased with increased day p.i. until day 12. Shell reflectivity and L* decreased slightly after day 12 and increased again towards day 22. Shell reflectivity, L* and PP IX were not significantly different for eggshells from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens in the intact eggshell, but were significantly different in shells from which cuticle had been removed. In conclusion, the IBV strains reduced the intensity of brown shell colour to different extents with a lower amount of PP IX in eggshells.

  17. Effects of dietary organic chromium and vitamin C supplementation on performance, immune responses, blood metabolites, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density.

    PubMed

    Mirfendereski, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine (CrMet) and vitamin C (VC) on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. A total of 360 Hy-Line W-36 leghorn hens (at 26 wk old) were used in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement that had 2 cage densities (5 and 7 hens per cage), 3 Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 ppb as CrMet), and 2 dietary VC levels (0 and 500 ppm as L-ascorbic acid). The trial lasted for 12 wk. The first 2 wk were for adaptation (26 to 28 wk of age), and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages (P<0.05). Dietary CrMet supplementation caused significant increases in egg production and egg mass (P<0.01). There were significant Cr × VC interactions related to egg production and feed conversion efficiency (P<0.01); dietary CrMet supplementation was more effective in improving egg production and feed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets. Although plasma concentrations of triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins were not influenced by dietary treatments, supplemental CrMet decreased plasma cholesterol levels (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and glucose levels of hens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage were significantly higher than those of hens in normal cage density (P<0.01), and dietary CrMet supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of insulin (P<0.001) and glucose (P<0.01), with higher impacts in high stocking density-challenged hens. While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (P<0.01), both supplemental

  18. Effects of dietary organic chromium and vitamin C supplementation on performance, immune responses, blood metabolites, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density.

    PubMed

    Mirfendereski, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine (CrMet) and vitamin C (VC) on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. A total of 360 Hy-Line W-36 leghorn hens (at 26 wk old) were used in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement that had 2 cage densities (5 and 7 hens per cage), 3 Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 ppb as CrMet), and 2 dietary VC levels (0 and 500 ppm as L-ascorbic acid). The trial lasted for 12 wk. The first 2 wk were for adaptation (26 to 28 wk of age), and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages (P<0.05). Dietary CrMet supplementation caused significant increases in egg production and egg mass (P<0.01). There were significant Cr × VC interactions related to egg production and feed conversion efficiency (P<0.01); dietary CrMet supplementation was more effective in improving egg production and feed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets. Although plasma concentrations of triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins were not influenced by dietary treatments, supplemental CrMet decreased plasma cholesterol levels (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and glucose levels of hens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage were significantly higher than those of hens in normal cage density (P<0.01), and dietary CrMet supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of insulin (P<0.001) and glucose (P<0.01), with higher impacts in high stocking density-challenged hens. While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (P<0.01), both supplemental

  19. Behavior, production, and well-being of the laying hen. 1. Effects of movable roosts, relationship of cage mates, and genetic stock.

    PubMed

    Webster, A B; Hurnik, J F

    1990-12-01

    The effects of movable roosts, relationship of cage mates (siblings versus nonsiblings), and genetic stock on measures of behavior, production, and physical condition were investigated. Sibling and nonsibling pairs of hens derived from two male parental stocks (designated MPS1 and MPS2) were randomly assigned to two cage batteries (384 hens total). The batteries were identical except that the cages of one had individual wood roosts, which were automatically raised at night and lowered the next morning. The laying phase comprised 13 28-day periods. On the first 4 days of Periods 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11, video recordings were made of 8 cages per day. Video-recorded data for Period 5 were discarded, however, because equipment failure caused an unplanned photoperiod ratio. Direct visual observations were carried out in Period 13. Egg production and feed consumption were recorded in each period. Feather scores were determined in Periods 3, 6, 9, and 12, and in Periods 6 and 13, hens were weighed and the number of lesions to the feet counted. Overall, roosts appeared to improve well-being. Resting occurred more in cages with roosts, feathering was better initially, body weights were slightly higher, and foot lesions were were fewer. Egg production was not affected except that egg cracks were more frequent in roosts cages. Relationship of cage mates had relatively little influence. However, in conventional cages, nonsiblings manifested more bobbing behavior, and in MPS1, nonsiblings had higher feed consumed per dozen eggs. Hens of MPS1 performed more head flicking, drinking, physical displacement, aggression, and cage wall climbing than MPS2 hens. They also had higher egg production, weaker egg shells, poorer feathering, and more lesions to the feet. The genetic stock differences suggest that hens of MPS1 experienced poorer well-being. None of the treatments significantly affected mortality.

  20. Effect of different dietary levels of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spice supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Al-Harthi, M A; El-Deek, A A; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Qota, E M

    2009-11-01

    In order to study the influence of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves on productive performance, egg quality, lipids metabolism and metabolic profiles, 180 Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 6 dietary treatments each contained 6 replicates of 5 individually caged hens during the period from 50 to 60 weeks of age. 2. Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0, 50 and 100 g/kg of sun-dried mangrove leaves. Each diet was fed with or without supplementation of 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet. 3. Mangrove leaves at either 50 or 100 g/kg adversely affect laying rate, egg mass and FCR, whilst increasing water intake and water to feed ratio. Mangrove leaves had no significant effect on dry matter, protein, lipid, cholesterol and ash content of liver, or on dry matter, protein and ash of yolk. 4. Plasma total protein, total lipids; liver enzymes AST and ALT and mortality rate were not significantly affected by mangrove leaves. On the other hand, yolk lipid, yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol significantly decreased, while yolk colour significantly increased with inclusion of 50 or 100 g/kg mangrove leaves, and Haugh unit score significantly increased with 100 g/kg mangrove leaves. 5. Spice mixture significantly increased egg weight by 2.2%. Yolk lipid content significantly decreased by 2.6%, while yolk colour and Haugh unit significantly increased with inclusion of spice mixtures. 6. In conclusion, mangrove leaves at 50 g/kg may be included in the laying hen diets as a means of decreasing lipid and cholesterol in yolk and plasma cholesterol and increasing yolk colour. Spice mixture at 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet increased laying rate, egg mass, Haugh unit score and yolk colour while decreasing yolk lipids.

  1. Effect of different dietary levels of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spice supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Al-Harthi, M A; El-Deek, A A; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Qota, E M

    2009-11-01

    In order to study the influence of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves on productive performance, egg quality, lipids metabolism and metabolic profiles, 180 Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 6 dietary treatments each contained 6 replicates of 5 individually caged hens during the period from 50 to 60 weeks of age. 2. Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0, 50 and 100 g/kg of sun-dried mangrove leaves. Each diet was fed with or without supplementation of 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet. 3. Mangrove leaves at either 50 or 100 g/kg adversely affect laying rate, egg mass and FCR, whilst increasing water intake and water to feed ratio. Mangrove leaves had no significant effect on dry matter, protein, lipid, cholesterol and ash content of liver, or on dry matter, protein and ash of yolk. 4. Plasma total protein, total lipids; liver enzymes AST and ALT and mortality rate were not significantly affected by mangrove leaves. On the other hand, yolk lipid, yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol significantly decreased, while yolk colour significantly increased with inclusion of 50 or 100 g/kg mangrove leaves, and Haugh unit score significantly increased with 100 g/kg mangrove leaves. 5. Spice mixture significantly increased egg weight by 2.2%. Yolk lipid content significantly decreased by 2.6%, while yolk colour and Haugh unit significantly increased with inclusion of spice mixtures. 6. In conclusion, mangrove leaves at 50 g/kg may be included in the laying hen diets as a means of decreasing lipid and cholesterol in yolk and plasma cholesterol and increasing yolk colour. Spice mixture at 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet increased laying rate, egg mass, Haugh unit score and yolk colour while decreasing yolk lipids. PMID:19946823

  2. The effect of changing the excreta moisture of caged laying hens on the excreta and microbial contamination of their egg shells.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Rose, S P; Wells, R G; Pirgozliev, V

    2000-05-01

    1. An experiment that included 1440 caged laying hens in 24 experimental units was conducted to determine the effect of differences in excreta moisture on the proportion of dirty eggs and the microbial contamination of eggs that were ostensibly uncontaminated by excreta. Excreta moisture contents were changed by giving the hens diets that contained 4 different concentrations of sodium. 2. Diets containing 1.6, 5, 10 or 15 g/kg dietary sodium were fed ad libitum to 1140 laying hens for a 12-week feeding period. A sample of excreta was collected from each experimental unit each week and its moisture content determined. All eggs produced were classified as clean or dirty according to the European Community Egg Marketing Regulations. A sample of eggs were collected from each experimental unit on 4 separate occasions in the last 4 weeks of the feeding period and the total bacterial numbers on ostensibly clean egg shells were determined. 3. Increasing dietary sodium concentration gave linear (P<0.01) increases in excreta moisture. Each 100 g/kg increase in excreta moisture increased (P<0.001) dirty egg numbers by 0.52% of the total eggs produced. Increasing excreta moisture gave a linear increase (P<0.001) in the (log-transformed) numbers of microorganisms that contaminated ostensibly clean egg shells. PMID:10890212

  3. The performance of four strains of laying hens subjected to various postrest combinations of calcium and phosphorus after forced rest in winter or summer.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R B; Harms, R H

    1983-09-01

    Four strains of laying hens, including one brown egg strain, were force-rested in February at approximately 62 weeks of age. Hens from the same four strains, which were the same age, were also force-tested under similar conditions during August of the same year. In each of the two trials, a total of 2300 hens were housed at the rate of two per 25.4 x 45.7-cm cage. The resting procedure for both studies included feed withdrawal for 9 or 10 days followed by feeding a 8.6% protein diet for 25 days. Water was supplied at all times. After the 35-day resting period, the hens were assigned to four calcium and phosphorus combinations, which varied from the duplication of a first-year pullet phase feeding program to the feeding of a final phase type diet for the entire postrest production period. Nutrient level within each dietary system was adjusted periodically based on daily feed intake. Strain performance differences were observed in both seasons. Rate of return to production and postrest production rates were similar to the patterns observed within the respective strain's performance during the pullet year. This was noted in both studies. Relative strain production performance, however, when compared to the other strains, was not consistent between the two rest seasons. There was no difference in performance due to calcium and phosphorus treatment utilized in either postrest production season.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Bioefficacy comparison of organic manganese with inorganic manganese for eggshell quality in Hy-Line Brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J F; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Yue, H Y; Wang, J; Ji, F; Qi, G H

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the bioefficacy of organic compared with inorganic manganese (Mn) for eggshell quality. An amino acid-Mn complex or Mn sulfate monohydrate was used as the organic or inorganic Mn source. A total of six hundred forty-eight 50-wk-old layers (Hy-Line Brown) were divided into 9 groups; each group consisted of 6 replicates with 12 layers each. The feeding trial lasted 12 wk. During the first 4 wk of the feeding trial, the groups were fed a basal diet, which met the nutrient requirements of the layers, except for Mn. During the following 8 wk, 9 levels of Mn (inorganic Mn: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg; organic Mn: 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were used to supplement, respectively, in the basal diet on an equimolar basis. An exponential regression model was applied to calculate the bioefficacy of organic Mn compared with the inorganic Mn. Dietary supplementation with either organic or inorganic Mn did not influence egg production and feed efficiency of (P > 0.05), and eggshell quality did not exhibit a significant response to dietary supplementation with Mn sources at 56 and 58 wk (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with either organic Mn or inorganic Mn significantly enhanced the thickness, breaking strength, and elastic modulus of the eggshells compared with the control group at the end of 62 wk (P < 0.05). At the end of 62 wk, the bioefficacy of organic Mn was 357% (shell thickness), 406% (breaking strength), 458% (elastic modulus), and 470% (eggshell Mn), as efficacious as inorganic Mn at equimolar levels. This study suggests that organic Mn enhances eggshell quality in aged laying hens compared with inorganic Mn.

  5. Assessment of producers' response to Salmonella biosecurity issues and uptake of advice on laying hen farms in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Gosling, R J; Martelli, F; Wintrip, A; Sayers, A R; Wheeler, K; Davies, R H

    2014-01-01

    High standards of biosecurity are known to reduce the risk of disease outbreaks; however, uptake of advice and implementation of biosecurity measures are dependent on many factors. This study assessed the uptake of targeted biosecurity advice by 60 laying hen farms provided during biosecurity audit visits. Advice was provided as bullet point cards focusing on specific areas identified as benefitting from improvement. These covered site entrance, site tidiness, vaccination, boot hygiene, hand hygiene, house tidiness, rodent control, fly control, red mite control and cleaning and disinfection between flocks. Background knowledge of Salmonella and biosecurity and farmers' willingness and intent to implement additional measures were assessed. About 50% of the principal decision-makers had basic background knowledge of Salmonella, with 22% considered well informed; almost all agreed that biosecurity could impact on Salmonella control and many appeared willing to implement additional biosecurity measures. Sixty-three per cent of study farms were categorised using the Defra Farmer Segmentation Model as Modern Family Businesses (MFBs), with 7-11% of farms being categorised as Custodian, Lifestyle Choice, Pragmatist or Challenged Enterprise; however, categorisation, did not determine uptake of advice. The most frequently used advice cards were boot hygiene, red mite control, hand hygiene, site entrance and cleaning and disinfection; uptake of advice ranged from 54 to 80% depending on the advice card. Uptake of advice by the farmers was encouraging, especially considering it was being provided by people other than their usual source of biosecurity information. Those who did not implement the recommended measures cited cost, difficulty of enforcement and practicality as the main reasons. However, the positive uptake of advice and implementation of recommended measures by many farmers demonstrates that targeted advice, discussed face to face with farmers, on a small number of

  6. Erratum to: the acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

    2013-10-01

    The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5%) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25%). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ values were 0.0033 and 0.0052% (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.0025% DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5%), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.005 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42% after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28%) when compared with that of DMT (52%). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.

  7. Assessment of producers' response to Salmonella biosecurity issues and uptake of advice on laying hen farms in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Gosling, R J; Martelli, F; Wintrip, A; Sayers, A R; Wheeler, K; Davies, R H

    2014-01-01

    High standards of biosecurity are known to reduce the risk of disease outbreaks; however, uptake of advice and implementation of biosecurity measures are dependent on many factors. This study assessed the uptake of targeted biosecurity advice by 60 laying hen farms provided during biosecurity audit visits. Advice was provided as bullet point cards focusing on specific areas identified as benefitting from improvement. These covered site entrance, site tidiness, vaccination, boot hygiene, hand hygiene, house tidiness, rodent control, fly control, red mite control and cleaning and disinfection between flocks. Background knowledge of Salmonella and biosecurity and farmers' willingness and intent to implement additional measures were assessed. About 50% of the principal decision-makers had basic background knowledge of Salmonella, with 22% considered well informed; almost all agreed that biosecurity could impact on Salmonella control and many appeared willing to implement additional biosecurity measures. Sixty-three per cent of study farms were categorised using the Defra Farmer Segmentation Model as Modern Family Businesses (MFBs), with 7-11% of farms being categorised as Custodian, Lifestyle Choice, Pragmatist or Challenged Enterprise; however, categorisation, did not determine uptake of advice. The most frequently used advice cards were boot hygiene, red mite control, hand hygiene, site entrance and cleaning and disinfection; uptake of advice ranged from 54 to 80% depending on the advice card. Uptake of advice by the farmers was encouraging, especially considering it was being provided by people other than their usual source of biosecurity information. Those who did not implement the recommended measures cited cost, difficulty of enforcement and practicality as the main reasons. However, the positive uptake of advice and implementation of recommended measures by many farmers demonstrates that targeted advice, discussed face to face with farmers, on a small number of

  8. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  9. The net energy values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles and wheat bran for laying hens using indirect calorimetry method.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Yuan, J M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  10. The utilization of the Welfare Quality® assessment for determining laying hen condition across three housing systems.

    PubMed

    Blatchford, R A; Fulton, R M; Mench, J A

    2016-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(®) Assessment protocol for poultry ( WQA: ) provides animal-based measures allowing welfare comparisons across farms and housing systems. It was used to compare Lohmann LSL Classic White hens housed in an enriched colony ( EC: ), aviary ( AV: ), and conventional cage system ( CC: ) on a commercial farm over 2 flock cycles. Hens (n = 100/system) were scored on a variety of measures. A baseline measurement was made at placement at 19 wk of age for 1 flock, since AV hens had been reared in an aviary pullet facility ( AVP: while EC and CC hens were reared in a conventional pullet facility ( CCP: ). Hens in all systems were then assessed at 52 and 72 wk of age. Necropsies were performed on all mortalities 1 wk before and after the WQA sampling. WQAs were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests for prevalence and Fisher's exact tests for severity. There was an effect of rearing, with AVP having shorter claws (P = 0.01), dirtier feathers (P = 0.03), and more keel abnormalities (P < 0.0001) than CCP at placement. For the hens, there were several significant housing system effects across flocks and age periods (all P ≤ 0.05). AV and EC hens had more keel abnormalities than CC hens. They also had fewer foot abnormalities than CC hens, although those in AV hens were more severe. AV hens had consistently dirtier feathers than EC and CC hens. While AV hens had the best overall feather cover, feather loss patterns suggested that loss was due to head pecking for AV, whereas in EC and CC it was due to cage abrasion. The necropsy findings and the WQA results were similar, except that the WQA failed to find enteritis at 19 wk, although it was detected in the necropsies during this sampling period. These results show that the WQA is a useful tool for detecting hen condition differences across housing systems. PMID:26240396

  11. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P < 0.01) albumen height and Haugh unit (HU), and TP supplementation mitigated (linear effect, P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. Eggshell thickness (linear, P < 0.01), redness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), and yellowness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) were decreased by vanadium and increased by the effect of TP when a vanadium-containing diet was fed. In the depletion phase, the bleaching effect on eggshells induced by vanadium disappeared one wk after vanadium withdrawal. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, albumen height, and HU were lower (P < 0.05) in the 15 mg/kg vanadium group compared with the control diet until 2 wk post vanadium challenge, but hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P < 0.01) with the TP addition at 5 wk in the accumulation phase in the vanadium-containing diet; the malondialdehyde content increased (linear effect, P = 0.02) with the addition of vanadium. The results indicate that supplementation of 10 and 15 mg/kg vanadium resulted in reduced albumen quality, bleaching effect on eggshell color, and antioxidant stress in the liver. The effect of TP addition can prevent laying hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg

  12. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  13. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), whereas increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from TBCC did not affect FCR, indicating significant interaction (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion levels of Cu from TBCC or CuSO4 increased (P < 0.05) Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers. Feather Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged. PMID:26944968

  14. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), whereas increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from TBCC did not affect FCR, indicating significant interaction (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion levels of Cu from TBCC or CuSO4 increased (P < 0.05) Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers. Feather Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged.

  15. The effects of particle size, milling method, and thermal treatment of feed on performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and pH of the digesta in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Krämer, Carolin; Goodarzi Boroojeni, Farshad; Knorr, Fanny; Mader, Anneluise; Schulze, Erin; Hafeez, Abdul; Neumann, Konrad; Löwe, Rainer; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Various milling methods result in different particle size distributions and, in combination with mash and thermal treatment (expandate) of the feed, may have an impact on nutrient digestibility, pH of the digesta and subsequently the performance of an animal. Since this aspect has not been widely considered in laying hens, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of milling method, expansion, and particle size of feed on performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and pH of digesta in laying hens. Twelve variants of the same diet were produced. Four different milling techniques (hammer mill, roller mill, disc mill, and wedge-shaped disc mill) were used to grind the feed cereals. Coarse feed was obtained from all four mills. Additionally, fine feed was obtained from the hammer mill and the roller mill. Each of the six feed variants was offered as mash or expandate, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. The duration of the experimental period was 21 days. A total of 576 layers, each 19 weeks of age, were used in eight replicates. The statistical analysis for the four milling methods and two thermal treatments was performed using a 4×2 factorial arrangement. The effect of particle size was investigated using a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement including the coarse and fine particle sizes that were produced with the hammer mill and the roller mill as well as the mash and expandate. The animal performance and the pH of the digesta were not affected by the treatments. Ileal digestibility of starch was significantly improved by feeding mash compared to expandate (P=0.013) and by feeding coarse compared to fine feed (P=0.028). Based on this study, the tested milling methods can be used for the production of feed for laying hens without affecting performance and digestibility of nutrients.

  16. Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC mutants.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of laying hens has been successfully used to reduce egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, decreasing human salmonellosis cases worldwide. Currently used vaccines for layers are either inactivated vaccines or live attenuated strains produced by mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletion mutants hold promise for future vaccines, because specific bacterial functions can be removed that may improve safety and allow differentiation from field strains. In this study, the efficacy of Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains in laying hens as live vaccines was evaluated. The mutants are deficient in either the membrane channel TolC (ΔtolC) or the multi-drug efflux systems acrAB, acrEF and mdtABC (ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC). These strains have a decreased ability for gut and tissue colonization and are unable to survive in egg white, the latter preventing transmission of the vaccine strains to humans. Two groups of 30 laying hens were orally inoculated at day 1, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with 10(8) cfu of either vaccine strain, while a third group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 5 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The vaccine strains were not shed or detected in the gut, internal organs or eggs, 2 weeks after the third vaccination. The strains significantly protected against gut and internal organ colonization, and completely prevented egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis under the conditions of this study. This indicates that Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains might be valuable strains for vaccination of layers against Salmonella Enteritidis. PMID:27519174

  17. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  18. Sensory evaluation by gamma radiation effect on protein allergen of laying hen eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, M. N. C.; Arthur, V.; Perina, V. C. S.; Silva, L. C. A. S.; Bortoleto, G. G.

    2012-08-01

    Although considered the most complete food and nutritionally shown to be part of a healthy diet, the egg is the source of many eating disorders, especially for infants. Irradiation has been used in studies not only as a means of microbiological control, but also on its structural action in the substances molecules and has been used to reduce the allergenic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory effects of Co60 gamma radiation on proteins, enabling the acceptability of allergy food for genetically intolerant people. Eggs commercial fresh and freeze-dried and subjected to gamma irradiation by Co60 source at doses 0 (control), 10 kGy; 20 kGy and 30 kGy and rates of doses of 19.4 kGy/h and 31.8 kGy/h. Acceptability test was used by the hedonic scale, since it is necessary to know the "affective status" of consumers for the product, implying a preference, i.e. the most preferred samples are the most accepted and vice versa. The samples were presented as the habit of consumption (cooked) to a group of 41 adults panelists of both gender, aged from 21 to 40 years, and served under complete block design balanced with respect to the order of presentation. The evaluated attributes was flavor, appearance and overall acceptability. In general, for boiled eggs and freeze-dried, it was observed that the control sample was the most acceptable, followed by the sample irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rates. In addition, panelists presented in testimony that they found interesting changes due to irradiation; also said they would not buy the product because of the marked change in appearance and smell, which at one point he ended up in disgust and detract from sales of the product, but they would buy irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rate and dose of 20 kGy at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/h.

  19. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and ascorbic acid supplementation on egg production, egg quality and some serum metabolites of laying hens reared under a low ambient temperature (6 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Aydin, S

    2002-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of chromium (chromium picolinate, Cr Pic) and vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) supplementation on egg production and egg quality in laying hens (Hy-Line) kept at 18 degrees C (at thermo-neutral zone) or 6 degrees C (cold stress) in temperature-controlled rooms. One hundred and fifty laying hens (32 week-old) were divided into 5 groups, 30 hens per group. The laying hens kept at 6 degrees C temperature were fed either a basal diet (low temperature-basal diet, LTB group) or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 micrograms of Cr per kg diet (Cr group), 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid per kg diet (Vit C group) or 400 micrograms of Cr plus 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid per kg diet (Vit C + Cr group) while hens kept at 18 degrees C fed a basal diet (thermo-neutral-basal diet, TNB group). Performance and egg quality were significantly reduced in LTB group compared with TNB group. Supplemental chromium and vitamin C significantly increased live weight change, egg production, and improved feed efficiency in cold-stressed hens compared with group fed the basal diet at 6 degrees C brought up to the values of the group reared under thermoneutral conditions (18 degrees C). Egg production and egg weight were also greater in each supplemental group compared with the LTB group. Separately or as a combination, supplemental chromium and vitamin C increased serum insulin but decreased corticosterone, glucose and cholesterol concentrations. Results of the present study show that supplementing vitamin C and chromium, particularly as a combination, improved the performance of cold-stressed hens. Such a combination of supplement can offer a potential protective management practice in preventing cold stress-related losses in performance of laying hens.

  20. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P < 0.01), hunter a* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), and b* values (linear, P < 0.05) with a decrease in hunter L* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks also were increased (linear, P < 0.01) by increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS. In conclusion, feeding diets containing 20% DDGS to laying hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens. PMID:27081198

  1. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P < 0.01), hunter a* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), and b* values (linear, P < 0.05) with a decrease in hunter L* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks also were increased (linear, P < 0.01) by increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS. In conclusion, feeding diets containing 20% DDGS to laying hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens.

  2. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of cholesterol decreased, but egg shell thickness and Hough unit increased in the hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  3. Survey of egg producers on the introduction of alternative housing systems for laying hens in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Tuyttens, F A M; Sonck, B; Staes, M; Van Gansbeke, S; Van den Bogaert, T; Ampe, B

    2011-04-01

    In the context of the European Union ban on battery cages by 2012, a survey was conducted among Flemish egg producers (60% response rate, 140 completed questionnaires) about the introduction and opinion of alternative housing systems. Belgium appears to be among the countries in the European Union that are slower to adopt alternative housing. Belgium's egg industry is thus likely to undergo drastic changes to comply with the 2012 deadline. As of 2010, the battery cage was the dominant housing system (56% housing units, 67% hens), followed by floor housing (33% housing units, 15% hens) and aviary (10% housing units, 15% hens), whereas colony cages and furnished cages were extremely rare. Future- and market-oriented production was the most important reason for choosing a certain type of alternative system, although