Science.gov

Sample records for adult learning strategies

  1. Efficacy of Learning Strategies Instruction in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2011-01-01

    Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in 1 of 4 learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies,…

  2. Efficacy of learning strategies instruction in adult basic education

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2011-01-01

    Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies, history, and science. Both experimental and control conditions experienced high attrition and low attendance, resulting in only 105 control and 100 experimental participants’ data in outcome analyses for the trials of the four learning strategies. Reading outcomes for these completers were not significantly different between experimental and control conditions, and each group achieved minimal gains. We discuss possible reasons for the non-significant effect from the intervention, including insufficient instructional dosage. PMID:22121409

  3. Pedagogy for Adult Learners: Methods and Strategies. Models for Adult and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne W., Ed.

    This monograph deals with some issues of how adults learn and ways to enhance teaching, thereby increasing adults' learning gains. The issues are the gaps between theory and practice, participation and retention, and methods and strategies, and the perennial debate about literacy's multiple meanings and their implications. "Participation and…

  4. Learning English as Thai Adult Learners: An Insight into Experience in Using Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwanarak, Kasma

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to understand language learning strategies of Thai adult learners and factors affecting their strategy use. The participants are forty officers of General Service Division of the Council of State of Thailand, attending an English training course for developing their work potential. The data were collected through the…

  5. Adult Learning Strategies in an Onsite Training Program in Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayachi, Zeineb

    2015-01-01

    The new market place has dictated on adults the use of English as it is the first international language used in business. However, learning a foreign language becomes more and more complicated as the learner gets older, is in a mature command of L1 and L2, and does not have enough time to learn due to professional responsibilities. Contrary to…

  6. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950225

  7. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

  9. A Research Strategy for Studying Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Jean B.; And Others

    The author argues for an epidemiology data base (which looks at cognitive, aptitude, family condition, school condition, and personal characteristic variables) as a strategy for research with learning disabled (LD) adolescents and young adults. An operational definition, advantages, and problems of this type of research strategy are outlined. A…

  10. The Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Memory Strategy use in Adults.

    PubMed

    Dirette, Diane Powers; Anderson, Michele A

    2016-07-01

    Deficits in working memory are pervasive, resistant to remediation and significantly impact a persons ability to perform activities of daily living. Internal strategies are effective for improving working memory. Learning style preferences may influence the use of various internal working memory strategies. This study compares the use of internal working memory strategies among four different learning style preferences; converger, diverger, assimilator and accommodator. A non-experimental group design was used to compare the use of internal working memory strategies and learning style preferences among 110 adults. There were some significant differences in the types of strategies used according to learning style preferences. Knowing the learning style preference of clients may help occupational therapists better tailor cognitive rehabilitation treatments to meet the client's needs.

  11. Adult Learning and High-Stakes Testing: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Grace

    2004-01-01

    In this world of increasing competition for jobs and accountability in the workplace, adults are facing many new pressures, one of which is passing tests as part of the application process. This is especially difficult for adults who are academically challenged or did not go far enough with their education to feel comfortable in testing…

  12. Language Learning Strategy Use by Colombian Adult English Language Learners: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Elsie Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford's (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12…

  13. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Mastering Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Research of language learning strategy (LLS) has provided insight for language learners from many international cultures since this branch of research began in the 1970s. Despite the urgent need for competence in the use of business English in Western Europe, LLS studies have not been conducted on Spanish adults who use English for business. The…

  14. LEARNING TO CHOOSE AMONG SOCIAL FORAGING STRATEGIES IN ADULT HOUSE SPARROWS (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Belmaker, Amos; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2012-11-01

    Social foragers may be regarded as being engaged in a producer-scrounger game in which they can search for food independently or join others who have discovered food. Research on the producer-scrounger game has focused mainly on the different factors influencing its ESS solution, but very little is known about the actual mechanisms that shape players' decisions. Recent work has shown that early experience can affect producer-scrounger foraging tendencies in young house sparrows, and that in nutmeg mannikins learning is involved in reaching the ESS. Here we show that direct manipulation of the success rate experienced by adult sparrows when following others can change their strategy choice on the following day. We presented to live sparrows an experimental regime, where stuffed adult house sparrows in a feeding position were positioned on a foraging grid that included two reward regimes: a positive one, in which the stuffed models were placed near food, and a negative one, in which the models were placed away from food. There was a significant increase in joining behavior after the positive treatment (exhibited by 84% of the birds), but no change after the negative treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that sparrows more frequently used the strategy with which they were more successful (usually joining), and that differences in strategy use were correlated with differences in success. These results suggest that adult birds can monitor their success and learn to choose among social foraging strategies in the producer-scrounger game. PMID:23226911

  15. Coaching as a Strategy for Helping Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Dorothy M.; Wertheim, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the use of coaching for adult learners, the specific characteristics adults bring to the learning environment, and strategies for dealing with the obstacles adult learners may face.

  16. Choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus is associated with learning strategy preference in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Wayne R; Witty, Christine F; Daniel, Jill M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2015-08-01

    One principle of the multiple memory systems hypothesis posits that the hippocampus-based and striatum-based memory systems compete for control over learning. Consistent with this notion, previous research indicates that the cholinergic system of the hippocampus plays a role in modulating the preference for a hippocampus-based place learning strategy over a striatum-based stimulus--response learning strategy. Interestingly, in the hippocampus, greater activity and higher protein levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme that synthesizes acetylcholine, are associated with better performance on hippocampus-based learning and memory tasks. With this in mind, the primary aim of the current study was to determine if higher levels of ChAT and the high-affinity choline uptake transporter (CHT) in the hippocampus were associated with a preference for a hippocampus-based place learning strategy on a task that also could be solved by relying on a striatum-based stimulus--response learning strategy. Results confirmed that levels of ChAT in the dorsal region of the hippocampus were associated with a preference for a place learning strategy on a water maze task that could also be solved by adopting a stimulus-response learning strategy. Consistent with previous studies, the current results support the hypothesis that the cholinergic system of the hippocampus plays a role in balancing competition between memory systems that modulate learning strategy preference.

  17. Intrahippocampal Muscimol Shifts Learning Strategy in Gonadally Intact Young Adult Female Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Molly W.; Korol, Donna L.

    2005-01-01

    Learning strategy preferences depend upon circulating estrogen levels, with enhanced hippocampus-sensitive place learning coinciding with elevated estrogen levels. The effects of estrogen on strategy may be mediated by fluctuations in GABAergic function, given that inhibitory tone in the hippocampus is low when estrogen is high. We investigated…

  18. Intelligence and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    "Understanding Adult Intelligence" (Robert Sternberg) focuses on the nature of intelligence. It explains Sternberg's triarchic theory, in which he posits three main aspects of intelligence: its relation to the internal or mental world of the learner, its relation to experience, and its relation to the surrounding world. "Strategies and Learning"…

  19. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  20. Adults Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    Aimed at anyone who wants to know how to teach adults, this guide aims to build confidence, offer practical advice, and give the real-life flavor of helping fellow adults develop. Chapter 1 addresses adult learners: mindsets, motivation, and learning (learning cycle, learning styles, relevance, reinforcement and practice, experience, learning to…

  1. Effectiveness of Teaching Strategies for Engaging Adults Who Experienced Childhood Difficulties in Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abeer; Fraser, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the introduction of a variety of activity-based teaching strategies into college-level mathematics classes in the United Arab Emirates was effective in terms of the nature of the classroom learning environment and students' satisfaction. In addition, we investigated how the use of personally-relevant and concrete…

  2. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  3. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  4. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  5. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  6. Sex Differences in English Language Acculturation and Learning Strategies among Vietnamese Adults Age 40 and over in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thanh V.

    1988-01-01

    Examines sex differences in English language acculturation and learning strategies among older Vietnamese refugees using data from a national sample. Finds that females had more language problems than males, and that males were more likely than females to use various learning strategies to improve their language skills. (FMW)

  7. Helping Adults Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Phyllis J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased attention to preparing addictions counselors and related professionals to use evidence-based practices has brought new attention to the preparation programs for addictions counselors. Research and theory about adult learning emphasizes the importance of students as active participants in problem and experience based learning. This paper…

  8. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

  9. Adult Professional Development: Can Brain-Based Teaching Strategies Increase Learning Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilton, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Brain-based teaching strategies, compared to facilitative student-centered teaching strategies, were employed with 62 real estate professionals in a quasi-mixed-methods study. Participants attended a 2-day proprietary real estate continuing education course. Both the experimental and control groups received the same facilitative instruction, as…

  10. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  11. Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack

    This book presents a theory of how adults learn by making meaning of their experiences. Chapter 1 gives an overview of an emerging transformation theory of adult learning, compares it with other theories of adult learning, and describes the dynamics of the process through which one makes meaning of one's experience. Chapter 2 examines the way…

  12. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  13. Adult Learning Strategies and Approaches (ALSA). Resources for Teachers of Adults. A Handbook of Practical Advice on Audio-Visual Aids and Educational Technology for Tutors and Organisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, John; And Others

    This handbook is part of a British series of publications written for part-time tutors, volunteers, organizers, and trainers in the adult continuing education and training sectors. It offers practical advice on audiovisual aids and educational technology for tutors and organizers. The first chapter discusses how one learns. Chapter 2 addresses how…

  14. Strategies and Responsibilities in Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    A total of five articles concerning adult basic education are presented. These are: "Recruitment Strategies for Adult Basic Education," by Ron Howard; "Native to the Hills," by Myrtle Reul; "The Learning Laboratory--A Valid System for Adult Basic Education," by Joe Carter; "Reading Instruction for Illiterate Adults," by John George; and "Teaching…

  15. Adult Learning and Numeracy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantner, M. Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the marginalization of adult mathematics learning within education. The problem is adult education subsumes adult mathematics learning under the umbrella of literacy. Literacy and numeracy compared in terms of their quantities of funding, directed projects, ERIC submissions, and published dissertations.…

  16. Learning Strategy Preference and Personality Type: Are They Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Gary J.; McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of learning strategy preference to personality type. Learning strategy preference was identified with the "A"ssessing "T"he "L"earning Strategies of "A"dult"S" (ATLAS), and personality type was measured with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The findings indicate that while overall personality type is…

  17. Promoting Learning. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Kate

    This document is intended to help adult educators in the United Kingdom promote learning. The guide presents practical advice, case studies, and tips for undertaking and implementing effective promotional work. Sections 1 through 11 discuss the following topics: recognizing the increasing need for lifelong learning; the rationale for campaigns…

  18. Generative Learning: Adults Learning within Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaides, Aliki

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which ambiguity can serve as a catalyst for adult learning. The purpose of this study is to understand learning that is generated when encountering ambiguity agitated by the complexity of liquid modernity. "Ambiguity," in this study, describes an encounter with an appearance of reality that is at first…

  19. Adults Learning for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    This book, drawing on 30 years of adult education experience in England, Ireland, India, and other countries, contrasts the individualistic approach to adult education in the West with the social responsibility view of adult education in the developing world. The book's thesis is that the gulf between the approach of the West and that of…

  20. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  1. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  2. Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.

    Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A 17-item…

  3. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  4. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  5. Learning Strategies and Hypermedia Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Kendall

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the potential of incorporating learning strategy instruction into hypermedia learning materials in a high school computer class. Discusses results of a six-week intervention where the experimental group participated in learning strategy training in conjunction with hypermedia computer networking lessons and reports results of pre- and…

  6. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between HRD…

  7. Social Environment and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    This monograph contains papers from an institute on the theme of adult learning in the social environment. "Bill Moyers' Journal: An Interview with Myles Horton" provides excerpts from a televised interview that discusses Myles Horton's life, work, and association with the Highlander Folk School. "Myles Horton's Views on Learning in the Social…

  8. Learning the New Technologies: Strategies for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    2003-01-01

    Research on 255 adult educators identified their needs in learning to use instructional technology. Results were used to depict technology professional development as a transformative journey. Strategies include assessing current knowledge and needs, engaging in development of relevant curriculum materials using technology, and reflecting on…

  9. Prose Learning in Children and Adults with Down Syndrome: The Use of Visual and Mental Image Strategies to Improve Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Iglesia, Carmen J. F.; Buceta, M. Jose; Campos, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research indicates that the use of mental imagery is a rich source of possibilities for improving learning in participants with learning disabilities and intellectual disability. Method: We undertook two experiments designed to assess the effectiveness of using imagery in prose learning for participants with Down syndrome (DS). The…

  10. Learning Strategies: Teaching Students How To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Baker, Belinda

    A review of research on the subject of how students learn identifies various techniques that have been used successfully in facilitating learning; e.g., memorization, repetition, review. In discussing the differences between active and passive learning, it is pointed out that tactics used by good students include organizational strategies,…

  11. The Learning Strategies: Helping Students Learn How To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuchida, Masato

    This paper discusses how language teachers can teach students how to learn using several approaches to learning strategies. The first section describes current English language teaching in Japan. The second section discusses the theoretical background of learning strategies, looking at cognitive learning models, which emphasize learner's mental…

  12. Learning To Learn--Preparing Adults for Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuissl, Ekkehard

    2001-01-01

    Metacognitive strategies support individual development and make learning transparent to the learner. Techniques such as modeling, coaching, scaffolding, fading, reflecting, and exploring are essential to maintain and approve the ability to learn throughout life. (SK)

  13. Adult Learning Theories Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A student-centered nontraditional learning program was proposed to better prepare fire department military personnel in obtaining their 911 dispatch certification at a Florida military installation. Maintaining an adequate number of dispatched qualified military personnel, in addition to current civilian dispatchers at the same location, improves…

  14. Adult Learning in Traditional Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study is based on interviews carried out with 13 adult learners of traditional fiddle playing. The average age of the learners was 56 and they had been learning to play for between 2 and 20 years. All of the interviewees had taken music at school but none of them had been stimulated to participate further in any significant sense. The…

  15. Where Now for Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

  16. Effective Strategies for Engaging Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Phillips, Kathleen M.; Jessee, Tammy; McCabe, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Innovative methods in teaching should be used in every college classroom to enhance student engagement, support any teaching environment and encourage inquiry among learners. Adults learn best by participation in relevant experiences and utilization of practical information. When adult students are active in their learning they are able to develop…

  17. Learning Disabled Adults: Who Are They and What Do We Do with Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jovita Martin

    1987-01-01

    The author examines continuing questions that impede educators' understanding of learning disabilities and reviews concerns expressed by those involved with education of learning disabled adults. She touches on diagnosis of learning disabilities, vocational counseling, and strategies for intervention. (CH)

  18. Do Inequalities in Adult Learning Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona; Iain Murray; Berry, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) Adult Participation in Learning Survey 10 years ago showed that two-fifths of the adult population said that they had taken part in learning in the last three years. A decade later, the 2012 survey shows that little has changed--active participation in learning remains a minority…

  19. Barriers to Adult Learning: Bridging the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falasca, Marina

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…

  20. Learning Disabilities: Introduction and Strategies for College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, Sandy; Scheerer, Jan

    Designed for community college educators, this paper provides an overview of the characteristics and problems of the learning disabled adult and offers strategies for both teaching and learning. Following introductory remarks, the paper provides definitions of learning disability and discusses the symptoms, psychological effects, and incidence of…

  1. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  2. Understanding the Conditions of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Knud

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the essential characteristics of learning in the four main life stages: childhood, youth, adulthood, and mature adulthood. Itemizes the characteristics of adult learning and stresses the importance of life projects as a motivation for learning. (JOW)

  3. Learning strategies in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Speekenbrink, Maarten; Channon, Shelley; Shanks, David R

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that early performance of amnesic individuals in a probabilistic category learning task is relatively unimpaired. When combined with impaired declarative knowledge, this is taken as evidence for the existence of separate implicit and explicit memory systems. The present study contains a more fine-grained analysis of learning than earlier studies. Using a dynamic lens model approach with plausible learning models, we found that the learning process is indeed indistinguishable between an amnesic and control group. However, in contrast to earlier findings, we found that explicit knowledge of the task structure is also good in both the amnesic and the control group. This is inconsistent with a crucial prediction from the multiple-systems account. The results can be explained from a single system account and previously found differences in later categorization performance can be accounted for by a difference in learning rate.

  4. Action Learning: Images and Pathways. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Robert L.; Willis, Verna J.

    This book provides information and strategies on how adult educators can integrate action learning concepts in their teaching practice. The book defines action learning as going beyond the traditional idea of "learn by doing" and applies it to various organizational cultures and educational contexts. Chapter 1 introduces the origins of action…

  5. They Are Old Enough to Carry Guns, Should We Teach Them Like Children? The Application of Adult Learning Strategies in Police Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCay, Donald Alan

    2011-01-01

    For some time scholars have been advocating the application of adult learning techniques such as andragogy to police recruit training. This study attempted to further that discussion by determining how police recruits make meaning while attending the police academy. Through observations, interviews, and reflective journaling, data were collected.…

  6. How to Plan Motivational Strategies for Adult Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodkowski, Raymond J.

    1985-01-01

    Considers the powerful influence of the motivational factors of attitude, need, stimulation, affect, competence, and reinforcement on adult behavior and learning. Their integration into the Time Continuum Model of Motivation to guide instructor selection and implementation of motivational strategies is also discussed. (MBR)

  7. Issues in the Employment of Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Pamela B.; Vogel, Susan A.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review examines 10 areas related to employment of adults with learning disabilities: transitions to work, obtaining employment, type of employment, rate of employment, wages, job satisfaction, job success, effect of learning disabilities on work, compensatory strategies, and employer perceptions. Methodological issues, emergent…

  8. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  9. Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

  10. E-Learning Strategy for Earning Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of e-learning strategy in learning English among the in-service teachers who are studying B.Ed in School of Distance Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. E-learning strategy is a life long learning strategy for earning in-service teachers. It is a strategy of remaining in employment, which can be…

  11. Enhancing Learning in Training and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ronald R.; Ponticell, Judith A.; Gordon, Edward E.

    This book, which is designed to prepare individuals to become workplace consultants, examines the theory and practice of enhancing learning in training and adult education. The following are among the topics discussed: putting cognition theory into practice in instruction; cognitive science perspective on adult learning (adults as learners, three…

  12. Adult Learners, Learning and Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Ten articles focusing on adult learning services in public libraries highlight global trends, support for intentional change, counseling and information needs of adult learners, adult learner services at Pratt Library and North York (Ontario) library, process of learning, administrative considerations, political factors, and implications for…

  13. Adult Learning and the Future of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

  14. Transformational Learning: Reflections of an Adult Learning Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning, narrative learning, and spiritual learning frame adult experiences in new and exciting ways. These types of learning can involve a simple transformation of belief or opinion or a radical transformation involving one's total perspective; learning may occur abruptly or incrementally. Education should liberate students from…

  15. Adult Learning in the Caribbean at the Beginning of a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Angela

    2001-01-01

    To encourage male participation in adult learning, especially education aimed at antiviolence, parenting skills, and attitudes toward women, adult educators should use creative marketing strategies. Knowledge of marketing principles should be applied to both program design and promotion. (SK)

  16. Learning through Action: Parallel Learning Processes in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Elizabeth A.; Branscomb, Kathryn R.

    2009-01-01

    Experiential learning has become an essential part of many educational settings from infancy through adulthood. While the effectiveness of active learning has been evaluated in youth and adult settings, few known studies have compared the learning processes of children and adults within the same project. This article contrasts the active learning…

  17. The Learning Strategy of the Total Physical Response: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, James J.

    1966-01-01

    Described in this article are five pilot studies that explored the effects of the learning strategy of the total physical response under a variety of conditions using Japanese and Russian with adults and children. Some general conclusions suggest that dramatic facilitation in learning listening skills for a second language is related to acting out…

  18. Effective literacy instruction for adults with specific learning disabilities: implications for adult educators.

    PubMed

    Hock, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts.

  19. Language Learning Strategies and Communication Strategies: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Kausar

    2006-01-01

    Since Selinker's (1972) historic invocation of language learning strategies (LLS) and communication strategies (CS) as two distinct processes involved in the development of interlanguage, it has become customary in SLA literature to distinguish the strategies of learning from the strategies of communication. It has been argued in this article that…

  20. View, 2000: Commentaries on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning Australia, Inc., Jamison.

    This booklet is compiled from all the Adult Learning Australia (ALA) Commentaries produced in 2000. Emailed to ALA members each week, ALA Commentaries are written by people in the field of adult learning in the broadest sense, usually in Australia, sometimes overseas, and designed to stimulate discussion. ALA hosts an online discussion forum about…

  1. Adult Perspectives of Learning Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn; Jutras, Peter; Kim, Seon Joo

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults' perceptions and experiences of learning musical instruments. Conducted in the south-east United States, 15 adults who were learning instruments were recruited via community music groups and private instrumental teachers. Analysis of transcripts of semi-structured interviews…

  2. Measuring Self-Directed Learning: A Diagnostic Tool for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khiat, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Self-directed learning is an important form of adult learning (Caffarella, 1993; Knowles, 1975; Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2005; Merriam, 2001; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). The strategies of self-directed learning allow adult learners to cope better with their studies while fulfilling family, work and other commitments. This study…

  3. Self-Directed Learning and the Hard-to-Reach Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    Explores the potential of self-directed learning as a strategy for better understanding and serving the hard-to-reach adult. Cites evidence of self-directed learning among special adult populations and considers fundamental questions about the concept of self-directed learning. (JOW)

  4. Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sally

    The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

  5. Informal Adult Learning and Everyday Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the types of informal learning activities that adults with low literacy skills engage in outside of formal literacy programs and how these activities relate to their literacy practices. Key informants for the study included 10 adults identified at International Adult Literacy Survey levels 1 and 2. Using ethnographic…

  6. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  7. Blended-learning strategy in the Altay State medical university.

    PubMed

    Trukhacheva, Nina; Pupyrev, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    New educational technologies prove to be capable of solving many problems in the medical training. Students do not see e-Learning as replacing traditional instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming part of a blended-learning strategy. Innovations in e-Learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners' interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher. The integration of e-Learning into medical education can catalyze the shift towards applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of content, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency. This survey analyzes possibilities to effectively use e-Learning in medical education, and what steps are to be made in that direction.

  8. Adult and Community Learning Fund Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 2002

    2002-01-01

    Twelve articles describe projects supported by Britain's Adult and Community Learning Fund, including employment skills and information technology for disadvantaged groups, heritage restoration skills, alcohol rehabilitation, basic skills through media-based learning, guidance for female ex-offenders, access to learning for socially excluded…

  9. LEARNING AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KUHLEN, RAYMOND G.; AND OTHERS

    THIS RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OVER 1,500 ITEMS IS LARGELY DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF ADULT LEARNING AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR (CONDITIONING, SKILL LEARNING, DISCRIMINATION, VERBAL LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, AND SET), TO STUDIES ON INTELLIGENCE AND TEST BEHAVIOR (AGE CHANGES, CORRELATIONAL AND FACTOR…

  10. Interdisciplinary Handbook of Adult Lifespan Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D., Ed.

    This book is divided into three parts: theories and models, learning in specific life contexts, and the influence of aging on learning. Chapters include: "Chaos Theory as a Framework for Understanding Adult Lifespan Learning" (John C. Cavanaugh, Lisa C. McGuire); "The Future Impact of the Communication Revolution" (Lynn Johnson); "The Educated…

  11. Media and Adult Learning. Volume 3, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two articles are presented relevant to media and adult learning. In the first article, "The Pedagogy of Communication: Conscientization through Mass Media," David G. Gueulette sets forth ideas derived from Freire's theory of literacy training and suggests means by which effective teaching strategies can be developed through popular mass media…

  12. Services for Learning Disabled Adults in California's Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostertag, Bruce A.; And Others

    During the 1980's, a series of studies have been conducted to examine assessment strategies, teaching methodologies, core services, and delivery systems for Learning Disabled Average (LDA) adults in California's community colleges. Study findings included the following: (1) between 1981-82 and 1985-86, the number of formal programs for LDA adults…

  13. Community Based Learning with Adults: Bridging Efforts in Multiple Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara; Robinson, Gail

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the diverse ways in which community based learning strategies are used to enhance further development of adults, raising their levels of educational attainment and increasing their involvement in public and civic activities. There are two social and demographic dynamics at the heart of this topic: the aging…

  14. The Varieties of Adult Civic Engagement in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2012-01-01

    Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…

  15. Communication strategies of adult cochlear implant candidates.

    PubMed

    Elfenbein, J L; Lansing, C R; Davis, J M; Kallaus-Gay, A

    1994-01-01

    Adult cochlear implant candidates' abilities to cope with communication breakdown were assessed using the Communication Strategies Task (CST). Forty adult cochlear implant candidates with acquired hearing losses and 10 adults with normal hearing served as subjects. Appropriateness of responses to the CST were rated by 10 certified speech-language pathologists and audiologists. Seventy-six percent of the subjects demonstrated difficulty identifying onset or resolution of communication breakdown, communicators' feelings, factors contributing to communication breakdown, and appropriate repair strategies. The responses of individuals with sudden hearing losses did not differ significantly from the responses of individuals with progressive hearing losses. Response patterns did not correlate with the age of onset of the hearing loss, duration of deafness, age at the time of evaluation, or educational background. The results of this study suggest that ability to cope with communication breakdown must be evaluated on an individual basis. PMID:8155895

  16. Teaching Adults with Learning Disabilities. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book is designed to show teachers how to reach out to adults and adolescents with learning disabilities and employ specific strategies for helping them to compensate for the disabilities and acquire literacy skills. The ways in which specific differences in brain structure inhibit the mastery of reading, spelling, handwriting, phonics, and…

  17. Self-Regulation and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Acee, Taylor W.; Jung, JaeHak

    2011-01-01

    Learning strategies are a bit difficult to define since the nomenclatures used in cognitive educational psychology as well as in strategic and self-regulated learning have not yet been standardized across and within these fields of study. The self-regulated use of learning strategies helps enable students to take more responsibility for their own…

  18. A National Strategy for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    The first paper of this set of 12 conference papers, "Nine Learning Fallacies and Their Replacement by a National Strategy for Lifelong Learning," by Frank Coffield, synthesizes the opinions of other participants, and goes beyond them to set forth an outline of a strategy for lifelong learning in the United Kingdom. Following this introductory…

  19. Shopping. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on shopping is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with reading levels of 4.0-7.5. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. Each module is a complete instructional package, including Adult Performance Level…

  20. Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Linda

    2001-01-01

    In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

  1. Strategies of learning from failure.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Amy C

    2011-04-01

    Many executives believe that all failure is bad (although it usually provides Lessons) and that Learning from it is pretty straightforward. The author, a professor at Harvard Business School, thinks both beliefs are misguided. In organizational life, she says, some failures are inevitable and some are even good. And successful learning from failure is not simple: It requires context-specific strategies. But first leaders must understand how the blame game gets in the way and work to create an organizational culture in which employees feel safe admitting or reporting on failure. Failures fall into three categories: preventable ones in predictable operations, which usually involve deviations from spec; unavoidable ones in complex systems, which may arise from unique combinations of needs, people, and problems; and intelligent ones at the frontier, where "good" failures occur quickly and on a small scale, providing the most valuable information. Strong leadership can build a learning culture-one in which failures large and small are consistently reported and deeply analyzed, and opportunities to experiment are proactively sought. Executives commonly and understandably worry that taking a sympathetic stance toward failure will create an "anything goes" work environment. They should instead recognize that failure is inevitable in today's complex work organizations.

  2. Unlock a Brighter Future. Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

    This guide, which is intended for adults in the United Kingdom, contains information about the educational and employment opportunities available to them. The following topics are discussed in the guide's 11 sections: assessing one's own learning skills and identifying available learning opportunities; locating sources of educational and career…

  3. Salvaging the Self in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Celia; West, Linden

    2009-01-01

    This paper stems from a dialogue on the subjects of learning and learners: one forged out of experiences in research and teaching, and the application of psychodynamic insights, developmental psychology and recent work in the neurosciences, to thinking about adult learning and subjectivity. We argue that some notion of the self needs to be…

  4. Learning categories via rules and similarity: comparing adults and children.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Rahel; Miles, Sarah J; Minda, John Paul

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments explored the different strategies used by children and adults when learning new perceptual categories. Participants were asked to learn a set of categories for which both a single-feature rule and overall similarity would allow for perfect performance. Other rules allowed for suboptimal performance. Transfer stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) and single features (Experiment 2) were presented after training to help determine how the categories were learned. In both experiments, we found that adults made significantly more optimal rule-based responses to the test stimuli than children. Children showed a variety of categorization styles, with a few relying on the optimal rules, many relying on suboptimal single-feature rules, and only a few relying on overall family resemblance. We interpret these results within a multiple systems framework, and we argue that children show the pattern they do because they lack the necessary cognitive resources to fully engage in hypothesis testing, rule selection, and verbally mediated category learning.

  5. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  6. "An Elusive Bird": Perceptions of Music Learning among Canadian and American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Nathan B.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering the perceptions that non-professional adult musicians hold regarding their participation in community ensembles may help improve instruction as well as the ability to more fully understand the implications of lifelong music making. Andragogy, or the teaching and learning strategies associated with adult learning, provided the impetus…

  7. Adult Learning Principles and Presentation Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Palis, Ana G.; Quiros, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy. However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles (i.e., relevance, congruence with student's needs, interactivity, connection to student's previous knowledge and experience) to this method increases learning by lectures and the effectiveness of lectures. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective. PMID:24791101

  8. Strategy Instruction in Writing for Adult Literacy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Lembo, Leah

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of cognitive strategy instruction in writing with adult literacy learners. Three middle-aged African-American adults participating in adult education with the goal of passing the GED received tutoring in a strategy for planning, writing, and revising persuasive essays along with self-regulation strategies.…

  9. Discovery Learning Strategies in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2012-01-01

    The study substantiates that the effectiveness of Discovery Learning method in learning English Grammar for the learners at standard V. Discovery Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning a second language. It promotes peer interaction and development of the language and the learning of concepts with content. Reichert and…

  10. Adult Learning in Educational Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Sue; McEwan, Joanne; Majocha, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    This article explores notions of learning in the niche market sector of educational tourism, with a focus on organised recreational tours that promote a structured learning experience as a key feature. It analyses the qualitative findings of surveys and interviews with a cross-section of educational tourism providers in Australia, their…

  11. E-Learning Implications for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criu, Roxana; Ceobanu, Ciprian

    2013-01-01

    If a few decades ago, "the education received in school could be in most of the cases enough to go with for the rest of one's entire life," today the situation has changed dramatically. The individual has to be prepared for a new type of life and training, namely lifelong learning. The individual's survival in society could…

  12. Language Learning Strategy Use and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences across the varying levels of EFL learners in the frequency and choice of learning strategies. Using a reading test, questionnaire, and parametric statistical analysis, the findings yielded up discrepancies among the participants in the implementation of language-learning strategies concerning their…

  13. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  14. Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2016-01-01

    Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments. PMID:26985751

  15. Reflections from Graduate Adult Learners about Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Geleana Drew; Clegg, T. E.; Clodfelter, Roy J., Jr.; Drye, Kimberly C.; Farrer, J. V.; Gould, Derek; Mohsin, Nidhal M.; Rankin, Tomiko N.; Ray, Sherri L.

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is grounded in responding to the needs of others, and the field places emphasis on adult learning theories such as transformative learning and experiential learning. Service learning is an educational approach that balances formal instruction and direction with the opportunity for adult learners to serve in the community as a…

  16. Learning Journals as a Counseling Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Paul C.; Meacham, David

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the use of learning journals as a counseling strategy that can be used to complement a counselor's therapeutic orientation. The authors postulate that learning journals will have therapeutic effects on clients that will lead to enduring positive changes, discuss the development of appropriate learning taxonomies to evaluate…

  17. The Competitive Strategy of Mutual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelner, Stephen P.; Slavin, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses mutual learning in organizations. Suggests that the idea of people and companies sharing knowledge is becoming a competitive strategy because mutual learning enables executives and employees to increase their capacity to work together, accelerate organizational learning, and avoid mistakes. (JOW)

  18. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  19. Understanding Persistence in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    The paper summarizes recent data on the retention and non-completion patterns of adult students, especially those over the age of 25 who have had a gap since completing full-time education. While data on further and higher education suggest that older learners are less likely than younger ones to complete longer, qualification-bearing programmes,…

  20. Learning Strategies for Police Organization--Modeling Organizational Learning Perquisites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoma, Markku; Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka

    The factors contributing to organizational learning in police units in Finland and elsewhere were examined to find strategies to improve the prerequisites of learning and compare linear and nonlinear methods of modeling organizational learning prerequisites. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the 281 staff members of five police…

  1. Applying adult learning practices in medical education.

    PubMed

    Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead. PMID

  2. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  3. The Challenge of Measuring Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the usefulness of using generic strategy inventories to assess language learning strategies (LLSs) across contexts. A review of the LLS research is presented with a critique of extant studies in relation to classification of strategies, methodological issues, and the predictability of language performance. The present…

  4. Adult Learning in Innovative Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland Olsen, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between learning and innovation has been a central theme in studies of innovation (Fagerberg et al., 2005, Borras & Edquist, 2014, Lundvall & Johnsen, 1994). Studies of the workplace have also claimed a relationship between skills or training and a firm's ability to innovate (Toner, 2011). Recent studies of innovation in…

  5. Bridging the gap: strategies to integrate classroom and clinical learning.

    PubMed

    Flood, Lisa Sue; Robinia, Kristi

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students often feel their classroom (didactic) learning and clinical (practice) experiences are disconnected which can lead to a rejection of academe and dissatisfaction with the profession. This classroom/clinical divide may be exacerbated because of the increased use of part-time clinical faculty, who are often isolated from their didactic peers. If clinical faculty, either novice or experienced, are disconnected from didactic faculty, is it any wonder students feel their learning is fragmented? The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies to help bridge the gap between didactic and clinical learning. Specific integration strategies for faculty are presented using examples from a baccalaureate adult nursing didactic course and its related clinical course. The role of a clinical coordinator in facilitating course integration and support for part-time clinical faculty is described. Ideas for using technology to enhance learning and suggestions to promote socialization to decrease faculty isolation are also discussed.

  6. Bridging the gap: strategies to integrate classroom and clinical learning.

    PubMed

    Flood, Lisa Sue; Robinia, Kristi

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students often feel their classroom (didactic) learning and clinical (practice) experiences are disconnected which can lead to a rejection of academe and dissatisfaction with the profession. This classroom/clinical divide may be exacerbated because of the increased use of part-time clinical faculty, who are often isolated from their didactic peers. If clinical faculty, either novice or experienced, are disconnected from didactic faculty, is it any wonder students feel their learning is fragmented? The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies to help bridge the gap between didactic and clinical learning. Specific integration strategies for faculty are presented using examples from a baccalaureate adult nursing didactic course and its related clinical course. The role of a clinical coordinator in facilitating course integration and support for part-time clinical faculty is described. Ideas for using technology to enhance learning and suggestions to promote socialization to decrease faculty isolation are also discussed. PMID:24674949

  7. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  8. Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

    This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

  9. Accelerated Learning, Suggestopedia, and the Adult Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlisk-Renner, Monique; Truscott, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of suggestopedia and accelerated learning (AL) techniques in a 10-week French-as-a-Second-Language course for 13 adult learners. Course organization, lesson plans, and results, focusing on the effectiveness of AL techniques in short-term courses, are examined. (two references) (MDM)

  10. Adult Learning, Education, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; Hill, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The environment is now a common theme in adult education. However, conversations that swirled around the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012 suggested major environmental challenges persist, demanding that education, learning, advocacy and activism be augmented to ensure the survival of the planet. In adult…

  11. Adult Learning and the New Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The spending review brought a promise to protect adult and community learning as well as swingeing cuts to further and higher education and local government. In this article, some of the key players--Lynne Sedgmore, Christopher Brooks, Graham Hoyle, Maggie Galliers, Louise Hazel, Richard Bolsin, Maggi Dawson, Ruth Bond, Stuart Etherington, Brendan…

  12. Trauma and Adult Learning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Adult learning can be challenging and traumatic events can exacerbate the process. Symptoms such as difficulty beginning new tasks, fear of risk taking, eroded self-esteem, or inability to concentrate can be evidence of past or current trauma and may be manifested by a learner missing class, avoiding tests, or behaving inappropriately during class…

  13. Teaching insights from adult learning theory.

    PubMed

    Horii, Cassandra Volpe

    2007-01-01

    How do undergraduate and graduate students learn? How can we use what we know about the learning process to teach more effectively? While the research has yet to connect fundamental processes in the brain to what we do as teachers with certainty, the past half-century of work on adult learning has produced several useful theories that can inform instructional choices. This article provides an overview of three learning models that yield insights into teaching practice--novice/expert behaviors, cognitive development, and learning styles--along with ways in which instructors can draw on these models in course planning and classroom teaching. Application of the theories toward refinement, reduction, and replacement of live animals in the veterinary medical curriculum is also discussed.

  14. Technology-Enhanced Teaching and Learning: Leading and Supporting the Transformation on Your Campus. EDUCAUSE Leadership Strategies. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Carole A., Ed.; Hagner, Paul R., Ed.

    This book offers academic leaders advice to help their institutions initiate, implement, and manage the transformation to technology-enhanced teaching and learning in order to become Internet-based communication and learning environments. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Engaging the Faculty" (Paul R. Hagner and Charles A.…

  15. Marketing and Retention Strategies for Adult Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joann A.

    2004-01-01

    Four marketing strategies are critical to the success of adult degree programs: integrating marketing, knowing your students (research), shaping programs and services for adults, and staying the course (retention).

  16. Distinguished Adult Educators Explore Issues/Trends/Strategies in Adult/Continuing Education. A Compendium of Lectures and Resource Documents from a Seminar in Adult Education at the University of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, S. Gregory, Ed.

    Six papers on various topics of adult education are contained in these proceedings. The following papers are included: (1) "Self-Guided Learning and Change," by Allen Tough--a review of research that shows that nine of ten adults engage in approximately ten hours of informal but purposeful learning per week. (2) "Needs Assessment Strategies and…

  17. Adult Learning in Health and Safety: Some Issues and Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Fathaigh, Mairtin

    This document, which was developed for presentation at a seminar on adult learning and safety, examines approaches to occupational safety and health (OSH) learning/training in the workplace. Section 1 examines selected factors affecting adults' learning in workplace OSH programs. The principal dimensions along which individual adult learners will…

  18. Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Victor C. X.

    2010-01-01

    As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

  19. The Role of Diverse Institutions in Framing Adult Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Ellu; Ure, Odd Bjorn; Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the role of diverse institutions in framing adult learning systems. The focus is on institutional characteristics and configurations in different countries and their potential impact on the extent of adult learning, as well as on inequalities in access to adult learning. Typologies of education and training systems as well…

  20. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Country Note. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This country note analyzes main issues concerning adult learning and policy responses in Finland. Section 2 describes the political, economic, and social context in which adult learning fits. Sections 3-6 follow these four themes impinging on adult participation in learning: inadequate incentives and motivations; complex pathways between learning…

  1. Older Adults and E-Learning: Opportunities and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, Rod P.

    2007-01-01

    E-learning and distance education can play a role in helping older adults become integrated with the rest of society. As demographic and cultural changes affect the place of older adults in society, online learning programs become increasingly appealing to older adults. In this article, I discuss (1) the changing notion of work and learning in…

  2. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  3. Adult Learning Disabilities. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Francine; Imel, Susan

    An overview of learning disabilities in adults is presented to aid in detection, diagnosis, and instruction. Following a description of learning disabilities in general, and the occurrence in adults in particular, nine observable characteristics of learning-disabled adults are discussed: (1) vision problems; (2) extraneous vocal sounds; (3)…

  4. Adult Learning: Issues and Innovations. Information Series No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert M., Ed.

    Seminar presentations of six leaders in the field of adult education are contained in this monograph: (1) "Adult Learning in the 1970's" by J. R. Kidd, (2) "Innovation in Organizing Learning for Adults--The New Technology" by Burton W. Kreitlow, (3) "The Nature of Continuing Professional Education" by Cyril O. Houle, (4) "Self-Planned Learning and…

  5. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank’s model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956

  6. Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.

  7. Aspects of Adult Development. The Rossman Adult Learning Inventory: Creating Awareness of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederick; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Romero's overview of adult developmental theory stresses the work of Erikson, Havighurst, Loevinger, Perry, Kohlberg, and Cross. Rossman and Rossman discuss the development of their Adult Learning Inventory with an extensive source summary for its 4 factors and a 62-item bibliography. (SK)

  8. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Farine, Damien R.; Spencer, Karen A.; Boogert, Neeltje J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike [1]. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways [2, 3]. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies [4, 5] between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning) [6]. However, whether juveniles’ learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles’ fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. PMID:26212879

  9. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories.

  10. Technology, Learning, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Anne A. Ghost

    2012-01-01

    The learning needs for adults that result from the constant increase in technology are rooted in the adult learning concepts of (a) andragogy, (b) self-directed learning, (c) learning-how-to-learn, (d) real-life learning, and (e) learning strategies. This study described the learning strategies that adults use in learning to engage in an online…

  11. Motivation and Its Relationship with Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yunzhen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates motivation that influences heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese, and its relationship with Chinese language learning strategies (LLS). The study uses Deci and Ryan's typology--"Intrinsic Motivation" and "Extrinsic Motivation", for the investigation, examining issues such as: (1) What are Chinese students'…

  12. Developing an Organisational E-Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert J.

    Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is one of the largest universities in the United Kingdom. It is a multi-faculty institution with in excess of 20,000 students. Its first learning strategy, in 1995, sought to identify and make explicit the University's commitment to learning development and to integrate this in the context of other University…

  13. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  14. The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Regina G.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

  15. Using Technology to Support Visual Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bannon, Blanche; Puckett, Kathleen; Rakes, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    Visual learning is a strategy for visually representing the structure of information and for representing the ways in which concepts are related. Based on the work of Ausubel, these hierarchical maps facilitate student learning of unfamiliar information in the K-12 classroom. This paper presents the research base for this Type II computer tool, as…

  16. Applying Learning Strategy Questionnaires: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…

  17. Promoting Adult Learning in Public Places: Two Asian Case Studies of Adult Learning about Peace through Museums and Peace Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores an area of adult learning that has received little attention of late, the terrain of public education through museums and civic architecture. The goal of promoting adult learning in public places e.g. through the work of museums has become commonplace in countries seeking to encourage adult learning about peace. This invariably…

  18. Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

  19. Investigating Language Learning Strategies of EFL Children for the Development of a Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürsoy, Esim

    2010-01-01

    As a still growing area, Language Learning Strategies (LLS) research needs to expand so that it covers different contexts and age groups. Previous research shows that most of LLS research is conducted in ESL contexts and the majority looked into strategies of adolescents and adults. Consequently, strategy taxonomies as well as the inventories…

  20. Remaking Adult Learning: Essays on Adult Education in Honour of Alan Tuckett

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Jay, Ed.; Howard, Ursula, Ed.; Field, John, Ed.; Lavender, Peter, Ed.; Meyer, Sue, Ed.; von Rein, Ekkehard Nuissl, Ed.; Schuller, Tom, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Remaking Adult Learning provides an exciting and innovative addition to the literature on adult learning. Charting challenges and successes in the sector, it illustrates how taking part in well-thought-out programmes can have a positive and sometimes life-saving impact on people's lives. While grounded in adult learning practice, the book draws…

  1. Changing College Classrooms: New Teaching and Learning Strategies for an Increasingly Complex World. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F., Ed.; And Others

    This volume offers 19 papers by college faculty on concrete information and suggestions for the improvement of college teaching, student learning, and the whole education process. The titles and authors are: (1) "Rethinking College Instruction for a Changing World" (Diane F. Halpern); (2) "Inquiry as a Tool in Critical Thinking" (Alison King); (3)…

  2. Children's Learning Strategies in Language Immersion Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Anna Uhl; El-Dinary, Pamela Beard

    This paper reports on an investigation of learning strategy applications in elementary foreign language immersion classrooms. The focus of the paper is on identifying strategies more and less effective learners use for classroom reading and writing tasks in the target language. Think-aloud data from third grade and fourth grade students were…

  3. Knowledge Strategies for Enhancing School Learning Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge strategies applied in aided secondary schools in Hong Kong and to explore the predictive relationship between knowledge strategies and school learning capacity. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was designed to collect data from 427 teachers at 15…

  4. Student Language Learning Strategies across Eight Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Matthew; Ho, Belinda

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the use of 50 common second language learning strategies by English for academic purposes students across eight disciplines--building, business, computing, engineering, English, mathematics, primary education, and science--in a university in Hong Kong. Compared and contrasted strategy use across disciplines and examined relationships…

  5. Making strategy: learning by doing.

    PubMed

    Christensen, C M

    1997-01-01

    Companies find it difficult to change strategy for many reasons, but one stands out: strategic thinking is not a core managerial competence at most companies. Executives hone their capabilities by tackling problems over and over again. Changing strategy, however, is not usually a task that they face repeatedly. Once companies have found a strategy that works, they want to use it, not change it. Consequently, most managers do not develop a competence in strategic thinking. This Manager's Tool Kit presents a three-stage method executives can use to conceive and implement a creative and coherent strategy themselves. The first stage is to identify and map the driving forces that the company needs to address. The process of mapping provides strategy-making teams with visual representations of team members' assumptions, those pictures, in turn, enable managers to achieve consensus in determining the driving forces. Once a senior management team has formulated a new strategy, it must align the strategy with the company's resource-allocation process to make implementation possible. Senior management teams can translate their strategy into action by using aggregate project planning. And management teams that link strategy and innovation through that planning process will develop a competence in implementing strategic change. The author guides the reader through the three stages of strategy making by examining the case of a manufacturing company that was losing ground to competitors. After mapping the driving forces, the company's senior managers were able to devise a new strategy that allowed the business to maintain a competitive advantage in its industry.

  6. Identifying Learning Styles and Matching Strategies for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Barbara F.

    Drawing from a literature review of books, periodicals, and documents published since 1971, this paper provides the necessary background for a business/industrial trainer to reach trainees more effectively by identifying students' learning styles and matching styles with appropriate strategies for teaching/learning. Part A provides a summary of…

  7. Instructional Strategies to Facilitate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenburg, Frederick C.; Irby, Beverly J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher behavior research has shown that teacher behaviors, as well as specific teaching strategies, make a difference with regard to student achievement. Ten durable instructional strategies are discussed: set induction, stimulus variation, reinforcement, questioning, recognizing attending behavior, lecturing or direct instruction, planned…

  8. Readiness of Adults to Learn Using E-Learning, M-Learning and T-Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkonis, Rytis; Bakanoviene, Tatjana; Turskiene, Sigita

    2013-01-01

    The article presents results of the empirical research revealing readiness of adults to participate in the lifelong learning process using e-learning, m-learning and t-learning technologies. The research has been carried out in the framework of the international project eBig3 aiming at development a new distance learning platform blending virtual…

  9. The Reading Strategies of Proficient and Less Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Faizah Abdul; Azman, Norzaini; Jelas, Zalizan Mohd

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the choice and use of academic reading strategies of adult learners who were identified as proficient and less proficient readers. The major objective was to explore the potential influence of their adult characteristics on their use of their academic reading strategies. Data were gathered using…

  10. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  11. Spontaneous production and use of mnemonic strategies in older adults.

    PubMed

    Saczynski, Jane S; Rebok, George W; Whitfield, Keith E; Plude, Dana L

    2007-01-01

    Mnemonic strategy use in older adults has been measured a number of ways, and although strategy measurement has received considerable attention, little work has been done to compare various types of subjective strategy reporting. The authors compared self-generated and endorsed strategies for memory tasks in a sample of 85 African-American and Caucasian older adults and investigated demographic characteristics related to each strategy measurement and the relationship between strategy use and memory performance. Across memory measures, significantly more strategies were endorsed than self-generated. Race, favoring Caucasians, was the most salient demographic predictor of mnemonic strategy usage. Although strategic behavior was associated with ability performance on most memory measures, specific strategies for optimal performance were identified for number and story recall only. Findings highlight the importance of measuring both self-generated and endorsed strategies and confirm previous work on the relationship between strategy use and memory performance. PMID:17497371

  12. Online Learners and Their Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Tammy; Whittington, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Describes an experiment that looked at how adult learners made use of their Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]), a personality assessment tool, type to cope with the challenges of learning in an online environment. Presents results of the experiment, and draws tentative conclusions. Provides notes related to the four psychological dimensions of…

  13. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  14. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In international comparisons, participation in adult learning in Finland is high. Work or career development is the main reason for participation. Persons starting with greater educational attainment participate in adult learning opportunities more. Roots of adult education and training (AET) lie in liberal education; those of occupational AET in…

  15. Applying Adult Learning and Development Theories to Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the degree of correlation that adult learning theories and adult developmental theories have with educational practice. Two adult learning theories, Malcolm Knowles' phase theories and Daniel Levinson's developmental theories, were researched to determine their relevance to three components of a nontraditional…

  16. Mathematics and Metacognition in Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie

    2009-01-01

    A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…

  17. "Learning to Work" in Small Businesses: Learning and Training for Young Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggeri-Stevens, Geoff; Goodwin, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the "Learning to Work" project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's…

  18. Adult Learning, Self-Directed Learning and Problem-Based Learning: Deconstructing the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miflin, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a critique of the literature of problem-based learning (PBL) in medical education. The objective of the review was to examine the various meanings that medical teachers attribute to concepts of adult learning and self-directed learning within the context of PBL. The critique found that there are assumptions about the meanings of…

  19. Constructing Proxy Variables to Measure Adult Learners' Time Management Strategies in LMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun; Kim, Dongho; Yoon, Meehyun

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the process of constructing proxy variables from recorded log data within a Learning Management System (LMS), which represents adult learners' time management strategies in an online course. Based on previous research, three variables of total login time, login frequency, and regularity of login interval were selected as…

  20. Two success-biased social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Ryan

    2013-06-01

    I compare the evolutionary dynamics of two success-biased social learning strategies, which, by definition, use the success of others to inform one's social learning decisions. The first, "Compare Means", causes a learner to adopt cultural variants with highest mean payoff in her sample. The second, "Imitate the Best", causes a learner to imitate the single most successful individual in her sample. I summarize conditions under which each strategy performs well or poorly, and investigate their evolution via a gene-culture coevolutionary model. Despite the adaptive appeal of these strategies, both encounter conditions under which they systematically perform worse than simply imitating at random. Compare Means performs worst when the optimal cultural variant is usually at high frequency, while Imitate the Best performs worst when suboptimal variants sometimes produce high payoffs. The extent to which it is optimal to use success-biased social learning depends strongly on the payoff distributions and environmental conditions that human social learners face.

  1. The role of strategies in motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jordan A.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been renewed interest in the role of strategies in sensorimotor learning. The combination of new behavioral methods and computational methods has begun to unravel the interaction between processes related to strategic control and processes related to motor adaptation. These processes may operate on very different error signals. Strategy learning is sensitive to goal-based performance error. In contrast, adaptation is sensitive to prediction errors between the desired and actual consequences of a planned movement. The former guides what the desired movement should be, whereas the latter guides how to implement the desired movement. Whereas traditional approaches have favored serial models in which an initial strategy-based phase gives way to more automatized forms of control, it now seems that strategic and adaptive processes operate with considerable independence throughout learning, although the relative weight given the two processes will shift with changes in performance. As such, skill acquisition involves the synergistic engagement of strategic and adaptive processes. PMID:22329960

  2. Successful Strategies for Teaching & Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC. National Council of Instructional Administrators.

    Focusing on strategies for increasing student success in the community college, this monograph profiles winners of the National Council of Instructional Administrators (NCIA) exemplary program competition for 1994. First, background information on the competition is provided, indicating that it considers programs in three categories:…

  3. Strategies That Make Learning Last

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have asked college students how they study, and the results show that most use four inefficient strategies that do not often work: (1) reading assigned chapter, trying to understand individual sentences as he goes but not necessarily ensuring he's got the overall gist; (2) marking what he takes to be important points with a…

  4. Strategies for Learning through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Students of all ages struggle with the multiple processes involved with writing, including planning, practice, and drafting multiple revisions. This article describes four structured writing assignments in an introductory college course, as well as eight specific strategies for helping students enhance their writing abilities.

  5. TEOAE suppression in adults with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Garinis, Angela C; Glattke, Theodore; Cone-Wesson, Barbara K

    2008-10-01

    The presentation of contralateral noise during the recording of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) reduces the amplitude of the TEOAE in normally-hearing adults. This is known as TEOAE suppression. The present study investigated TEOAE suppression in 18 adults with learning disabilities (LDs) compared to 18 adults without LDs. TEOAEs were elicited by 60 dB p.e. SPL clicks and were suppressed by the presentation of 60 dB SPL contralateral broadband noise. Suppression was measured as a change in the overall TEOAE response amplitude, and also analysed in 2-ms epochs representing different TEOAE frequency-response bands. A significant interaction was evident between group type and ear tested. Participants in the control group had right ear dominance for the suppression effect, whereas the left ear was found to be dominant for the LD group. These findings suggest a mechanism of the medial olivary cochlear bundle and efferent auditory pathway that differs in those with LD compared to those with typical learning abilities.

  6. Effects of Negative and Positive Evidence on Adult Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…

  7. Older Adults' Motivation to Learn in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Yin

    2011-01-01

    A limited amount of literature has discussed older adults in formal education, especially their motivations to learn in higher education. This study aims to understand older adults' learning in the context of higher education. Specifically, this study argues that higher education can function as a stimulating learning environment that helps older…

  8. Creating Adult Learning Communities through School-College Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Holly C.; Brimijoin, Kay; Alouf, James L.; Mayhew, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Given the challenges of time and economics in education today, what are practical models for creating adult learning communities that improve teaching and learning in today's diverse classrooms? How do Americans foster and nurture adult learning communities once they are established? The authors have found that carefully crafted partnerships…

  9. Screening for Learning Disabilities in Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sharon L.; Johnson, Jerry D.; Salzman, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature offers little to describe the processes for screening students in adult basic education (ABE) programs for potential learning disabilities, referring adult students for diagnostic assessment, or barriers to obtaining diagnostic assessment for a learning disability. Without current documentation of a learning disability, ABE…

  10. Assessment of a Professional Development Program on Adult Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at colleges and universities invested in graduate education must understand and incorporate adult learning theories in their reference and instruction interactions with graduate students to more effectively support the students' learning. After participating in a professional development program about adult learning theory, librarians…

  11. Adult Learning in Cohort Groups. Practice Application Brief No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    A form of group learning, cohorts, has become increasingly attractive to administrators, instructors, and participants in adult education. Basic academic skills cohort learning supports three types of knowing: instrumental, socializing, and self-authoring; whereas, in higher and adult education cohort learning, the development of critical…

  12. Learning Disabled Adults in Postsecondary Education. 1987 Edition: Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Jay

    The fact sheet provides basic information on postsecondary educational services for learning disabled (LD) adults. The handicap of learning disability is described and a brief checklist of typical characteristics of the learning disabled adult is provided. A discussion of options after high school precedes information on types of programs for LD…

  13. Who Knows? Metacognitive Social Learning Strategies.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    To make good use of learning from others (social learning), we need to learn from the right others; from agents who know better than we do. Research on social learning strategies (SLSs) has identified rules that focus social learning on the right agents, and has shown that the behaviour of many animals conforms to these rules. However, it has not asked what the rules are made of, that is, about the cognitive processes implementing SLSs. Here, I suggest that most SLSs depend on domain-general, sensorimotor processes. However, some SLSs have the characteristics tacitly ascribed to all of them. These metacognitive SLSs represent 'who knows' in a conscious, reportable way, and have the power to promote cultural evolution. PMID:26778808

  14. Transitions: Issues for the Adult Learner with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Belinda, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Linkages" addresses the need for adult literacy programs to go beyond teaching basic academic skills to adults with learning disabilities to teaching skills in goal setting, problem solving, and self-advocacy that will assist adult learners in their transition into the workforce. Articles include: "Transition: Adult Literacy and…

  15. Consumption, Adult Learning, and Adult Education: Envisioning a Pedagogy of Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article I call for adult educators to begin taking consumption seriously as a site of adult learning and education. I provide an overview of various sociological perspectives on consumption, and also discuss several areas where education, learning, and consumption intersect. In doing so, I seek to convince adult educators to more…

  16. How People Learn in an Asynchronous Online Learning Environment: The Relationships between Graduate Students' Learning Strategies and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Beomkyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between learners' learning strategies and learning satisfaction in an asynchronous online learning environment. In an attempt to shed some light on how people learn in an online learning environment, one hundred and sixteen graduate students who were taking online learning courses…

  17. Adult Learning in Vocational Education. EEE700 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David; And Others

    This monograph is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). It explores four complex and interrelated issues: how vocational educators view their own practice, the characteristics and aspirations that distinguish…

  18. Developing and Evaluating a Strategy for Learning from Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kombartzky, Uwe; Ploetzner, Rolf; Schlag, Sabine; Metz, Berthold

    2010-01-01

    Based on current theories of multimedia learning, we propose a strategy for learning from animations. Two different experimental studies were conducted in order to evaluate the strategy. In the first study, 22 sixth graders learned from an animation without the strategy while 21 students were encouraged to make use of the proposed strategy during…

  19. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions aboutwhenthey should copy other agents, andwhothey should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the 'phenotypic gambit'; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this 'blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the 'social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are 'planetary'--they depend on domain-general cognitive processes--some SLSs, found only in humans, are 'cook-like'--they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such ascopy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning. PMID:27069046

  20. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions aboutwhenthey should copy other agents, andwhothey should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the 'phenotypic gambit'; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this 'blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the 'social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are 'planetary'--they depend on domain-general cognitive processes--some SLSs, found only in humans, are 'cook-like'--they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such ascopy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning.

  1. Content Area Reading and Learning: Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; And Others

    This book offers strategies to help educators become increasingly effective in teaching various areas in content area reading and learning. The book includes the following chapters: "Content Area Reading: A Historical Perspective" (E. Dishner and M. Olson); "Content Area Reading: Current State of the Art" (T. Bean and J. Readence); "The Role of…

  2. Social Learning Strategies in Networked Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Thomas N.; Song, Xianfeng; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    When making decisions, humans can observe many kinds of information about others' activities, but their effects on performance are not well understood. We investigated social learning strategies using a simple problem-solving task in which participants search a complex space, and each can view and imitate others' solutions. Results…

  3. Identifying Language Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This is a small scale, inductive, ethnographic study whose objective is to explore the language learning strategies used by the students of different languages at a language program at the university level. Students of English, French, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and German participate in the study. Three instruments are used…

  4. Getting-Started Strategies and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Offers several strategies for implementing cooperative learning in the classroom. Suggests sample exercises including (1) a scavenger hunt; (2) a reaction wheel; (3) cooperative brainstorming and classification; (4) a "pair of pairs" exercise; and (5) a three-step interview. Explains that the examples are starting points that have been used in…

  5. Language Learning Strategies and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shomoossi, Nematullah; Kooshan, Mohsen; Ketabi, Saeed

    2008-01-01

    The role of learner's strategies and skills in learning a foreign language has been investigated in the last three decades. However, the part it plays in ESP achievement tests is not seriously treated. Moreover, as students take the final exam, their chief complaint concerns the idea of test anxiety as a debilitating factor. Therefore, the present…

  6. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  7. Strategies: What Are Your Students Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author provides some sample strategies and assessment examples for physical educators to distinguish what is being taught and what students are learning in class. Among other things, the author suggests to use instant activities such as, "Locomotor Trail" and "Jumping Rock, Paper, Scissors" for assessments or to use peer…

  8. Describing the on-line graduate science student: An examination of learning style, learning strategy, and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spevak, Arlene J.

    Research in science education has presented investigations and findings related to the significance of particular learning variables. For example, the factors of learning style, learning strategy and motivational orientation have been shown to have considerable impact upon learning in a traditional classroom setting. Although these data have been somewhat generous for the face-to-face learning situation, this does not appear to be the case for distance education, particularly the Internet-based environment. The purpose of this study was to describe the on-line graduate science student, regarding the variables of learning style, learning strategy and motivational orientation. It was believed that by understanding the characteristics of adult science learners and by identifying their learning needs, Web course designers and science educators could create on-line learning programs that best utilized students' strengths in learning science. A case study method using a questionnaire, inventories, telephone interviews and documents was applied to nine graduate science students who participated for ten weeks in an asynchronous, exclusively Internet mediated graduate science course at a large, Northeastern university. Within-case and cross-case analysis indicated that these learners displayed several categories of learning styles as well as learning strategies. The students also demonstrated high levels of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and this, together with varying strategy use, may have compensated for any mismatch between their preferred learning styles and their learning environment. Recommendations include replicating this study in other online graduate science courses, administration of learning style and learning strategy inventories to perspective online graduate science students, incorporation of synchronous communication into on-line science courses, and implementation of appropriate technology that supports visual and kinesthetic learners. Although

  9. Workshops: Extend Learning beyond Your Presentation with These Brain-Friendly Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Whether one is perusing the brain research, learning-style theory or proven professional development practices, there are strategies that, by their very nature, take advantage of the way brains acquire information. While these strategies facilitate instruction for K-12 students, they work equally well for adult learners. This article outlines 10…

  10. Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Changyu

    2011-01-01

    This research presents a classification theory for the L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of strategies that adult Chinese English learners used, this theory identifies six categories, four of which are related to the cognitive process in lexical acquisition and the other two are…

  11. Learning to Be Drier: A Case Study of Adult and Community Learning in the Australian Riverland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike; Schulz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the adult and community learning associated with "learning to be drier" in the Riverland region of South Australia. Communities in the Riverland are currently adjusting and making changes to their understandings and practices as part of learning to live with less water. The analysis of adult and community learning derived…

  12. Creating an Adult Learning Culture through Practice Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Colin; McCormack, Brendan

    2000-01-01

    An action research project sought to create a learning culture in a hospital. Adult learning principles and facilitation of learning at and from work were emphasized. Although the hospital's top-down management eventually ended the project, active staff participation in learning was begun. (SK)

  13. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Young Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…

  14. Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Judy A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

  15. Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Rosa K W; Ellis, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter) and longer (7-letter) nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores ("literacy"). Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words.

  16. Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter) and longer (7-letter) nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (“literacy”). Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words. PMID:24834044

  17. Freirean Philosophy and Pedagogy in the Adult Education Context: The Case of Older Adults' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findsen, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Central tenets of Freirean philosophy and pedagogy are explored and applied to the emerging field of older adults' learning (educational gerontology), a sub-field of adult education. I argue that many of Freire's concepts and principles have direct applicability to the tasks of adult educators working alongside marginalized older adults. In…

  18. Effective Literacy Instruction for Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities: Implications for Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…

  19. [Basic learning strategies and programming languages].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Manilla, J M

    1985-01-01

    The article is based on three facts. One is that at the present day the computer is tending to be used in all fields, including that of education. The second is that, when a new teaching device appears, the first tendency is to add it to the stock of existing devices, which fails to extract the full benefit from the new device. The third is that for the educator, the computer is an alien and in many cases an unintelligible instrument, the mastery of which requires time which he does not have at his disposal. The author proposes a number of teaching strategies for initiation of the educator who wishes to use the computer in support of some teaching-learning process, and as a bridge between the educator and the computer programmer. To this end he proposes routine, formative evaluation, simulation and game strategies. The routine strategies, as their name indicates, use the repetition of a central learning practice. The formative evaluation is based on the principle of providing the subject with immediate information on his performance of a task in order to improve his efficiency. Simulation promotes learning by changing the values of one or more variables in a situation and verifying the effects. The game, apart from its intrinsic purpose, results in learning through the immediate manipulation of objects and the immediate circumstances in which it takes place. PMID:3913584

  20. Investigation the Relationship among Language Learning Strategies, English Self-Efficacy, and Explicit Strategy Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…

  1. Learning Visualization Strategies: A qualitative investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Daniel; Oh, Kyong Eun; Tremaine, Marilyn; Chiang, James; Bemis, Karen; Silver, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    The following study investigates the range of strategies individuals develop to infer and interpret cross-sections of three-dimensional objects. We focus on the identification of mental representations and problem-solving processes made by 11 individuals with the goal of building training applications that integrate the strategies developed by the participants in our study. Our results suggest that although spatial transformation and perspective-taking techniques are useful for visualizing cross-section problems, these visual processes are augmented by analytical thinking. Further, our study shows that participants employ general analytic strategies for extended periods which evolve through practice into a set of progressively more expert strategies. Theoretical implications are discussed and five main findings are recommended for integration into the design of education software that facilitates visual learning and comprehension.

  2. Skills for Life: Statement on the National Strategy for Improving Adult Literacy and Numeracy Skills. The Agency Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Penny, Ed.

    England's Learning and Skills Development Agency welcomes the introduction of a coherent national funding and delivery strategy for adult literacy, numeracy, and English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). The agency believes that the strategy should incorporate the lessons of previous literacy and numeracy initiatives and build on examples of…

  3. Journal Writing and Adult Learning. ERIC Digest No. 174.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Journals have a long history as a means of self-expression, and they can be used as learning tools in adult education. Types of journals include the reader response journal or literature log, the learning journal, the reflective journal, and the electronic journal. Journal writing offers several benefits for adult learners: journals are less…

  4. Cognitive Learning Applied to Older Adult Learners and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Amy J.; Harlow, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the needs of older adults learning computer skills and the place of technology, especially the computer, in enhancing their lives. A model is discussed that illuminates the process used by older adults to learn computer skills. The model may be used to analyze and provide specific aid for common difficulties of the aged.…

  5. Comparing Adult Learning Systems: An Emerging Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning systems have come to be dominated by the view that the essential role of adult learning is to generate the high levels of skills deemed necessary for competitiveness and growth in the globalised economy. This 'education gospel' is underpinned by human capital theory (HCT) and its contemporary conceptualisation in terms of…

  6. Assessing the Reading Comprehension of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…

  7. Adult Education. Part II: Collection of Learning Experiences. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay S., Ed.

    This document, which is the first in a series of best practice documents incorporating the wisdom and experiences of New York's adult educators, presents eight learning experiences that are specifically tailored for adult learners and instructors. The following information is provided for each learning experience: (1) a brief description of the…

  8. Working with Adults Who Have Learning Disabilities. Project Upgrade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.

    Intended to help educators develop a philosophy and understanding for working with learning disabled adults, this document consists of an introduction, 11 chapters, a 76-item bibliography, materials and resource suggestions, and three appendices. The introduction provides an overview of learning disabled adults. The chapters include (1)…

  9. Online Education and Adult Learning: New Frontiers for Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Terry T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The expanding field of adult learning encompasses the study and practice of utilizing sound instructional design principals, technology, and learning theory as a means to solve educational challenges and human performance issues relating to adults, often occurring online. This book disseminates current issues and trends emerging in the field of…

  10. Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

    When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

  11. Adult Graduate Student Voices: Good and Bad Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…

  12. Class Strategies and Stealth Policies in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2006-01-01

    Class strategies, how individual members of class fractions tactically gain advantage in fields including education, have been used to analyse schooling and initial post-compulsory education. In this paper, class strategies are applied to adult education in considering participation across social classes. Using empirical data from a biographical…

  13. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug ... conducted over the telephone. The Family component collects information on ... Questions about strategies to reduce prescription drug cost are from the ...

  14. Civic Engagement and Organizational Learning Strategies for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tami L.; Mendez, Jesse P.

    2014-01-01

    Students succeed in college by engaging with faculty, peers, and the community. Institutional leaders can utilize organizational learning strategies to learn what works to support civic learning outcomes and student success.

  15. Nutritional strategies for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Collins, Nancy; Dorner, Becky; Sloan, Colleen

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this continuing education article are to analyze the aging process and its effect on the nutritional status of frail older adults; determine how sarcopenia, anorexia, malnutrition, and Alzheimer disease increase the risk for pressure ulcer development and impact the healing process; and to apply evidence-based nutrition guidelines and implement practical solutions for wound healing.

  16. What's it all about? Investigating reading comprehension strategies in young adults with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Michelle; Moni, Karen B; Jobling, Anne

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of reading is for the reader to construct meaning from the text. For many young adults with Down syndrome, knowing what the text is all about is difficult, and so for them the activity of reading becomes simply the practice of word calling. It is suggested in the literature that for those individuals with Down syndrome, learning can continue into adolescence and that this may be the optimal time for learning to occur. However, a review of the literature revealed limited empirical research specifically relating to the reading comprehension of young adults with Down syndrome. Recent findings from Latch-On (Literacy And Technology Hands On), a research-based literacy and technology program for young adults with Down syndrome at the University of Queensland, revealed that comprehension remained the significant area of difficulty and showed least improvement (Moni & Jobling, 2001). It was suggested by Moni and Jobling (2001) that explicit instruction in comprehension using a variety of strategies and meaningful, relevant texts was required to improve the ability of young adults with Down syndrome to construct meaning from written texts. This paper is based on an action research project that was developed within the Latch-On program. The project utilised a modification of Elliot's (1991) action research model and was conducted to investigate specific teaching and learning strategies that would enhance the reading comprehension of young adults with Down syndrome. The participants were 6 young adults with Down syndrome ranging in age from 18 to 25 years. As the data from this project are still being analysed, preliminary findings of one participant are presented as a case study. The preliminary findings appear to indicate that the program of specific teaching and learning reading comprehension strategies used in this project was beneficial in the participant's reading comprehension.

  17. Do Language Proficiency Levels Correspond to Language Learning Strategy Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…

  18. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  19. Notetaking Activity as a Logical Classroom Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William; And Others

    The impact on learning performance of a notetaking strategy called the Directed Overt Activity Strategy (DOA) was evaluated on three types of instructional tasks: spatial learning, simple concept learning, and complex concept learning. One hundred volunteer freshman psychology students from Ohio State University used either the DOA or their own…

  20. Learning Strategies in Web-Supported Collaborative Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Web-based learning promotes computer-mediated interaction and student-centred learning in most higher education institutions. To fulfil their academic requirements, students develop appropriate strategies to support learning. Purposes of this study were to: (1) examine the relationship between students study strategies (assessed by Learning and…

  1. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  2. Adult Education and Lifelong Learning: New Developments in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajda, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Examines effects of social and economic change on adult education and lifelong learning in postcommunist Russia. Discusses the history of Russian adult education, educational policy changes in the 1990s, establishment of the first Open University and a network of adult-education centers, and the conflict between market-oriented objectives and…

  3. Adults with Learning Disabilities. Theoretical and Practical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Noel, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 16 chapters dealing with services for adults with learning disabilities (LDs). "Adults with LDs" (Noel Gregg, Carolyn Phillips) questions whether the prevalent paradigm that advocates the self-contained individual is an obstacle to adults with LDs. "Paradigms" (Noel Gregg, Beth Ferri) describes theories that have contributed to…

  4. Project Upgrade. Working with Adults Who Have Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.

    This document is designed to help adult educators understand and meet the needs of adults with learning disabilities (ALDs). A research-substantiated rationale for remedial instruction for ALDs is presented in the introduction. Selected terms are defined, and common characteristics of ALDs are examined. Basic assumptions regarding adult learning…

  5. Adult Learning Disabilities Screening Using an Internet-Administered Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…

  6. Terms, Definitions, Organizations and Councils Associated with Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    This reference, published under provisions of the Adult Education Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act, is designed to help members of the National Advisory Council on Adult Education and the public communicate more effectively and knowledgeably about terms, definitions, and organizations associated with adult learning. Subject areas defined…

  7. Being, Having and Doing: Theories of Learning and Adults with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Leslie; Devecchi, Cristina; Florian, Lani

    2006-01-01

    The starting point for this review of literature on theories of learning and adults with learning difficulties is the FEFC's 1996 landmark report, "Inclusive Learning" (also known as the Tomlinson Report). This report made learning its central focus, arguing that unless we understand how students learn we cannot begin to make the right provision…

  8. Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A

    2016-07-19

    During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.

  9. Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A

    2016-07-19

    During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events. PMID:27382164

  10. Toward an Interdisciplinary Perspective: A Review of Adult Learning Frameworks and Theoretical Models of Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have yet to agree on an approach that supports how adults best learn novel motor skills in formal educational contexts. The literature fails to adequately discuss adult motor learning from the standpoint of adult education. Instead, the subject is addressed by other disciplines. This review attempts to integrate perspectives across…

  11. Learning with the Arts: What Opportunities Are There for Work-Related Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Claire; Verenikina, Irina; Brown, Ian

    2010-01-01

    What can arts-based learning offer to adult, work-related education? A study was undertaken that explored the benefits of learning with the arts for professional development of an adult learner in Australia. The individual experiences of nine adults who participated in arts-based workshops to build work-related skills were examined using the…

  12. How Instructional Strategies Impact Students' Learning, Motivation, and Learning Strategies in Introductory Geology Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, D.; Budd, D. A.; Stempien, J. A.; Kraft, K.; Matheney, R. K.; McConnell, D.; Wirth, K. R.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Geoscience Affective Research Network (GARNET) quantified the relationship between classroom teaching styles, student learning, and students’ motivations and attitudes for 14 different instructors at 2 community colleges, a private college, and 4 large public universities. Instruction was characterized with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). The 0-100 scale reflects the span between traditional instructor-centered lecture and interactive, student-centered courses. Every participating instructor was observed at least twice. Student learning was measured using a 15-question concept inventory (CI) focused on geologic time and plate tectonics. Twelve questions were from the Geologic Concept Inventory of Libarkin and Anderson (2005) and 3 questions were added on relative time. Students’ affective domain was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), 81 questions that define 15 motivation and cognitive subcategories. 1152 students completed both surveys in the 2nd and 14th weeks of their class during the 2008-2010 academic years. RTOP scores ranged from 19 to 87. Learning gains ranged from 18.6% to 47.4% with students learning significantly more from instructors with higher RTOP scores. Learning gains and RTOP positively covary (R2 = 0.67). Adjusting for questions on which students scored high prior to instruction (>90% correct), results in an even stronger relationship (R2 = 0.89). Higher RTOP scores correlate to significant declines in many aspects of student motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic goals, task value, control of learning, and effort regulation). Declines occur mainly in lower and/or middle performing students as measured by grades. The highest performing students only show declines with respect to their control of learning beliefs. Students’ self-efficacy also declines with increasing use of student-student interactions. Higher RTOP scores only exhibit positive correlations to a few aspects of

  13. Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…

  14. Latent Class Analysis of Students' Mathematics Learning Strategies and the Relationship between Learning Strategy and Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Su-Wei; Tai, Wen-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how various mathematics learning strategies affect the mathematical literacy of students. The data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data of Taiwan. The PISA learning strategy survey contains three types of learning strategies: elaboration, control, and…

  15. Adult Language Learning: A Survey of Welsh for Adults in the Context of Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…

  16. A Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Interpreting the ideas of Jurgen Habermas, the nature of three generic domains of adult learning is posited, each with its own interpretive categories, ways of determining which knowledge claims are warranted, methods of inquiry as well as its own learning goals, learning needs and modes of educational intervention. (CT)

  17. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  18. Implicit Learning Deficits among Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahta, Shani; Schiff, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit learning processes among adults with developmental dyslexia (DD) using a visual linguistic artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Specifically, it was designed to explore whether the intact learning reported in previous studies would also occur under conditions including minimal training…

  19. Making Skills Everyone's Business: A Call to Transform Adult Learning in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Julie

    2015-01-01

    To address the need to connect Americans with learning opportunities, the Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education released the present report. Grounded in evidence and informed by effective and emerging practices, "Making Skills Everyone's Business" offers seven strategies that hold great promise for improving the conditions…

  20. Understanding and Changing Older Adults' Perceptions and Learning of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man

    2012-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…

  1. The Impact of Adults' Communication Clarity versus Communication Deviance on Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, John D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-one adolescents with learning disabilities received clear or unclear instructions from an adult before completing the Rorschach Arrangement Task and a test of abstract thinking. Adolescents receiving clear communication performed significantly better and used more efficient cognitive strategies than did adolescents in the unclear…

  2. Leadership Strategies for Teachers. K-Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merideth, Eunice M.

    This book offers an overview of leadership as a dynamic process available to all teachers, reviewing research-based theories applicable to teacher leadership and presenting strategies for the development of teacher leadership skills. It reflects the philosophy that leadership is best developed through the combination of theory and experience that…

  3. Impact of Co-Operative Learning Strategies in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study illuminates the effectiveness of Co-operative Learning Strategies in learning English Grammar for the learners at secondary level. Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning as a second language. It promotes peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts with content.…

  4. Trigger Finger: Adult and Pediatric Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Giugale, Juan M; Fowler, John R

    2015-10-01

    Trigger fingers are common tendinopathies representing a stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the fingers. Adult trigger finger can be treated nonsurgically using activity modification, splinting, and/or corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment options include percutaneous A1 pulley release and open A1 pulley release. Excision of a slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis is reserved for patients with persistent triggering despite A1 release or patients with persistent flexion contracture. Pediatric trigger thumb is treated with open A1 pulley release. Pediatric trigger finger is treated with release of the A1 pulley with excision of a slip or all of the flexor digitorum superficialis if triggering persists. PMID:26410644

  5. Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Key Findings from the Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…

  6. Not-so-social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Pearce, John M

    2015-03-01

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) are rules specifying the conditions in which it would be adaptive for animals to copy the behaviour of others rather than to persist with a previously established behaviour or to acquire a new behaviour through asocial learning. In behavioural ecology, cultural evolutionary theory and economics, SLSs are studied using a 'phenotypic gambit'-from a purely functional perspective, without reference to their underlying psychological mechanisms. However, SLSs are described in these fields as if they were implemented by complex, domain-specific, genetically inherited mechanisms of decision-making. In this article, we suggest that it is time to begin investigating the psychology of SLSs, and we initiate this process by examining recent experimental work relating to three groups of strategies: copy when alternative unsuccessful, copy when model successful and copy the majority. In each case, we argue that the reported behaviour could have been mediated by domain-general and taxonomically general psychological mechanisms; specifically, by mechanisms, identified through conditioning experiments, that make associative learning selective. We also suggest experimental manipulations that could be used in future research to resolve more fully the question whether, in non-human animals, SLSs are mediated by domain-general or domain-specific psychological mechanisms. PMID:25608880

  7. Not-so-social learning strategies

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cecilia; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) are rules specifying the conditions in which it would be adaptive for animals to copy the behaviour of others rather than to persist with a previously established behaviour or to acquire a new behaviour through asocial learning. In behavioural ecology, cultural evolutionary theory and economics, SLSs are studied using a ‘phenotypic gambit’—from a purely functional perspective, without reference to their underlying psychological mechanisms. However, SLSs are described in these fields as if they were implemented by complex, domain-specific, genetically inherited mechanisms of decision-making. In this article, we suggest that it is time to begin investigating the psychology of SLSs, and we initiate this process by examining recent experimental work relating to three groups of strategies: copy when alternative unsuccessful, copy when model successful and copy the majority. In each case, we argue that the reported behaviour could have been mediated by domain-general and taxonomically general psychological mechanisms; specifically, by mechanisms, identified through conditioning experiments, that make associative learning selective. We also suggest experimental manipulations that could be used in future research to resolve more fully the question whether, in non-human animals, SLSs are mediated by domain-general or domain-specific psychological mechanisms. PMID:25608880

  8. Not-so-social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Pearce, John M

    2015-03-01

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) are rules specifying the conditions in which it would be adaptive for animals to copy the behaviour of others rather than to persist with a previously established behaviour or to acquire a new behaviour through asocial learning. In behavioural ecology, cultural evolutionary theory and economics, SLSs are studied using a 'phenotypic gambit'-from a purely functional perspective, without reference to their underlying psychological mechanisms. However, SLSs are described in these fields as if they were implemented by complex, domain-specific, genetically inherited mechanisms of decision-making. In this article, we suggest that it is time to begin investigating the psychology of SLSs, and we initiate this process by examining recent experimental work relating to three groups of strategies: copy when alternative unsuccessful, copy when model successful and copy the majority. In each case, we argue that the reported behaviour could have been mediated by domain-general and taxonomically general psychological mechanisms; specifically, by mechanisms, identified through conditioning experiments, that make associative learning selective. We also suggest experimental manipulations that could be used in future research to resolve more fully the question whether, in non-human animals, SLSs are mediated by domain-general or domain-specific psychological mechanisms.

  9. Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency: Constructing Pedagogies of Hope among Low-Income, Low-Literate Adults. Adult Education Special Topics: Theory, Research and Practice in LifeLong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In a most timely volume addressing many of the connections among current fiscal and employment crises to adult education, Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency highlights the problems and challenges that low-literate adults encounter in various environments. Moreover, this book presents strategies for addressing the chronic illiteracy among…

  10. Strategies in Landmark Use by Children, Adults, and Marmoset Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Suzanne E.; Spetch, Marcia L.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Cheng, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Common marmosets ("Callithrix jacchus jacchus"), human children, and human adults learned to find a goal that was located in the center of a square array of four identical landmarks. The location of the landmark array and corresponding goal varied across trials, so the task could not be solved without using the landmark array. In Experiment 1, a…

  11. An Eclectic Approach to Evaluation Strategies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brack, R. E.

    Three evaluation studies are used to illustrate the notion of an eclectic approach to adult education evaluation. The first study, Credit and Non-Credit Offerings in a Federal Penitentiary, evaluated the learning climate in this educational setting using data collected from participating inmates (Questionnaire), non-participating inmates…

  12. Remanding to Adult Court: You Make the Call. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calpin, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson in which students participate in a role-playing exercise to determine whether or not a juvenile should be remanded to an adult court. Includes learning objectives and step-by-step implementation procedures. Also includes four student handouts representing legal issues, briefing sheets, and a mock police report. (CFR)

  13. Adult age similarities in free recall output order and strategies.

    PubMed

    Wright, R E

    1982-01-01

    Adult age differences on a variety of free recall measures were examined. Although primary memory capacity was found to be the same in young and old adults, there was a smaller recency effect in the older group. Recall of primacy items was also less for that group. However, the pattern of serial position effects was the same for the two age groups. Similarly, there was no age difference in the development of the strategy of recalling recency items early in the output sequence. Young adults showed the typical negative recency effect in final free recall, and old adults the absence of a positive recency effect. The results indicate that the lower level of recall of old, relative to young, adults cannot be attributed to a qualitative difference in the way the two age groups approach a free recall task.

  14. Learning Strategies Assessed by Journal Writing: Prediction of Learning Outcomes by Quantity, Quality, and Combinations of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glogger, Inga; Schwonke, Rolf; Holzapfel, Lars; Nuckles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been efforts to rethink assessment. Instead of informing about (relatively stable) learner characteristics, assessment should assist instruction by looking at the learning process, facilitating feedback about what students' next step in learning could be. Similarly, new forms of strategy assessment aim at capturing…

  15. Exploring the Icebergs of Adult Learning: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 1,562 Canadian adults found that most are spending more time in learning, especially informal learning through employment, community service, and household work. Findings should be used to shape education policy and practice. (SK)

  16. Learning Cities for All: Directions to a New Adult Education and Learning Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leodis

    2015-01-01

    This chapter features a conceptual framework that considers the practical characteristics of learning cities, pointing to the field of adult and continuing education to lead a movement for the purposes of education, learning, and engagement for all.

  17. Adult Learning in Community: Themes and Threads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.; Imel, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes theme articles on learning communities: place is important, learning content is situated in daily life; knowledge is locally produced; and learning communities may be power structures. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  18. Social learning strategies in networked groups.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Thomas N; Song, Xianfeng; Goldstone, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    When making decisions, humans can observe many kinds of information about others' activities, but their effects on performance are not well understood. We investigated social learning strategies using a simple problem-solving task in which participants search a complex space, and each can view and imitate others' solutions. Results showed that participants combined multiple sources of information to guide learning, including payoffs of peers' solutions, popularity of solution elements among peers, similarity of peers' solutions to their own, and relative payoffs from individual exploration. Furthermore, performance was positively associated with imitation rates at both the individual and group levels. When peers' payoffs were hidden, popularity and similarity biases reversed, participants searched more broadly and randomly, and both quality and equity of exploration suffered. We conclude that when peers' solutions can be effectively compared, imitation does not simply permit scrounging, but it can also facilitate propagation of good solutions for further cumulative exploration.

  19. Revisiting Adult Learning Theory through the Lens of an Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Londell D.

    2009-01-01

    In reading the last section of their primary text, "Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide" by Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007) in his Adult Learning and Development class, the author continued to feel as though he was being self-assured of his previous learning experiences once again. The final section of the text focused on…

  20. Practice of Adult Education--Older Adults, Tourism, and Learning in Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…

  1. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  2. Learning strategies in table tennis using inverse reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Muelling, Katharina; Boularias, Abdeslam; Mohler, Betty; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Peters, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Learning a complex task such as table tennis is a challenging problem for both robots and humans. Even after acquiring the necessary motor skills, a strategy is needed to choose where and how to return the ball to the opponent's court in order to win the game. The data-driven identification of basic strategies in interactive tasks, such as table tennis, is a largely unexplored problem. In this paper, we suggest a computational model for representing and inferring strategies, based on a Markov decision problem, where the reward function models the goal of the task as well as the strategic information. We show how this reward function can be discovered from demonstrations of table tennis matches using model-free inverse reinforcement learning. The resulting framework allows to identify basic elements on which the selection of striking movements is based. We tested our approach on data collected from players with different playing styles and under different playing conditions. The estimated reward function was able to capture expert-specific strategic information that sufficed to distinguish the expert among players with different skill levels as well as different playing styles.

  3. Learning strategies in table tennis using inverse reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Muelling, Katharina; Boularias, Abdeslam; Mohler, Betty; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Peters, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Learning a complex task such as table tennis is a challenging problem for both robots and humans. Even after acquiring the necessary motor skills, a strategy is needed to choose where and how to return the ball to the opponent's court in order to win the game. The data-driven identification of basic strategies in interactive tasks, such as table tennis, is a largely unexplored problem. In this paper, we suggest a computational model for representing and inferring strategies, based on a Markov decision problem, where the reward function models the goal of the task as well as the strategic information. We show how this reward function can be discovered from demonstrations of table tennis matches using model-free inverse reinforcement learning. The resulting framework allows to identify basic elements on which the selection of striking movements is based. We tested our approach on data collected from players with different playing styles and under different playing conditions. The estimated reward function was able to capture expert-specific strategic information that sufficed to distinguish the expert among players with different skill levels as well as different playing styles. PMID:24756167

  4. Learning Strategy Research--Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nambiar, Radha

    2009-01-01

    Learning strategy research has been very prolific and much has been written about the field and its importance to language learning. This paper traces the history and development of learning strategy research by anchoring it in the field of cognitive psychology in the early years from 1970 to 1990 before reviewing the varied and descriptive nature…

  5. Language Learning Strategies of Language e-Learners in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…

  6. Embedding Structural Information and Strategy Instructions within Mastery Learning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beau Fly

    This paper offers a detailed discussion of materials developed for the Chicago Mastery Learning Reading with Learning Strategies (CMLR/LS) program, an upper elementary program in which appropriate learning strategy instructions are embedded within the text for each assigned task. Its purpose is to provide researchers and educators with a…

  7. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  8. Stages in Learning New Technology: Naive Adult Email Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Identifies six stages adult learners pass through as they become confident using electronic mail. Understanding the stages of learning to use technology empowers the learner through the knowledge that feelings of tension and frustration will be overcome. (Author/AEF)

  9. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Russia Meets the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.

  10. Learning in the Panic Zone: Strategies for Managing Learner Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palethorpe, Rob; Wilson, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to highlight the value of stressful and challenging environments as a strategy to enhance learning and to provide an inventory of strategies for use in cases where participants experience anxiety-related blockages to learning. Design/methodology/approach: This article adopted a qualitative research strategy which consisted…

  11. Empowering the Rural Adult Learner: Problems and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovel-Jarboe, Patricia

    This paper summarizes the 16 projects that have been funded by the Minnesota Extension Service to demonstrate innovative and effective uses of technology in adult education. Several of the projects are described in detail. Actual and anticipated impacts are examined, and suggested strategies that others can apply to reach and empower rural adult…

  12. Adult IT Programs: Discourse on Pedagogy, Strategy and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1997-01-01

    Degree programs and continuing education for information professionals concern most organizations as they reorganize to capitalize on innovations in networking, online services, and electronic commerce. This article examines theoretical and conceptual foundations for adult information technology (IT) programs and strategies for implementing…

  13. Developing a Marketing Strategy for Adult and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    The project described in this report aimed to develop an effective and affordable educational marketing strategy in one local British continuing education provider, as a case study for adult and continuing education nationally. Methods employed were as follows: a marketing consultant visited education centers; business and community directories…

  14. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  15. The Effectiveness of Storytelling on Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caminotti, Enzo; Gray, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As two doctoral students and adult learners, the authors strongly believe that story telling can be a great tool for educators working with adult learners. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of how effective storytelling can be for adult learners. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of this paper is one of gathering…

  16. Learning experiences in dance class predict adult eating disturbance.

    PubMed

    Annus, Agnes; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-01-01

    Elite dancers are at increased risk of eating disorders. The authors hypothesized that specific learning about thinness in dance class, rather than simple participation in dance training, tends to be an important aspect of the risk process. Approximately 500 college women reported on their previous dance experiences, their dance-related learning about thinness, their eating behaviours and attitudes and their thinness expectancies. Results showed that lifetime amount of time spent in dance class was unrelated to adult eating disturbance, women's reports of learning experiences concerning thinness during their dance classes predicted adult disordered eating concurrently, and thinness expectancies appeared to mediate the relationship between learning about thinness and adult eating disturbance. Learning experiences about thinness in dance class seem more important than time spent in dance class when examining the relationship between dance study and eating disorders.

  17. Strategy Inventory for Language Learning-ELL Student Form: Testing for Factorial Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Tretter, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    As the school-aged English language learner (ELL) population continues to grow in the United States and other English-speaking countries, psychometrically sound instruments to measure their language learning strategies (LLS) become ever more critical. This study adapted and validated an adult-oriented measure of LLS (50-item "Strategy…

  18. Learning the Rules: Observation and Imitation of a Sorting Strategy by 36-Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were used to investigate the scope of imitation by testing whether 36-month-olds can learn to produce a categorization strategy through observation. After witnessing an adult sort a set of objects by a visible property (their color; Experiment 1) or a nonvisible property (the particular sounds produced when the objects were shaken;…

  19. Learning to Apply Algebra in the Community for Adults With Intellectual Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are routinely excluded from algebra and other high-level mathematics courses. High school students with IDD take courses in arithmetic and life skills rather than having an opportunity to learn algebra. Yet algebra skills can support the learning of money and budgeting skills. This study explores the feasibility of algebra instruction for adults with IDD through an experimental curriculum. Ten individuals with IDD participated in a 6-week course framing mathematics concepts within the context of everyday challenges in handling money. The article explores classroom techniques, discusses student strategies, and proposes possible avenues for future research analyzing mathematics instructional design strategies for individuals with IDD.

  20. Strategies for Success: A Practical Guide to Learning English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, H. Douglas

    This book aims to empower students and teachers to take a fresh look at the learning process. It guides students to become aware of their learning styles and to develop strategies to make their language learning successful. The book includes the following features: questionnaires in every chapter to help learners assess their learning styles;…

  1. Blended Learning: Instructional Design Strategies for Maximizing Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Although e-learning has improved in quality, reach and learning impact over the past decade, it can be argued that it has not yet lived up to its potential to transform workplace learning. In the drive to increase effectiveness, interest has grown in blended learning, an instructional strategy that combines the use of web-technologies with more…

  2. Primary cilia regulate proliferation of amplifying progenitors in adult hippocampus: implications for learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Elliott, Jimmy; Miller, Amber; Ginbey, Ashley; Pazour, Gregory J; Enikolopov, Grigori; Roberts, Amanda J; Terskikh, Alexey V

    2011-07-01

    Integration of new neurons into the adult hippocampus has been linked to specific types of learning. Primary cilia were found to be required for the formation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus during development. However, the requirement of cilia in maintenance of adult NSCs is unknown. We developed a genetic mouse model in which fetal/perinatal brain development is unaffected, but adult hippocampal neurogenesis is constantly reduced by conditional ablation of primary cilia in adult GFAP(+) neural stem/progenitor cells. We found that this approach specifically reduces the number of hippocampal amplifying progenitors (also called type 2a cells) without affecting the number of radial NSCs (or type 1 cells). Constant reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis produced a delay rather than a permanent deficiency in spatial learning without affecting the retention of long-term memories. Decreased neurogenesis also altered spatial novelty recognition and hippocampus-independent cue conditioning. Here, we propose that adult hippocampal newborn neurons increase the efficiency of generating the new representations of spatial memories and that reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be biased toward cue-based strategies. This novel mouse model provides evidences that cognitive deficits associated with ciliary defects (ciliopathies) might be, in part, mediated by the deficiency of primary cilia in adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells. PMID:21734285

  3. Primary cilia regulate proliferation of amplifying progenitors in adult hippocampus: implications for learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Elliott, Jimmy; Miller, Amber; Ginbey, Ashley; Pazour, Gregory J; Enikolopov, Grigori; Roberts, Amanda J; Terskikh, Alexey V

    2011-07-01

    Integration of new neurons into the adult hippocampus has been linked to specific types of learning. Primary cilia were found to be required for the formation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus during development. However, the requirement of cilia in maintenance of adult NSCs is unknown. We developed a genetic mouse model in which fetal/perinatal brain development is unaffected, but adult hippocampal neurogenesis is constantly reduced by conditional ablation of primary cilia in adult GFAP(+) neural stem/progenitor cells. We found that this approach specifically reduces the number of hippocampal amplifying progenitors (also called type 2a cells) without affecting the number of radial NSCs (or type 1 cells). Constant reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis produced a delay rather than a permanent deficiency in spatial learning without affecting the retention of long-term memories. Decreased neurogenesis also altered spatial novelty recognition and hippocampus-independent cue conditioning. Here, we propose that adult hippocampal newborn neurons increase the efficiency of generating the new representations of spatial memories and that reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be biased toward cue-based strategies. This novel mouse model provides evidences that cognitive deficits associated with ciliary defects (ciliopathies) might be, in part, mediated by the deficiency of primary cilia in adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells.

  4. The Relationship between Resourcefulness and Persistence in Adult Autonomous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K; Derrick, M. Gail; Carr, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tenability of a proposed path-analytic model relating resourcefulness and persistence in the context of adult autonomous learning. Data collected from a nonprobability sample of 492 American adults using valid and reliable measures for resourcefulness and persistence were analyzed. Results suggest…

  5. Common Mechanisms in Infant and Adult Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2004-01-01

    Computational models of infant categorization often fail to elaborate the transitional mechanisms that allow infants to achieve adult performance. In this article, we apply a successful connectionist model of adult category learning to developmental data. The Supervised and Unsupervised Stratified Adaptive Incremental Network (SUSTAIN) model is…

  6. Reaching the Goals. Goal 5: Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Programs for the Improvement of Practice.

    Goal 5 of the National Education Goals states that by the year 2000 every adult American will be literate and possess knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy. An in-depth review of current research and literature on issues related to adult literacy and lifelong learning was conducted. The review focused on the following…

  7. Mentoring in Adult Learning Contexts: Partners in Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Marya; Castleton, Geraldine

    This document critiques various discourses about mentoring within the context of adult learning environments in general and adult literacy programs in particular. Mentoring is defined as an enabling or developmental relationship that occurs in partnerships wherein experienced individuals kindle knowledge and offer support to protgs in joint…

  8. Toward Deep Learning for Adult Students in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Xie, Kui

    2009-01-01

    Adult students have become the new majority in online distance education. Research in online distance education, however, is still predominantly based on the historical perspective of the traditional student profile. This study examines adult students' learning engagement in online courses and explores the impact of online course design models and…

  9. Fundamentals of Adult Education: Issues and Practices for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.

    This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory…

  10. Numeracy Activities within VOX: The Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvalo, Svein

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces Vox, Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning, an agency of the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research that focuses mainly on improving basic skills in the adult population in the areas of literacy, numeracy and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). Vox is responsible for curriculum…

  11. Faculty Attitudes toward Teaching Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sharon; Hitchcock, John

    2014-01-01

    The attitudes of adult basic education faculty members toward teaching adults with learning disabilities are likely to influence the success of their students; however, there are no existing survey instruments that measure this construct or the practical knowledge faculty members should have to effectively serve the population. A new survey…

  12. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  13. Motivating Factors Associated with Adult Participation in Distance Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bin Abdullah, Muhammad Madi; Parasuraman, Balakrishnan; Muniapan, Balakrishnan; Koren, Sebastien; Jones, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Gaining and understanding of the motivation which drives adults to commit to, and complete, higher education through distance learning is an important requirement for the design and the delivery of adult programs for educational institutions in Malaysia and abroad. Through an in-depth empirical examination, this paper provides the insight of one…

  14. The "Double-Edged Sword" of the Adult Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Sara; Mitchell, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The vocational education and training sector plays a critical role in the provision of educational opportunities for young adults who have left school prior to completing a qualification. Some research has found that a major factor that supports student re-engagement in formal education is the "adult learning environment" that characterises…

  15. Adult Learning in England: A Review. IES Report 369.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillage, J.; Uden, T.; Aldridge, F.; Eccles, J.

    In England, adult education became widespread as industrialization fed the demand for popular democracy. A marked shift from practical to leisure-based adult education occurred after World War II. More recently, policymakers have acknowledged the broader aims of education, including social inclusion and creation of a learning society. More than…

  16. Contrasting Adult Literacy Learners with and without Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Patterson, Margaret Becker

    2008-01-01

    This study of 311 adult education learners found 29% self-reported having a specific learning disability (SLD). Significant differences in demographic, academic, and life experience variables between the adult learners with and without SLD included prior participation in special education, having both an SLD diagnosis and a high school diploma,…

  17. Emotional Intelligence and Collaborative Learning in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    The changing social and economic reality of our world continues to shape how learning is conducted and acquired in the adult classroom and beyond. Given the pivotal importance for an adult to develop a variety of cognitive and emotional skills and given the need to work in collaboration with others, within educational environments and the…

  18. Religious Institutions as Sites of Learning for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findsen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on religious institutions or the institutionalized church as an environment where older adults commonly engage as learners, primarily from a spiritual dimension but also within a secular context. It emphasizes the agency of older adults who learn in this specific cultural context in a range of modes for diverse purposes. While…

  19. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  20. Learning Disability Prevalence and Adult Education Program Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics associated with learning disability (LD) prevalence through statistical analyses of data from a single U.S. state (Kansas). Data indicate that several variables at the adult education (AE) program level are linked to LD prevalence, including disability incidence, educational background…

  1. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  2. A Study of the Role of Rote Learning in Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Burmese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinhaneti, Kantatip; Kyaw, Ei Kalayar

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of RL (rote learning) in VLSs (vocabulary learning strategies) of Burmese EFL (English as a foreign language) students. The research addresses the need of the concrete understanding of the role of RL strategy in vocabulary learning as well as Burmese EFL learners' perspectives on RL strategy among…

  3. Learning Goals and Strategies in the Self-regulation of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaeta Gonzalez, Martha Leticia

    2013-01-01

    In order to self-regulate their learning, students need to use different strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning activities (meta-cognitive strategies), as well as to control their motivation and emotion (volitional strategies). Students' effectiveness in their self-regulated learning process also varies depending on the academic…

  4. From Adult Education to Lifelong Learning and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the period of this journal's life the education of adults has been changed and developed in a wide variety of ways: the same phenomenon--adult learning--has been given a variety of meanings and the education of adults has assumed many titles. The aim of this paper is to unravel some of the changes that have occurred in this field during…

  5. Selectivity as an Emotion Regulation Strategy: Lessons from Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Tamara; Hogan, Candice; Carstensen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Findings based on studies of daily life consistently associate older ages with relatively positive emotional experience, suggesting that older adults may regulate emotions more effectively than younger adults. Findings from laboratory studies are equivocal, however, with mixed evidence for age-related improvements in use of emotion regulatory strategies. In the current paper, we propose that findings may reflect a failure of laboratory-based experiments to capture the regulatory strategies that older people use in their everyday lives. We argue that the advantages older people have are likely due to antecedent emotion regulation as opposed to response-focused strategies. Understanding the regulatory approaches that older people actually use may inform developmental models of emotion regulation throughout adulthood as well as interventions for improving emotional experience across the life span. PMID:25914897

  6. Instruction of Learning Strategies: Effects on Conceptual Learning, and Learning Satisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Serap

    2011-01-01

    This study has investigated the effects of learning strategy instruction on conceptual learning, and student satisfactions in an introductory physics course at university level. In this study, pretest-posttest and quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group was used. A total of 36 sophomore students majoring in mathematics…

  7. Network reciprocity by coexisting learning and teaching strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Brede, Markus; Yamauchi, Atsuo

    2012-03-01

    We propose a network reciprocity model in which an agent probabilistically adopts learning or teaching strategies. In the learning adaptation mechanism, an agent may copy a neighbor's strategy through Fermi pairwise comparison. The teaching adaptation mechanism involves an agent imposing its strategy on a neighbor. Our simulations reveal that the reciprocity is significantly affected by the frequency with which learning and teaching agents coexist in a network and by the structure of the network itself.

  8. Outcomes of Adult Learning: Taking the Debate Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Huw, Ed.; Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    The four papers in this collection are intended to stimulate debate in the adult education sector and to set the agenda for further development work. "Learning Outcomes: Towards a Synthesis of Progress" (Peter Lavender) provides a summary of recent efforts to identify, record, and value learning that does not lead to qualifications. "Learning…

  9. Input Variability Facilitates Unguided Subcategory Learning in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Plante, Elena; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method: Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half…

  10. Digital Distinction: Badges Add a New Dimension to Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ady, Kellie; Kinsella, Keli; Paynter, Amber

    2015-01-01

    As a part of a professional learning team, educators are constantly looking for new approaches and designs that promote deeper adult learning. This article describes how educators at Cherry Creek School District in Colorado developed a digital badge system that recognizes the work teachers are doing, supports a culture and climate of celebration,…

  11. Inclusive Adult Learning Environments. ERIC Digest No. 162.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Adult educators are recognizing that factors in the learning environment related to psychological, social, and cultural conditions exert a powerful influence on learners' growth and development. Current discussions on learning environments have broadened to include the need to confront issues of sexism and racism, interlocking systems of power and…

  12. Adult Learning in a Computer-Based ESL Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karen Renee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…

  13. Centering Marxist-Feminist Theory in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Using feminist extensions of Marxist theory, this article argues that a Marxist-feminist theory of adult learning offers a significant contribution to feminist pedagogical debates concerning the nature of experience and learning. From this theoretical perspective, the individual and the social are understood to exist in a mutually determining…

  14. Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

  15. Functional Communication in Adult Education: A Learning Community Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ken W.

    Functional communication emphasizes the uses that communication serves in everyday interaction and places particular importance on the context in which the functions are performed. A practical means for integrating functional communication instruction into adult education environments is the learning community method. Learning community students…

  16. The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marti M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

  17. Second Language Learning by Adults: Testimonies of Bilingual Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between languages and selves in adult bicultural bilinguals who learned their second language (L2) post puberty and became writers and scholars in this language. Autobiographic narratives are used to identify and examine subsequent stages of L2 learning. (Author/VWL)

  18. The Neurobiology and Neuropsychology of Adult Learning Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1992-01-01

    The area of adult learning disabilities is reviewed from a neurobiological and neuropsychological perspective. The paper covers possible pathophysiologic bases in dyslexia, neurobehavioral disorders that may coexist with learning disorders, neuropsychological assessment methods, treatment in the context of brain plasticity and recovery of…

  19. The Self-Directed Learning Process of Older, Rural Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.; Merriam, Sharan B.

    2005-01-01

    Medical advances and lifestyle changes have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. Nevertheless, older adulthood, as other life stages, requires change in work, family, and health. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way of negotiating these transitions. The purpose of this study was to understand this process of learning.…

  20. A Guide for Establishing a Learning Laboratory; Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White Plains Public Schools, NY.

    A guide designed to assist educators with the implementation of a learning laboratory in programs providing academic instruction for adults is presented. The underlying premises involving the training of teachers to work effectively in the learning laboratory and the classroom include: (1) Responsibility for the training rests with the learning…

  1. Learning about Computer-Based Education in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.

    In 1979 the adult basic education department at the Alberta Vocational Centre (AVC), Edmonton, began to use the Control Data PLATO system. Results of the first PLATO project showed students using PLATO learned at least as much as students in regular classes. Students learned faster and reported great satisfaction with PLATO experiences. Staff and…

  2. How Adults with Learning Disabilities View Living Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Rebecca J.; Hurst, Jenni

    2010-01-01

    It is seen as increasingly important for people with learning disabilities to be supported to live independently and manage their own self care, productivity and leisure activities. This qualitative study explored the experiences of nine adults with mild learning disabilities who lived alone with minimal support. Their narratives were analysed…

  3. Early Learning Canada: Workshop Leader Guide [and] Participant Resource [and] Trainer Manual. Learning & Reading Partners Adult Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra

    Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…

  4. Learning to Learn: A Key-Competence for All Adults?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Learning to learn is important and increasingly vital for people trying to deal with a rapidly changing world! Or, in the words of the European Union, learning to learn is one of the eight "key competences that citizens require for their personal fulfilment, social inclusion, active citizenship and employability in our knowledge-based society."…

  5. Do Children and Adults Learn Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna; Pease, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses a question that was a topic of debate in the middle decades of the 20th century but was then abandoned as interest in children's learning declined. The question is, does learning develop? In other words, does the learning process itself undergo age-related change, or does it remain invariant ontogenetically and…

  6. Adult Learning, Currency and Subjectivity in PLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This inaugural issue of the Journal of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning begins with the article, "Semantic and Conceptual Ambiguities in Prior Learning Assessment" (Richard J. Hamilton). It is the basis for a session presented at the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning in June 1994. The…

  7. Political Learning in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenau, Norah

    The paper identified some of the major elements of political learning and suggests some of the conceptual links among these. The basic assumption of this paper is that the several existing approaches to learning and development can account for a significant portion of political learning. A selective picture of concepts and empirical knowledge…

  8. Collaborative Language Learning for Professional Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesh, Linda Joy

    2010-01-01

    Institutions of higher education realise the importance of the role of learning organisations in terms of providing personnel training and updating. Yet further consideration should be given to flexible and accessible means for meeting the growing request for continuous learning. Jason Hughes describes an organization's capability to "learn how to…

  9. Medical Students' Strategies for Self-Directed Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert D.; West, Russell F.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the personality factors and perceived benefits associated with different strategies of medical students regarding self-directed learning projects. Indicated that certain personality attributes are predictive of the type of strategy. (JOW)

  10. Learning, Continuity and Change in Adult Life. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom; Brassett-Grundy, Angela; Green, Andy; Hammond, Cathie; Preston, John

    The relationship between learning and continuity and change in adult life was explored in a study involving 140 in-depth biographical interviews of adult learners in 3 different areas of England and case studies of 6 adult learners. The study methodology was based on a triangular conceptualization according to which personal identity, human…

  11. Learning Journeys: A Resource Handbook on Adult Learning and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue

    This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…

  12. Lifelong Learning: Literacy, Schooling and the Adult World. Literacy and Learning Series, No. 2. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian, Ed.

    The 12 chapters in this second title in the series expose and explore the following significant issues underlying schooling and its intersection with the adult world outside of school: aspects of knowledge, gender, literacy across culture, and assessing what is learned in school and in the adult world. The chapters are: "Whose Knowledge Gets…

  13. Relationship between perceptual learning in speech and statistical learning in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Neger, Thordis M; Rietveld, Toni; Janse, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly) draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech. In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years) and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years) performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with 60 meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory, and processing speed). Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly. PMID:25225475

  14. Co-evolution of learning complexity and social foraging strategies.

    PubMed

    Arbilly, Michal; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2010-12-21

    Variation in learning abilities within populations suggests that complex learning may not necessarily be more adaptive than simple learning. Yet, the high cost of complex learning cannot fully explain this variation without some understanding of why complex learning is too costly for some individuals but not for others. Here we propose that different social foraging strategies can favor different learning strategies (that learn the environment with high or low resolution), thereby maintaining variable learning abilities within populations. Using a genetic algorithm in an agent-based evolutionary simulation of a social foraging game (the producer-scrounger game) we demonstrate how an association evolves between a strategy based on independent search for food (playing a producer) and a complex (high resolution) learning rule, while a strategy that combines independent search and following others (playing a scrounger) evolves an association with a simple (low resolution) learning rule. The reason for these associations is that for complex learning to have an advantage, a large number of learning steps, normally not achieved by scroungers, are necessary. These results offer a general explanation for persistent variation in cognitive abilities that is based on co-evolution of learning rules and social foraging strategies.

  15. Learned helplessness and defensive strategies: a rejoinder.

    PubMed

    Oakes, W F

    1982-12-01

    The results of experiments reported by Oakes and Curtis (1982), Tennen, Drum, Gillen and Stanton (1982), and Tennen, Gillen, and Drum (1982) are seen as inconsistent with the cognitive learned helplessness theory of Seligman and his associates (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978; Alloy & Seligman, 1979). Comments on the Oakes and Curtis studies by Alloy (1982) and by Silver, Wortman, and Klos (1982) are seen as employing three defensive strategies: (1) Declaring the research findings to be irrelevant to the theory; (2) declaring the experiments to be flawed; and (3) modifying the theory to accommodate the research findings. This rejoinder argues that the research findings are relevant and that the criticisms are of questionable validity. It is suggested that the questions of the validity of the theory raised by these findings not be declared to be resolved, but that additional data bearing on the questions be sought.

  16. Self-controlled practice benefits motor learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Helena Thofehrn; Chiviacowsky, Suzete

    2015-04-01

    Providing learners with the chance to choose over certain aspects of practice has been consistently shown to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills in several populations. However, studies investigating the effects of providing autonomy support during the learning process of older adults remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled amount of practice on the learning of a sequential motor task in older adults. Participants in the self-control group were able to choose when to stop practicing a speed cup stacking task, while the number of practice trials for a yoked group was pre-determined, mirroring the self-control group. The opportunity to choose when stop practicing facilitated motor performance and learning compared to the yoked condition. The findings suggest that letting older adult learners choose the amount of practice, supporting their autonomy needs, has a positive influence on motor learning.

  17. SSL: A Theory of How People Learn to Select Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieskamp, Jorg; Otto, Philipp E.

    2006-01-01

    The assumption that people possess a repertoire of strategies to solve the inference problems they face has been raised repeatedly. However, a computational model specifying how people select strategies from their repertoire is still lacking. The proposed strategy selection learning (SSL) theory predicts a strategy selection process on the basis…

  18. Engaging Black Learners in Adult and Community Education. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lenford

    This guide explains how adult and community education (ACE) providers across Great Britain can engage black learners in ACE by making their learning programs relevant, challenging, and appropriate to adult learners from black and minority groups. The following topics are discussed: (1) the importance of engaging black and minority learners in ACE;…

  19. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  20. Addressing Learning Strategies for the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.

    2009-12-01

    Access to computers and interactive toys such as X Box have had impacts on learning strategies. New types of simulations and entertainment approaches will be increasingly important to reach out and encourage careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines including space science. Examples of effective tools are planetarium shows and CD’s and DVD’s that can be distributed to teachers, students and the general public. Planetarium shows are no longer restricted to fixed dome venues but are increasingly being adapted to portable domes that have the advantage of transporting the activity to a school, community event or neighborhood center. Groups of individuals who may not normally consider a planetarium show as a family or group event are exposed to a learning experience which is also entertaining. Selected planetarium shows are available in languages other than English, including Spanish. Hands-on interactive activities are available that will enhance the experience of the attendees. Pre and post testing have shown [Sumners et al., 2006, 2008] that these activities are effective for improving STEM knowledge. New planetarium technology includes using a Wii controller for navigating through buildings. These so far have been applied to games but could be applied to a virtual tour of the space station, for example. CD’s and DVD’s are important for augmenting the activities of the planetarium shows as they provide additional learning activities that can be used either in the home, the classroom or as an enhancement for planetarium events. Simulations on the Sun, planetary or solar events, related games such as TIC TAC TOE are easily incorporated. It is important to provide additional support for the teachers that will enable them to incorporate the data into their curriculum and state mandated achievement levels.

  1. Where Now for ICT and Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil; Gorard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Over two and a half years, the authors conducted a detailed survey of 1101 adults in England and Wales, 100 follow-up interviews and year-long case studies of 25 families. The data have led them to construct a rich and often thought-provoking picture of how adults are using information and communications technologies (ICTs) in their day-to-day…

  2. Paulo Freire's Legacy for Adults Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana

    The death of Paulo Freire in May 1997 was a momentous event for educators everywhere, especially adult educators, and a sad one for those who knew and loved him. The author has been thinking and writing about Freire's work for many years, exploring his contribution to a radical politics of adult education. While Freire's work features strongly in…

  3. Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern Condition"…

  4. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  5. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 5. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 5" is a volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  6. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4" is an addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. "Volume 4"…

  7. The Relationship between Learning Styles and Learning Outcomes for Adults in an Informal Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Larry N.

    2013-01-01

    With more adults seeking unique and meaningful learning experiences in both recreational and professional arenas, informal learning institutions, such as museums, zoos, and botanical gardens are a natural source. Informal learning opportunities are the business of these institutions; moreover, a goal in education mission statements of many of…

  8. Lifelong Learning: Making It Work. An Adult Learning Australia Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony, Ed.

    This discussion paper is from the Adult Learners Week National Seminar on Lifelong Learning Policy (Canberra, Australia, September 1999) that identified a number of ideas about how to foster national policy development on lifelong learning. It consists of three sections. Part 1 contains "A National Lifelong Learning Policy for Australia?" (Tony…

  9. Adult Learning in a World at Risk: Emerging Policies and Strategies. Expectations and Prospects for the 21st Century As Voiced by Respondents to a 1996 UNESCO Questionnaire in Preparation for the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA V). CONFINTEA Background Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giere, Ursula

    Emerging adult education policies and strategies were studied through a survey of United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) member states, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and social partners. Questionnaires were returned by 93 countries and 12 NGOs. The study focused on the following: social change and its…

  10. SSL: a theory of how people learn to select strategies.

    PubMed

    Rieskamp, Jörg; Otto, Philipp E

    2006-05-01

    The assumption that people possess a repertoire of strategies to solve the inference problems they face has been raised repeatedly. However, a computational model specifying how people select strategies from their repertoire is still lacking. The proposed strategy selection learning (SSL) theory predicts a strategy selection process on the basis of reinforcement learning. The theory assumes that individuals develop subjective expectations for the strategies they have and select strategies proportional to their expectations, which are then updated on the basis of subsequent experience. The learning assumption was supported in 4 experimental studies. Participants substantially improved their inferences through feedback. In all 4 studies, the best-performing strategy from the participants' repertoires most accurately predicted the inferences after sufficient learning opportunities. When testing SSL against 3 models representing extensions of SSL and against an exemplar model assuming a memory-based inference process, the authors found that SSL predicted the inferences most accurately.

  11. Reexamining Theories of Adult Learning and Adult Development through the Lenses of Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Clark, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on "public pedagogy," the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond…

  12. Learning Disabilities: The Needs of Adults with Learning Disabilities. A Position Paper of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, Baltimore, MD.

    The paper presents the position of the National Joint Commission on Learning Disabilities regarding the needs of adults with learning disabilities (LD). Among problems cited are lack of adequate assessment procedures for the population along with inadequate awareness of the social and emotional problems facing adults with LD. Five major…

  13. Strategies in probabilistic feedback learning in Parkinson patients OFF medication.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, C; Kobza, S; Ferrea, S; Schnitzler, A; Pollok, B; Südmeyer, M

    2016-04-21

    Studies on classification learning suggested that altered dopamine function in Parkinson's Disease (PD) specifically affects learning from feedback. In patients OFF medication, enhanced learning from negative feedback has been described. This learning bias was not seen in observational learning from feedback, indicating different neural mechanisms for this type of learning. The present study aimed to compare the acquisition of stimulus-response-outcome associations in PD patients OFF medication and healthy control subjects in active and observational learning. 16 PD patients OFF medication and 16 controls were examined with three parallel learning tasks each, two feedback-based (active and observational) and one non-feedback-based paired associates task. No acquisition deficit was seen in the patients for any of the tasks. More detailed analyses on the learning strategies did, however, reveal that the patients showed more lose-shift responses during active feedback learning than controls, and that lose-shift and win-stay responses more strongly determined performance accuracy in patients than controls. For observational feedback learning, the performance of both groups correlated similarly with the performance in non-feedback-based paired associates learning and with the accuracy of observed performance. Also, patients and controls showed comparable evidence of feedback processing in observational learning. In active feedback learning, PD patients use alternative learning strategies than healthy controls. Analyses on observational learning did not yield differences between patients and controls, adding to recent evidence of a differential role of the human striatum in active and observational learning from feedback.

  14. New Learning Strategies in Bustillos and Oliveira Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mingfeng; Pan, Xiaowen; Mu, Xiaojia; Feng, Lin

    Armando Ticona Bustillos and Paulo Murilo C. de Oliveira first combined learning strategy with Penna model using a third bit string to represent knowledge. There are two forms of learning strategy in their model: individual learning through trial-and-error and social learning through copying knowledge from others. Based on the Bustillos-Oliveira model, we propose a new learning strategy:. (1) Individual learning ability depending on knowledge, through which the individual learning ability is not a constant but in direct proportion to the knowledge level of individual;. (2) Double-direction Social learning, under this, not only the young can learn from the elder, but also the elder can learn from the young;. (3) The age-dependent learning capacity, we make the learning capacity a variable in inverse proportion to the age, unlike which has been represented in Bustillos and Oliveira's model as a constant. Under this new learning strategy represented above, we get different result in the level of knowledge of individuals from B-O model.

  15. Statistical learning of novel graphotactic constraints in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Samara, Anna; Caravolas, Markéta

    2014-05-01

    The current study explored statistical learning processes in the acquisition of orthographic knowledge in school-aged children and skilled adults. Learning of novel graphotactic constraints on the position and context of letter distributions was induced by means of a two-phase learning task adapted from Onishi, Chambers, and Fisher (Cognition, 83 (2002) B13-B23). Following incidental exposure to pattern-embedding stimuli in Phase 1, participants' learning generalization was tested in Phase 2 with legality judgments about novel conforming/nonconforming word-like strings. Test phase performance was above chance, suggesting that both types of constraints were reliably learned even after relatively brief exposure. As hypothesized, signal detection theory d' analyses confirmed that learning permissible letter positions (d'=0.97) was easier than permissible neighboring letter contexts (d'=0.19). Adults were more accurate than children in all but a strict analysis of the contextual constraints condition. Consistent with the statistical learning perspective in literacy, our results suggest that statistical learning mechanisms contribute to children's and adults' acquisition of knowledge about graphotactic constraints similar to those existing in their orthography. PMID:24495840

  16. Statistical learning of novel graphotactic constraints in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Samara, Anna; Caravolas, Markéta

    2014-05-01

    The current study explored statistical learning processes in the acquisition of orthographic knowledge in school-aged children and skilled adults. Learning of novel graphotactic constraints on the position and context of letter distributions was induced by means of a two-phase learning task adapted from Onishi, Chambers, and Fisher (Cognition, 83 (2002) B13-B23). Following incidental exposure to pattern-embedding stimuli in Phase 1, participants' learning generalization was tested in Phase 2 with legality judgments about novel conforming/nonconforming word-like strings. Test phase performance was above chance, suggesting that both types of constraints were reliably learned even after relatively brief exposure. As hypothesized, signal detection theory d' analyses confirmed that learning permissible letter positions (d'=0.97) was easier than permissible neighboring letter contexts (d'=0.19). Adults were more accurate than children in all but a strict analysis of the contextual constraints condition. Consistent with the statistical learning perspective in literacy, our results suggest that statistical learning mechanisms contribute to children's and adults' acquisition of knowledge about graphotactic constraints similar to those existing in their orthography.

  17. The Geography Learning Strategies of the Education Faculty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahtiyar Karadeniz, Cemile

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to search the learning strategies of the Education faculty students, who will teach geography, according to different varieties. First of all, the measure of geography learning strategy was developed. It was found that the students with high academic success for geography lesson. Other data of this survey is that the…

  18. Strategy Training: An Incidental Learning Model for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Sharon J.

    Attempts to train learning strategies have not produced marked or lasting increases in academic IQ, probably because current training models fail to recognize the evolutionary nature of strategies acquisition. Empirical and theoretical evidence supports an incidental learning model, which engineers the instructional environment following study…

  19. Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…

  20. Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies among Arabic Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusri, Ghazali; Rahimi, Nik Mohd; Shah, Parilah M.; Wah, Wan Haslina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive and metacognitive strategies in learning oral Arabic among students at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. The concept of these strategies was derived from the self-regulated learning framework, which consists of five components, namely rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, and…

  1. Strategies and Performance in Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to identify strategies used during intentional vocabulary learning and to assess the relationship between strategy use and vocabulary learning performance. English-speaking students of Spanish studied new Spanish words while viewing word-picture pairs. The participants then completed posttests and answered questions about…

  2. The Discourse of Language Learning Strategies: Towards an Inclusive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alexander Harris

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…

  3. Developing a Scale for Quality of Using Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasci, Guntay; Yurdugul, Halil

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a measurement tool to measure the quality of using learning strategies. First, the quality of using learning strategies was described based on the literature. The 32 items in the 5-point Likert scale were then administered to 320 prospective teachers, and they were analysed with exploratory factor analysis using…

  4. The Who, What, and Where of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumford, Amber D.; Cogswell, Cindy A.; Miller, Angie L.

    2016-01-01

    Learning strategies have been shown to be an important part of success in the classroom, but little research exists that examines differences across major fields concerning the use and faculty emphasis of learning strategies. This study uses data from the National Survey of Student Engagement and the Faculty Survey of Student Engagement to explore…

  5. Age Differences in the Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate language learning strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners at different educational levels and explored the influence of age on the use of language learning strategies. A total of 1,023 students participated in the study. Out of the participants, there were 250 primary students…

  6. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" is a peer-tutoring program for grades K-6 that aims to improve student proficiency in math and other disciplines. This report focuses on "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" for math. The math program supplements students' existing math curriculum and is based on peer-mediated instruction, a process whereby…

  7. Learning Characteristics of Gifted Youths: Precocious Strategy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

    In two experiments, differences were investigated between youths (mean age 13 years) and comparison groups with respect to (1) performance on paired-associate tasks involving meaningful and nonmeaningful words, (2) reported use of spontaneously produced learning strategies, and (3) degree to which learning strategies facilitated recall. Under…

  8. Learning Strategies: Secondary LD Students in the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Alice; And Others

    The paper presents four learning strategy techniques--the SQ3R method of study, the Multipass Strategy, the Advanced Study Guide Technique, and Cognitive Mapping--for use with secondary level learning disabled students. The SQ3R method involves the five steps of survey, question, read, recite, and review. An adaption of the SQ3R method, the…

  9. Learning Strategy Instruction in the Foreign Language Classroom: Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Anna Uhl; And Others

    This resource guide is designed to provide foreign language teachers with suggestions for helping students learn how to become better language learners. The four chapters of the guide for teaching listening skills are as follows: (1) Teaching Learning Strategies (e.g., rationale for teaching, types, useful strategies, guidelines, instructional…

  10. Preparing Future Leaders: Project Management Strategies for Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Roger; Gutowski, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This article makes a case for teaching project management strategies in service-learning courses. The authors describe three specific documents students can create to help them manage a service-learning project and then present strategies that can help students manage their project teams. Such skills, the authors argue, provide the tools students…

  11. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…

  12. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" is a peer-tutoring program for use in elementary school classrooms to improve student proficiency in reading. Its purpose is to supplement students' existing reading curriculum. "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" was developed for use with students with diverse academic needs and has been used with English…

  13. Critical and Postmodern Perspectives on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Deborah W.

    2001-01-01

    In critical theory, knowledge is a rational human product, power is possessed by subjects, knowledge frees subjects from power, and learning occurs through critical reflection. In a postmodern perspective, knowledge is tentative, power is expressed by subjects, knowledge is an expression of power, and learning occurs through deconstruction and…

  14. Adult Learning Projects Related to Spiritual Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, R.E.Y.

    A study examined significant deliberate learning activities (as demonstrated in learning projects) which were related to spiritual growth. (Spiritual growth was defined in broad terms within which each interviewee interpreted his or her own concept.) Fifty persons between the ages of thirty-five and fifty-five and representing five groups (three…

  15. Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitton, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…

  16. John Dewey and Adult Learning in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, David F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate learning in museums through the lens of John Dewey's philosophy of education and experiential learning. The influence of Dewey's philosophy of education is widespread and resounding. In this article, I examine the experiential qualities of Dewey's philosophy and compare it with the objectives of the…

  17. Learning Strategies for Distance Learners: Do They Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Chris J.; Dingsdag, Donald; Saenger, Helen

    1998-01-01

    A study of 97 adult distance learners introduced and evaluated the effectiveness of an embedded study strategy. Determined less experienced learners embraced the strategy and more experienced learners rejected it if it conflicted with existing study strategies, time constraints, or their need for self-direction. Appendices includes the evaluation…

  18. An Analytic Framework to Support E.Learning Strategy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss and demonstrate the relevance of a new conceptual framework for leading and managing the development of learning and teaching to e.learning strategy development. Design/methodology/approach: After reviewing and discussing the research literature on e.learning in higher education institutions from…

  19. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Relation with Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesici, Sahin; Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with students' attitudinal problems related to statistics is an important aspect of statistics instruction. Employing the appropriate learning strategies may have a relationship with anxiety during the process of statistics learning. Thus, the present study investigated multivariate relationships between self-regulated learning strategies…

  20. Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies beyond Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, knowledge and learning management have made a significant impact on the IT research community. "Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies Beyond Tools" presents learning and knowledge management from a point of view where the basic tools and applications are provided by open source technologies. This book…

  1. Examining the Interrelations among Knowledge, Interests, and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Chen, Ang

    2006-01-01

    Guided by the Model of Domain Learning (MDL), the study was designed to explore the extent of interrelations among prior knowledge, learning strategies, interests, physical engagement, and learning outcomes in a sixth-grade (N = 91) volleyball unit. Pearson product-moment correlations and a path analysis were conducted for the research purpose.…

  2. Malaysian Gifted Students' Use of English Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Melor Md; Sulaiman, Nur Ainil; Embi, Mohammed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been done on language learning strategies employed by different type of learners and in various contexts. However, very little studies have been done on gifted students regarding language learning. Gifted students have unique characteristics and have different ways of thinking and learning. These characteristics affect how they…

  3. Managing E-Learning Strategies: Design, Delivery, Implementation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Badrul

    2005-01-01

    "Managing E-Learning Strategies: Design, Delivery, Implementation and Evaluation" provides readers with a broad understanding of the emerging field of e-learning and also advises readers on the issues that are critical to the success of a meaningful e-learning environment. It walks you through the various factors critical to developing, evaluating…

  4. User Studies: Developing Learning Strategy Tool Software for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Koury, Kevin A.; Peng, Hsinyi

    This paper is a report of user studies for developing learning strategy tool software for children. The prototype software demonstrated is designed for children with learning and behavioral disabilities. The tools consist of easy-to-use templates for creating organizational, memory, and learning approach guides for use in classrooms and at home.…

  5. Self-Schemas, Motivational Strategies and Self-Regulated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Teresa; Pintrich, Paul R.

    Self-regulated learning is usually viewed as the fusion of skill and will, referring to the students' development of different learning strategies in service of their goals. This definition is expanded in a study of self-schemas as a means of representing multiple goals for learning. Measures of self-schemas were used with 151 seventh graders (86…

  6. Assessment Preferences, Learning Orientations, and Learning Strategies of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, Menucha; Rosenau, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The importance of developing effective learning strategies and motivational beliefs has been widely acknowledged as a way of meeting the demand to acquire lifelong learning capabilities for successful functioning as professionals in the "information age". The study reported in this paper examined the learning orientations and strategies of…

  7. Improving Learning Processes: Principles, Strategies and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Philip

    This guide, which examines the relationship between learning processes and learning outcomes, is aimed at senior managers, quality managers, and others at colleges and other post-16 learning providers in the United Kingdom. It is intended to help them define the key processes undertaken by learning providers, understand the critical relationships…

  8. Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The Learning Landscape is the total context for students' learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. The goal of the Learning Landscape approach is to acknowledge this richness and maximize encounters among people,…

  9. Relationships among student attitudes, motivation, learning styles, learning strategies, patterns of learning, and achievement: A formative evaluation of distance education via Web-based courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Ching-Chun

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is the latest in a long line of educational technologies, and the list of courses on it is growing daily. Formative evaluations would help educators enhance teaching and learning in Web-based courses. This study analyzed the relationships between student achievement and the following variables: attitudes, motivation, learning strategies, patterns of learning, learning styles, and selected demographics. It was a population study that included 99 students taking two non-major introductory biology courses offered over the WWW by Iowa State University in the fall of 1997. Seventy-four (75%) students completed a learning style test, an on-line questionnaire, and received a grade by the end of the semester. The learning style test was the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), which classified students as either field-dependent or field-independent. The on-line questionnaire consisted of four scales (attitude, motivation, learning strategies, and patterns of learning), whose pilot-test reliabilities ranged from .71 to .91. The selected demographic variables were gender, class level, previous experience in subject area, hours per week studying and working, computer access, and types of students as off-campus, on-campus, or adult students. Over two-thirds of the students taking the Web-based courses were field-independent learners; however, there were no significant differences (.05 level) in achievement by learning style. Also, different backgrounds of students with different learning styles learned equally well in Web-based courses. The students enjoyed the convenience and self-controlled learning pace and were motivated by competition and high expectations in Web-based learning. They used most the learning strategies of finding important ideas from lectures and memorizing key words of important concepts and least the learning strategy of making charts or tables to organize the material. They seemed more interested in checking their grades than in

  10. Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Crewther, Sheila G

    2013-01-01

    To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV), verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords), and visual-visual (shape-VV). Participants were directed to make a motor response to matching novel and arbitrarily related stimulus pairs. Feedback was provided to facilitate trial and error learning. The results of Signal Detection Theory analyses suggested a multisensory enhancement of learning, with significantly higher discriminability measures (d-prime) in both the novel-AV and verbal-AV tasks than the shape-VV task. Motor reaction times were also significantly faster during the verbal-AV task than during the non-verbal learning tasks.  Experiment 2 (n = 12) used a forced-choice discrimination paradigm to assess whether a difference in unisensory stimulus discriminability could account for the learning trends in Experiment 1. Participants were significantly slower at discriminating unisensory pseudowords than the novel sounds and visual shapes, which was notable given that these stimuli produced superior learning. Together the findings suggest that verbal information has an added enhancing effect on multisensory associative learning in adults PMID:24627770

  11. Unrecognized Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Implications for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John W.

    Unrecognized learning disabilities in adulthood can also be viewed as concepts fundamental to change. These disabilities may include: (1) not being able to make appropriate choices and decisions; (2) not utilizing strategies such as checking things out with people, and monitoring one's own performance; (3) not being able to transfer learning from…

  12. Situated Learning in Adult Education. ERIC Digest No. 195.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David

    In the situated learning approach, knowledge and skills are learned in contexts that reflect how knowledge is obtained and applied in everyday situations. As an instructional strategy, situated cognition is a means for relating subject matter to learners' needs and concerns. Four major premises guide the development of classroom activities for…

  13. The impact of adults' communication clarity versus communication deviance on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shields, J D; Green, R J; Cooper, B A; Ditton, P

    1995-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that confusing styles of parental communication--"communication deviances" (CD)--are associated with cognitive disorder in offspring. The present study examined the immediate effects of adult communication clarity versus deviance on sixty-one 11- to 15-year-old male and female adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Subjects were randomly assigned to complete the Rorschach Arrangement Task (RorAT) under conditions of either clear (n = 30) or unclear (n = 31) instructions from an adult. Immediately thereafter, the adolescents were administered a test of abstract thinking--The Twenty Questions Task (TQT). Strategies used to solve the task were assessed. As hypothesized, adolescents in the clear communication condition performed significantly better on the RorAT and used more efficient cognitive strategies on the TQT than did adolescents in the unclear communication condition. A new theory with implications for teaching and parenting is proposed for understanding the influence of adult communication on students with LD.

  14. Mice in an enriched environment learn more flexibly because of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Alexander; Roeder, Ingo; Kempermann, Gerd

    2016-02-01

    We here show that living in a stimulus-rich environment (ENR) improves water maze learning with respect to specific key indicators that in previous loss-of-function experiments have been shown to rely on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Analyzing the strategies employed by mice to locate the hidden platform in the water maze revealed that ENR facilitated task acquisition by increasing the probability to use effective search strategies. ENR also enhanced the animals' behavioral flexibility, when the escape platform was moved to a new location. Treatment with temozolomide, which is known to reduce adult neurogenesis, abolished the effects of ENR on both acquisition and flexibility, while leaving other aspects of water maze learning untouched. These characteristic effects and interdependencies were not seen in parallel experiments with voluntary wheel running (RUN), a second pro-neurogenic behavioral stimulus. Since the histological assessment of adult neurogenesis is by necessity an end-point measure, the levels of neurogenesis over the course of the experiment can only be inferred and the present study focused on behavioral parameters as analytical endpoints. Although the correlation of physical activity with precursor cell proliferation and of learning and the survival of new neurons is well established, how the specific functional effects described here relate to dynamic changes in the stem cell niche remains to be addressed. Nevertheless, our findings support the hypothesis that adult neurogenesis is a critical mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of leading an active live, rich in experiences.

  15. Strengthening the Student Toolbox: Study Strategies to Boost Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    Before the "big test" did you use the following study strategies: highlighting, rereading, and cramming? As students many of us probably did, yet research shows that while these three strategies are commonly used, they have been ineffective in retaining information. Learning strategies have been discussed in almost every textbook on…

  16. Mnemonic Keyword Strategy Training for Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulk, Barbara Mushinski

    1994-01-01

    This article describes instructional procedures for helping students with learning disabilities become more effective mnemonic keyword strategy users. The procedures involve providing a rationale, providing explicit strategy-attribution instruction, modeling strategy use with think-alouds, providing verbal practice, providing guided practice with…

  17. Training Versus Instructions in the Acquisition of Cognitive Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others

    Three studies were performed to investigate the effects of training versus instructions in the acquisition of cognitive learning strategies. Groups of undergraduate students were taught to use one or more strategies. The amount and type of training differed for each of the experimental groups. Strategies taught included the method of loci,…

  18. Effects of Learning Strategies on Student Reading Literacy Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Chun, Cecilia Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of the use of learning strategies on student literacy performance based on the 2002 Hong Kong Program for International Student Assessment. The descriptive statistics show that students use the memorization strategy almost as frequently as the elaboration strategy. Independent sample t-tests reveal that female…

  19. Learners' Starting Age of Learning EFL and Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Khonbi, Zainab Abolfazli

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and reasons for learning English among Iranian EFL students who began learning English at different ages. The participants (N = 33, both male and female) were divided into two groups of younger beginners (who began learning English before age 9; N = 16) and older beginners (who…

  20. Stress modulates reinforcement learning in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Gorlick, Marissa A; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18-34) and older participants (age 65-85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group, and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. After the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings.

  1. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  2. Assessment of Language Learners' Strategies: Do They Prefer Learning or Acquisition Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…

  3. Speech Motor Learning in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Sazzad M.; Ostry, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputs — audition, proprioceptive inputs from muscle spindles, and cutaneous inputs from mechanoreceptors in the skin and soft tissues of the vocal tract. However, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input on its own may contribute to speech motor control and perhaps even to speech learning. We assessed speech motor learning in cochlear implant recipients who were tested with their implants turned off. A robotic device was used to alter somatosensory feedback by displacing the jaw during speech. We found that with training implant subjects progressively adapted to the mechanical perturbation. Moreover, the corrections we observed were for movement deviations that were exceedingly small, on the order of millimetres, indicating that speakers have precise somatosensory expectations. Speech motor learning is significantly dependent on somatosensory input. PMID:18794839

  4. TWO FORMS OF IMPLICIT LEARNING IN YOUNG ADULT DYSLEXICS

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ilana J.; Romano, Jennifer C.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2009-01-01

    Implicit learning is thought to underlie the acquisition of many skills including reading. Previous research has shown that some forms of implicit learning are reduced in individuals with dyslexia (e.g., sequence learning) whereas other forms are spared (e.g., spatial context learning). However, it has been proposed that dyslexia-related motor dysfunction may have contributed to the implicit sequence learning deficits reported earlier. To assess implicit sequence learning in the absence of a motor sequence, 16 young adults diagnosed with dyslexia (20.6 ± 1.5 years) and 18 healthy controls (20.8 ± 2.0 years) completed a triplet frequency learning task (TRIP) that involved learning a sequential regularity in which the location of certain events followed a repeating pattern but motor responses did not. Participants also completed the spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT), which involved learning a spatial regularity in which the location of distractors in some visual arrays predicted the target location. In addition, neuropsychological tests of real-word and pseudo-word reading were administered. TRIP task analyses revealed no between-group differences in pattern learning, but a positive correlation between individual learning scores and reading ability indicated that poor readers learned less well than did good readers. Thus, earlier reports of reduced implicit sequence learning in dyslexics cannot be entirely accounted for by motor sequencing deficits. No significant correlations or group differences in learning were found for SCCT. These findings offer additional evidence for a link between poor reading and impaired implicit sequence learning. PMID:19076397

  5. Understanding and Managing Learning Disabilities in Adults. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book reviews learning disabilities (LD) in adults and makes suggestions for helping adults cope with these disabilities. Each chapter covers a type of learning disability or related syndrome or explains characteristics of the brain. Chapter 1 explains several types of specific learning disabilities that make classroom performance difficult…

  6. A Strategy for Forming Learning Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Aelita Kapitovna

    1990-01-01

    Presents experimental data on how to form learning motivation. Discusses the influence of the content of teaching materials and of learning methods, the motivational structure of the lesson, and the type of assessment made by the teachers. Urges teacher to observe recurring attitudes of the students toward learning and promote optimistic student…

  7. In Search of a Lifelong Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A decade after the National Advisory Group for Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning (NAGCELL) report, "The Learning Age", born in the first flush of the New Labour Government, the task of providing and securing an overall strategic framework for lifelong learning remains as large as ever. NIACE is the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong…

  8. Grounded Learning from a Strategy Case Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corner, Patricia Doyle; Bowden, Stephen; Clark, Delwyn; Collins, Eva; Gibb, Jenny; Kearins, Kate; Pavlovich, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a case competition that reflects the four elements of a grounded learning exercise. These elements include creating a real-world experience, optimizing learning transfer, integrating theory and practice, and shifting learning responsibility to the students. The authors also provide details on implementing this exercise in an…

  9. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  10. Troubling Adult Learning in the Present Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The French philosopher Michel Foucault asks, "What's going on just now? What's happening to everyone? What is this world, this period, this precise moment in which everyone is living? Answers to these questions have a profound impact on learning. Before probing Foucault's questions regarding the nature of this precise moment and how they relate to…

  11. Learning Disabilities, Literacy, and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Susan A., Ed.; Reder, Stephen, Ed.

    This book deals with the long-neglected problem of learning disabilities (LDs) and the relationship of LDs to difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. Its 17 chapters are divided into 5 sections that begin with an opener to help the reader identify the main themes and content of each chapter in the section. Four chapters in Section I address…

  12. Adult Learners and Mathematics Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzmaurice, Olivia; Mac an Bhaird, Ciarán; Ní Fhloinn, Eabhnat; O'Sullivan, Ciarán

    2015-01-01

    The provision of some level of Mathematics Learning Support (MLS) is now standard in the majority of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland, the UK, and in many other countries. This provision is, in part, a response to the large numbers of students entering Higher Education who do not have the mathematical skills required and this cohort…

  13. The Contribution of Adult Learning to Health and Social Capital. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Leon; Hammond, Cathie; Woods, Laura; Preston, John; Bynner, John

    Researchers investigated effects of adult learning (AL) on a range of measures of health and social capital and cohesion. Data from the National Child Development Study relating to almost 10,000 adults born in Britain in 1958 were used, with focus on changes in their lives between age 33 in 1991 and 42 in 2000. Findings indicated AL played an…

  14. Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

    This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

  15. Exploring the Icebergs of Adult Learning: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    The extent and distribution of self-reported learning activities in the current Canadian adult population was estimated on the basis of data collected during a 1998 telephone survey of a sample of 1,562 Canadian adults. Random digital dialing was used to give all provinces, households, and individuals within households an equal chance of…

  16. The Interplay of Perceptions of the Learning Environment, Personality and Learning Strategies: A Study amongst International Business Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhuis, Jan; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on students' learning strategies has examined the relationships between either perceptions of the learning environment or personality and learning strategies. The focus of this study was on the joint relationships between the students' perceptions of the learning environment, their personality, and the learning strategies they…

  17. Drama in Education and Self-Directed Learning for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavoltsou, Athina A.; O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    Drama in Education (DIE), as an artistic and educational experience, is sufficiently evidenced in the literature as a dialogical, liberating practice of education. This article discusses a practitioner research project in a second chance adult education school in Greece, where the use of a DIE teaching and learning approach was explored in an…

  18. Adult Learning Development from the Prism of Homestay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyprian, Onwubiko Emeka

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to understand how adult learning takes place in homestay programme at Kanchong Darat, Banting, and Selangor in Malaysia. The study seeks to provide an overview evaluation and some salient lessons that could be derived in providing quality homestay services to learners. More so, the study succinctly covers socio-cultural issues in…

  19. Vocational Outcomes for Young Adults with Multiple Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harth, Robert; Burns, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the vocational outcomes for a group of young adults with multiple learning disabilities who attended a two-year post-secondary program. One hundred graduates of the program representing the first 15 years of the program participated in the study. Results indicated that large numbers of graduates were employed in both full…

  20. Promoting Adult Learning through Civil Discourse in the Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranich, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Founded in the 1850s to promote an informed citizenry, public libraries advanced both adult learning and citizenship education in the first half of the 20th century, thus becoming cornerstones of democracy. But with a more recent decline in public engagement in libraries and beyond, librarians question whether democracy requires more than an…

  1. Learning About Living: Youth and Adult Education on Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Helen P., Ed.; And Others

    Presented is an instructional guide designed for use in training young people and adults who may have children with learning problems. Included are five modules dealing with the following topics (with sample sub-topics in parentheses): child development (toilet training), home activities to enhance school performance (language development),…

  2. Managing Programs for Adults Learning English. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Amber Gallup; Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Ueland, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Programs for adults learning English vary widely in size and scope. Some are large, multilevel programs, such as the Arlington Education and Employment Program (REEP) in Virginia, which has more than 45 staff members, over 100 volunteers, and an array of student services for the 7,500 learners served annually at the program's 7 locations. Others…

  3. Cartographical Imaginations: Spatiality, Adult Education and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Cervero, Ron; Clarke, Julia; Morgan-Klein, Brenda; Usher, Robin; Wilson, Arthur

    Recent empirical and theoretical literature in cultural geography, feminist and postcolonial philosophy, cultural studies, and political economy, was explored in an examination of the significance of spatiality to the changes taking place in the policy, practice, and study of adult education and lifelong learning. The following were among the key…

  4. Reaching Adults for Lifelong Learning. I. Final Report and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Matilda B.; And Others

    The final technical report and summary of a study of lifelong learning programs in the United States are presented. Included in the report are a background study of adult and continuing education, a survey of existing programs and practices, and statistical findings. Specimen materials are shown and exemplary practices suggested. Recommendations…

  5. Correctional Education Programs for Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkages, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles about correctional education for learning-disabled adults. In "Correctional Education: A Worthwhile Investment; An Interview with Steven Steurer," the executive director of the Correctional Education Association (CEA) explains the benefits of correctional education and some of the CEA's efforts to improve the…

  6. Adult Literacy Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…

  7. Using a Group Approach to Motivate Adults to Learn Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Kendra R.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching braille is one of the most time-consuming tasks for a vision rehabilitation therapist. Complicating this process, adults who might be considered to be good candidates for learning braille are often resistant to the idea (Ponchillia & Ponchillia, 1996). In an attempt to address these challenges, a combination of correspondence braille…

  8. The Nature and Prevalence of Learning Deficiencies among Adult Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raymond; And Others

    In order to determine the nature and prevalence of learning deficiencies among adult inmates in U.S. correctional institutions, a sample of subjects was drawn from three institutions in each of the states of Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington. One male maximum security, one male medium security, and one women's prison were selected in each of…

  9. Assistive Technology: Meeting the Needs of Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riviere, Adrienne

    This monograph briefly describes a sampling of tools and technologies that can be used by adults with learning disabilities to improve their functional capabilities in employment, educational, or personal settings. Stressed is the importance of evaluating each technology in terms of the individual's unique profile, the function to be performed,…

  10. The Meaning and Role of Emotions in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes different ways of understanding emotions and their role in adult learning. The author suggests that people's understanding of emotions is shifting from one where they are viewed as an obstacle to reason and knowing to more holistic and integral ways of knowing one's self and the world. In this article, he provides a…

  11. Introducing Advanced Clinical Reasoning to an Adult Learning Disability Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…

  12. Nonformal and Informal Adult Learning in Museums: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudzinska-Przesmitzki, Dana; Grenier, Robin S.

    2008-01-01

    The taking up of an "educative" mantle has proven to be a complex task for museums, filled with many unknown and/or misunderstood factors. Of the vast assortment of educational opportunities museums afford their adult patrons and staff, the majority fall into one or two learning categories: either they are nonformal or informal. In effort to…

  13. Visual statistical learning in children and young adults: how implicit?

    PubMed Central

    Bertels, Julie; Boursain, Emeline; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Gaillard, Vinciane

    2015-01-01

    Visual statistical learning (VSL) is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham et al., 2002). However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels et al. (2012) addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments). Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in VSL may follow a developmental trajectory. PMID:25620943

  14. Adults' Learning about Science in Free-Choice Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie J.; Williams, Gina F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes findings from three studies to answer a general question: What do casual, adult visitors learn about science from their science-related experiences in free-choice settings? Specifically we asked whether there are changes in how people think about science in their daily lives, the nature and use of scientific knowledge, and…

  15. Discrimination learning in adult bobwhite quail fed paraquat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues

  16. Learning Theories & Their Application to Science Instruction for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Christa

    2012-01-01

    It has become apparent through the work of many researchers and practitioners that adults learn differently than their younger counterparts in the educational system. This is especially important to those educators teaching in colleges and universities in the sciences. Biology education in the post-secondary setting is inundated with teachers who…

  17. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  18. Interactive Multimedia for Adult Learners: Can Learning Be Fun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Sue; Oliver, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the eight learner attributes of immersion, reflection, play and flow, collaboration, learner control, curiosity, fantasy, and challenge, which were identified as being important in bringing about motivation and engagement in adult learners. Describes the interactive multimedia learning environment, "Principles of Financial Investment,"…

  19. Glossary of Adult Learning in Europe. A.E. Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federighi, Paolo, Ed.

    This document presents detailed "definitions" of more than 150 key terms covering the lexicon currently being used in the field of adult learning in 20 European countries. The document begins with an introduction that discusses the glossary's theoretical and historical references and includes 14 references and a 16-item bibliography. The…

  20. Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

    This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

  1. Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

  2. Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

  3. Clinical Assessment of Adult Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…

  4. Moving beyond the Limits of Learning: Implications of Learning Disabilities for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Linda Eastwick

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of learning disabilities has led to confusion regarding their definition and their intervention. Although the law protects adults with learning disabilities both in the workplace and classroom, it provides only a broad definition that has been subject to many interpretations. There is a paucity of longitudinal research on…

  5. Determining a Difference in Self-Directed Learning Readiness Using the Survey of Adult Learning Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezell, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the self-directed learning of educators and explore the differences between and among the variables of age, level of education, position, school district ratings, levels of poverty and affluence, and gender. The Survey of Adult Learning Traits (SALT) authored by Hogg was used as the instrument to measure…

  6. Using Adult Learning Principles as a Framework for Learning ICT Skills Needed for Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope

    2013-01-01

    Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning…

  7. Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words…

  8. Adult Learning in the Digital Age: Information Technology and the Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil; Gorard, Stephen; Furlong, John

    2005-01-01

    This book sheds light on the ways in which adults in the twenty-first century interact with technology in different learning environments. Based on one of the first large-scale academic research projects in this area, the authors present their findings and offer practical recommendations for the use of new technology in a learning society. They…

  9. Lifelong Learning: An Examination of Attitudes and Practices of Black Adults' Informal Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corppetts, Yvonne Jones

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of education has been viewed in a variety of ways and much attention has focused on learning that is validated or certified by certificates, diplomas, degrees, and the like. Studies suggest that the higher one's formal level of education the more desire there is for continued learning. Many adults in the U.S., however, are without the…

  10. Individual Learning Accounts: A Strategy for Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkema, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…

  11. Learning with E-Lectures: The Meaning of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadin, Tanja; Gruber, Astrid; Batinic, Bernad

    2009-01-01

    Video-based e-lectures offer interactive learning and more vivid and personalized forms of self-regulated learning. Participants (N = 28) learned from either a video-based e-lecture with synchronized written transcript of oral presentation (multimodal) or an e-lecture without the transcript (unimodal presentation). Learners could be classified as…

  12. Characteristics of Distance Learners: Research on Relationships of Learning Motivation, Learning Strategy, Self-Efficacy, Attribution and Learning Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ying; Peng, Huamao; Huang, Ronghuai; Hou, Yanhua; Wang, Jingjing

    2008-01-01

    This research uses adapted self-assessment questionnaires to examine the relationships between the learning motivation, learning strategies, self-efficacy, attribution and learning results of 135 distance learners. The aim is to model the relationship between psychological characteristics and learning results of distance learners. The outcomes of…

  13. Learning within a Situated Cognition Framework: Implications for Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rhonda S.; Schell, John W.

    A qualitative study examined the uses to which 14 adult learners put their acquired knowledge from a graduate-level course in organizational behavior both in and outside classroom settings. The course goal was to empower learners to use organizational theory to improve the performance of vocational education personnel. The 14 learners, who ranged…

  14. Strategies for Teaching Composition Skills to Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallecorsa, Ada L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article describes a process-oriented writing program for use with learning-disabled students at all grade levels. Strategies for helping students at the planning stage, the drafting stage, and the evaluation and revision stage are offered. (DB)

  15. Socio-cognitive profiles for visual learning in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Julie; Goldstone, Aimee; Kuai, Shu-Guang; Chin, Wynne; Abrams, Dominic; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom that practice makes perfect; but why do some adults learn better than others? Here, we investigate individuals’ cognitive and social profiles to test which variables account for variability in learning ability across the lifespan. In particular, we focused on visual learning using tasks that test the ability to inhibit distractors and select task-relevant features. We tested the ability of young and older adults to improve through training in the discrimination of visual global forms embedded in a cluttered background. Further, we used a battery of cognitive tasks and psycho-social measures to examine which of these variables predict training-induced improvement in perceptual tasks and may account for individual variability in learning ability. Using partial least squares regression modeling, we show that visual learning is influenced by cognitive (i.e., cognitive inhibition, attention) and social (strategic and deep learning) factors rather than an individual’s age alone. Further, our results show that independent of age, strong learners rely on cognitive factors such as attention, while weaker learners use more general cognitive strategies. Our findings suggest an important role for higher-cognitive circuits involving executive functions that contribute to our ability to improve in perceptual tasks after training across the lifespan. PMID:26113820

  16. Socio-cognitive profiles for visual learning in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Christian, Julie; Goldstone, Aimee; Kuai, Shu-Guang; Chin, Wynne; Abrams, Dominic; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom that practice makes perfect; but why do some adults learn better than others? Here, we investigate individuals' cognitive and social profiles to test which variables account for variability in learning ability across the lifespan. In particular, we focused on visual learning using tasks that test the ability to inhibit distractors and select task-relevant features. We tested the ability of young and older adults to improve through training in the discrimination of visual global forms embedded in a cluttered background. Further, we used a battery of cognitive tasks and psycho-social measures to examine which of these variables predict training-induced improvement in perceptual tasks and may account for individual variability in learning ability. Using partial least squares regression modeling, we show that visual learning is influenced by cognitive (i.e., cognitive inhibition, attention) and social (strategic and deep learning) factors rather than an individual's age alone. Further, our results show that independent of age, strong learners rely on cognitive factors such as attention, while weaker learners use more general cognitive strategies. Our findings suggest an important role for higher-cognitive circuits involving executive functions that contribute to our ability to improve in perceptual tasks after training across the lifespan.

  17. Lingual Kinematic Strategies Used to Increase Speech Rate: Comparison between Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine V.; Stephenson, Dayna K.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Darnell, Ross E.; Lapointe, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the lingual kinematic strategies used by younger and older adults to increase rate of speech. It was hypothesised that the strategies used by the older adults would differ from the young adults either as a direct result of, or in response to a need to compensate for, age-related changes in the…

  18. [Learning Portfolio: A New Strategy in Health Education].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Chen, Ching-Ju; Chang, Yu-Shan; Huang, Li-Chi

    2015-12-01

    Health education is the teaching by healthcare professionals of healthcare-related knowledge and skills to students in order that these students learn to help patients self-manage their disease and maintain health. This article introduces a new strategy in health education known as the learning portfolio and presents the theoretical basis and function of the learning portfolio and the current application of this approach in academic and health education. The learning portfolio is a learner-centric approach that collects evidence related to an individual's learning process systematically. This approach helps educators understand learner needs and conditions, while allowing the learner to observe his / her learning process in a manner that promotes self-reflection, continual inspection, and behavioral modification throughout the learning process. The results enhance the motivation of learners and strengthen their care confidence in accomplishing learning tasks.

  19. The Social-Interaction Learning Styles of Irish Adult Learners: Some Empirical Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Fathaigh, Mairtin

    An action research project was conducted to understand the learning style profile of Irish adult learners better and to integrate the findings into development seminars for adult education teachers and tutors. The Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scale (GRSLSS) was chosen as the research instrument to explore Irish adults' learning styles…

  20. Unequal Chances to Participate in Adult Learning: International Perspectives. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 83

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell; Milana, Marcella

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to document cross-national patterns of adult learning, and in particular the unequal chances to participate in adult learning. In so doing, an effort is made to identify important motivating factors for participating in adult learning. The specific objectives of the booklet are to: (1) make available the…

  1. The CABES (Clare Adult Basic Education Service) Framework as a Tool for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Moira

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a Framework that can be used to help bridge the gap between theory and practice in adult learning. The Framework promotes practice informed by three strands important to adult literacy work: social theories of literacy, social-constructivist learning theory and principles of adult learning. The Framework shows how five key…

  2. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  3. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Christine, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 7" is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  4. Computer Game-Based Learning: Perceptions and Experiences of Senior Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feihong; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate senior Chinese adults' potential acceptance of computer game-based learning (CGBL) by probing their perceptions of computer game play and their perceived impacts of game play on their learning of computer skills and life satisfaction. A total of 60 senior adults from a local senior adult learning center…

  5. Open Education 2030: Planning the Future of Adult Learning in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina; Punie, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning and open education have become key elements on the European Agenda. This paper presents the first results of a foresight activity that aims to contribute to an understanding of how "Opening up Education" can improve adult learning in Europe in the future. It argues that to open up adult learning two main challenges must be…

  6. From Hamburg to Belem: The Limits of Technocratic Thinking in Adult Learning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses some of the generalized analyses of adult learning education, mostly informed by technocratic thinking, highlighting perceived trends in adult learning education between CONFINTEA V and CONFITEA VI. Those trends could be understood as challenges. Employing a political sociology of adult learning education as a critique of…

  7. Fueling the Race to Postsecondary Success: A 48-Institution Study of Prior Learning Assessment and Adult Student Outcomes. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Prior Learning Assessment, or PLA, is an important and often overlooked strategy for helping adults progress towards a degree. PLA is the process by which many colleges evaluate for academic credit the college-level knowledge and skills an individual has gained outside of the classroom, including employment, military training/service, travel,…

  8. Fueling the Race to Postsecondary Success: A 48-Institution Study of Prior Learning Assessment and Adult Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Prior Learning Assessment, or PLA, is an important and often overlooked strategy for helping adults progress towards a degree. PLA is the process by which many colleges evaluate for academic credit the college-level knowledge and skills an individual has gained outside of the classroom (or from non-college instructional programs), including…

  9. Evolutionary strategies of stochastic learning automata in the prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Billard, E A

    1996-01-01

    Stochastic learning automata (SLA) model stimulus-response species which receive feedback from the environment and adjust their mixed strategies in a Prisoner's Dilemma. A large heterogeneous population consists of SLA applying different strategies (i.e. different learning parameters) and other players applying deterministic strategies, Tit-For-Tat (TFT) or Always-Defect (ALLD). The predicted equilibria determine the payoffs within a generation for applying particular strategies and these equilibria are confirmed by simulation. The resultant population dynamics over many generations show that SLA with insensitive penalty responses strongly favor defection and dominate in subsequent generations over SLA with sensitive penalty responses. The SLA strategies are not evolutionarily stable as they can be invaded by TFT or ALLD. With the introduction of memory in the stimulus-response model, SLA learn to cooperate with TFT players.

  10. Ten Efficient Research Strategies for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Thomas C.; Howell, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's distance education administrator, frequently with an expertise in another academic discipline, is also supposed to be a distance education scholar. This expectation results from the recent interest in distance learning that nearly all institutions of learning and disciplines of study have shown. More research, studies, journals, and essays…

  11. International E-Learning Business: Opportunities & Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasebrook, Joachim P.; Rudolph, Dirk W.

    Education is already a big business. E-learning, by making it easy to import information and skills to anyone, anywhere, anytime, and for any purpose will grow the education market. The big winners will be those vendors that identify and serve emerging and sometimes hidden markets. The biggest growth segments unleashed by e-learning are education…

  12. The Learning Environment: An Instructional Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Catherine E.; Suina, Joseph H.

    This book offers both a conceptual framework and practical guidance for arranging the elementary school classroom. It provides examples and drawings of arrangements from real classrooms and information and procedures for providing supportive learning environments. A conceptual overview of the learning environment considers the environment as a…

  13. Beyond Decoding: Adults with Dyslexia Have Trouble Forming Unified Lexical Representations across Pseudoword Learning Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Karole A.; Liederman, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how adults with dyslexia versus adults with typical reading form lexical representations during pseudoword learning. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia and 20 adults with typical reading learned meanings, spellings, and pronunciations of 16 pictured pseudowords, (half with regular and half with irregular grapheme-phoneme…

  14. Toward a New Motivation to Learn Framework for Older Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Sandmann, Lorilee R.

    2012-01-01

    Although existing literature addresses adults' motivation to learn, and some specifically focuses on older adults, it is now recognized that older adults are more heterogeneous and complex than other age groups. Therefore, this study seeks to provide an alternative theoretical framework to investigate motivation to learn for older adult learners…

  15. Learning through Multimedia Construction--A Complex Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Multimedia construction is a complex and theoretically valid process for developing higher order thinking that can be implemented as a teaching activity and optionally associated with formal assessment in many ways. This paper explores the associated learning strategy--learning through multimedia construction, through research and reflective…

  16. Critical Thinking: Strategies for Improving Student Learning, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In the last column we focused (as a primary goal of instruction) on the importance of teaching so that students learn to think their way into and through content. We stressed the need for well-designed daily structures and tactics for fostering deep learning, offering three strategies as examples. In this column, we provide four additional…

  17. Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in Learning Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the learning problems in psychology at Master of Education(M.Ed.,) in Bharathiar University and finds the effectiveness of Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in learning psychology. Single group Experimental method was adopted for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted for this study.…

  18. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  19. The Influence of Programming Skills on Learning and Study Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Younghee

    The relationship between learning to program at a construct level and learning and study strategies was studied for college students enrolled in a beginning Pascal programing course and a calculus course (four sections of the programing course and two of the mathematics course). For both the experimental group (n=42) and the first control group…

  20. Why copy others? Insights from the social learning strategies tournament.

    PubMed

    Rendell, L; Boyd, R; Cownden, D; Enquist, M; Eriksson, K; Feldman, M W; Fogarty, L; Ghirlanda, S; Lillicrap, T; Laland, K N

    2010-04-01

    Social learning (learning through observation or interaction with other individuals) is widespread in nature and is central to the remarkable success of humanity, yet it remains unclear why copying is profitable and how to copy most effectively. To address these questions, we organized a computer tournament in which entrants submitted strategies specifying how to use social learning and its asocial alternative (for example, trial-and-error learning) to acquire adaptive behavior in a complex environment. Most current theory predicts the emergence of mixed strategies that rely on some combination of the two types of learning. In the tournament, however, strategies that relied heavily on social learning were found to be remarkably successful, even when asocial information was no more costly than social information. Social learning proved advantageous because individuals frequently demonstrated the highest-payoff behavior in their repertoire, inadvertently filtering information for copiers. The winning strategy (discountmachine) relied nearly exclusively on social learning and weighted information according to the time since acquisition.