Science.gov

Sample records for adult life expectancy

  1. Life expectancy without depression increases among Brazilian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond; Wu, Fan; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate life expectancy with and without depressive symptoms in older adults for the years 2000 and 2010. METHODS We evaluated individuals aged 60 years or older (n = 1,862 in 2000 and n = 1,280 in 2010), participants of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Aging) study in in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Depression was measured using the shorter version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15); respondents scoring ≥ 6 were classified as having depression. Estimates of life expectancy with and without depression were obtained using the Sullivan method. RESULTS Data from 2000 indicate that 60-year-old men could expect to live, on average, 14.7 years without depression and 60-year-old women could expect to live 16.5 years without depression. By 2010, life expectancy without depression had increased to 16.7 years for men and 17.8 years for women. Expected length of life with depression differed by sex, with women expected to live more years with depression than men. CONCLUSIONS Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy without depression in Sao Paulo increased. However, older adults in Brazil, especially older women, still face a serious burden of mental illness. PMID:27143612

  2. Obesity and Life Expectancy Among Long-Lived Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In samples of African Americans and the elderly adults, obesity is often not found to be a risk factor for mortality. These data contradict the evidence linking obesity to chronic disease in these groups. Our objective was to determine whether obesity remains a risk factor for mortality among long-lived black adults. Methods. The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large prospective cohort study of Seventh-day Adventist church members who are encouraged by faith-based principles to avoid tobacco, alcohol, and meat consumption. We conducted an attained age survival analysis of 22,884 U.S. blacks of the cohort—half of whom attained an age of 58–108 years during the follow-up (adult life expectancy of 84 years in men, 89 years in women). Results. Women in the highest body mass index quintile (>33.8) experienced a significant 61% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.62 [1.23, 2.11] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and a 6.2-year (95% CI = 2.8–10.2 years) decrease in life expectancy. Men in the highest body mass index quintile (>30.8) experienced a significant 87% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.87 [1.28, 2.73] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and 5.9-year (95% CI = 2.1– 9.5 years) decrease in life expectancy. Obesity (>30) was a significant risk factor relative to normal weight (18.5–24.9) in never-smokers. Instantaneous hazards indicated excess risk from obesity was evident through at least age 85 years. The nonobese tended to follow plant-based diets and exercise vigorously. Conclusions. Avoiding obesity promotes gains in life expectancy through at least the eighth decade of life in black adults. Evidence for weight control through plant-based diets and active living was found in long-lived nonobese blacks. PMID:23682156

  3. Measuring the Impact of Diabetes on Life Expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy Among Older Adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study is to investigate differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), disabled life expectancy (DLE), and personal care assistance between individuals with and without diabetes in Mexico. Methods. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative Mexican Health and Aging Study. Disability was assessed through a basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measure, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and the Nagi physical performance measure. The Interpolation of Markov Chains method was used to estimate the impact of diabetes on TLE and DFLE. Results. Results indicate that diabetes reduces TLE at ages 50 and 80 by about 10 and 4 years, respectively. Diabetes is also associated with fewer years in good health. DFLE (based on ADL measures) at age 50 is 20.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.2–22.3) for those with diabetes, compared with 29.9 years (95% CI: 28.8–30.9) for those without diabetes. Regardless of diabetes status, Mexican women live longer but face a higher disability burden than men. Conclusion. Among older adults in Mexico, diabetes is associated with shorter TLE and DFLE. The negative effect of diabetes on the number of years lived, particularly in good health, creates significant economic, social, and individual costs for elderly Mexicans. PMID:20028950

  4. Mortality salience effects on the life expectancy estimates of older adults as a function of neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Molly; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death. PMID:21151516

  5. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. PMID:26921056

  6. Are Global and Regional Improvements in Life Expectancy and in Child, Adult and Senior Survival Slowing?

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Ryan J.; Verguet, Stéphane; Cheng, Yu-Ling; McGahan, Anita M.; Jha, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health–primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest. PMID:25992949

  7. The life course in the making: gender and the development of adolescents' expected timing of adult role transitions.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Lisa J; Beal, Sarah J

    2012-11-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' anticipated ages of school completion, job entry, marriage, and parenthood over the high school years, focusing on gender differences. Latent growth curve analysis of data from 411 rural youths followed from Grades 9 through 12 (age at Grade 9: M = 14.35, SD = 0.77) indicated a significant increase in adolescents' anticipated ages of entry into work and parenthood as well as gender differences in the trajectory of the expected age of marriage. Gender role attitudes, school performance, romantic relationships, and expected educational and occupational attainment were associated with the anticipated timing of role transitions, with significant variations by gender. Adolescents' expected ages of entry into adult family roles predicted their educational attainment and family role transitions in early adulthood. The findings provide insights into the process through which adolescent boys and girls construct their expectations regarding the transition to adulthood and, in turn, their future life course. PMID:22448985

  8. TRENDS IN SENESCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY

    PubMed Central

    Bongaarts, John

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between senescent and non-senescent mortality proves to be very valuable for describing and analyzing age patterns of death rates. Unfortunately, standard methods for estimating these mortality components are lacking. The first part of this study discusses alternative methods for estimating background and senescent mortality among adults and proposes a simple approach based on death rates by causes of death. The second part examines trends in senescent life expectancy (i.e. the life expectancy implied by senescent mortality) and compares them with trends in conventional longevity indicators between 1960 and 2000 in a group of 17 developed countries with low mortality. Senescent life expectancy for females rises at an average rate of 1.54 years per decade between 1960 and 2000 in these countries. The shape of the distribution of senescent deaths by age remains relatively invariant while the entire distribution shifts over time to higher ages as longevity rose. PMID:19851933

  9. The Life Course in the Making: Gender and the Development of Adolescents' Expected Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental…

  10. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  11. The ethics of life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Small, Robin

    2002-08-01

    Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive--our expectation of further life--and the other negative--the loss of potential life brought about by death. The most common method of determining this loss, by counting only the period of time between death and some particular age, implies that those who die at ages not far from that one are regarded as losing very little potential life, while those who die at greater ages are regarded as losing none at all. This approach has methodological advantages but ethical disadvantages, in that it fails to correspond to our strong belief that anyone who dies is losing some period of life that he or she would otherwise have had. The normative role of life expectancy expressed in the 'fair innings' attitude arises from a particular historical situation: not the increase of life expectancy in modern societies, but a related narrowing in the distribution of projected life spans. Since life expectancy is really a representation of existing patterns of mortality, which in turn are determined by many influences, including the present allocation of health resources, it should not be taken as a prediction, and still less as a statement of entitlement. PMID:12956176

  12. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  13. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  14. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  15. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  16. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2015, table 15 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries Health, United States 2015, table 14 [PDF - 9. ...

  17. Development of a 5 year life expectancy index in older adults using predictive mining of electronic health record data

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Jason Scott; Agrawal, Ankit; Feinglass, Joe; Cooper, Andrew J; Baker, David William; Choudhary, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Objective Incorporating accurate life expectancy predictions into clinical decision making could improve quality and decrease costs, but few providers do this. We sought to use predictive data mining and high dimensional analytics of electronic health record (EHR) data to develop a highly accurate and clinically actionable 5 year life expectancy index. Materials and methods We developed the index using EHR data for 7463 patients ≥50 years old with ≥1 visit(s) in 2003 to a large, academic, multispecialty group practice. We extracted 980 attributes from the EHRs of the practices and affiliated hospitals. Correlation feature selection with greedy stepwise search was used to find the attribute subset with best average merit. Rotation forest ensembling with alternating decision tree as underlying classifier was used to predict 5 year mortality. Model performance was compared with the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Walter life expectancy method. Results Within 5 years of the last visit in 2003, 838 (11%) patients had died. The final model included 24 attributes: two demographic (age, sex), 10 comorbidity (eg, cardiovascular disease), one vital sign (mean diastolic blood pressure), two medications (loop diuretic use, digoxin use), six laboratory (eg, mean albumin), and three healthcare utilization (eg, the number of hospitalizations 1 year prior to the last visit in 2003). The index showed very good discrimination (c-statistic 0.86) and outperformed comparators. Conclusions The EHR based index successfully distinguished adults ≥50 years old with life expectancy >5 years from those with life expectancy ≤5 years. This information could be used clinically to optimize preventive service use (eg, cancer screening in the elderly). PMID:23538722

  18. Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…

  19. The standardized mortality ratio and life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S P; Hardy, R J; Wen, C P

    1992-04-01

    This paper develops a theoretical relation between the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and the expected years of life and establishes a regression equation for easy conversion between these two statistics. The mathematical expression of the derived relation is an approximation, requiring an assumption of constant age-specific mortality ratios. It underestimates the "true" value calculated based on life table technique when the age-specific mortality ratios increase with age. This equation provides a conservative method to estimate the expected years of life for cohort mortality studies and facilitates an assessment of the impact of work-related factors on the length of life of the worker. It also allows one to convert the SMR to life expectancy in smaller studies whose sole objective is to determine the SMR in a working population. A 1% decrease (or increase) in the standardized mortality ratio will result in 0.1373 years increased (or decreased) life expectancy based on white male data for the US population. Furthermore, with data from 14 large oil refinery and chemical worker cohorts of white males, the "derived" expected years of life based on the regression equation closely predicts the corresponding value calculated using a standard life table technique. This statistical equation is expected to have practical applications when used in conjunction with the SMR to provide an approximate measure of life expectancy, a term and statistic familiar to most lay people. PMID:1595682

  20. Obesity and Life Expectancy with and without Diabetes in Adults Aged 55 Years and Older in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Symen; Peeters, Anna; Hofman, Albert; Nusselder, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Limited evidence exists regarding the effect of excess weight on years lived with and without diabetes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight and obesity with the number of years lived with and without diabetes in a middle-aged and elderly population. Methods and Findings The study included 6,499 individuals (3,656 women) aged 55 y and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed a multistate life table to calculate life expectancy for individuals who were normal weight, overweight, and obese and the difference in years lived with and without diabetes. For life table calculations, we used prevalence, incidence rate, and hazard ratios (HRs) for three transitions (healthy to diabetes, healthy to death, and diabetes to death), stratifying by body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders. During a median follow-up of 11.1 y, we observed 697 incident diabetes events and 2,192 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes (HR: 2.13 [p < 0.001] for men and 3.54 [p < 0.001] for women). Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women with or without diabetes. Total life expectancy remained unaffected by overweight and obesity. Nevertheless, men with obesity aged 55 y and older lived 2.8 (95% CI −6.1 to −0.1) fewer y without diabetes than normal weight individuals, whereas, for women, the difference between obese and normal weight counterparts was 4.7 (95% CI −9.0 to −0.6) y. Men and women with obesity lived 2.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 6.2) and 5.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 9.3) y longer with diabetes, respectively, compared to their normal weight counterparts. Since the implications of these findings could be limited to middle-aged and older white European populations, our results need confirmation in other populations. Conclusions Obesity in the middle aged and elderly is associated

  1. Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

  2. The future of life expectancy and life expectancy inequalities in England and Wales: Bayesian spatiotemporal forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James E; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Best, Nicky; Kontis, Vasilis; Pearson, Clare; Hambly, Peter; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts. Methods We developed Bayesian spatiotemporal models for forecasting of age-specific mortality and life expectancy at a local, small-area level. The models included components that accounted for mortality in relation to age, birth cohort, time, and space. We used geocoded mortality and population data between 1981 and 2012 from the Office for National Statistics together with the model with the smallest error to forecast age-specific death rates and life expectancy to 2030 for 375 of England and Wales' 376 districts. We measured model performance by withholding recent data and comparing forecasts with this withheld data. Findings Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales was 79·5 years (95% credible interval 79·5–79·6) for men and 83·3 years (83·3–83·4) for women in 2012. District life expectancies ranged between 75·2 years (74·9–75·6) and 83·4 years (82·1–84·8) for men and between 80·2 years (79·8–80·5) and 87·3 years (86·0–88·8) for women. Between 1981 and 2012, life expectancy increased by 8·2 years for men and 6·0 years for women, closing the female–male gap from 6·0 to 3·8 years. National life expectancy in 2030 is expected to reach 85·7 (84·2–87·4) years for men and 87·6 (86·7–88·9) years for women, further reducing the female advantage to 1·9 years. Life expectancy will reach or surpass 81·4 years for men and reach or surpass 84·5 years for women in every district by 2030. Longevity inequality across districts, measured as the difference between the 1st and 99th percentiles of district life expectancies, has risen since 1981, and is forecast to rise steadily to 8·3 years (6·8–9·7) for men and 8·3 years (7·1

  3. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions. PMID:19851603

  4. Past, Present, and Future of Healthy Life Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2015-11-01

    The success of the current biomedical paradigm based on a "disease model" may be limited in the future because of large number of comorbidities inflicting older people. In recent years, there has been growing empirical evidence, based on animal models, suggesting that the aging process could be delayed and that this process may lead to increases in life expectancy accompanied by improvements in health at older ages. In this review, we explore past, present, and future prospects of healthy life expectancy and examine whether increases in average length of life associated with delayed aging link with additional years lived disability-free at older ages. Trends in healthy life expectancy suggest improvements among older people in the United States, although younger cohorts appear to be reaching old age with increasing levels of frailty and disability. Trends in health risk factors, such as obesity and smoking, show worrisome signs of negative impacts on adult health and mortality in the near future. However, results based on a simulation model of delayed aging in humans indicate that it has the potential to increase not only the length of life but also the fraction and number of years spent disability-free at older ages. Delayed aging would likely come with additional aggregate costs. These costs could be offset if delayed aging is widely applied and people are willing to convert their greater healthiness into more years of work. PMID:26525456

  5. Trading stages: life expectancies in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrich K; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim; Horvitz, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography. PMID:22664576

  6. Forecasting differences in life expectancy by education.

    PubMed

    van Baal, Pieter; Peters, Frederik; Mackenbach, Johan; Nusselder, Wilma

    2016-07-01

    Forecasts of life expectancy (LE) have fuelled debates about the sustainability and dependability of pension and healthcare systems. Of relevance to these debates are inequalities in LE by education. In this paper, we present a method of forecasting LE for different educational groups within a population. As a basic framework we use the Li-Lee model that was developed to forecast mortality coherently for different groups. We adapted this model to distinguish between overall, sex-specific, and education-specific trends in mortality, and extrapolated these time trends in a flexible manner. We illustrate our method for the population aged 65 and over in the Netherlands, using several data sources and spanning different periods. The results suggest that LE is likely to increase for all educational groups, but that differences in LE between educational groups will widen. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the advantages of our proposed method. PMID:27052447

  7. Ambitious Mothers--Successful Daughters: Mothers' Early Expectations for Children's Education and Children's Earnings and Sense of Control in Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Hawkes, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mothers' expectations for their children's educational attainment are related to children's educational and occupational attainment. Studies have yet to establish, however, the long-term links between maternal expectations and offspring earnings, which are not always related to occupational attainment especially in women, or between…

  8. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

  9. Parenthood, Life Course Expectations, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Daniel; Williams, Kristi

    2011-03-01

    Although past research indicates that early and premarital childbearing negatively affect mental health, little is known about the role of individual expectations in shaping these associations. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we consider how individual expectations, measured prior to the entry into parenthood, shape mental health outcomes associated with premarital childbearing and birth timing, and consider gender and race/ethnic variations. Results indicate that expecting children before marriage ameliorates the negative mental health consequences of premarital first births and that subsequently deviating from expected birth timing, either early or late, results in increased distress at all birth ages. In both cases, however, the degree and manner in which expectations matter differ by gender and race/ethnicity. Results indicate that expectations for premarital childbearing matter only for African-Americans' mental health and although later than expected births are associated with decreased mental health for all groups, earlier than expected births are only associated with decreased mental health for women, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites. PMID:22229115

  10. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  11. Life in the universe. Expectations and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.

    Energy, chemistry, solvents, and habitats -- the basic elements of living systems - define the opportunities and limitations for life on other worlds. This study examines each of these parameters in crucial depth and makes the argument that life forms we would recognize may be more common in our solar system than many assume. It also considers, however, exotic forms of life that would not have to rely on carbon as basic chemical element, solar energy as a main energy source, or water as primary solvent. Finally the question of detecting bio- and geosignature of such life forms is discussed, ranging from Earth environments to deep space. While speculative considerations in this emerging field of science cannot be avoided, the authors have tried to present their study with the breadth and seriousness that a scientific approach to this issue requires. They seek an operational definition of life and investigate the realm of possibilities that nature offers to realize this very special state of matter and avoid scientific jargon wherever possible to make this intrinsically interdisciplinary subject understandable to a broad range of readers.

  12. An analysis on life expectancy of the world population and trend of increase in China's life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q

    1987-04-01

    Life expectancy is postively correlated with the per capita gross national product (GNP). There are exceptions, such as Qatar, which has a very high per capita GNP, but a life expectancy over 10 years less than the average level of developing countries. Also, in Sri Lanka, there is a relatively long life expectancy but low per capita GNP. Japan and Iceland have the longest life expectancy in the world, even though neither has the world's highest GNP. Life expectancy has been growing in developed countries since the beginning of the 1900s; presently it is relatively stable (70-75 years). Life expectancy in developing countries is growing fast. The world has experienced a "population explosion," but, because of birth control measures, the world population should stabilize gradually in the next century. Life expectancy is expected to keep increasing. Medical developments contribute to greater life expectancy. The 1st life-span revolution occurred in 1776 when the smallpox vaccine was developed; the 2nd occurred with the discovery of antibiotics in the early 1950s. According to World Health Organization estimates, life expectancy in developed countries should reach 75-80 years by the end of the century. In 1981 China's life expectancy was 67.9 years. According to a UN model, China's life expectancy will reach 73 years by 2000. Life expectancy is associated with not only the economy, but also social, cultural, and environmental factors. The favorable noneconomic factors which have helped to decrease mortality and increase life expectancy in China include 1) the socialist system which provides a moderate living for all and has developed the health care system; 2) widespread and longtime use of traditional medicine; 3) the oriental culture and ethnic group; and 4) the fact that in some developed countries with a low level of urbanization, life expectancy exceeds 70 years (China's urban population will be 40% by the year 2000). The author expects that China will only reach

  13. Unfulfilled expectations and symptoms of depression among young adults.

    PubMed

    Mossakowski, Krysia N

    2011-09-01

    This study uses the life course perspective and data from 16 waves of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-1994) to examine whether unfulfilled expectations about educational attainment, employment, marriage, and parenthood are risk factors for subsequent symptoms of depression among young adults in the United States. Results from ordinary least squares regression analyses indicate that achieving a lower level of education than expected, becoming a parent unexpectedly, and being out of the labor force unexpectedly at ages 19-27 predict higher levels of depressive symptoms at ages 29-37, adjusting for demographics, family background, and earlier mental health. These effects do not significantly vary by gender, age, race/ethnicity, or family background, and are not explained by being selected out of the labor force for long durations because of mental or physical illness, attending school, keeping house, or other reasons. Overall, this study contributes to the literature on stress and mental health by acknowledging people's expectations about the markers of adulthood, and advances our understanding of why the timing of transitions in people's lives can have long-term mental health consequences. PMID:21798639

  14. [Life expectancy and median life in life tables: the historical emergence of these measures].

    PubMed

    Lombardo, E

    1985-01-01

    The author describes the development of two measures used in life tables, life expectancy and median length of life. These measures were developed during the course of correspondence between the Dutch brothers Christiaan and Lodewijk Huygens in 1669. (summary in ENG, FRE) PMID:12314148

  15. Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies: expressions and applications.

    PubMed

    Missov, Trifon I; Lenart, Adam

    2013-12-01

    In a population of individuals, whose mortality is governed by a Gompertz-Makeham hazard, we derive closed-form solutions to the life-expectancy integral, corresponding to the cases of homogeneous and gamma-heterogeneous populations, as well as in the presence/absence of the Makeham term. Derived expressions contain special functions that aid constructing high-accuracy approximations, which can be used to study the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to model parameters. Knowledge of Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies aids constructing life-table exposures. PMID:24084064

  16. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  17. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  18. Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

  19. Expectations of Adult Graduate Students in an Online Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David; Grover, Kenda; Kacirek, Kit

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the expectations of adult graduate students enrolled in an online degree program at a research university in the mid-South United States. Students who were pursuing their master of education degree were invited to participate in an e-Focus group regarding their expectations of the degree program. Focus groups…

  20. Steep increase in best-practice cohort life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jdanov, Dmitri A; Andreev, Evgeny M; Vaupel, James W

    2011-01-01

    We analyze trends in best-practice life expectancy among female cohorts born from 1870 to 1950. Cohorts experience declining rather than constant death rates, and cohort life expectancy usually exceeds period life expectancy. Unobserved mortality rates in non-extinct cohorts are estimated using the Lee-Carter model for mortality in 1960–2008. Best-practice cohort and period life expectancies increased nearly linearly. Across cohorts born from 1870 to 1920 the annual increase in cohort length of life was 0.43 years. Across calendar years from 1870 to 2008, the annual increase was 0.28 years. Cohort life expectancy increased from 53.7 years in the 1870 cohort to 83.8 years in the 1950 cohort. The corresponding cohort/period longevity gap increased from 1.2 to 10.3 years. Among younger cohorts, survival to advanced ages is substantially higher than could have been anticipated by period mortality regimes when these cohorts were young or middle-aged. A large proportion of the additional expected years of life are being lived at ages 65 and older. This substantially changes the balance between the stages of the life cycle. PMID:22167810

  1. Life expectancy as an indicator of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Gulis, G

    2000-02-01

    Whether or not life expectancy at birth is related to the quality of life as expressed by global economical, environmental and nutritional measures is the primarily studied question in this article. Two models, set of independent variables and multivariate analysis was performed. An attempt to estimate the role of studied variables in overall life expectancy was done, too. A descriptive, ecological study design was used. The population of 156 countries have been taken into account, using data from published databases [7, 9]. Access to safe drinking water, per capita gross domestic product, literacy, calories available as percentage of needs and per capita public health expenditures were taken as exposure, and compared with life expectancy at birth. A linear regression model was used to estimate the role of different exposures on life expectancy at birth. A correlation matrix for all variables and life expectancy at birth is presented in the article. Literacy and access to safe drinking water are statistically significant variables (p < 0.001) also after fitting a linear regression model. The correlation coefficient for the linear model was 0.8823 (R2 = 0.7784). Shares of years of life from overall life expectancy attributed to studied variables were 28.06, 9.42, 2.04 and 1.93% for literacy, access to safe drinking water, GDP and calories available as percentage of needs, respectively. PMID:10845266

  2. Circulating MicroRNAs and Life Expectancy Among Identical Twins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenghui; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Scherler, Kelsey; Baxter, David; Wang, Kai; Krasnow, Ruth E; Reed, Terry; Dai, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Human life expectancy is influenced not only by longevity assurance mechanisms and disease susceptibility loci but also by the environment, gene-environment interactions, and chance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs closely related to genes. Circulating miRNAs have been shown as promising noninvasive biomarkers in the development of many pathophysiological conditions. However, the concentration of miRNA in the circulation may also be affected by environmental factors. We used a next-generation sequencing platform to assess the association of circulating miRNA with life expectancy, for which deaths are due to all causes independent of genes. In addition, we showed that miRNAs are present in 41-year archived plasma samples, which may be useful for both life expectancy and all-cause mortality risk assessment. Plasma miRNAs from nine identical male twins were profiled using next-generation sequencing. The average absolute difference in the minimum life expectancy was 9.68 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above 0.4 for 50% of miRNAs. Comparing deceased twins with their alive co-twin brothers, the concentrations were increased for 34 but decreased for 30 miRNAs. Identical twins discordant in life expectancy were dissimilar in the majority of miRNAs, suggesting that environmental factors are pivotal in miRNAs related to life expectancy. PMID:27402348

  3. The Jewish-Arab divide in life expectancy in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Anson, Jon

    2005-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in Israel in 2001 was 77.7 years for males and 81.6 years for females among Jews, and 74.5 and 77.8 years for males and females, respectively, among Israeli Arabs. In spite of vast improvements in health conditions of the two populations since Israel's statehood in 1948, persistent disparities in life expectancy between the two groups have challenged the Israeli socialized health care system. These disparities are influenced primarily by differences between the two population groups in infant and child mortality rates. This early study suggests that the distribution of life expectancy across localities in Israel reflects the distribution of those localities' socio-economic condition index (not including health and medical care), and the distribution of medical services. The positive association between life expectancy and the index is pronounced, however, only within the Jewish population but not among Arabs. While there may be no significant difference in life expectancy among Jews and Arabs living in poorer communities, there are fewer Arabs living in relatively affluent communities. Thus, persistent higher concentration of poverty among Arabs than among Jews has sufficed to maintain the gap in life expectancy between them. In addition, however, there are population-specific effects: wealth and education are more protective among Jews than among Arabs, while medical services are more protective among Arabs. PMID:15722265

  4. Expectancy in melody: tests of children and adults.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Adachi, Mayumi; Purdy, Kelly T; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2002-12-01

    Melodic expectancies among children and adults were examined. In Experiment 1, adults, 11-year-olds, and 8-year-olds rated how well individual test tones continued fragments of melodies. In Experiment 2, 11-, 8-, and 5-year-olds sang continuations to 2-tone stimuli. Response patterns were analyzed using 2 models of melodic expectancy. Despite having fewer predictor variables, the 2-factor model (E. G. Schellenberg, 1997) equaled or surpassed the implication-realization model (E. Narmour, 1990) in predictive accuracy. Listeners of all ages expected the next tone in a melody to be proximate in pitch to the tone heard most recently. Older listeners also expected reversals of pitch direction, specifically for tones that changed direction after a disruption of proximity and for tones that formed symmetric patterns. PMID:12500861

  5. Marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors covary with life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Daniel Brian

    2012-12-01

    Theories of "life history evolution" suggest that individuals might adjust the timing of marriage and reproduction, as well as their propensity to terminate a marriage or pregnancy and invest in skill development, in response to indicators of the locally prevailing level of life expectancy. In particular, such theories generate the hypothesis that foreshortened time horizons lead to hastened reproduction and marriage whereas lengthier time horizons increase the likelihood of reproductive and marital termination and lead to greater investment in education. Here, I show that the scheduling and occurrence of marital and reproductive behavior (including both initiation and termination), as well as levels of educational attainment and investment, covary with life expectancy, even after controlling for the effects of affluence. In analyses of variation in marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors at two jurisdictional levels in Canada, life expectancy was positively correlated with patterns of age-specific fertility, age at first marriage, divorce, abortion, conferral of high school and higher education degrees (with the exception of the trades) and mean number of years of schooling. The large and highly consistent relationships observed between life expectancy and the behaviors under investigation suggest that these associations may be mediated by individual "perceptions" of life expectancy, though more research is needed before conclusions can be firmly reached. PMID:22484517

  6. Life Expectancy of People with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo estimate the life expectancy and specify the causes of death among people with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). MethodsIncluded were all patients recorded in Alberta provincial databases of inpatients, outpatients, or practitioner claims from 2003 to 2012. People with FAS were identified by ICD-9 code 760.71 and ICD-10 codes Q86.0 and P04.3, and were linked to the Vital Statistics Death Registry to get information about mortality. Life expectancy was estimated by using the life table template developed in the United Kingdom, which is recommended for estimating life expectancy in small areas or populations. ResultsThe life expectancy at birth of people with FAS was 34 years (95% confidence interval: 31 to 37 years), which was about 42% of that of the general population. The leading causes of death for people with FAS were "external causes" (44%), which include suicide (15%), accidents (14%), poisoning by illegal drugs or alcohol (7%), and other external causes (7%). Other common causes of death were diseases of the nervous and respiratory systems (8% each), diseases of the digestive system (7%), congenital malformations (7%), mental and behavioural disorders (4%), and diseases of the circulatory system (4%). ConclusionThe life expectancy of people with FAS is considerably lower than that of the general population. As the cause of FAS is known and preventable, more attention devoted to the prevention of FAS is urgently needed. PMID:26962962

  7. Moving Out and Marriage: What Do Young Adults Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldscheider, Calvin; Goldscheider, Frances K.

    Living independently before marriage is part of a broader pattern of family and demographic change characterizing modern societies since World War II. This study examined expectations about premarital residential independence among young adults. Data were obtained from 28,240 high school seniors who participated in the High School and Beyond study…

  8. Young Adult Occupational Achievement. Early Expectations versus Behavioral Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Sutterlin, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of young adults' occupational aspirations during the first seven years after high school with occupations held at age 30 showed that, no matter when expectations were measured, fewer than half achieved their aspirations. Among those who do not, men tend to move to higher occupations/positions, whereas women move down or leave the labor…

  9. Trends in Life Expectancy and Lifespan Variation by Educational Attainment: United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The educational gradient in life expectancy is well documented in the United States and in other low-mortality countries. Highly educated Americans, on average, live longer than their low-educated counterparts, who have recently seen declines in adult life expectancy. However, limiting the discussion on lifespan inequality to mean differences alone overlooks other dimensions of inequality and particularly disparities in lifespan variation. The latter represents a unique form of inequality, with higher variation translating into greater uncertainty in the time of death from an individual standpoint, and higher group heterogeneity from a population perspective. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System from 1990 to 2010, this is the first study to document trends in both life expectancy and S25-the standard deviation of age at death above 25-by educational attainment. Among low-educated whites, adult life expectancy declined by 3.1 years for women and by 0.6 years for men. At the same time, S25 increased by about 1.5 years among high school-educated whites of both genders, becoming an increasingly important component of total lifespan inequality. By contrast, college-educated whites benefited from rising life expectancy and record low variation in age at death, consistent with the shifting mortality scenario. Among blacks, adult life expectancy increased, and S25 plateaued or declined in nearly all educational attainment groups, although blacks generally lagged behind whites of the same gender on both measures. Documenting trends in lifespan variation can therefore improve our understanding of lifespan inequality and point to diverging trajectories in adult mortality across socioeconomic strata. PMID:26813781

  10. Trends in healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong SAR 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2010-01-01

    Although Hong Kong has one of the best life expectancy (LE) records in the world, second only to Japan for women, we know very little about the changes in the health status of the older adult population. Our article aims to provide a better understanding of trends in both chronic morbidity and disability for older men and women. The authors compute chronic morbidity-free and disability-free life expectancy and the proportion of both in relation to total LE using the Sullivan method to examine whether Hong Kong older adults are experiencing a compression of morbidity and disability and whether there is any gender difference in relation to mortality and morbidity. The results of this study show that Hong Kong women tend to outlive Hong Kong men but are also more likely to suffer from a ‘double disadvantage’, namely more years of life with more chronic morbidity and disability. There has also been a significant expansion of chronic morbidity, as chronic morbidity-free life expectancy (CMFLE) decreased substantially for both genders from 1996 to 2008. Although disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) increased during this period, it increased at a slower pace compared to LE. The proportion of life without chronic morbidity also declined remarkably during these 12 years. Among the advanced ages, the proportion of remaining life in good health without disability has decreased since 1996, indicating a relative expansion of disability. PMID:21212818

  11. Gaps in life expectancy for people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stene, Lars C

    2016-06-01

    Two papers in this issue of Diabetologia present recent trends in life expectancy for people with type 1 diabetes, one using data from an Australian registry (Huo et al, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3857-4 ), the other, a Swedish registry (Petrie et al, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3914-7 ). This commentary provides a brief review of the concept of the period life expectancy and complexities regarding applicability to patients, before summarising and discussing the main results of the two papers. In addition, some remaining relevant knowledge gaps are discussed. PMID:27044339

  12. Life Skills Curriculum for Senior Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.

    This life skills curriculum helps adult basic educators meet the needs of senior adult learners. An introduction contains the following sections: purpose statement; description of the senior adult learner; tips to remember on teaching senior adults; physiology of aging; teaching the hearing impaired; and teaching the visually impaired. The life…

  13. Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

  14. Long and happy living: trends and patterns of happy life expectancy in the U.S., 1970-2000.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang

    2008-12-01

    This study assesses the trends and differentials in length of quality life in the U.S. population as measured by happy life expectancy in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. The analysis combines age-specific prevalence rates of subjective well-being from a large nationally representative survey and life table estimates of mortality in decennial Census years. Employing the period prevalence-rate life table method--Sullivan method, the analysis finds evidence for improvement in quality of life in the U.S. Happy life expectancy largely increased in both absolute terms (number of years) and relative terms (proportion of life) over time at all adult ages examined. And increases in total life expectancy were mainly contributed by increases in expectancy in happy years rather than unhappy years. Happy life expectancy is longer than active life expectancy. And there has been greater compression of unhappiness than compression of morbidity. There are substantial differentials in happy life expectancy by sex and race because of differential prevalence rates of happiness. Women and whites had longer years of total and happy life expectancies at most ages and dates, while men and blacks had greater proportions of happy life expectancies across the three decades. Although race differentials generally decreased at older ages and with time, relative disadvantages of blacks persisted. PMID:19227700

  15. Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jenny; Johansson, Eva E.; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine; Hamberg, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create statistically comparable themes and categories. Results Students’ written answers were coded, categorized and clustered into four themes: “Work”, “Family”, “Leisure” and “Quality of personal life”. Almost all students included aspects of work in their answers. Female students were more detailed than male ones in their family concerns. Almost a third of all students reflected on a future work-life balance, but considerations regarding quality of personal life and leisure were more common among last-year students. Conclusions Today’s medical students expect more of life than work, especially those standing on the doorstep of working life. They intend to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure activities. Our results reflect work attitudes that challenge the health care system for more adaptive working conditions. We suggest that discussions about work-life balance should be included in medical curricula.

  16. Tropics, Income, and School Life Expectancy: An Intercountry Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Rati

    1999-01-01

    Using UNESCO's recent data, explores effects of a country's income and "tropicality" on school life expectancy. Although income's effect is important, distance from the equator also matters. Effects of tropicality were larger in 1980 than in 1992. Implications are discussed. (13 references) (MLH)

  17. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  18. Research Spotlight: The varying life expectancies of American reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Tasked with controlling floods, coping through droughts, generating electricity, maintaining the flow of drinking water, preserving species' habitats, and managing the local environment, the United States' large-scale freshwater management system is important. Unfortunately, as sediment is washed from river basins to reservoirs, the persistent addition of material eats away at a reservoir's capacity and, consequently, its useful life expectancy. Understanding the integrity of the reservoir system is particularly important, with climate projections anticipating warmer, drier conditions for some parts of the country. Using a database of sedimentation surveys conducted between 1775 and 1993, Graf et al. calculate the life expectancies of many of the nation's reservoirs. They find that although most of the country's large reservoirs were built between 1950 and 1960, they have a wide range of expiration dates. They find that most large reservoirs, those with capacities greater than 1.2 cubic kilometers (0.29 cubic mile), have useful life expectancies ranging from 200 to more than 1000 years, with the lowest average life expectancy in the interior West. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2009WR008836, 2010)

  19. Infant Mortality and Life Expectancy in the Arab World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijim, Basheer K.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan designed to teach about variations in infant mortality and life expectancy in the Arab world, to identify the concept of spatial correlation, and to learn the location of Arab countries. Includes oil exports as a variable. Discusses methods of data and map interpretation. (RW)

  20. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bijwaard, Govert E.; van Poppel, Frans; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate effects. The aim of this paper is to present a novel method to estimate gains in life expectancy specifically associated with increased education. Our analysis is based on a structural model in which education level, IQ at age 18 and mortality all depend on (latent) intelligence. The model allows for (selective) educational choices based on observed factors and on an unobserved factor capturing intelligence. Our estimates are based on information from health examinations of military conscripts born in 1944–1947 in The Netherlands and their vital status through age 66 (n = 39,798). Results Our empirical results show that men with higher education have lower mortality. Using structural models to account for education choice, the estimated gain in life expectancy for men moving up one educational level ranges from 0.3 to 2 years. The estimated gain in months alive over the observational period ranges from -1.2 to 5.7 months. The selection effect is positive and amounts to a gain of one to two months. Decomposition of the selection effect shows that the gain from selection on (latent) intelligence is larger than the gain from selection on observed factors and amounts to 1.0 to 1.7 additional months alive. Conclusion Our findings confirm the strong selection into education based on socio-economic status and intelligence. They also show significant higher life expectancy among individuals with higher education after the selectivity of education choice has been taken into account. Based on these estimates, it is plausible therefore that increases in education could lead to increases in life expectancy. PMID:26496647

  1. Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly. PMID:21233437

  2. Estimation of life expectancy, loss-of-life expectancy, and lifetime healthcare expenditures for schizophrenia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Chou, Ming Hui; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Yang, Yen Kuang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-03-01

    By employing a novel semi-parametric extrapolation method, the life expectancies after the first hospitalization for schizophrenia and the associated lifetime healthcare expenditures were both estimated. Based on the linkage between the National Health Insurance Research Database and the National Mortality Registry of Taiwan, we have established a schizophrenic cohort for 2000-2010 and followed up to 2011. Survival function was estimated through Kaplan-Meier's method and extrapolated throughout life. We applied a simple linear regression to the logit-transformed survival ratio between the schizophrenic cohort and the sex-, age-matched referents via Monte Carlo simulation from the national life table. The monthly survival probability was multiplied by the average healthcare expenditures and summed throughout life to estimate the lifelong cost reimbursed by the National Health Insurance. The results showed that patients diagnosed at age 20-29 had the highest expected years of life lost (EYLL), 15 and 9years, in men and women, respectively, with corresponding lifetime healthcare expenditures of USD 48,000 and 53,000. Males generally had higher health cost per life-year than their female counterparts across their lifespan. We applied the same method to the first 6years of the cohort and extrapolated to 12years, which showed that the relative biases for different age strata were less than 5%. We thus concluded that the semi-parametric extrapolation method might provide a timely estimation of lifetime outcomes for health care planning of schizophrenia. PMID:26811230

  3. Life expectancy change in perturbed communities: derivation and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Levins, Richard; Rossignol, Philippe A

    2005-09-01

    Pollution, loss of habitat, and climate change are introducing dramatic perturbations to natural communities and affecting public health. Populations in perturbed communities can change dynamically, in both abundance and age structure. While analysis of the community matrix can predict changes in population abundance arising from a sustained or press perturbation, perturbations also have the potential to modify life expectancy, which adds yet another means to falsify experimental hypotheses and to monitor management interventions in natural systems. In some instances, an input to a community will produce no change in the abundance of a population but create a major shift in its mean age. We present an analysis of change in both abundance and life expectancy, leading to a formal quantitative assessment as well as qualitative predictions, and illustrate the usefulness of the technique through general examples relating to vector-borne disease and fisheries. PMID:16043195

  4. The maximum life expectancy for a micro-fabricated diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan; Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Popa, Viorica

    2015-02-01

    Micro-fabricated diaphragms can be used to provide pumping action in microvalve and microfluidic applications. The functionality of the microdiaphragm in a wirelessly actuated micropump plays a major role in low-powered device actuation. In developing micropumps and their components, it is becoming an increasing trend to predict the performance before the prototype is fabricated. Because performance prediction allows for an accurate estimation of yield and lifetime, in addition to developing better understanding of the device while taking into account the details of the device structure and second order effects. Hence avoid potential pitfalls in the device operation in a practical environment. The goal of this research is to determine via FEA the life expectancy for a corrugated circular diaphragm made out of an aluminum alloy. The geometry of the diaphragm is given below being generated within SolidWorks 2010, all the calculations were made using Ansys 13TM . The sound design of a micropump is heavily depending on the lifetime expectancy of the working part of the device which is the diaphragm. This will be subjected on cyclic loading and the fatigue will limit the life of this part. Once the diaphragm is breaking, the micropump is no more able to fulfill its scope. Any micropump manufacturer will then be very concerned on the life expectancy from the fatigue point of view of the diaphragms. The diaphragm circular and corrugated and made of Al alloy, showed a very good behavior from the fatigue point of view, the maximum life expectancy being 1.9 years of continuous functioning with 100 cycles per second. This work showed an simple and forward application of FEA analysis methods in order to estimate the fatigue behavior of corrugated circular microdiaphragms.

  5. Regional patterns of disability-free life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy: global Burden of Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, C J; Lopez, A D

    1997-05-10

    Published and unpublished data were reviewed to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and duration of 483 disabling sequelae of 107 diseases and injuries in an attempt to quantify disability for inclusion in health policy debates. The DisMod computer program was applied many times until consistent parameters were identified. The severity of disability was measured by the person-trade-off method, disability weights were measured across groups, and the prevalence of seven classes of disability was back-calculated from the distribution of each disabling sequelae across disabilities. The prevalence for each class of disability for different age-sex groups was used to calculate seven forms of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE). The prevalence of most disability classes is highest in sub-Saharan Africa and lowest in established market economies, with low-severity disabilities being the most common. DFLE varies significantly among regions. In high-income regions, almost 90% of expected disability is due to non-communicable diseases and most of the rest to injuries. However, in poorer regions, almost half of expected disability is due to communicable diseases and injuries. The higher proportion of life span spent disabled in high-mortality populations is consistent with the compression of morbidity hypothesis. PMID:9149696

  6. The evolution of fertility expectations over the life course.

    PubMed

    Hayford, Sarah R

    2009-11-01

    In low-fertility contexts, how many children people have is largely a product of how many children they want. However, the social, institutional, and individual factors that influence how many children people want are not well understood. In particular, there is scant evidence about how fertility expectations change over the life course. This article provides an empirical description of changes in women's expected fertility over the entire span of childbearing years. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort, group-based trajectory analysis illuminates common patterns in the evolution of fertility intentions and identifies individual characteristics associated with these patterns. Factors related to family formation, such as marriage and whether a woman has a child at an early age, are found to be the most consistent correlates of patterns of change in expected family size. PMID:20084828

  7. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs) between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated. PMID:22280469

  8. Disparities in Life Expectancy of Pacific Northwest American Indians and Alaska Natives: Analysis of Linkage-Corrected Life Tables

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, Megan J.; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Knaster, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience a high burden of mortality and other disparities compared with the general population. Life tables are an important population health indicator; however, federal agencies have not produced life tables for AI/ANs, largely due to racial misclassification on death certificates. Our objective was to correct this misclassification and create life tables for AI/ANs who resided in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., making comparisons with the general population. Methods To correct racial misclassification, we conducted probabilistic record linkages between death certificates from three Northwest states—Idaho, Oregon, and Washington State—issued during 2008–2010, and AI/AN patient registration records. We calculated mortality rates and generated period life tables for AI/ANs and non-Hispanic white (NHW) Americans. Results Overall life expectancy at birth for Northwest AI/ANs was 72.8 years, which was 6.9 years lower than that of NHW Americans. Male AI/ANs had a lower life expectancy (70.9 years) than female AI/ANs (74.6 years). The disparity in life expectancy between AI/ANs and their NHW counterparts was higher for females (with AI/ANs living 7.3 years fewer than NHW females) than for males (with AI/ANs living 6.7 years fewer than NHW males). The greatest disparity in mortality rates was seen among young adults. Conclusion Data linkage with a registry of known AI/ANs allowed us to generate accurate life tables that had not previously been available for this population and revealed disparities in both life expectancy at birth and survival across the life span. These results represent an important tool to help AI/AN communities as they monitor their health and promote efforts to eliminate health disparities. PMID:25552757

  9. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease. PMID:18555996

  10. Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S; Sahi, T; Koskenvuo, M; Kaprio, J

    1993-02-01

    Reliable data are scanty on the incidence of chronic diseases and life expectancy (LE) of highly trained athletes. We therefore studied Finnish male world class athletes to estimate the LE of athletes. Finnish team members in the Olympic games, World or European championships or intercountry competitions during 1920-1965 in track and field athletics, cross-country skiing, soccer, ice hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and shooting were included (N = 2613 men). The reference cohort, 1712 men, was selected from the Finnish Defence Forces conscription register matched on age and area of residence. All referents were classified completely healthy at the time of induction to military service. The stratified Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to estimate the life expectancies and the mortality odds ratios (OR) and their confidence limits. The mean LE adjusted for occupational group, marital status, and the age at entry to the cohort (and its 95% confidence limits) was in endurance sports (long distance running and cross-country skiing) 75.6 (73.6, 77.5) yr; in team games (soccer, ice hockey, basketball, as well as jumpers and short-distance runners from track and field (73.9 (72.7, 75.1) yr; in power sports (boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and throwers from field athletics) 71.5 (70.4, 72.2) yr; and in the reference group 69.9 (69.0, 70.9) yr. The increased mean life expectancies were mainly explained by decreased cardiovascular mortality (endurance sports mortality odds ratio OR = 0.49 (95% CL 0.26, 0.93), team sports OR = 0.61 (0.41, 0.92) compared with referents). For maximum life span no differences between the groups were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8450727

  11. Bayesian probabilistic projections of life expectancy for all countries.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Adrian E; Chunn, Jennifer L; Gerland, Patrick; Sevčíková, Hana

    2013-06-01

    We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for producing probabilistic forecasts of male period life expectancy at birth for all the countries of the world to 2100. Such forecasts would be an input to the production of probabilistic population projections for all countries, which is currently being considered by the United Nations. To evaluate the method, we conducted an out-of-sample cross-validation experiment, fitting the model to the data from 1950-1995 and using the estimated model to forecast for the subsequent 10 years. The 10-year predictions had a mean absolute error of about 1 year, about 40 % less than the current UN methodology. The probabilistic forecasts were calibrated in the sense that, for example, the 80 % prediction intervals contained the truth about 80 % of the time. We illustrate our method with results from Madagascar (a typical country with steadily improving life expectancy), Latvia (a country that has had a mortality crisis), and Japan (a leading country). We also show aggregated results for South Asia, a region with eight countries. Free, publicly available R software packages called bayesLife and bayesDem are available to implement the method. PMID:23494599

  12. Expectations about Memory Change Across the Life Span Are Impacted By Aging Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lineweaver, Tara T.; Berger, Andrea K.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether expectations about memory change with age vary for different personality types. Four adjectives from each of Hummert’s age-stereotype trait sets were selected to create 11 adjective clusters varying in both valence (positive versus negative) and relevance to memory functioning. Three hundred and seventy three participants in three age groups rated the memory abilities of target adults, defined by the adjective clusters, across the adult life span. Consistent with past studies, participants believed in age-related memory decline. However, participants rated target adults with positive personality traits as having better memory ability and less age-related memory decline than target adults with negative personality traits. This effect was larger when the traits were relevant to memory than when they were not. Finally, older participants were more strongly influenced by both the valence and the relevance of the personality descriptions than younger participants. PMID:19290748

  13. Infant mortality and life expectancy in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Nijim, B K

    1990-01-01

    This exercise illustrates the concept of spatial correlation, the categorizing of data for mapping, and the use of the scatter diagram. It employs the variables of infant mortality and life expectancy as applied to the Arab World, though any region can be used. The factor of oil exports is added to enhance discussion of the findings. An extra advantage of the exercise is the learning of names of countries in a relatively painless way. The exercise teaches both content and methods of interpretation, and it is adaptable to high school and college levels. PMID:12178546

  14. A Unifying Framework for Assessing Changes in Life Expectancy Associated with Changes in Mortality: The Case of Violent Deaths*

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir

    2011-01-01

    For over forty years, demographers have worked intensely to develop methods that assess the gain in life expectancy from a reduction in mortality, either hypothetical or observed. This considerable body of research was motivated by assessing the gains in life expectancy when mortality declined in a particular manner and determining the contribution of a cause of death in observed changes in life expectancy over time. As yet, there has been no framework unifying this important demographic work. In this paper, we provide a unifying framework for assessing the change in life expectancy given a change in age and cause-specific mortality. We consider both conceptualizations of mortality change–counterfactual assessment of a hypothetical change and a retrospective assessment of an observed change. We apply our methodology to violent deaths, the leading cause of death among young adults, and show that realistic targeted reductions could have important impacts on life expectancy. PMID:21609727

  15. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Adult Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994–95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7–12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001–02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24–32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50–50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth. PMID:22870260

  16. Resolving the life cycle alters expected impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Buckley, Lauren B; Keitt, Timothy H; Smith, Colton D; Boateng, Kwasi O; Kumar, Davina S; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-08-22

    Recent models predict contrasting impacts of climate change on tropical and temperate species, but these models ignore how environmental stress and organismal tolerance change during the life cycle. For example, geographical ranges and extinction risks have been inferred from thermal constraints on activity during the adult stage. Yet, most animals pass through a sessile embryonic stage before reaching adulthood, making them more susceptible to warming climates than current models would suggest. By projecting microclimates at high spatio-temporal resolution and measuring thermal tolerances of embryos, we developed a life cycle model of population dynamics for North American lizards. Our analyses show that previous models dramatically underestimate the demographic impacts of climate change. A predicted loss of fitness in 2% of the USA by 2100 became 35% when considering embryonic performance in response to hourly fluctuations in soil temperature. Most lethal events would have been overlooked if we had ignored thermal stress during embryonic development or had averaged temperatures over time. Therefore, accurate forecasts require detailed knowledge of environmental conditions and thermal tolerances throughout the life cycle. PMID:26290072

  17. Life Satisfaction in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crom, Deborah B.; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, life-long deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors’ physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggests some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population–based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t-tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors’ general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. PMID:25027187

  18. The Exceptionally High Life Expectancy of Costa Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Robust data from a voter registry show that Costa Rican nonagenarians have an exceptionally high live expectancy. Mortality at age 90 in Costa Rica is at least 14% lower than an average of 13 high-income countries. This advantage increases with age by 1% per year. Males have an additional 12% advantage. Age-90 life expectancy for males is 4.4 years, one-half year more than any other country in the world. These estimates do not use problematic data on reported ages, but ages are computed from birth dates in the Costa Rican birth-registration ledgers. Census data confirm the exceptionally high survival of elderly Costa Ricans, especially males. Comparisons with the United States and Sweden show that the Costa Rican advantage comes mostly from reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, coupled with a low prevalence of obesity, as the only available explanatory risk factor. Costa Rican nonagenarians are survivors of cohorts that underwent extremely harsh health conditions when young, and their advantage might be just a heterogeneity in frailty effect that might disappear in more recent cohorts. The availability of reliable estimates for the oldest-old in low-income populations is extremely rare. These results may enlighten the debate over how harsh early-life health conditions affect older-age mortality. PMID:18939667

  19. Gender differences in life expectancy among kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J

    1985-01-01

    A literature review of findings reveals that the life expectancy (LE) of females is longer than that of males and that a strong relationship exists between LE and gender differences in LE. The arguments of biological vs societal reasons for such gender differences are presented and the kibbutz society is offered as a setting to test the rivaling hypotheses. It is argued that the kibbutz society offers more similar roles for both genders than outside the kibbutz and therefore the gender differences in LE should be reduced in comparison to what is expected, given the very high LE of kibbutz members. Statistical data of the kibbutz population between the years 1975-1980 are analyzed and the results support the following conclusions: female members have higher LE but the difference is much less than expected on the basis of a regression analysis of data from 73 societies; the difference is smaller due to the relatively higher gain in LE by males; the gender differences are even smaller at age 50 compared to LE differences at birth. The Discussion section dwells upon interpretations of the findings and argues against alternative interpretations that assume selection processes for the kibbutz population. Suggestions for further studies are also made. PMID:4049023

  20. Predicting future years of healthy life for older adults.

    PubMed

    Diehr, P; Patrick, D L; Bild, D E; Burke, G L; Williamson, J D

    1998-04-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies often need to compare the cost of a program to the lifetime benefits of the program, but estimates of lifetime benefits are not routinely available, especially for older adults. We used data from two large longitudinal studies of older adults (ages 65-100) to estimate transition probabilities from one health state to another, and used those probabilities to estimate the mean additional years of healthy life that an older adult of specified age, sex, and health status would experience. We found, for example, that 65-year-old women in excellent health can expect 16.8 years of healthy life in the future, compared to only 8.5 years for women in poor health. We also provide estimates of discounted years of healthy life and future life expectancy. These estimates may be used to extend the effective length of the study period in cost-effectiveness studies, to examine the impact of chronic diseases or risk factors on years of healthy life, or to investigate the relationship of years of life to years of healthy life. Several applications are described. PMID:9539891

  1. Adult education and the quality of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijnman, Albert

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complementary role of adult education in influencing people's objective and subjective quality of life. The analytical strategy used to achieve this end is to estimate parameters in a path model which includes both objective indicators such as occupational status and earned income, and subjective indicators such as job satisfaction and perceived personal wellbeing. The investigation builds on Swedish data and employs the LISREL method in the fitting of the model to the data. The results indicate that adult education positively influences objective indicators of the quality of life. Even though adult education is found to relate to measures of perceived personal wellbeing, the hypothesis that it also influences the way men assess their life situation and evaluate their subjective quality of life cannot be confirmed.

  2. The New Demographic Transition: Most Gains in Life Expectancy Now Realized Late in Life

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Karen N.; Fuchs, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    The share of increases in life expectancy realized after age 65 was only about 20 percent at the beginning of the 20th century for the US and 16 other countries at comparable stages of development; but that share was close to 80 percent by the dawn of the 21st century, and is almost certainly approaching 100 percent asymptotically. This new demographic transition portends a diminished survival effect on working life. For high-income countries at the forefront of the longevity transition, expected lifetime labor force participation as a percent of life expectancy is declining. Innovative policies are needed if societies wish to preserve a positive relationship running from increasing longevity to greater prosperity. PMID:25076810

  3. Educational and Sex Differentials in Life Expectancies and Disability-Free Life Expectancies in São Paulo, Brazil, and Urban Areas in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate transition probabilities between disability states, total life expectancy, and the latter’s decomposition into years spent disabled and disability-free by age, sex and education among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico. Methods Applied a micro-simulation method (Interpolative Markov Chains) using longitudinal data. Results We found large between-country educational differences in incidence of and recovery from disability with higher rates in Mexico than in São Paulo, but no differences in mortality. Older adults in Mexico spent longer time being disability-free than in São Paulo for both levels of education. Males and females in São Paulo spent a larger fraction of their remaining life disabled at every age than their counterparts in urban areas in Mexico. Discussion There were educational differences in the prevalence of disability in São Paulo and urban areas in Mexico, and significant educational differences in disability incidence and recovery across sites. PMID:23781016

  4. Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, R; McGale, P; Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Peto, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life. Design The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950. Setting Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants Smoking status for 27 311 men and 40 662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed. Main outcome measures Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers. Results Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it. Conclusions The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35. PMID:23100333

  5. Andragogical Characteristics and Expectations of University of Hawai'i Adult Learners in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which andragogical characteristics and expectations of adult learners manifested themselves in the three-dimensional, multi-user virtual environment known as Second Life. This digital ethnographic study focused specifically on adult students within the University of Hawai'i Second Life group and their…

  6. Adults' conceptions of intelligence across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Berg, C A; Sternberg, R J

    1992-06-01

    To examine whether young, middle-aged, and older adults view the concept of intelligent person as similar or different during adulthood, 140 adults of various ages rated how likely it would be for individuals of average and exceptional intelligence at 30, 50, and 70 years of age to be engaged in behaviors previously identified by adults as characterizing adult intelligence. Adults perceived more similarity between exceptionally intelligent prototypes of closer ages (i.e., 30 and 50 and 50 and 70). Intelligence was perceived to consist of interest and ability to deal with novelty, everyday competence, and verbal competence--dimensions that were perceived to be differentially important for different-aged prototypes and by individuals of different ages. Participants' conceptions also included the idea that intelligence is malleable and that abilities differentially increase or decrease across the life span. PMID:1610512

  7. Sustainable development and quality of life: expected effects of prospective changes in economic and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Vlek, C; Skolnik, M; Gatersleben, B

    1998-01-01

    In the context of "sustainable development", we studied which attributes are important to people's quality of life (QoL) and which changes in QoL people would expect from future economic and environmental improvements or deteriorations. About 200 adult subjects evaluated the relative importance of 22 different QoL attributes. They subsequently indicated expected changes in those attributes, under three different scenarios in which economic and environmental conditions would either improve or deteriorate. On average, subjects judged the QoL attributes "healthy", "family", "environmental quality", "nature" and "safety" to be most important, while "recognition", "comfort", "status" and "spiritual life" were found least important. The most important QoL attributes as well as "security" were judged as more important by women than by men. Also observed were income and age effects on relative attribute importance. Our (Dutch) subjects expected significant and varied negative QoL changes from an environmental-deterioration scenario involving either an improved or a deteriorated economy. In contrast, they had mixed positive-negative QoL expectations about environmental improvement combined with economic deterioration. Subjects high in environmental concern assigned greater weight to "environmental" QoL attributes, and they expected environmental improvement versus deterioration to more strongly affect their QoL-attributes "environmental quality", "nature", "health" and "unity with nature", than did subjects low in environmental concern. We conclude that quality of life can be meaningfully conceived as a multi-attribute value concept, useful for assessing the expected effects of future economic and environmental conditions. Suggestions are given for methodological improvement and for further research. PMID:9857825

  8. The aging process and potential interventions to extend life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Tosato, Matteo; Zamboni, Valentina; Ferrini, Alessandro; Cesari, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death. The major theories of aging are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of age-related physiological changes. However, a global view of them is needed when debating of a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects. In this context, the search for a single cause of aging has recently been replaced by the view of aging as an extremely complex, multifactorial process. Therefore, the different theories of aging should not be considered as mutually exclusive, but complementary of others in the explanation of some or all the features of the normal aging process. To date, no convincing evidence showing the administration of existing “anti-aging” remedies can slow aging or increase longevity in humans is available. Nevertheless, several studies on animal models have shown that aging rates and life expectancy can be modified. The present review provides an overlook of the most commonly accepted theories of aging, providing current evidence of those interventions aimed at modifying the aging process. PMID:18044191

  9. [Resuscitation - Adult advanced life support].

    PubMed

    Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bein, Berthold

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced measures for resuscitation of adults are based on basic measures of resuscitation. The central elements are highly effective chest compressions and avoidance of disruptions that are associated with poor patient outcomes that occur within seconds. The universal algorithm distinguishes the therapy for ventricular fibrillation from the therapy in asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA) by the need of defibrillation, and amiodarone administration in the former. Defibrillation is biphasic. In all other aspects, there are no differences in therapy. In each episode of cardiac arrest, reversible causes should be excluded or treated. For the diagnosis during resuscitation, sonography can be helpful. What is new in the 2015 ERC recommendations is the use of capnography, which can be used for the assessment of ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation), ventilation, resuscitation and intubation quality. Mechanical resuscitation devices can be used in selected situations. Successful primary resuscitation should be directly followed by measures of the post-resuscitation care. PMID:27022698

  10. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  11. Life Expectancy after Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harrison-Felix, Cynthia; Pretz, Christopher; Hammond, Flora M; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Bell, Jeneita; Corrigan, John; Miller, A Cate; Haarbauer-Krupa, Juliet

    2015-12-01

    This study characterized life expectancy after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database (NDB) was weighted to represent those ≥16 years of age completing inpatient rehabilitation for TBI in the United States (US) between 2001 and 2010. Analyses included Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs), Cox regression, and life expectancy. The US mortality rates by age, sex, race, and cause of death for 2005 and 2010 were used for comparison purposes. Results indicated that a total of 1325 deaths occurred in the weighted cohort of 6913 individuals. Individuals with TBI were 2.23 times more likely to die than individuals of comparable age, sex, and race in the general population, with a reduced average life expectancy of 9 years. Independent risk factors for death were: older age, male gender, less-than-high school education, previously married at injury, not employed at injury, more recent year of injury, fall-related TBI, not discharged home after rehabilitation, less functional independence, and greater disability. Individuals with TBI were at greatest risk of death from seizures; accidental poisonings; sepsis; aspiration pneumonia; respiratory, mental/behavioral, or nervous system conditions; and other external causes of injury and poisoning, compared with individuals in the general population of similar age, gender, and race. This study confirms prior life expectancy study findings, and provides evidence that the TBIMS NDB is representative of the larger population of adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation for TBI in the US. There is an increased risk of death for individuals with TBI requiring inpatient rehabilitation. PMID:25057965

  12. Quality of Life in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedoot, Caroline; Bouwmans, Clazien; Franken, Marie-Christine; Stolk, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to explore to what extent QoL is impaired in adults who stutter (AWS). In…

  13. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  14. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  15. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia:Squamata:Varanidae) in North American zoos.

    PubMed

    Mendyk, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In zoos, life expectancy-the average lifespan of individuals within a population, and longevity-the maximum lifespan within a population, can be useful parameters for evaluating captive husbandry and animal welfare. Using life history and demographic data derived from regional studbooks, this study examined life expectancy and longevity in a total of 782 wild-caught (WC) and captive-bred (CB) varanid lizards of seven species maintained in North American zoos since 1926. The average lifespans for WC and CB animals were 6.3 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.4 years, respectively, with CB males living significantly longer than females (P = 0.009). A total of 26.4% of WC and 22.5% of CB animals experienced mortality during their first 2 years in captivity, with mortality during this period greatest among Varanus rudicollis and V. prasinus. A positive correlation was observed between life expectancy and adult body mass in captive-bred individuals (r = 0.981; P = 0.002). Wild-caught females with a history of successful reproduction had a significantly greater average lifespan than non-reproducing females (P < 0.0001). Results from this study suggest that varanids have not been reaching their lifespan capacities in North American zoos. In light of these findings, several husbandry-related factors which may be affecting the welfare and lifespans of varanids in zoos are identified and discussed. This study also highlights the utility of demographic and life history data in captive animal management, and offers a general framework for future herpetological studies of a similar nature. PMID:25503984

  16. Social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of economic crisis (1993–2010) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea. PMID:23171369

  17. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990-1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006-2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010. PMID:27073716

  18. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  19. Adjusting for dependent comorbidity in the calculation of healthy life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, Colin D; Iburg, Kim M; Begg, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy – sometimes called health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) – is a form of health expectancy indicator that extends measures of life expectancy to account for the distribution of health states in the population. The World Health Organization has estimated healthy life expectancy for 192 WHO Member States using information from health interview surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease Study. The latter estimates loss of health by cause, age and sex for populations. Summation of prevalent years lived with disability (PYLD) across all causes would result in overestimation of the severity of the population average health state because of comorbidity between conditions. Earlier HALE calculations made adjustments for independent comorbidity in adding PYLD across causes. This paper presents a method for adjusting for dependent comorbidity using available empirical data. Methods Data from five large national health surveys were analysed by age and sex to estimate "dependent comorbidity" factors for pairs of conditions. These factors were defined as the ratio of the prevalence of people with both conditions to the product of the two total prevalences for each of the conditions. The resulting dependent comorbidity factors were used for all Member States to adjust for dependent comorbidity in summation of PYLD across all causes and in the calculation of HALE. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out for order effects in the proposed calculation method. Results There was surprising consistency in the dependent comorbidity factors across the five surveys. The improved estimation of dependent comorbidity resulted in reductions in total PYLD per capita ranging from a few per cent in younger adult ages to around 8% in the oldest age group (80 years and over) in developed countries and up to 15% in the oldest age group in the least developed countries. The effect of the dependent comorbidity adjustment on estimated healthy life

  20. Alcohol Expectancies and Excessive Drinking Contexts in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Youthful drinkers (N=315) were studied to examine the relationship between three alcohol expectancies as measured by the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire and three drinking situation subscales from the Drinking Context Scale. Discusses results of data analysis and practice implications for work with youthful drinkers. (MKA)

  1. Expectancies vs. Background in the Prediction of Adult Drinking Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    Alcoholism research has independently focused on background characteristics and alcohol-related expectations, e.g., social and physical pleasure, reduced tension, and increased assertiveness, as important variables in identifying high risk individuals. To assess the utility of alcohol reinforcement expectations as predictors of drinking patterns,…

  2. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Jacob; Rosen, Sydney; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Haber, Noah; Herbst, Kobus; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Background Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed—at the population level—whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade. Methods and Findings Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate). Demographic data were linked at the individual level to clinical records from the public sector HIV treatment and care program that serves the region. Annual rates of HIV-related mortality were assessed for men and women separately, and female-to-male rate ratios were estimated in exponential hazard models. Sex-specific trends in adult life expectancy and HIV-cause-deleted adult life expectancy were calculated. The proportions of HIV deaths that accrued to men and women at different stages in the HIV cascade of care were estimated annually. Following the beginning of HIV treatment scale-up in 2004, HIV mortality declined among both men and women. Female adult life expectancy increased from 51.3 y (95% CI 49.7, 52.8) in 2003 to 64.5 y (95% CI 62.7, 66.4) in 2011, a gain of 13.2 y. Male adult life expectancy increased from 46.9 y (95% CI 45.6, 48.2) in 2003 to 55.9 y (95% CI 54.3, 57.5) in 2011, a gain of 9.0 y. The gap between female and male adult life expectancy doubled, from 4.4 y in 2003 to 8.6 y in 2011, a difference of 4.3 y (95% CI 0.9, 7.6). For women, HIV mortality declined from 1.60 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.46, 1.75) in 2003 to 0.56 per 100 person

  3. Students Do Not Overestimate Their Life Expectancy: An Alternative Demonstration of Unique Invulnerability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helweg-Larsen, Marie

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether undergraduate psychology students will give optimistic estimates of their life expectancy if they receive either no information or correct information about the average life expectancy. Reveals that both men and women in each of the two conditions estimated their life span at approximately their actuarial age. (CMK)

  4. Adults' Expectancies about Children's Emotional Responsiveness: Implications for the Development of Implicit Theories of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelco, Frank A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Preschool, third-grade and sixth-grade children, and adults were shown vignettes depicting eight types of experiences and asked for their own (for children) or the children's (for adults) expected emotional reactions. Overall, adults showed an absence of developmental considerations in their implicit theories of children's emotional…

  5. Expectancies for Success as a Multidimensional Construct among Employed Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    Administered the Generalized Expectancy for Success-Revised (GESS-R) scale (B. Fibel and W. Hale, 1978) to 547 full-time employees in the United States. Exploratory factor analysis found four distinct factors, and scores on these four subscales were minimally related to the demographics of the subjects and had adequate internal consistency.…

  6. ADULT OUTCOME EXPECTANCIES FOR PURCHASING FRUIT AND VEGETABLES: A VALIDATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To validate four scales for fruit and vegetable (FV) purchasing outcome expectancies. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 161 individuals with a follow-up survey (to assess test retest reliability) six weeks later. An attempt was made to recruit an ethnically and socioeconomical...

  7. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    PubMed

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering. PMID:26868721

  8. An economic analysis of life expectancy by gender with application to the United States.

    PubMed

    Leung, Michael C M; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Junsen

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an economic model to explain the behavior of life expectancy of both sexes. It explicitly examines the relationship between the gender gap in life expectancy and the gender gap in pay. It shows that as the latter narrows over the course of economic development, the former may initially expand but will eventually shrink. Simulation results from our model accord with the behavior of life expectancy for both sexes since the 1940s in the United States. PMID:15587696

  9. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  10. Reduction of social inequalities in life expectancy in a city of Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around the world the life expectancy at birth has risen steadily over time. However, this increase in life years is not equally distributed among different social segments of the population. Studies have demonstrated that social groups living in deprived areas have a shorter life expectancy at birth in comparison to affluent ones. The aim of this study was to evaluate inequalities in life expectancy by socioeconomic strata in a city with one million inhabitants in Southeastern Brazil, in 2000 and 2005. Methods Through an ecological approach, the 49 areas of health care units of the city were classified into three socioeconomic strata, defined according to variables of income and educational level of the heads of household obtained from the 2000 Census. Life tables were constructed by sex for each of the three socioeconomic strata in 2000 and 2005. Results The life expectancy at birth for men and women living in poor areas was 6.9 and 5.5 years lower in comparison to the affluent ones in 2000. Between 2000 and 2005, these social inequalities in life expectancy at birth reduced, since the groups with lower socioeconomic level had gained more life years. The increase in life expectancy at birth experienced by areas with worse living conditions was 3 times higher than the increment estimated for prosperous areas for both sexes. Males had the greatest gain in life years, leading to a narrowing of gender differentials in life expectancy between 2000 and 2005. Conclusions The reduction of social inequalities in life expectancy suggests that living and health conditions have improved over time, due to social and health policies. The expansion of both health care coverage and cash transfer policies could have had positive effects on mortality reduction and on the consequent increase in the life expectancy, especially for the poor population. PMID:21871100

  11. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  12. A Comparative Study of Handicap-Free Life Expectancy of China in 1987 and 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Dejian

    2009-01-01

    After the first large scale national sampling survey on handicapped persons in 1987, China conducted its second national sampling survey in 2006. Using the data from these two surveys and the national life tables, we computed and compared the expected years of life free of handicapped condition by the Sullivan method. The expected years of life…

  13. Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Maternal Mortality Declines. NBER Working Paper No. 13947

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayachandran, Seema; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Longer life expectancy should encourage human capital accumulation, since a longer time horizon increases the value of investments that pay out over time. Previous work has been unable to determine the empirical importance of this life-expectancy effect due to the difficulty of isolating it from other effects of health on education. We examine a…

  14. People with Intellectual Disability: What Do We Know about Adulthood and Life Expectancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppus, A. M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the life expectancy of people with Intellectual Disability have followed similar trends to those found in the general population. With the exception of people with severe and multiple disabilities or Down syndrome, the life expectancy of this group now closely approximates with that of the general population. Middle and old age, which…

  15. Left behind: widening disparities for males and females in US county life expectancy, 1985–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States spends more than any other country on health care. The poor relative performance of the US compared to other high-income countries has attracted attention and raised questions about the performance of the US health system. An important dimension to poor national performance is the large disparities in life expectancy. Methods We applied a mixed effects Poisson statistical model and Gaussian Process Regression to estimate age-specific mortality rates for US counties from 1985 to 2010. We generated uncertainty distributions for life expectancy at each age using standard simulation methods. Results Female life expectancy in the United States increased from 78.0 years in 1985 to 80.9 years in 2010, while male life expectancy increased from 71.0 years in 1985 to 76.3 years in 2010. The gap between female and male life expectancy in the United States was 7.0 years in 1985, narrowing to 4.6 years in 2010. For males at the county level, the highest life expectancy steadily increased from 75.5 in 1985 to 81.7 in 2010, while the lowest life expectancy remained under 65. For females at the county level, the highest life expectancy increased from 81.1 to 85.0, and the lowest life expectancy remained around 73. For male life expectancy at the county level, there have been three phases in the evolution of inequality: a period of rising inequality from 1985 to 1993, a period of stable inequality from 1993 to 2002, and rising inequality from 2002 to 2010. For females, in contrast, inequality has steadily increased during the 25-year period. Compared to only 154 counties where male life expectancy remained stagnant or declined, 1,405 out of 3,143 counties (45%) have seen no significant change or a significant decline in female life expectancy from 1985 to 2010. In all time periods, the lowest county-level life expectancies are seen in the South, the Mississippi basin, West Virginia, Kentucky, and selected counties with large Native American populations

  16. The Promise of Prevention: The Effects of Four Preventable Risk Factors on National Life Expectancy and Life Expectancy Disparities by Race and County in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Danaei, Goodarz; Rimm, Eric B.; Oza, Shefali; Kulkarni, Sandeep C.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US) but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the “Eight Americas”) defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005. Methods and Findings We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age–sex–disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking; whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP). SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South—5–7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y; F, 3.6 y) and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y; F, 5.7 y). Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18%) in men and 0

  17. Extracorporeal Life Support in Critically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has become increasingly popular as a salvage strategy for critically ill adults. Major advances in technology and the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome that characterized the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic have stimulated renewed interest in the use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to support the respiratory system. Theoretical advantages of ECLS for respiratory failure include the ability to rest the lungs by avoiding injurious mechanical ventilator settings and the potential to facilitate early mobilization, which may be advantageous for bridging to recovery or to lung transplantation. The use of venoarterial ECMO has been expanded and applied to critically ill adults with hemodynamic compromise from a variety of etiologies, beyond postcardiotomy failure. Although technology and general care of the ECLS patient have evolved, ECLS is not without potentially serious complications and remains unproven as a treatment modality. The therapy is now being tested in clinical trials, although numerous questions remain about the application of ECLS and its impact on outcomes in critically ill adults. PMID:25046529

  18. The Family Life Education Needs of Midlife and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Morris Michael Lane

    2003-01-01

    Using a life course perspective, reports the findings from a needs assessment for midlife and older adults regarding family life education. A sample of 264 adults aged 50 and older indicated interest in 29 family life education topics. The highest rated topics were nutrition and health, fitness and exercise, and positive aspects of aging.…

  19. Quality of Life in Adults with Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Melinda Y.; Velez, Federico G.; Demer, Joseph L.; Isenberg, Sherwin J.; Coleman, Anne L.; Pineles, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess relative quality of life in patients with strabismus. Design Retrospective cohort study Methods The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was performed in 42 strabismic adults over the age of 50 years at a single institution. Subscale scores were compared with those of patients with other ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, cataract, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, and low vision. Results Median visual acuity was 20/20 (range 20/12.5 to 20/50), and 34 patients (81%) reported diplopia. Strabismic patients performed the same or worse on nearly all vision-related subscales than did patients with diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataract, and CMV retinitis. Additionally, strabismic patients reported significantly worse ocular pain than all comparison groups before any surgery was performed. Conclusions Strabismus impacts quality of life through both functional and psychosocial factors. Physicians treating strabismic patients should recognize these quality of life issues and address them accordingly. PMID:25498355

  20. Therapy Expectations: Preliminary Exploration and Measurement in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbane, Amy L.; Jahoda, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To carry out a preliminary exploration and measurement of therapy expectancy in adults with intellectual disabilities through the development and psychometric evaluation of the therapy expectation measure (TEAM). Design: The initial scale development phase combined top-down theory-driven and bottom-up data-driven processes to identify…

  1. Adults' Learning Motivation: Expectancy of Success, Value, and the Role of Affective Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…

  2. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  3. Participation as Pedagogy: Quality of Working Life and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Rosenthal, Edward

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of developments in the Quality of Working Life field and some links between this movement and adult education. Discusses worker participation as a strategy for mass adult education. (SK)

  4. Stagnating Life Expectancies and Future Prospects in an Age of Uncertainty*

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Justin T.; McNown, Robert; Rogers, Richard G.; Doubilet, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article provides a timely assessment of U.S. life expectancy given recent stalls in the growth of length of life, the continuing drop in international rankings of life expectancy for the U.S., and during a period of growing social and economic insecurity. Methods Time series analysis is used on over 70 years of data from the Human Mortality Database to forecast future life expectancy to the year 2055. Results The results show limited improvements in U.S. life expectancy at birth, less than 3 years on average, for both men and women. Conclusions Even in uncertain times, it is important to look forward in preparing for the needs of future populations. The results presented here underscore the relevance of policy and health initiatives aimed at improving the nation’s health and reveal important insight into possible limits to mortality improvement over the next five decades. PMID:25506092

  5. Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; Daly, M

    1997-04-26

    In comparisons among Chicago neighbourhoods, homicide rates in 1988-93 varied more than 100-fold, while male life expectancy at birth ranged from 54 to 77 years, even with effects of homicide mortality removed. This "cause deleted" life expectancy was highly correlated with homicide rates; a measure of economic inequality added significant additional prediction, whereas median household income did not. Deaths from internal causes (diseases) show similar age patterns, despite different absolute levels, in the best and worst neighbourhoods, whereas deaths from external causes (homicide, accident, suicide) do not. As life expectancy declines across neighbourhoods, women reproduce earlier; by age 30, however, neighbourhood no longer affects age specific fertility. These results support the hypothesis that life expectancy itself may be a psychologically salient determinant of risk taking and the timing of life transitions. PMID:9154035

  6. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  7. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Richard; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Fylkesnes, Knut; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related mortality in Zambia. Methods We used data on all-cause and pregnancy-related deaths of females aged 15–49 reported in the Zambia 2010 census, and evaluated, adjusted and smoothed them using existing and verified techniques. We used associated single decrement life tables, assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths to estimate the potential gains in female life expectancy at birth, at age 15, and over the ages 15–49. We compared these gains with the gains from eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, violence and suicide. Results Complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths would extend life expectancy at birth among Zambian women by 1.35 years and life expectancy at age 15 by 1.65 years. In rural areas, this would be 1.69 years and 2.19 years, respectively, and in urban areas, 0.78 years and 0.85 years. An additional 0.72 years would be spent in the reproductive age group 15–49; 1.00 years in rural areas and 0.35 years in urban areas. Eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, suicide and violence among women aged 15–49 would cumulatively contribute 0.55 years to female life expectancy at birth. Conclusion Eliminating pregnancy-related mortality would extend female life expectancy in Zambia substantially, with more gains among adolescents and females in rural areas. The application of life table techniques to census data proved very valuable, although rigorous evaluation and adjustment of reported deaths and age was necessary to attain plausible estimates. The collection of detailed high quality cause-specific mortality data in future censuses is indispensable. PMID:26513160

  8. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    PubMed

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. PMID:25853000

  9. Cohabitation Expectations among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Smock, Pamela J.; Dorius, Cassandra; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation continues to rise, but there is a lack of knowledge about expectations to cohabit and the linkage between expectations and subsequent cohabitation. We capitalize on a new opportunity to study cohabitation expectations by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) main youth and two waves (2008 and 2010) of the NLSY young adult (YA) surveys (n=1,105). We find considerable variation in cohabitation expectations: 39.9% have no expectation of cohabiting in the future and 16.6% report high odds of cohabiting in the next two years. Cohabitation expectations are associated with higher odds of entering a cohabiting relationship, but are not perfectly associated. Only 38% of young adults with certain cohabitation expectations in 2008 entered a cohabiting union by 2010. Further investigation of the mismatch between expectations and behaviors indicates that a substantial minority (30%) who entered a cohabiting union had previously reported no or low expectations, instances of what we term “unplanned cohabitation.” Our findings underscore the importance of considering not just behavior, but also individuals’ expectations for understanding union formation, and more broadly, family change. PMID:25147419

  10. Arts and Ageing; Life Expectancy of Historical Artists in the Low Countries

    PubMed Central

    Engelaer, Frouke M.; Bijwaard, Govert E.; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; van Poppel, Frans W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50), in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary and visual artists, who were born between 1700 and 1899 in the Low Countries. We compared the life expectancy at age 50 of the various artists with the elite and middle class of that time. In the birth cohorts before 1850, acoustic (LE50:14.5–19.5) and literary artists (LE50:17.8–20.8) had a similar life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite (LE50:18.0–19.0). Only visual artists (LE50:15.5–17.1) had a lower life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite at that time. For the most recent birth cohorts from 1850 through 1899, the comparison between artists and the elite reversed and acoustic and literary artist had a lower life expectancy at age 50, while visual artists enjoyed a similar life expectancy at age 50. Although artists belonged to the middle socioeconomic class and lived predominantly in urban areas with poor living conditions, they had a life expectancy similar to the elite population. This is in line with observed favourable effects of practicing arts on health in the short-term. From our historical analysis, we hypothesize several mechanisms through which artistic creativity could influence the ageing process and life expectancy. These hypotheses, however, should be formally tested before any definite conclusions on effects of arts on ageing can be drawn. PMID:24416148

  11. Attitudes toward Life and Death and Suicidality in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brenda J.; Range, Lillian M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward life and death, alone and in combination with life events, to determine suicide risk for young adults. Used the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale for Adolescents, Life and Death Attitudes Scale, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire, Death Anxiety Scale, and Life Experiences Survey to measure responses of 140 young adults…

  12. Why the racial gap in life expectancy is declining in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Firebaugh, Glenn; Acciai, Francesco; Noah, Aggie J.; Prather, Christopher; Nau, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blacks have lower life expectancy than whites in the United States. That disparity could be due to racial differences in the causes of death, with blacks being more likely to die of causes that affect the young, or it could be due to differences in the average ages of blacks and whites who die of the same cause. Prior studies fail to distinguish these two possibilities. OBJECTIVE In this study we determine how much of the 2000–10 reduction in the racial gap in life expectancy resulted from narrowing differences in the cause-specific mean age at death for blacks and whites, as opposed to changing cause-specific probabilities for blacks and whites. METHOD We introduce a method for separating the difference-in-probabilities and difference-inage components of group disparities in life expectancy. RESULTS Based on the new method, we find that 60% of the decline in the racial gap in life expectancy from 2000 to 2010 was attributable to reduction in the age component, largely because of declining differences in the age at which blacks and whites die of chronic diseases. CONCLUSION Our findings shed light on the sources of the declining racial gap in life expectancy in the United States, and help to identify where advances need to be made to achieve the goal of eliminating racial disparities in life expectancy. PMID:25580083

  13. Closing the Gaps: competing estimates of Indigenous Australian life expectancy in the scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, Amanda; Mukandi, Bryan; Zwi, Anthony B; Hill, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and other Australians within a generation is central to national Indigenous reform policy (Closing the Gap). Over time, various methods of estimating Indigenous life expectancy and with that, the life expectancy gap, have been adopted with differing, albeit non-comparable results. We present data on the extent of the gap and elucidate the pattern of use and interpretations of the different estimates of the gap, between 2007 and 2012. Methods: An extensive search was conducted for all peer-reviewed health publications citing estimates of and/or discussing the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians, for the period 2007–2012. Results: Five predominant patterns of citation of the gap estimates were identified: 20 years, 17 years, 15–20 years, 13 years, and 11.5 years for males and 9.7 years for females. Some authors misinterpret the most recent estimates as reflecting improvement from the 17-year figure, rather than the result of different methods of estimation. Support for the direct methods used to calculate Indigenous life expectancy is indicated. Conclusions and Implications: A specific estimate of the life expectancy gap has not been established among stakeholders in Indigenous health. Agreement on the magnitude of the gap is arguably needed in order to evaluate strategies aimed at improving health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. Moreover, measuring progress towards ‘closing the gap’ depends on the availability of comparable estimates, using the same techniques of measurement to assess changes over time. PMID:23895479

  14. The Changing Gender Differences in Life Expectancy in Chinese Cities 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Li, Tong; Zhang, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the gender difference in life expectancy in Chinese urban people and explore the age-specific and cause-specific contributions to the changing gender differences in life expectancy. Methods Data of life expectancy and mortality were obtained from “Annual statistics of public health in China.” The gender difference was analyzed by decomposition method, including age-specific decomposition and cause-specific decomposition. Results Women lived much longer than men in Chinese urban areas, with remarkable gains in life expectancy since 2005, respectively. The gender difference reached a peak in 2007. Mortality difference between men and women in the 60–79 age group made the largest contributions to the gender gap in life expectancy in all 6 years. Among causes of death, cancers, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases made the largest contributions to the gender gap. 33–38% of the gender gap were caused by cancers, among which lung cancer contributed 0.6 years of the overall gap. The contribution of cancers to the gender gap reduced over time, mostly influenced by the narrowing effect of liver cancer on gender gap. Traffic accidents and suicide were the external causes influencing the gender gap, contributing 10–16% of the overall difference. Conclusion Public health efforts to reduce excess mortalities for cancers, circulatory disease, respiratory diseases, and suicide among men in particular might further narrow the gender gap in life expectancy in Chinese cities. PMID:25875494

  15. Modeling absolute differences in life expectancy with a censored skew-normal regression approach

    PubMed Central

    Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Parameter estimates from commonly used multivariable parametric survival regression models do not directly quantify differences in years of life expectancy. Gaussian linear regression models give results in terms of absolute mean differences, but are not appropriate in modeling life expectancy, because in many situations time to death has a negative skewed distribution. A regression approach using a skew-normal distribution would be an alternative to parametric survival models in the modeling of life expectancy, because parameter estimates can be interpreted in terms of survival time differences while allowing for skewness of the distribution. In this paper we show how to use the skew-normal regression so that censored and left-truncated observations are accounted for. With this we model differences in life expectancy using data from the Swiss National Cohort Study and from official life expectancy estimates and compare the results with those derived from commonly used survival regression models. We conclude that a censored skew-normal survival regression approach for left-truncated observations can be used to model differences in life expectancy across covariates of interest. PMID:26339544

  16. Expectation in Life Review: A Term of Spiritual Needs Easily Understood by Chinese Hospice Patients.

    PubMed

    Deng, Di; Deng, Qing; Liu, Xiaofang; Xie, Cong Hua; Wu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Terms such as spirituality and spiritual needs are abstract and difficult to understand. Realization of spirituality of hospice patients was premise in addressing expression of their spiritual needs. This study investigated expectations expressed during life review and tried to prove that the expectation was intelligible term for spiritual needs in Chinese hospice from May 2011 to June 2013. Among the 107 recruited patients, families were the most frequent emotion-expressing recipients, and 133 expectations related to patients' spiritual needs were identified. The emotion-expressing recipients and the patient's expectations were not affected by demographic characteristics. The expectations in life review with hospice patients and their families had the features of spiritual essence. The identified expectation contents could be used to address spiritual needs in hospice care in Chinese. PMID:24963084

  17. Optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations predict better quality of life after robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Andrea A; Perez, Martin A; Oh, Sindy; Crocitto, Laura

    2012-06-01

    We examined the relations among generalized positive expectations (optimism), prostate-cancer specific expectations, and prostate cancer-related quality of life in a prospective sample of 83 men who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer. Optimism was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer-specific expectations, β = .36, p < .001. In addition, optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations were independent prospective predictors of better scores on the following prostate cancer-related quality of life scales: Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence; Masculine Self-Esteem (specific expectations only), Health Worry, Cancer Control, and Informed Decision Making (βs > .21, ps < .05). When considered simultaneously, both optimism and specific expectations contributed uniquely to better Health Worry and Cancer Control scores, optimism was a unique predictor of better Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence scores, and specific expectations uniquely predicted higher scores on Informed Decision Making. Although optimism and prostate-cancer specific expectations are related, they contribute uniquely to several prostate cancer-related quality of life outcomes following RALP and may be important targets for quality of life research with this population. PMID:22051931

  18. Education, Life Expectancy and Family Bargaining: The Ben-Porath Effect Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leker, Laura; Ponthiere, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Following Ben-Porath [1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life-Cycle of Earnings." "Journal of Political Economy" 75 (3): 352-365], the influence of life expectancy on education and on human capital has attracted much attention among growth theorists. Whereas existing growth models rely on an education decision made…

  19. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years. PMID:27346085

  20. Intimate Adult Relationships, Quality of Life and Psychological Adjusment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…

  1. Estimation of the effects of ambient air pollution on life expectancy of urban residents in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuicui; Zhou, Xiaodan; Chen, Renjie; Duan, Xiaoli; Kuang, Xingya; Kan, Haidong

    2013-12-01

    The air quality in China's cities has improved in recent years, but its impact on public health has rarely been investigated. This study was aimed at estimating the potential effects of air quality on life expectancy between 2003 and 2010 in China. We collected annual average concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in 113 key cities, covering all provinces in China, along with the national average age-specific mortality from 2003 to 2010. We constructed a cause-eliminated life table after excluding premature deaths attributable to PM10. The annual average PM10 levels in these cities decreased from 125.3 μg m-3 in 2003 to 88.3 μg m-3 in 2010. As the result, life expectancy loss due to PM10 decreased from 2.13 years in 2003 to 1.30 years in 2010. The estimated life expectancy increase due to PM10 mitigation accounted for 34% of the total increase in life expectancy in the same period. Our results suggested that air quality might have contributed substantially to life expectancy in China.

  2. Quality of life in adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Koedoot, Caroline; Bouwmans, Clazien; Franken, Marie-Christine; Stolk, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to explore to what extent QoL is impaired in adults who stutter (AWS). In addition, this study aims to identify determinants of QoL in AWS by testing relationships between stuttering severity, coping, functioning and QoL and by testing for differences in variable scores between two AWS subgroups: receiving therapy versus not receiving therapy. A total of 91 AWS filled in several questionnaires to assess their stuttering severity, daily functioning, coping style and QoL. The QoL instruments used were the Health Utility Index 3 (HUI3) and the EuroQoL EQ-5D and EQ-VAS. The results indicated that moderate to severe stuttering has a negative impact on overall quality of life; HUI3 derived QoL values varied from .91 (for mild stuttering) to .73 (for severe stuttering). The domains of functioning that were predominantly affected were the individual's speech, emotion, cognition and pain as measured by the HUI3 and daily activities and anxiety/depression as measured by the EQ-5D. AWS in the therapy group rated their stuttering as more severe and recorded more problems on the HUI3 speech domain than AWS in the non-therapy group. The EQ-VAS was the only instrument that showed a significant difference in overall QoL between groups. Finally, it was found that the relationship between stuttering severity and QoL was influenced by the individual's coping style (emotion-oriented and task-oriented). These findings highlight the need for further research into stuttering in relation to QoL, and for a broader perspective on the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering, which would take into consideration quality of life and its determinants. PMID:21536306

  3. Staff Expectations and Views of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol; Trower, Peter; Dagnan, Dave; Selkirk, Mhairi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of support workers and other professionals in the psychotherapeutic process has been commented upon but not as yet been systematically investigated. Method: To explore their views and expectations of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for adults with intellectual disabilities, eleven paid support workers and professionals were…

  4. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  5. Expectations for Communication with Positive and Negative Subtypes of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Jake; Williams, Angie

    1998-01-01

    Perceptions, expectations, and evaluations of intergenerational communication were examined. College students responded to an older adult target portrayed as "perfect grandparent" or "despondent." Their perceptions of conversation with that target were measured. Findings are considered in terms of theoretical models of intergenerational…

  6. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health. PMID:16707040

  7. Gains and Losses in Creative Personality as Perceived by Adults across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Yeung, Dannii Y.; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C. K.; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age…

  8. Healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Law, C. K.; Yip, P. S. F.

    2003-01-01

    Sullivan's method and a regression model were used to calculate healthy life expectancy (HALE) for men and women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR) of China. These methods need estimates of the prevalence and information on disability distributions of 109 diseases and HALE for 191 countries by age, sex and region of the world from the WHO's health assessment of 2000. The population of Hong Kong SAR has one of the highest healthy life expectancies in the world. Sullivan's method gives higher estimates than the classic linear regression method. Although Sullivan's method accurately calculates the influence of disease prevalence within small areas and regions, the regression method can approximate HALE for all economies for which information on life expectancy is available. This paper identifies some problems of the two methods and discusses the accuracy of estimates of HALE that rely on data from the WHO assessment. PMID:12640475

  9. New Anticancer Drugs Associated With Large Increases In Costs And Life Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H; Chernew, Michael E; Abdelgawad, Tamer; Smith, Gregory L; Sollano, Josephine; Grabowski, David C

    2016-09-01

    Spending on anticancer drugs has risen rapidly over the past two decades. A key policy question is whether new anticancer drugs offer value, given their high cost. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we assessed the value of new cancer treatments in routine clinical practice for patients with metastatic breast, lung, or kidney cancer or chronic myeloid leukemia in the periods 1996-2000 and 2007-11. We found that there were large increases in medical costs, but also large gains in life expectancy. For example, among patients with breast cancer who received physician-administered drugs, lifetime costs-including costs for outpatient and inpatient care-increased by $72,000 and life expectancy increased by thirteen months. Changes in life expectancy and costs were much smaller among patients who did not receive these drugs. PMID:27605636

  10. Causes of death contributing to changes in life expectancy: United States, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, K D; Maurer, J D; Rosenberg, H M

    1994-05-01

    During 1984-89, life expectancy increased for the total population (0.6 year), white males (0.9 year), and white females (0.5 year), while it decreased for black males (-0.8year) and black females (-0.2 year). These changes in life expectancy are the result of changes in mortality for specific age-ram-sex groups and identifiable causes of death. Using a technique developed by Eduardo E. Arriaga (1,2), this report identifies major causes of death contributing to the change in life expectancy between 1984 and 1989. Refer to Technical notes for a brief description of this methodology. The tectique partitions changes in life expectancy into positive contributions (which are those causes of death and age groups that contribute to an increase in life expectancy) and negative contributions (which are those that contribute to a decrease). The report includes separate analyses by age and causes of death. For the total population, positive contributions occurred for the age groups under 15 years and age groups 45 years and over while negative contributions occurred for the age groups 15-44 years. The report also examines the combined contributions of age and causes of death for the total population and the four race-sex groups. For the total population, positive contributions to the increase in life expectancy were due to changes in mortality for Diseases of heart under 1 and 35 years and over; Cerebrovascular diseases, 40 years and over; and Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, 30-59 years. Negative contributions were largely due to HIV infection, 20-59 years; Malignant neoplasma, including neoplasm of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, 65 years and oveq and Pneumonia and influenza, 75 years and over. PMID:25313837

  11. Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2002 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yongping; Qualters, Judith R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term exposure to ground-level ozone is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The association remains uncertain between long-term exposure to ozone and life expectancy. We assessed the associations between seasonal mean daily 8-hour maximum (8-hr max) ozone concentrations measured during the ozone monitoring seasons and life expectancy at birth in 3109 counties of the conterminous U.S. during 2002 to 2008. We used latent class growth analysis to identify latent classes of counties that had distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations over the 7-year period and used linear regression analysis to determine differences in life expectancy by ozone levels. We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct seasonal mean daily 8-hr max ozone concentrations and rates of change. When compared with the counties with the lowest ozone concentrations, the counties with the highest ozone concentrations had 1.7- and 1.4-year lower mean life expectancy in males and females (both P < 0.0001), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of seasonal mean PM2.5 concentrations and other selected environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors (both P < 0.0001). A 5 ppb higher ozone concentration was associated with 0.25 year lower life expectancy in males (95% CI: -0.30 to -0.19) and 0.21 year in females (95% CI: -0.25 to -0.17). We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to a higher ozone concentration may be associated with a lower life expectancy. PMID:26886595

  12. Inferring frail life expectancies in Chicago from daily fluctuations in elderly mortality.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christian J; Lipfert, Frederick W

    2013-07-01

    Susceptible sub-populations with existing disease have exhibited stronger relationships between air quality and mortality in time-series studies, but their associated life expectancies have largely been overlooked. Murray and Nelson developed a new time-series model that estimated a small unobserved (frail) sub-population and their resulting life expectancies in Philadelphia, including environment relationships. As a further example in a different geographic area, we used this model with 1987-2000 daily mortality data in Chicago and found a stable frail population at risk of ∼900 persons with a mean life expectancy of ∼11 days; fewer than two daily deaths were associated with air pollution. We considered daily concentrations of CO, NO₂, O₃, PM₁₀ and SO₂, and found PM₁₀ and O₃ to have stronger associations with frail mortality. Our estimates of life expectancy and air pollution and temperature relationships are similar to those found in other studies that used different methods. Temperature was more important than air pollution during the 1995 heat wave, when mortality risks increased dramatically after 2 d exposure and life expectancies decreased to 3-5 d. Modeling this event separately had substantial effects on lagged mortality--air pollution relationships and the population at risk. The premises of the Murray-Nelson model were supported by simultaneously considering an additional subgroup of non-frail individuals; they contributed only ∼1% of total elderly deaths. We conclude that frail life expectancies estimated by the Murray-Nelson model are robust, and that under these conditions non-frail persons have little risk of acute mortality, with or without contributions from air pollution. PMID:23876071

  13. Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2002 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S.; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yongping; Qualters, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term exposure to ground-level ozone is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The association remains uncertain between long-term exposure to ozone and life expectancy. We assessed the associations between seasonal mean daily 8-hour maximum (8-hr max) ozone concentrations measured during the ozone monitoring seasons and life expectancy at birth in 3109 counties of the conterminous U.S. during 2002 to 2008. We used latent class growth analysis to identify latent classes of counties that had distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations over the 7-year period and used linear regression analysis to determine differences in life expectancy by ozone levels. We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct seasonal mean daily 8-hr max ozone concentrations and rates of change. When compared with the counties with the lowest ozone concentrations, the counties with the highest ozone concentrations had 1.7- and 1.4-year lower mean life expectancy in males and females (both P < 0.0001), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of seasonal mean PM2.5 concentrations and other selected environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors (both P < 0.0001). A 5 ppb higher ozone concentration was associated with 0.25 year lower life expectancy in males (95% CI: −0.30 to −0.19) and 0.21 year in females (95% CI: −0.25 to −0.17). We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to a higher ozone concentration may be associated with a lower life expectancy. PMID:26886595

  14. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Loneliness Among LGB Adults and Heterosexual Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults. PMID:26244408

  15. Men Want Equality, but Women Don't Expect It: Young Adults' Expectations for Participation in Household and Child Care Chores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askari, Sabrina F.; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J.; Staebell, Samantha E.; Axelson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored whether there was a discrepancy between young adults' ideal and expected participation in household and child care chores as well as what variables predicted expectations for future chore division. Three-hundred fifty-eight unmarried, heterosexual participants with no children completed an online questionnaire assessing the…

  16. Volunteerism and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Measured quality of life of 373 preretirees and retirees to determine the contributions to life satisfaction of age, sex, retirement status, education, marital status and volunteer status. Found persons engaged in volunteer activities more satisfied with their lives. Educational level was also positively related to life satisfaction. (Author)

  17. Comparing the Social Support Systems and Friendship Expectancies of Young Adults and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Maria R.; Tryanski, Mandy

    Some research suggests that sources of social support change through the lifespan. Given that the support network changes because of both the individual's needs and the particular life stage of the individual, peer relationships may emerge as crucial sources of emotional support at different times in the lifespan. This study examined friend and…

  18. Literacy for Life: Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…

  19. Major Life Decisions of Gifted Adults in Relation to Overall Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Ksiazak, Tracy M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Vannatter, Aarika; Hyatt, Claudine C.; Shepler, Dustin; Perrone, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, major life decisions of gifted adults were examined in relation to life satisfaction. Participants were 57 gifted adults who have been participating in a longitudinal study over the last two decades. Qualitative data were collected via written and online surveys, and were analyzed by a research team using phenomenological,…

  20. Where there are no data: what has happened to life expectancy in Georgia since 1990?

    PubMed

    Badurashvili, I; McKee, M; Tsuladze, G; Meslé, F; Vallin, J; Shkolnikov, V

    2001-11-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable increase in understanding of changes in mortality in Russia and some other former Soviet republics. However, the situation in the republics of the Caucasus remains poorly understood. Information on Georgia is especially fragmentary as a fifth of the country remains outside government control, there has been large scale migration since 1991, and the introduction of fees for vital registration has compromised the quality of official statistics. The aim of the study is to produce plausible estimates for life expectancy in Georgia for the period 1990-1998 and thus to assess whether Georgia has undergone changes similar to other former Soviet republics in the post-independence period. Four models were used to construct life tables. Model 1 used officially published statistics on deaths and population. Model 2 applied new estimates of population derived from household surveys to the observed deaths. Model 3 adjusted model 2 for under-registration at extremes of life, with parameter estimates derived from a survey of infant mortality and comparison of observed rates with Coale-Demeny standard life tables. Model 4 arose following inspection of death rates by cause that revealed implausible discontinuities in cancer mortality rates and involved applying the estimates of under-registration that this finding implied to model 3. The four models produce quite different estimates of life expectancy, differing by 7.8 y for men and 6.8 y for women by 1998. In any of the models, however, Georgia does not appear to have experienced the marked deterioration in life expectancy seen in Russia following the transition to independence. Importantly, Georgia had also not experienced a marked improvement in life expectancy during the 1985 Soviet anti-alcohol campaign, again unlike other Soviet republics.Official statistics substantially over-estimate life expectancy at birth in Georgia. Despite undergoing a civil war, life expectancy in Georgia

  1. Negative Trends in Life Expectancy in the USSR, 1964-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medvedev, Zhores A.

    1985-01-01

    Life expectancy in the USSR declined from 71 years in 1964 to 70 years in 1970, and to an estimated 68 years in 1983. Decline was due to increase in infant mortality and increase in mortality among middle aged and elderly, and reflects public health problems. (NRB)

  2. Black-white disparities in life expectancy: how much can the standard SES variables explain?

    PubMed

    Geruso, Michael

    2012-05-01

    This article quantifies the extent to which socioeconomic and demographic characteristics can account for black-white disparities in life expectancy in the United States. Although many studies have investigated the linkages between race, socioeconomic status, and mortality, this article is the first to measure how much of the life expectancy gap remains after differences in mortality are purged of the compositional differences in socioeconomic characteristics between blacks and whites. The decomposition is facilitated by a reweighting technique that creates counterfactual estimation samples in which the distribution of income, education, employment and occupation, marital status, and other theoretically relevant variables among blacks is made to match the distribution of these variables among whites. For males, 80% of the black-white gap in life expectancy at age 1 can be accounted for by differences in socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. For females, 70% percent of the gap is accounted for. Labor force participation, occupation, and (among women only) marital status have almost no additional power to explain the black-white disparity in life expectancy after precise measures for income and education are controlled for. PMID:22287272

  3. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women’s life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects’ relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975–2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915–1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects. PMID:27035998

  4. The Influence of Subjective Life Expectancy on Retirement Transition and Planning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl; Loh, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the construct of subjective life expectancy (SLE), or the estimation of one's probable age of death. Drawing on the tenets of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), we propose that SLE provides individuals with their own unique mental model of remaining time that is likely to affect their…

  5. Life Expectancy as an Objective Factor of a Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papavlassopulos, Nikolas; Keppler, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper has two parts. In the first part we offer a definition of well-being which makes life expectancy an explicit variable. We recognize the importance of happiness as a significant aspect of any definition of well-being, but we side-step the issue of what determines its level or how to measure it, and concentrate instead on the consequences…

  6. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  7. Measuring Longevity Achievements under Welfare Interdependencies: A Case for Joint Life Expectancy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponthiere, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Whereas period life expectancy constitutes an intuitive indicator of the survival conditions prevailing at a particular period, this paper argues that, given the existence of welfare interdependencies, that widespread indicator is nonetheless an incomplete measure of the longevity achievements relevant for human well-being. The central importance…

  8. The Mid-Life Crisis and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Brian E.

    1977-01-01

    Blocks to formal learning during mid-life (ages thirty-five to forty-five) are fairly prevalent. Discusses five psychological blocks to successful learning for adults in this age period and suggests ways adult educators can deal with these blocks. (EM)

  9. Transition Planning Guide: From School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra Jespersen

    The guide is intended to assist disabled students, their families, and professionals working with them to become familiar with the variety of adult services available and to create a systematic plan for transition from school to adult life. The first section considers the logistics of transition planning and includes a description of the planning…

  10. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  11. Coaching "Callings" throughout the Adult Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Frederic M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of "callings" continues throughout life. Coaching can connect the present to the future in a meaningful way. Callings represent a value shift requiring revision of the nature and scope of one's central purpose in life and meaningful activities. (JOW)

  12. Outcome and Life Satisfaction of Adults with Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Heidi; McMahon, Kelly; Heise, Elizabeth; Eubanks, Sonja; Garrett, Melanie; Gregory, Simon; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Background Myelomeningocele (MMC) commonly causes impairments in body structure and functions as well as cognitive disabilities that can have an adverse effect on adult life. Improved medical care has resulted in increased numbers of individuals with MMC surviving to adulthood, however little is known about the impact of MMC on the lives of adults age 25 years or older. Objective To gain a better understanding of outcomes in education, employment, relationships, reproduction and life satisfaction of adults with MMC. Methods A primarily quantitative multiple-choice questionnaire designed to capture outcomes in education, employment, relationships and reproduction, along with a previously validated life satisfaction checklist (LiSat-11), was completed by adults with MMC. Relationships between demographic variables, outcomes and life satisfaction were determined using cross tabulation analysis, logistic regression and linear regression. Results Ninety adults with MMC, age 25 to 85 years (median age 32), reported a diverse range of outcomes in education, employment, relationships and reproduction. The most consistent variable associated with difficulty attaining adult milestones was hydrocephalus, the presence of which reduced the likelihood of living independently (p=<0.001), having a partner (p=0.003) and reproducing (p=<0.001), but did not contribute to reduced life satisfaction. Conclusions Adults with MMC, especially those without hydrocephalus, can obtain gainful employment, live independently, form partner relationships and have children, and these achievements contribute to life satisfaction. While MMC does not affect overall reported life satisfaction for adults, attention should be paid to specific domains with less reported satisfaction. PMID:23769483

  13. Disability-Free Life Expectancy Over 30 Years: A Growing Female Disadvantage in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Douglas A.; Spillman, Brenda C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States over 30 years for older men and women (aged ≥ 65 years). Methods. We used the 1982 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey and the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study to estimate age-specific mortality and disability rates, the overall chances of survival and of surviving without disability, and years of active life for men and women. Results. For older men, longevity has increased, disability has been postponed to older ages, disability prevalence has fallen, and the percentage of remaining life spent active has increased. However, for older women, small longevity increases have been accompanied by even smaller postponements in disability, a reversal of a downward trend in moderate disability, and stagnation of active life as a percentage of life expectancy. As a consequence, older women no longer live more active years than men, despite their longer lives. Conclusions. Neither a compression nor expansion of late-life disability is inevitable. Public health measures directed at older women to postpone disability may be needed to offset impending long-term care pressures related to population aging. PMID:26985619

  14. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  15. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  16. Life Skills Resource Guide for Senior Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.

    This life resources guide for senior adult learners contains activities in the life skills curriculum. The manual is organized by content area and instructional goal. Under each instructional goal, one or more activities is given. A list of resources is at the end of each section. The activities cover the following topics: (1) consumer education;…

  17. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life. PMID:19960543

  18. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  19. Month of birth and life expectancy: role of gender and age in a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    The effects of month of birth (MOB) on life expectancy of a German subpopulation was investigated. Data from people who died in North Rhine Westphalia in the years 1984 (n=188,515) and 1999 (n=188,850) were analyzed. For comparative purposes, all deaths that occurred at an age of <50 years were excluded (1984: 8.4%; 1999: 6.2%). In general, individuals born in May through July had the lowest age at death (1984: 75.27±0.09 years; 1999: 77.58±0.09 years), while those born between October and December had the highest (1984: 75.98±0.08 years; 1999: 78.35±0.09 years), supporting earlier findings. The observed amplitudes (differences between highest and lowest values) were more pronounced in men than in women. When comparing these data of MOB effects on life expectancy with earlier findings in Australia, Austria, Denmark, Ukraine, and the USA, it is evident that a negative correlation exists between the average age at death and the MOB amplitudes. Separate analyses by gender, possible for the data from Germany, the Ukraine, and the USA, revealed a significant negative correlation for men, but not for women. A new hypothesis is therefore presented describing an influence of life quality, as reflected by average life expectancy, on the extent of MOB effects; for example, seasonally variable sensitivities during pregnancy/early childhood.

  20. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual's current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  1. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  2. Managing cystic fibrosis: strategies that increase life expectancy and improve quality of life.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cymberknoh, Malena; Shoseyov, David; Kerem, Eitan

    2011-06-01

    The survival of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) continues to improve. The discovery and cloning of the CFTR gene more than 21 years ago led to the identification of the structure and function of the CFTR chloride channel. New therapies based on the understanding of the function of CFTR are currently under development. The better clinical status and improved survival of patients with CF is not only a result of understanding of the molecular mechanisms of CF but also a result of the development of therapeutic strategies that are based on insights into the natural course of the disease. Current CF treatments that target respiratory infections, inflammation, mucociliary clearance, and nutritional status are associated with improved pulmonary function and reduced exacerbations. Patients benefit from treatment at a specialized CF center by a multidisciplinary dedicated team with emphasis being placed on frequent visits, periodic testing, and monitoring adherence to therapy. The purpose of this review is to survey recent developments in CF care that are responsible for the improved survival and quality of life of patients with CF. PMID:21330455

  3. The impact of smoking on gender differences in life expectancy: more heterogeneous than often stated

    PubMed Central

    Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Throughout industrialized countries, tobacco consumption is seen as the predominant driver of both the trend and the extent of gender differences in life expectancy. However, several factors raise doubts to this generalization. We hypothesize that the impact of smoking on the gender gap is context-specific and differs between populations. Methods: We decompose the gender differences in life expectancy into fractions caused by smoking and other non-biological factors for 53 industrialized countries and the period 1955–2009 to assess the significance of smoking among the causes that can be influenced by direct or indirect interference. Results: The trend of the gender gap can indeed be attributed to smoking in most populations of the western world. However, with regard to the overall extent of male excess mortality, smoking is the main driver only in the minority of the studied populations. While the impact of smoking to gender differences in life expectancy declines in all populations, the contribution of other non-biological factors is in most cases higher at the end than at the beginning of the observation period. Conclusions: Over-generalized statements suggesting that smoking is the main driver of the gender gap in all populations can be misleading. The results of this study demonstrate that—regardless of the prevailing effect of smoking—many populations have still remarkable potentials to further narrow their gender gaps in life expectancy. Although measures to further reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption must be continued, more attention should be directed to the growing importance of other non-biological factors. PMID:25505018

  4. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Gunvi; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up. PMID:26066517

  5. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or

  6. An equity-effectiveness framework linking health programs and healthy life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Banham, David; Lynch, John; Karnon, Jon

    2011-01-01

    South Australia's Strategic Plan includes a target to improve the population's healthy life expectancy. A common question among health policy and service planners is: 'How do health programs and services in the community relate to healthy life expectancy?' In response, this paper outlines an effectiveness and equity framework (EEF) for evaluating health interventions in applied settings. Using the example of coronary heart disease (CHD) management in general practice in South Australia, the EEF: (1) applies an internally consistent approach to accounting for population healthy life expectancy at state and smaller geographic levels; (2) estimates average population health gains from health programs, and gains across different socioeconomic subgroups within the community; (3) conducts economic evaluation by equating health gains against health system costs in population subgroups; (4) summarises relevant information about candidate intervention programs within a multi-criteria performance matrix for presentation to decision makers; (5) reassesses outcomes (and processes) following the implementation of a program and iteratively adds to the relevant knowledge and evidence base. The EEF offers a practical approach to selecting and evaluating intervention programs. The challenge is to develop system culture and data capture methods clearly focussed on linking health system activities to population health outcomes. PMID:22112699

  7. Widening Life Expectancy Advantage of Hispanics in the United States: 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Blue, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We examine trends in the Hispanic longevity advantage between 1990 and 2010, focusing on the contribution of cigarette smoking. We calculate life expectancy at age 50 for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites between 1990 and 2010. We use an indirect method to calculate the contribution of smoking to changes over time in life expectancy. Among women, the Hispanic advantage in life expectancy grows from 2.14 years in 1990 (95 % CI 1.99–2.30 years) to 3.53 years in 2010 (3.42–3.64 years). More than 40 % of this increase reflects widening differences in smoking-attributable mortality. The advantage for Hispanic men increases from 2.27 years (2.14–2.41 years) to 2.91 years (2.81–3.01 years), although smoking makes only a small contribution. Despite persistent disadvantage, US Hispanics have increased their longevity advantage over non-Hispanic whites since 1990, much of which reflects the continuing importance of cigarette smoking to the Hispanic advantage. PMID:24851822

  8. Catapulting through life stages. When younger adults are diagnosed with life-threatening illnesses.

    PubMed

    Rancour, Patrice

    2002-02-01

    Knowledge of developmental stages through the life cycle has always been a hallmark of quality nursing care. The knowledge base gleaned from the older adult literature, such as Schachter-Shalomi and Miller's construct of sage-ing (1995), can help nurses understand that many of the completion tasks usually associated with aging suddenly are thrust to the forefront for younger adult patients diagnosed with a life-threatening illness. Using this knowledge base, nurses can facilitate developmental stage work facing younger adult patients whose illness catapults them into more mature stages for which they may have been unprepared. When younger adult patients are so diagnosed, nurses need to recognize the signs of catapulting life stage work and support it. It is no small task to complete the gestalt of one's life tapestry, but it is especially difficult when one is young. PMID:11852713

  9. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: influence of stress and environment.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Ryu, J J; Karra, P; Shrotriya, P; Tvergaard, V; Gaisser, M; Weik, T

    2011-11-01

    Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy of modular hip implants. First, material removal on a stressed surface of Ti6Al4V subjected to single asperity contact is investigated experimentally to identify the influence of contact load, in-plane stress and chemical environment on mean wear rates. A range of known stress levels are applied to the specimen while its surface is mechanically stimulated in different non-reactive to oxidizing aqueous environments. Evolution of surface degradation is monitored, and its mechanism is elucidated. This phase allows estimation of Preston Constant which is later used in the analysis. Second phase of the work is semi-analytical and computational, where, based on the estimated Preston constant and other material and process parameters, the scratch propensity (consisting of magnitude of scratch depth and their frequency per unit area) due to micro-motion in modular hip implants is estimated. The third phase views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient body weight, as well as proximity of the joint fluid to its iso-electric point play key roles in determining wear rates and associated life expectancies of modular hip implants

  10. Exploring Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Dakar.

    PubMed

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Montepare, Joann M; Gueye, Lamine

    2015-12-01

    Studies on correlates of subjective well-being of older adults are virtually non-existent in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, understanding and improving the well-being of older adults should be a focal point of research and policy directed at this fast growing population. The aim of this study was to assess the links between socio-demographic factors, economic conditions, health, social relations, and the life satisfaction of older adults in Dakar. To this end, a survey was conducted on a sample of 500 dwellers of the Senegalese capital, aged 50 to 100, using the quota method for greater representativeness. Results revealed that with advancing age older adults expressed greater life satisfaction, and that older women were more satisfied than older men. As well, economic conditions were a main predictor of life satisfaction, along with good social relations. In contrast to findings with Western populations, neither self-rated health nor physical disabilities were associated with aging adults' life satisfaction. Findings suggest a number of avenues for future research. PMID:26481797

  11. Early Life Course Pathways of Adult Depression and Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.

    2013-01-01

    Applying cumulative inequality theory, this study examines the extent to which childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and maternal depression increase the risk of major depression and chronic pain in U.S. working-aged adults. Further, I assess whether low socioeconomic status amplifies the risk of adult depression and/or pain. Using data from the 2003 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=4339), I find that socioeconomic disadvantage and maternal depression during youth increases the risk of adult depression and/or chronic pain. The probability of having chronic pain increases in magnitude over the life course for adults whose parents have lower educational attainment relative to those with more highly educated parents. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances are not completely explained by adulthood socioeconomic status indicators. These findings help illustrate the far-reaching influence of childhood context on adult physical and mental health. PMID:23426854

  12. Late life gambling: the attitudes and behaviors of older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, D P; Burke, W J

    2000-01-01

    For a significant number of retired older adults (aged 65+), gambling has become a new form of recreation and entertainment. While prevalence studies have examined the incidence of problem gambling in other age groups, little research attention has been paid to the impact of gambling on older adults since the increase in availability and accessibility of legalized gambling within the last ten years. This study investigated the prevalence of problem gambling behaviors (SOGS-R), depression (GDS-15), levels of life satisfaction (SWLS), and motivations for gambling among older adults. A total of 315 older adults completed the study questionnaire and were grouped and analyzed according to those sampled from gambling venues and those from within the community. Results of the study found the most frequent accession and spending on several types of gambling occurred among older adults who were sampled at gambling venues. Older adults who were sampled at gambling venues were also found more likely to have higher levels of disordered gambling than older adults from the community, as measured by the SOGS-R. Relaxation, boredom, passing time, and getting away for the day were also the most likely reported motivations for the older adults who were gambling patrons. These findings provide an initial profile of older adults and their attitudes, motivations and gambling behaviors. PMID:14634305

  13. Expected cycle life versus depth of discharge relationships of well behaved single cells and cell strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that might influence the cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationship are examined. This is done first at the single cell level using a progressively more complex cell life model. This is then extended to multicell battery strings where the stochastic aspects associated with groupings of cells are introduced. These relationships are important when considering the weight, cost, and life of battery packs. The results of this theoretical study are compared with a recent review of actual cell cycling data. The factors examined are the rate of capacity loss, the amount of excess capacity built into the cells, and the penalty in capacity loss resulting from the use of deep depths of discharge. This study suggests that the relationship between cycle life and depth of discharge is not one that can be varied of significantly improved by cell research. The relationship appears to be determined by certain more or less fixed cell parameters. Among multicell strings, the standard deviation, as expected, plays an important role in determining overall battery life.

  14. Disclosing Adult Wrongdoing: Maltreated and Non-Maltreated Children’s Expectations and Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the process by which children disclose adult wrongdoing, a topic of considerable debate and controversy. In the present study, we investigated children’s evaluations of disclosing adult wrongdoing by focusing on children’s preferences for particular disclosure recipients and perceptions of the consequences of disclosure in hypothetical vignettes. We tested whether children thought disclosure recipients would believe a story child as a truth-teller and what actions the recipients would take against the “instigator” who committed the transgression. Maltreated and non-maltreated 4- to 9-year-olds (N = 235) responded to questions about vignettes that described a parent’s or stranger’s transgression. Older children preferred caregiver over police officer recipients when disclosing a parent’s, but not a stranger’s, transgression. Maltreated children’s preference for caregiver over police recipients developed more gradually than that of non-maltreated children. Older children expected disclosure recipients to be more skeptical of the story child’s account, and older children and maltreated children expected disclosure recipients to intervene formally less often when a parent rather than stranger was the instigator. Results contribute to understanding vulnerable children’s development and highlight the developmental, experiential, and socio-contextual factors underlying children’s disclosure patterns. PMID:24769356

  15. Association of Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations with Physical Activity in Adults with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mielenz, Thelma J.; Kubiak-Rizzone, Kathryn L.; Alvarez, Kimberly J.; Freburger, Janet K.; Giuliani, Carol; Mercer, Vicki S.; Callahan, Leigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine whether higher baseline levels of (a) self-efficacy for physical activity, (b) self-efficacy for arthritis self-management, and (c) outcome expectations for exercise are associated with higher physical activity levels following an exercise intervention for adults with arthritis. Methods. A secondary analysis of the intervention cohort (n = 130) within a randomized controlled trial of the People with Arthritis Can Exercise program was performed. Multiple linear regression evaluated the relationship between physical activity at a time point three months after the completion of an exercise intervention and three main explanatory variables. Results. After controlling for baseline physical activity, neither self-efficacy for arthritis self-management nor outcome expectations for exercise related to three-month physical activity levels. There was a relationship between three-month physical activity and self-efficacy for physical activity. Conclusions. Future research is needed to evaluate the ability of self-efficacy-enhancing programs to increase physical activity in adults with arthritis. PMID:24260714

  16. Quality of Life and Life Expectancy in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency: What Is True and What Is Urban Myth?

    PubMed

    Burger-Stritt, Stephanie; Pulzer, Alina; Hahner, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    For a long time it has been assumed that patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency under established replacement therapy have a normal life expectancy and a normal everyday life. Recent studies now indicate both an impairment of quality of life (QoL) with a negative impact on daily life and increased mortality in a significant number of patients. The clinical presentation of patients varies considerably. While some neither suffer from reduced QoL nor from adrenal crisis, others are significantly more affected by the disease. Long-term management of patients is thus more challenging and goes far beyond identification of the correct maintenance dose of corticosteroids. The mortality from adrenal crisis is still high and prevention should be a top priority for endocrinologists. Concepts of replacement therapy as well as patient education and emergency equipment are currently being reassessed. Developments to improve patient care and treatment comprise novel glucocorticoid preparations that are closer to the physiological circadian cortisol profile, a uniform European emergency card and more standardized crisis prevention measures. PMID:27211797

  17. College Expectations for All? The Early Adult Outcomes of Low-Achieving Adolescents Who Expect to Earn a Bachelor's Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo

    2016-01-01

    Critics of the college-for-all ethos argue that it encourages low-achieving adolescents to develop unrealistically high expectations. This argument posits that low-achievers waste time and money, and risk disappointment and self-recrimination, pursuing college when they are unlikely to complete it. The present study uses two national data…

  18. The Adult Life Spiral: A Critique of the Life Cycle Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Peter; Etzkowitz, Henry

    We can identify and describe alternate paths of adulthood utilizing data from interviews with single adults. Our review of major models used in adulthood studies suggests that a developmental model, such as Daniel Levinson's life cycle model, is too tied to the notion of the imminent unfolding of the life course. The age-stratification theory…

  19. Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Ailiana; Schröders, Julia; Vaezghasemi, Masoud; Ng, Nawi

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the increase in life expectancy (LE) globally is coupled with a postponement of morbidity and disability. Evidence on trends and determinants of disability-free life expectancies (DFLEs) are available in high-income countries but less in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the levels of and inequalities in LE, disability and DFLE between men and women across different age groups aged 50 years and over in six countries with developing economies. Methods This study utilised the cross-sectional data (n=32 724) from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa in 2007–2010. Disability was measured with the activity of daily living (ADL) instrument. The DFLE was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and ADL-disability proportions. Results The disability prevalence ranged from 13% in China to 54% in India. The prevalence of disability was highest and occurred at younger age in both sexes in India. Women were more disadvantaged with higher prevalence of disability across all age groups, and the situation was worst among older women in Mexico and the Russian Federation. Though women had higher LE, their proportion of remaining LE free from disability was lower than men. Conclusions There are inequalities in the levels of disability and DFLE among men and women in different age groups among people aged over 50 years in these six countries. Countermeasures to decrease intercountry and gender gaps in DFLE, including improvements in health promotion and healthcare distribution, with a gender equity focus, are needed. PMID:26994068

  20. [On Hendrikje van Andel-Schipper and other remarkable developments in the life expectancy of the Dutch population].

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J P

    2005-11-12

    The Netherlands was home to the oldest living individual in the world, Mrs. Hendrikje van Andel-Schipper, until she died at the age of 115 years on 30 August 2005. She illustrated the remarkable increase in centenarians in many European countries resulting from substantial increases in life expectancy at birth. In 2004, life expectancy at birth in the Netherlands reached a record high of 76.9 years for men and 81.4 years for women. These developments raise important questions on the potential for further increases in life expectancy. Based on an extrapolation of recent trends in cause-specific mortality, Netherlands Statistics predicts an increase in life expectancy of 2 to 3 years in the half-century between 2004 and 2050. Experts are deeply divided about the prospects for further increases in life expectancy. Some have argued that such estimates are too optimistic because, for example, the obesity epidemic might even reduce average life expectancy in the future. Others consider these estimates too pessimistic because, for example, previous estimates of limits to life expectancy have almost always been surpassed. Even relatively modest increases in life expectancy at birth, however, will pose important challenges to health care, social services and pension arrangements. PMID:16320664

  1. Ethnic and gender specific life expectancies of the Singapore population, 1965 to 2009 – converging, or diverging?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in life expectancy and the persistence of expectancy gaps between different social groups in the 20th century are well-described in Western developed countries, but less well documented in the newly industrialised countries of Asia. Singapore, a multiethnic island-state, has undergone a demographic and epidemiologic transition concomitant with economic development. We evaluate secular trends and differences in life expectancy by ethnicity and gender in Singapore, from independence to the present. Methods Period abridged life tables were constructed to derive the life expectancy of the Singapore population from 1965 to 2009 using data from the Department of Statistics and the Registry of Births and Deaths, Singapore. Results All 3 of Singapore’s main ethnic groups, and both genders, experienced an increase in life expectancy at birth and at 65 years from 1965 to 2009, though at substantially different rates. Although there has been a convergence in life expectancy between Indians and Chinese, the (substantial) gap between Malays and the other two ethnic groups has remained. Females continued to have a higher life expectancy at birth and at 65 years than males throughout this period, with no evidence of convergence. Conclusions Ethnic and gender differences in life expectancy persist in Singapore despite its rapid economic development. Targeted chronic disease prevention measures and health promotion activities focusing on people of Malay ethnicity and the male community may be needed to remedy this inequality. PMID:24160733

  2. [Increasing life expectancy--the big social issue of the 21st century?].

    PubMed

    Scherl, H

    2003-04-01

    Due to the combined effects of a persistent low birth rate, the forthcoming retirement of the "baby-boom generation" and an increasing life expectancy, the German system of "social security" will face severe challenges in the coming decades. The foreseeable doubling of the ratio between pensioners and employees by 2050 would cause a strong increase in social security contributions and taxes for the "pay-as-you-go"-financed pension system. In addition, the expected tripling of highly aged people would increase the public expenditures for health care and nursing care of elder people, which also have to be financed by the future working generations. In order to lessen the increasing burden on future generations, social reforms are necessary soon. If these are not performed, the distributional conflict between young and old people could become worse over the forthcoming decades. PMID:12720020

  3. Life Expectancy in Patients Treated for Osteoporosis: Observational Cohort Study Using National Danish Prescription Data.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Osmond, Clive; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease, carrying an elevated risk of fractures, morbidity, and death. Long-term treatment may be required, but the long-term risks with osteoporosis drugs remain incompletely understood. The competing risk of death may be a barrier to treating the oldest, yet this may not be rational if the risk of death is reduced by treatment. It is difficult to devise goal-directed long-term strategies for managing osteoporosis without firm information about residual life expectancy in treated patients. We conducted an observational study in Danish national registries tracking prescriptions for osteoporosis drugs, comorbid conditions, and deaths. We included 58,637 patients and 225,084 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Information on deaths until the end of 2013 was retrieved, providing a follow-up period of 10 to 17 years. In men younger than 80 years and women younger than 60 years, the relative risk of dying declined from being strongly increased in the first year to a stable but elevated level in subsequent years. In women older than 65 to 70 years, there was only a small elevation in risk in the first year of treatment followed by lower than background population mortality. The residual life expectancy of a 50-year-old man beginning osteoporosis treatment was estimated to be 18.2 years and that of a 75-year-old man was 7.5 years. Estimates in women were 26.4 years and 13.5 years, respectively. This study shows an excess mortality in men and in women younger than 70 years who are treated for osteoporosis compared with the background population. This excess risk is more pronounced in the first few years on treatment. The average life expectancy of osteoporosis patients is in excess of 15 years in women younger than 75 years and in men younger than 60 years, highlighting the importance of developing tools for long-term management. PMID:25663501

  4. Determinants of Life Expectancy in Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Health Production Function

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Akbarian, Reza; Kavosi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Determinants of health or health production function in health economics literature constitute noticeable issues in health promotion. This study aimed at estimating a health production function for East Mediterranean Region (EMR) based on the Grossman theoretical model. Methods: This ecological study was performed using the econometric methods. The panel data model was used in order to determine the relationship between life expectancy and socioeconomic factors. The data for 21 EMR countries between 1995 and 2007 were used. Fixed-effect-model was employed to estimate the parameters based on Hausman test. Results: In estimating the health production function, factors such as income per capita (β=0.05, P<0.001), education index (β=0.07, P<0.001), food availability (β=0.01, P<0.001), level of urbanisation (β=0.10, P<0.001), and employment ratio (β=0.11, P<0.001) were specified as determinants of health status, proxied by life expectancy at birth. A notable result was the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to the employment rate and its significance level was different between males (β=0.13, P<0.001) and females (β=0.08, P>0.001). Conclusion: In order to improve the health status in EMR countries, health policymakers should focus on the factors which lie outside the healthcare system. These factors are mainly associated with economic growth and development level. Thus, the economic stabilisation policies with the aim of increasing the productivity, economic growth, and reducing unemployment play significant roles in the health status of the people of the region. PMID:24596837

  5. Older adults' expectations about mental health counseling: a multivariate and discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Lagana, L

    1995-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying significant predictors of expectations about mental health counseling in a sample of highly educated elderly. This task was achieved by administering the full version of the Expectations About Counseling (EAC) questionnaire to fifty-seven retired professors. We first addressed the issue of the current elderly's under-utilization of formal counseling services, then conducted a literature review on the relationship between elderly's characteristics and their views of counseling. Specific hypotheses were formulated for each of the seven possible predictors of EAC scale scores. Previous counseling experience and marital status were significant predictors of EAC scale scores. Young-old adults (i.e., younger than 75 years of age) had received counseling experience significantly more than their older counterpart; their EAC scores, however, were not significantly different than those of old-old participants. Gender, area of residence, income and religiosity did not predict expectations about counseling significantly. Cell size heterogeneity for some predictors might have been responsible for lack of significance on additional factors. The article ends with a discussion of several clinical implications of the findings. PMID:7558371

  6. Cognitive Algebra of Love through the Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconi, Anne; Mullet, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    The study was aimed at characterizing the exact algebraic structure of the love schema in order to trace possible changes in the conceptualization of love throughout the adult life cycle, notably as regards the weight attributed to the three components of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment. The methodological framework was the Functional…

  7. The Impact of Arthritis on Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckhardt, Carol S.

    Poor health has been implicated as a suppressor of the life satisfaction of older adults. To clarify the contribution of arthritis to this process, functional disability, negative affect, pain, current severity of the disease, self-esteem, perception of general health, and internal health locus of control, were placed within a causal model as…

  8. Adult Education. The Quality of Life. ASPBAE Courier No. 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This issue of the "Courier" examines the quality of life as it can be improved by adult education, especially in the countries of Asia, Africa, and the South Pacific. It also looks at the need for women's education. The following six articles are included: (1) "The Future of the Family" (Federico Mayor); (2) "Her Words on His Lips: Gender Popular…

  9. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  10. Life-Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…

  11. Life Impairments in Adults with Medication-Treated ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Sprich, Susan E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Knouse, Laura E.; Lerner, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In developing psychosocial approaches to augment outcomes for medication-treated adults with ADHD, it is important to understand what types of life-impairments are most affected by continued ADHD symptoms that occur despite medication treatment. This may assist in delineating targets for interventions, as well as assessments of…

  12. Life-Style Classification of Adult High School Noncompleters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1987-01-01

    The study sought to identify and describe life-style classifications that exist among adult high school noncompleters and to analyze significant differences that exist among categories. Findings suggest six broad classifications: (1) Entrepreneurs, (2) Superiors, (3) Regulars, (4) Suppliants, (5) Marginals, and (6) Underclass. (Author/CH)

  13. Increasing Student/Older Adult Interaction by Life Review Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Edward D.; Haight, Barbara K.

    1993-01-01

    A method for increasing interaction between students and older adults in a geriatric pharmacy course uses an instructional module on stereotypes, age and personality, role changes, and nursing home living. The course requires students to conduct a life review of someone over age 65. The exercise improves student communication skills and…

  14. From stage to age in variable environments: life expectancy and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol C

    2006-06-01

    Stage-based demographic data are now available on many species of plants and some animals, and they often display temporal and spatial variability. We provide exact formulas to compute age-specific life expectancy and survivorship from stage-based data for three models of temporal variability: cycles, serially independent random variation, and a Markov chain. These models provide a comprehensive description of patterns of temporal variation. Our formulas describe the effects of cohort (birth) environmental condition on mortality at all ages, and of the effects on survivorship of environmental variability experienced over the course of life. This paper complements existing methods for time-invariant stage-based data, and adds to the information on population growth and dynamics available from stochastic demography. PMID:16869426

  15. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    PubMed

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:25365695

  16. BARRIERS TO LIFE JACKET USE AMONG ADULT RECREATIONAL BOATERS

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.; Bennett, Elizabeth E.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify barriers to life jacket use. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Nine public boat ramps in western Washington State, USA, August-November, 2008. Participants 675 adult boaters (>18 years) on motor boats <26 feet long. Main outcome Low or no life jacket use (0–50% of time) versus high life jacket use (51–100% of time). Results Low/no life jacket use (0%–50% of time) was associated with longer boat length (per foot, risk ratio [RR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.05), alcohol use (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.20), perception of life jackets as “uncomfortable” (RR 1.29, 95%CI 1.09–1.52), perceived greater level of swimming ability (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.53 for “expert swimmer”), and possibly with lack of confidence that a life jacket may save one from drowning (RR 1.13, 95%CI 0.96–1.32). Low life jacket use was less likely when a child was onboard (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.99), or if the respondent had taken a boating safety class (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87–1.01). Conclusions Life jacket use may increase with more comfortable devices, such as inflatable life jackets, and with increased awareness of their efficacy in preventing drowning. Boater education classes may be associated with increased life jacket use among adults. PMID:24686261

  17. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry. PMID:21147792

  18. The problem of genotype and sex differences in life expectancy in transgenic AD mice.

    PubMed

    Rae, Eric A; Brown, Richard E

    2015-10-01

    The lifespan of mice shows genotype, sex and laboratory effects, but little is known about genotype or sex differences in life expectancy of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper examines the lifespan of males and females of different mouse models of AD and their wildtype strains. Genotype and sex dependent differences in longevity have important implications for designing experiments with Alzheimer's mouse models, comparing genotype and sex differences in aging mouse models, designing drug treatment regimes and the translation of mouse data to human clinical studies. We conclude that the concept of aging and age-related disorders in mice must be reconsidered based on genotype and sex differences in mouse life expectancy data. Use of concepts such as relative age, prospective lifespan and proportion of lifespan remaining should be included in studies of age-related changes in mouse brains and behavior. Finally, measures such as the Frailty Index, which is independent of chronological age might be used to determine a common scale of aging for all mouse strains. PMID:26348702

  19. The Jewish advantage and household security: life expectancy among 19th Century Sephardim of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Lawrence A; Tripp, Lianne; Melnychenko, Ulianna

    2013-07-01

    Using the historical population of Gibraltar to examine the pattern of mortality of Jews and Roman Catholics revealed that: (1) the Jews exhibited a significantly better health status as measured by life expectancy at birth (47.66 and 47.56 for Jewish males and females vs. 38.10 and 40.89 for Catholics males and females, respectively), (2) most of the disparity is found in the very young age categories and (3) the significantly lower rates of deaths could be attributed to the diarrheal and nutritional complex. Stage two of the research involved the linkage of deaths over a 7-year period relative to their household context as of 1878. Being Jewish, having a servant, having access to a water well in the tenement and residing in a tenement only with other Jews, were all factors that contributed to a higher life expectancy. Our explanation for the enhanced survivorship among the Jews is grounded in economics as well as in an established welfare system, in religious precepts and in secular knowledge of health. One of the more notable and hitherto unobserved findings is that Roman Catholics residing in the same tenements with Jews enjoyed a distinct health advantage. This suggests that a positive amplification effect arose from their co-residence with the Jews. PMID:22664099

  20. Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

    2013-01-01

    A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides. PMID:24455314

  1. Life-course typology of adults who experienced sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-07-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful subgroups within the total sample. The six groups are as follows: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying subgroups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual's life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554

  2. Life Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful sub-groups within the total sample. The six groups are: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying sub-groups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual’s life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554

  3. Estimated life expectancy and risk of death from cancer by quartiles in the older Japanese population: 2010 vital statistics.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Momoko; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Higashi, Takahiro

    2014-10-01

    Data on life expectancies and risk of death from cancer are essential information to have when making informed decisions about cancer screening and treatment options, but has never been presented in a way that is readily available to use for physicians in Japan. We provided estimates of life expectancies and predicted risk of death from seven most common types of cancer (lung, gastric, liver, colon, prostate, breast, and cervical) by quartiles for the older Japanese population above 50 years old, using 2010 life tables and cancer mortality statistics data. We found that there was a large difference in life expectancy between older persons in the upper and lower quartiles. Risk of death from breast cancer was low. By using this data, physicians can more accurately obtain life expectancy estimates by assessing which quartile the patient is most likely to fall under, and help patients make better informed decisions. PMID:25113939

  4. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics. PMID:24946387

  5. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. Design. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). Results. The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0–65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4–67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7–61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1–64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7–54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8–55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0–4.6). Conclusions. Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions. PMID:24897306

  6. Estimating diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in Mexico and seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean, plus Mexico as a whole. Methods Data from the Health, Well-being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean project (n = 10 602) and Mexican Health and Aging Study (n = 6 953) on individuals 60 or more years of age were used in this study. Estimates of diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy were obtained by applying the Sullivan method. Results Diabetes life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Mexico City (4.5 years) and Bridgetown (3.4 years), and lowest in Havana (1.3 years). Diabetes-free life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Santiago (17.6 years) and lowest in Bridgetown (14.2 years) and São Paulo (14.3 years). For women, diabetes life expectancy was highest in Bridgetown (5.4 years), followed by Mexico City and Havana. Bridgetown, Mexico City and Havana had the lowest diabetes-free life expectancy. Women 60 years of age in Buenos Aires had the lowest diabetes life expectancy (2.5 years), and in Santiago, the highest, with a diabetes-free life expectancy of 20.7 years. Conclusions Older individuals in Latin America and the Caribbean can expect to live a large proportion of their remaining lives with diabetes. There were also important differences across settings; in particular, the pronounced diabetes burden in Barbados and Mexico and among women. Given the fast growth of the elderly population in these societies, it is crucial to promote healthy eating and exercising as a way of reducing the burden of diabetes. PMID:19814876

  7. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D Gareth R; Ingham, Sarah Louise

    2013-01-01

    There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA), or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors. PMID:23935382

  8. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  9. Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

  10. First-time Taiwanese expectant fathers' life experiences during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chien-Huei; Long, Ann

    2004-03-01

    This descriptive phenomenological study was designed to explore the life experiences of 14 Taiwanese first-time expectant fathers while their wives were in the third trimester of pregnancy. The authors used unstructured interviews to obtain the data from each participant. Data were analyzed by Colaizzi ' s (1978) method as a qualitative content analysis. In addition, the researcher used the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985) to enhance the rigorousness of this study. The findings demonstrated that during the third trimester of their wives ' pregnancy eight key themes emerged among the first-time expectant fathers, as follows: (1). Jubilation; (2). Feelings of uuncertainty (3). Adjustment; (4). Preparation for fatherhood; (5). Engagement; (6). Gender concerns; (7). The wonder of fetal movement, and (8). Expanded vision. The findings from this study have an important contribution to make to an advancement of practice, education and research concerning first-time fathers ' needs and aspirations. In addition, the findings showed that there is a need to reaffirm the place of caring in nursing and midwifery if our goal is to provide a high quality service which meets the needs of the woman and her family. It is essential for nurses to champion the advancement of family-centred care which involves their partners in pregnancy. PMID:15136964

  11. Contributions of music to aging adults' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Solé, Carme; Mercadal-Brotons, Melissa; Gallego, Sofia; Riera, Mariangels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) To evaluate and to compare the impact of three music programs (choir, music appreciation and preventive music therapy sessions) on the quality of life of healthy older adults, and (b) to identify the motivations and the difficulties that seniors encounter when participating in activities of this type, in order to come up with recommendations and strategies for the design of appropriate programs for older adults. A pre-posttest quasi-experimental design without equivalent control group was used in this project. The sample included 83 persons over 65 years of age. The data collection was carried out through an ad hoc questionnaire that included the four aspects of the construct of quality of life (physical health, subjective health, psychological well-being and interpersonal relations), a questionnaire on motivation and another on satisfaction about the program. This questionnaire on quality of life was administered twice: at the beginning of the programs (pretest) and at the end (posttest). The results of this study indicate that the participants perceived improvements in some aspects of their quality of life. In addition, the main reasons which motivate participation in these musical activities are to broaden the social network and to acquire new knowledge. The results are discussed in the light of the challenges of active and satisfactory aging. PMID:21275335

  12. Life in varying environments: experimental evidence for delayed effects of juvenile environment on adult life history.

    PubMed

    Helle, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

    2012-05-01

    1. The effects of environment experienced during early development on phenotype as an adult has started to gain vast amounts of interest in various taxa. Some evidence on long-term effects of juvenile environment is available, but replicated experimental studies in wild animals are still lacking. 2. Here we report the first replicated experiment in wild mammals which examines the long-term effects of juvenile and adult environments on individual fitness (reproduction, survival and health). The early development of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) individuals took place in either food-supplemented or un-supplemented outdoor enclosures. After the summer, adult individuals were reciprocally changed to either a similar or opposite resource environment to overwinter. 3. Adult environment had an overriding effect on reproductive success of females so that females overwintering in food-supplemented enclosures had a higher probability of breeding and advanced the initiation of breeding. However, the characteristics of their litters were determined by juvenile environment: females initially grown in food-supplemented conditions subsequently produced larger litters with bigger pups and a male-biased sex ratio. 4. In males, individuals growing in un-supplemented conditions had the highest survival irrespective of adult environment during winter, whereas in females, neither the juvenile nor adult environments affected their survival significantly. The physiological condition of voles in spring, as determined by haematological parameters, was also differentially affected by juvenile (plasma proteins and male testosterone) and adult (haematocrit) environments. 5. Our results suggest that (i) life-history trajectories of voles are not strictly specialized to a certain environment and (ii) the plastic life-history responses to present conditions can actually be caused by delayed effects of the juvenile environment. More generally, the results are important for understanding

  13. Early life conditions, rapid demographic changes and older adult health in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    McEniry, Mary; McDermott, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The demographic transition of the 1930s–1960s dramatically improved life expectancy in some developing countries. Cohorts born during this time are increasingly characterized by their survivorship of poor early life conditions, such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases. As a result, they are potentially more susceptible to the effects of these conditions at older ages. This study examines this conjecture by comparing obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in older adults born in the beginning portion of the 1930s–1960s across different mortality regimes using a subset of harmonized cross national data from seven low and middle income countries (RELATE, n=16,836). Using birthplace and height as indicators of early life conditions, results show (1) higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes and higher likelihood of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in middle income countries but, (2) no convincing evidence to indicate stronger effects of early life conditions on health in these countries. However, shorter adults living in urban areas were more likely to be obese indicating the overall importance of early life conditions and the potential negative impact of urban exposures during adulthood. Obesity results may foreshadow the health of future cohorts born in the later portion of the 1930s–1960s as they reach older ages (60+). PMID:26266970

  14. Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Combination antiretroviral therapy has led to significant increases in survival and quality of life, but at a population-level the effect on life expectancy is not well understood. Our objective was to compare changes in mortality and life expectancy among HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration is a multinational collaboration of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America. Patients were included in this analysis if they were aged 16 years or over and antiretroviral-naive when initiating combination therapy. We constructed abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies for individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, stratified by sex, baseline CD4 cell count, and history of injecting drug use. The average number of years remaining to be lived by those treated with combination antiretroviral therapy at 20 and 35 years of age was estimated. Potential years of life lost from 20 to 64 years of age and crude death rates were also calculated. Findings 18 587, 13 914, and 10 854 eligible patients initiated combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, respectively. 2056 (4·7%) deaths were observed during the study period, with crude death rates decreasing from 16·3 deaths per 1000 person-years in 1996–99 to 10·0 deaths per 1000 person-years in 2003–05. Potential years of life lost per 1000 person-years also decreased over the same time, from 366 to 189 years. Life expectancy at age 20 years increased from 36·1 (SE 0·6) years to 49·4 (0·5) years. Women had higher life expectancies than men. Patients with presumed transmission via injecting drug use had lower life expectancies than those from other transmission groups (32·6 [1·1] years vs 44·7 [0·3] years in 2003–05). Life expectancy was lower in patients with lower baseline CD4 counts than in those with higher baseline counts

  15. Prediction of Expected Years of Life Using Whole-Genome Markers

    PubMed Central

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Klimentidis, Yann C.; Vazquez, Ana I.; Allison, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to account for 25% of the interindividual differences in Years of Life (YL) among humans. However, the genetic loci that have thus far been found to be associated with YL explain a very small proportion of the expected genetic variation in this trait, perhaps reflecting the complexity of the trait and the limitations of traditional association studies when applied to traits affected by a large number of small-effect genes. Using data from the Framingham Heart Study and statistical methods borrowed largely from the field of animal genetics (whole-genome prediction, WGP), we developed a WGP model for the study of YL and evaluated the extent to which thousands of genetic variants across the genome examined simultaneously can be used to predict interindividual differences in YL. We find that a sizable proportion of differences in YL—which were unexplained by age at entry, sex, smoking and BMI—can be accounted for and predicted using WGP methods. The contribution of genomic information to prediction accuracy was even higher than that of smoking and body mass index (BMI) combined; two predictors that are considered among the most important life-shortening factors. We evaluated the impacts of familial relationships and population structure (as described by the first two marker-derived principal components) and concluded that in our dataset population structure explained partially, but not fully the gains in prediction accuracy obtained with WGP. Further inspection of prediction accuracies by age at death indicated that most of the gains in predictive ability achieved with WGP were due to the increased accuracy of prediction of early mortality, perhaps reflecting the ability of WGP to capture differences in genetic risk to deadly diseases such as cancer, which are most often responsible for early mortality in our sample. PMID:22848416

  16. Quality of life in adults and children with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, E O

    2001-07-01

    Quality of life, when referring to an individual's health, is called health-related quality of life (HRQL). HRQL focuses on patients' perceptions of their disease and measures impairments that have significant impact on the patient. Similar symptoms may vary in their effect on different individuals; the goal of therapy should be to reduce impairments that patients consider important. HRQL can be measured with generic or specific questionnaires. Specific questionnaires may be more sensitive and are much more likely to detect clinically important changes in patients' impairments. Specific questionnaires used to assess HRQL in rhinitis are the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Adolescent Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Pediatric Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. HRQL issues in adult rhinitis patients include fatigue, decrease in energy, general health perception, and social function; impairment of HQRL generally increases with increasing degree of symptoms and severity of disease. In children, HRQL issues include learning impairment, inability to integrate with peers, anxiety, and family dysfunction. Comorbid disorders often associated with rhinitis, including sinusitis, otitis media, and frequent respiratory infections, can further compromise HRQL. Pharmacologic treatments can have both positive and negative effects on HRQL. Agents that have troublesome adverse effects such as sedation can have a negative impact, whereas nonsedating antihistamines and intranasal cortico-steroids can significantly improve HRQL in patients of all ages with rhinitis. PMID:11449206

  17. Delayed symptom onset and increased life expectancy in Sandhoff disease mice treated with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, M; Butters, T D; Cortina-Borja, M; Hunnam, V; Proia, R L; Perry, V H; Dwek, R A; Platt, F M

    1999-05-25

    Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve CNS pathology, including the GM2 gangliosidoses. One strategy for treating this and related diseases is substrate deprivation. This would utilize an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis to balance synthesis with the impaired rate of catabolism, thus preventing storage. One such inhibitor is N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, which currently is in clinical trials for the potential treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease, a related disease that involves glycosphingolipid storage in peripheral tissues, but not in the CNS. In this study, we have evaluated whether this drug also could be applied to the treatment of diseases with CNS storage and pathology. We therefore have treated a mouse model of Sandhoff disease with the inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. The treated mice have delayed symptom onset, reduced storage in the brain and peripheral tissues, and increased life expectancy. Substrate deprivation therefore offers a potentially general therapy for this family of lysosomal storage diseases, including those with CNS disease. PMID:10339597

  18. Ethical framework for medication discontinuation in nursing home residents with limited life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Tjia, Jennifer; Givens, Jane

    2012-05-01

    A recent editorial by health economist Victor Fuchs summarized the current challenges with health care delivery in this way: “Most physicians want to deliver ‘appropriate’ care. Most want to practice ‘ethically’, but it is difficult to know what is ‘appropriate’ and what is ‘ethical’. This characterization is particularly true for medication use and deprescribing in elderly NH residents with limited life expectancy. Medical ethics sets 4 key principles (beneficence, nonmaleficence, patient autonomy, and justice) to guide practice. However, decisional conflicts will continue between providers and patients, and physicians will continue to struggle with the dilemma of balancing the primacy of patient welfare, values, and beliefs against the desire for promising, but often minimally beneficial and harmful, medications that threaten limited clinical resources. Despite these challenges, physicians should be able to perform systematic medication reviews and monitor discontinuation trials in their NH patients for whom this is consistent with their goals of care. PMID:22500542

  19. The Contribution of Smoking to Educational Gradients in U.S. Life Expectancy*

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.; Fenelon, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have documented widening educational gradients in mortality in the United States since the 1970s. While smoking has been proposed as a key explanation for this trend, no prior study has quantified the contribution of smoking to increasing education gaps in longevity. We estimate the contribution of smoking to educational gradients in life expectancy using data on white men and women aged 50 and above from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (N=283,430; 68,644 deaths) and the National Health Interview Survey (N=584,811; 127,226 deaths) in five periods covering the 1980s to 2006. In each period, smoking makes an important contribution to education gaps in longevity for white men and women. Smoking accounts for half the increase in the gap for white women but does not explain the widening gap for white men in the most recent period. Addressing greater initiation and continued smoking among the less educated may reduce mortality inequalities. PMID:26199287

  20. Obesidad y Esperanza de Vida en México Obesity and life expectancy in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Monteverde, Malena; Novak, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The high and increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in Latin American and the Caribbean and the increasing prevalence of some obesity-related chronic diseases could be changing the current mortality patterns and the improvements in life expectancy of this population. The main objective of this study is to measure the effect of overweight and obesity on mortality in Mexico among elderly people (60 years and older). We use the Mexican Health and Ageing Study (MHAS, 2001 and 2003) that is a panel nationally-representative study of the population 50 years and older in Mexico. Our results show that excess body weight (defined by the two highest quintiles of Body Mass Index-BMI-) increases the risk of mortality at 60 years and older in Mexico. As much as 11% of the deaths among elderly that occurred during the period 2001-2003 in Mexico would have been avoided if overweight and obese people (individuals belonging to the highest two quintiles of BMI) had had the “ideal” weight (defined by the middle quintile, or third quintile, of BMI). At individual level, we estimate that individuals 60 years old with excess body weight (fourth and fifth quintiles of BMI) survive four years less, in average, than individuals with normal body weight (third quintile of BMI). PMID:25705173

  1. Family, frailty, and fatal futures? Own-health and family-health predictors of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Zick, Cathleen D; Smith, Ken R; Mayer, Robert N; Taylor, Lorayne B

    2014-03-01

    Subjective life expectancy is a powerful predictor of a variety of health and economic behaviors. This research expands upon the life expectancy literature by examining the influence of familial health histories. Using a genetic/environmental model, we hypothesize that individuals' assessments of their life expectancies will be linked to the health of first-degree and second-degree relatives, with same-sex relatives' health exercising a stronger effect than that of opposite-sex relatives. Multivariate analyses based on data from a 2009 survey merged with familial health records (N = 1,019) confirm that the health experiences of same-sex, first-degree relatives are linked to respondents' subjective life expectancy. The relationship between the health experiences of second-degree relatives and subjective life expectancy is much less pronounced. These findings have the potential not only to inform our understanding of health behaviors but also to encourage communication between patients and health professionals aimed at promoting preventative behaviors. PMID:25650691

  2. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. PMID:26733705

  3. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  4. Measuring Older Adults Filial Responsibility Expectations: Exploring the Application of a Vignette Technique and an Item Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pas, Suzan; van Tilburg, Theo; Knipscheer, Kees C. P. M.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on two conceptually distinct measures of the filial responsibility expectations of older adults: a vignette technique and an attitude item scale. Data were based on 1,553 respondents aged 61 to 92 years who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam in 1998 to 1999.The results showed that the item scale had multiple…

  5. [Study on the use of model life tables methodology in birth defect's life expectancy estimation: the case of Down's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiao-Ying

    2008-04-01

    Using Brass-Logit model and life tables for general population and Down's syndrome patients in U.S.A and life tables for general population in China, we estimated the life table of Down's syndrome patients in China. Through comparing with data from other countries, we suggested that Brass-Logit Model Life Table could be adopted were minimum data of birth defects survival was available and systematic data was handy in another areas. PMID:18844002

  6. Effect of Intensive Exercise in Early Adult Life on Telomere Length in Later Life in Men

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Merja K.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kujala, Urho M.; Raj, Rahul; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bäckmand, Heli M.; Peltonen, Markku; Sarna, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    A career as an elite-class male athlete seems to improve metabolic heath in later life and is also associated with longer life expectancy. Telomere length is a biomarker of biological cellular ageing and could thus predict morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between vigorous elite-class physical activity during young adulthood on later life leukocyte telomere length (LTL). The study participants consist of former male Finnish elite athletes (n = 392) and their age-matched controls (n = 207). Relative telomere length was determined from peripheral blood leukocytes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Volume of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was self-reported and expressed in metabolic equivalent hours. No significant difference in mean age-adjusted LTL in late life (p = 0.845) was observed when comparing former male elite athletes and their age-matched controls. Current volume of LTPA had no marked influence on mean age-adjusted LTL (p for trend 0.788). LTL was inversely associated with age (p = 0.004).Our study findings suggest that a former elite athlete career is not associated with LTL later in life. Key points A career as an elite-class athlete is associated with improved metabolic health in late life and is associated with longer life expectancy. A career as an elite-class athlete during young adulthood was not associated with leukocyte telomere length in later life. Current volume of leisure-time physical activity did not influence telomere length in later life. PMID:25983570

  7. Enduring Links: Parents' Expectations and Their Young Adult Children's Gender-Typed Occupational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Janis E.; Chhin, Christina S.; Bleeker, Martha M.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine (1) the relation between parents' gender-typed occupational expectations for their children at age 15 and their children's own reports of occupational expectations at age 17; (2) the long-term relations between parents' gender-typed occupational expectations for their children at age 17 and their…

  8. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  9. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers’ and smokers’ smoking expectations

    PubMed Central

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:24155189

  10. Is quality of life poorer for older adults with HIV/AIDS? International evidence using the WHOQOL-HIV.

    PubMed

    Skevington, S M

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly older adults are being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. In 2002, UNAIDS indicated that 13 aspects of quality of life (QoL) were poorer for older adults, but only sparse, inconsistent cross-cultural evidence is available. This statement was investigated using a reliable, valid measure (the WHOQOL-HIV) distributed in nine cultures (eight countries). HIV positive and well adults (n = 2089) were assessed across 30 QoL facets; 403 were 40+ years. It was confirmed that sleep, fatigue and sex-life were poorer areas of QoL for older HIV adults than younger. Furthermore, they could be misinterpreted as normal ageing signs. Moreover, older people reported greater dependency on medication. However, older HIV adults had better QoL than expected on 11 dimensions; negative feelings, social inclusion, and several environmental and spiritual facets. This highlights the extent of poor QoL in younger adults. After accounting for culture and gender, overall QoL and health in older HIV adults was explained by eight facets comprising 61.3% of the variance. Social relationships were paramount, especially personal relationships (41%), but support and sex-life also. Energy, negative feelings, cognitions, financial resources and HIV symptoms also contributed. Social interventions for ageing communities would improve well-being. This evidence could support global ageing and HIV policy. PMID:22428745

  11. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries

    PubMed Central

    YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; HAGHDOOST, Aliakbar; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossein; AMINIAN, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. Methods: In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. Results: GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient −0.039; 95% CI: −0.058, −0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (−0.019; 95% CI: −0.035, −0.003), GNI (−0.035; 95% CI: −0.055, −0.015), and both EI and GNI (−0.017; 95% CI: −0.033, −0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. Conclusion: The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries. PMID:25905077

  12. Crosslinking of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides to modulate the expected half-life.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, L; Madaghiele, M; Parisi, C; Gatti, F; Sannino, A

    2014-12-01

    The microstructural, mechanical, compositional, and degradative properties of a nerve conduit are known to strongly affect the regenerative process of the injured peripheral nerve. Starting from the fabrication of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides, according to a spin-casting process reported in the literature, this study further investigates the possibility to modulate the degradation rate of the scaffolds over a wide time frame, in an attempt to match different rates of nerve regeneration that might be encountered in vivo. To this aim, three different crosslinking methods, that is, dehydrothermal (DHT), carbodiimide-based (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde-based (GTA) crosslinking, were selected. The elastically effective degree of crosslinking, attained by each method and evaluated according to the classical rubber elasticity theory, was found to significantly tune the in vitro half-life (t1/2 ) of the matrices, with an exponential dependence of the latter on the crosslink density. The high crosslinking efficacy of EDAC and GTA treatments, respectively threefold and fourfold when compared to the one attained by DHT, led to a sharp increase of the corresponding in vitro half-lives (ca., 10, 172, and 690 h, for DHT, EDAC, and GTA treated matrices, respectively). As shown by cell viability assays, the cytocompatibility of both DHT and EDAC treatments, as opposed to the toxicity of GTA, suggests that such methods are suitable to crosslink collagen-based scaffolds conceived for clinical use. In particular, nerve guides with expected high residence times in vivo might be produced by finely controlling the biocompatible reaction(s) adopted for crosslinking. PMID:24532089

  13. Improvement of Life Expectancy of Jute Based Needlepunched Geotextiles Through Bitumen Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Ray Gupta, K.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Sahu, R. B.; Mandol, S.

    2014-12-01

    Geotextiles have witnessed unrivalled growth worldwide in recent years in the field of different civil engineering constructions. The world of Geotextiles includes mainly non-biodegradable synthetic materials which are not environmentally compatible. With the increasing human awareness on environmental pollution aspects, biodegradable Jute Geotextile is increasingly gaining ground over its synthetic non-biodegradable counterpart. Though Jute is advantageous for its complete biodegradability in one hand but on the other hand it is disadvantageous for its poor microbial resistance and quicker biodegradation particularly under moist soil conditions, when applied as Geotextiles under soil. Therefore, it is a great challenge to the present researchers to make jute more microbial resistant (rot resistant) keeping its biodegradability intact during its performance period. Thorough investigation and study regarding the improvement of the durability of natural Jute Geotextile reveals the fact that though several attempts including chemical treatments have been made to enhance the life expectancy of jute fabrics yet these methods were neither found to be suitable nor techno-economically viable. Therefore, in order to accomplish the objective and based on the researchers' report of satisfactory thermal compatibility between hot bitumen and jute nonwoven fabrics, in the present study Bitumen emulsion with essential additives has been applied following a special technique, apart from the conventional method, on the Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics in different add on percentages to make a comparative assessment of the performance of both Grey Jute Fabrics and Bituminized Jute Nonwoven Fabrics by Soil Burial Test as per the BIS standard test method. The test results revealed that the durability and performance of the Bituminized Nonwoven Jute Fabrics are much better than that of Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics.

  14. Expected years of life free of chronic condition-induced activity limitations - United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Molla, Michael T

    2013-11-22

    Over the 20th century, the U.S. population has witnessed major changes in fatal and nonfatal health outcomes. Mortality has declined, and life expectancy has increased continuously; chronic conditions have replaced acute diseases as leading causes of both illness and death. During 1900-2008, average life expectancy at birth for the total U.S. population increased from 47.3 years in 1900 to 78.1 years in 2008, a gain of 30.8 years. In addition, an increasing proportion of the U.S. population is aged >65 years. According to the U.S. Census Bureau estimates, at the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. population aged >65 years constituted only 4.1 percent of the total population; by 2008, the percentage of the total U.S. population aged >65 years was 12.8%. However, declines in mortality are not necessarily associated with declines in morbidity or the consequences of chronic conditions on life activities. The possibility that longer life might be accompanied by poor health makes it essential to develop measures that account for both mortality and morbidity at the same time. Hence, over the past 40 years, a new set of health measures (e.g., "healthy life expectancies") have been developed that account for both mortality and life spent free of the consequences of ill health. One of these newly developed set of measures (called "active life expectancy") is the average number of years expected to be lived without activity limitations. PMID:24264496

  15. The Child's Expectations of Differences in Adult Male and Female Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Beverly I.

    1984-01-01

    Two-year-olds and four-year-olds were placed with male and female adults in a play situation where the children were forced to control the choice of toys and mode of interaction. The four-year-olds elicited different types of play behaviors from male and female adults; the younger children did not. (Author/KH)

  16. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  17. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    were children, without diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality, as such a diagnosis is not appropriate at early childhood or adolescence. Psychopathic or/and antisocial tendencies sometimes are recognized in children and early adolescent age. Such behaviors lead usually to the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in early years of life and increase the possibility to have a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality as an adult. There are many studies on the underlying risk factors for Psychopathic Personality, focusing in genetic, neurobiological, developmental, environmental, social and other factors. There is no effective treatment for Psychopathic Personality in adult life. Children with a specific neurobiological profile or behavioral disturbances that increase the risk of developing a Psychopathic Personality in adult life, have better chances to respond in exceptionally individualized interventions, depending on the character of the child. The parents are educated to supervise their children, to overlook annoying behaviors and to encourage the positive ones. It appears that the punishment does not attribute, on the contrary it strengthens undesirable behaviors. Use of reward appears to have better results. Programs of early highly focused therapeutic interventions in vulnerable members of the population are our best hope for the reduction of fully blown psychopaths in the general adult population. PMID:22796980

  18. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  19. Older Adults' Expectations About Mental Health Counseling: A Multivariate and Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Luciana

    1995-01-01

    Retired professors (n=57) were administered the Expectations About Counseling (EAC) questionnaire. Results indicate that previous counseling experience and marital status were significant predictors of EAC scale score. Gender, area of residence, income, and religiosity did not predict expectations about counseling significantly. (JPS)

  20. Young Adults' Fertility Expectations and Events: Associations with College Enrollment and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, R. Kelly; Kim, Yujin; Daniels, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The analyses described in this article investigated the association between adolescent fertility expectations and college enrollment (N = 7,838). They also explored the potential impact of fertility expectations and events on college persistence among 4-year (n = 2,605) and 2-year (n = 1,962) college students. The analysis, which used data from…

  1. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008). PMID:19273990

  2. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 78.9 years (10% increase), and for black persons from 64.1 years to 75.1 years ( ... death to the difference in life expectancy between black and white persons: United States, 2010 SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Vital ...

  3. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  4. Family Background, Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students' Career and Life Success Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  5. Assessing the Work and Family Role Expectations of Career-Oriented Men and Women: The Life Role Salience Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amatea, Ellen S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the development of the Life Role Salience Scales (LRSS), which were designed to assess men's and women's personal expectations concerning occupational, marital, parental, and home care roles. Results indicate that the instrument has eight clearly defined scales demonstrating adequate convergent and discriminant validity and reliability.…

  6. Prevailing in Life and Love: An Educator's View of the Role of Our Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine

    The relationship between well being and expectations is complicated and contingent upon many factors. Self-esteem becomes the balance between ability and ambition. To feel better about oneself entails a combination of striving in certain areas while lowering expectations in others. The three most important domains of peoples' lives are: love…

  7. Impact of obesity, overweight and underweight on life expectancy and lifetime medical expenditures: the Ohsaki Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kakizaki, Masako; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Sone, Toshimasa; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kawado, Miyuki; Hashimoto, Shuji; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives People who are obese have higher demands for medical care than those of the normal weight people. However, in view of their shorter life expectancy, it is unclear whether obese people have higher lifetime medical expenditure. We examined the association between body mass index, life expectancy and lifetime medical expenditure. Design Prospective cohort study using individual data from the Ohsaki Cohort Study. Setting Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Participants The 41 965 participants aged 40–79 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The life expectancy and lifetime medical expenditure aged from 40 years. Results In spite of their shorter life expectancy, obese participants might require higher medical expenditure than normal weight participants. In men aged 40 years, multiadjusted life expectancy for those who were obese participants was 41.4 years (95% CI 38.28 to 44.70), which was 1.7 years non-significantly shorter than that for normal weight participants (p=0.3184). Multiadjusted lifetime medical expenditure for obese participants was £112 858.9 (94 954.1–131 840.9), being 14.7% non-significantly higher than that for normal weight participants (p=0.1141). In women aged 40 years, multiadjusted life expectancy for those who were obese participants was 49.2 years (46.14–52.59), which was 3.1 years non-significantly shorter than for normal weight participants (p=0.0724), and multiadjusted lifetime medical expenditure was £137 765.9 (123 672.9–152 970.2), being 21.6% significantly higher (p=0.0005). Conclusions According to the point estimate, lifetime medical expenditure might appear to be higher for obese participants, despite their short life expectancy. With weight control, more people would enjoy their longevity with lower demands for medical care. PMID:22581797

  8. Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse are used as conditions illustrating the key issues. The overarching themes are then discussed in relation to heterotypic continuity and psychopathologic progression, early age at onset and a range of possible mediating mechanisms - including genetic mediation, 'kindling' effects, environmental influences, coping mechanisms and cognitive processing of experiences. Some of the key research challenges that remain concern the testing of competing hypotheses on mediating processes, the changes involved in adolescence, the transition from prodromal phase to overt schizophrenia and the emergence of adolescent-limited antisocial behaviour. Greater use needs to be made of genetic research strategies and of the testing of possible cognitive processing mediation effects. PMID:16492260

  9. Type 1 diabetes prevalence increasing globally and regionally: the role of natural selection and life expectancy at birth

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Peng; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease is increasing worldwide. We aim to test correlation of T1D prevalence to the reduced natural selection measured by Biological State Index (Ibs). Research design and methods Country-specific estimates of T1D prevalence, life expectancy, obesity prevalence rate, urbanization rates, per capita sugars consumption and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained. Ibs and country-specific longevity (e50) increase for each country were self-calculated. These data were then matched to T1D prevalence by country for our ecological study among 118 countries. Countries were also grouped to study the associations in different regions. SPSS V.22 was used for correlation analysis. Results Worldwide, both Ibs and life expectancy at birth (Ibs proxy) were significantly correlated to T1D prevalence in Pearson r (r=0.713, p<0.001 and r=0.722, p<0.001, respectively) and Spearman's r (r=0.724, p<0.001 and r=0.689, p<0.001, respectively). T1D prevalence was not correlated to longevity increase measured as life expectancy at 50 years old. T1D prevalence was significantly associated with Ibs (r=0.307, p<0.001) and newborn life expectancy (r=0.349, p<0.001) independent of per capita total sugar consumption, per capita GDP, urbanization and obesity prevalence in partial correlation. Globally, both life expectancy at birth and Ibs exponentially correlated to T1D prevalence. Pearson correlations generally existed in different country categorizations by geographic region, culture background and economic status. Conclusions Reduced natural selection may have contributed to the increasing T1D prevalence worldwide. T1D epidemiology study in total population may be the practical solution to identify the causes of increasing T1D prevalence. PMID:26977306

  10. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  11. Could adult female acne be associated with modern life?

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, R G R; Rocha, M A D; Bagatin, E; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of adult female acne has increased, but the reason for this increase remains unclear. Acne is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be triggered or worsened by endogenous and exogenous factors, including genetic predisposition, hormone concentrations, diet, smoke and stress; although the interaction with this last factor is not well understood. Modern life presents many stresses including urban noises, socioeconomic pressures and light stimuli. Women are especially affected by stress during daily routine. The recent insertion in the labor market is added to the duties of the mother and wife. Women also have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Sleep restriction is added to these factors, with several negative consequences on health, including on hormonal secretion and the immune system. This is further complicated by the natural variation in sleep architecture across the menstrual cycle. Recent studies have brought new data about the mechanisms and possible factors involved. This review aims to establish a connection between stress, sleep deprivation and adult female acne. PMID:24952024

  12. Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…

  13. Parent Expectations Mediate Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Anne V.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2,…

  14. The Lived Experience of How Adult Nursing Students Blend Lifestyle Obligations with Nursing School Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutrier, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many adult nursing students have lifestyle obligations that require integration with nursing school programs in order to graduate and fulfill their dreams of becoming a nurse. Fourteen participants shared their stories of how they were able to blend their lifestyles commitments with nursing school. Student interaction between lifestyle obligations…

  15. From the laboratory to real life: a pilot study of an expectancy challenge with "heavy drinking" young people on holiday.

    PubMed

    van de Luitgaarden, Jade; Wiers, Reinout W; Knibbe, Ronald A; Boon, Brigitte J

    2006-01-01

    The Alcohol Expectancy Challenge (EC) is a promising program for changing alcohol expectancies and reducing alcohol consumption in "heavy drinking" young men in a bar-lab setting. In this study the EC was adapted for use in mixed-gender groups in a holiday setting and its feasibility tested in camping resorts in the Netherlands where a lot of binge drinking takes place (summer 2002). Male and female participants (N = 170; mean age, 18.8 years) were randomly assigned to an EC or to an assessment-only control group. One day before the intervention, alcohol expectancies were measured by a Visual Analogue Scale of arousal-sedation expectancies (VAS expectancies questionnaire). At the same time, alcohol use in everyday life and on holiday was assessed by a General Drinking Questionnaire and a 24-hour drinking diary, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the intervention, the VAS expectancies questionnaire was administered again and alcohol use over the previous 24 hours was reported in the drinking diary. Six weeks after the intervention, participants were telephoned and administered oral versions of the VAS expectancies questionnaire and General Drinking Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs. Although the study was hampered by recruitment difficulties, the EC proved feasible in this setting, was well received by youngsters, and effects on their alcohol expectancies may have been present. No effect was found on alcohol use. In conclusion, implementation must be improved and more studies are needed to come to more definite conclusions about the value of the EC in a real-life targeted intervention. PMID:16467011

  16. Evidence on the impact of sustained exposure to air pollution on life expectancy from China's Huai River policy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuyu; Ebenstein, Avraham; Greenstone, Michael; Li, Hongbin

    2013-08-01

    This paper's findings suggest that an arbitrary Chinese policy that greatly increases total suspended particulates (TSPs) air pollution is causing the 500 million residents of Northern China to lose more than 2.5 billion life years of life expectancy. The quasi-experimental empirical approach is based on China's Huai River policy, which provided free winter heating via the provision of coal for boilers in cities north of the Huai River but denied heat to the south. Using a regression discontinuity design based on distance from the Huai River, we find that ambient concentrations of TSPs are about 184 μg/m(3) [95% confidence interval (CI): 61, 307] or 55% higher in the north. Further, the results indicate that life expectancies are about 5.5 y (95% CI: 0.8, 10.2) lower in the north owing to an increased incidence of cardiorespiratory mortality. More generally, the analysis suggests that long-term exposure to an additional 100 μg/m(3) of TSPs is associated with a reduction in life expectancy at birth of about 3.0 y (95% CI: 0.4, 5.6). PMID:23836630

  17. Young Adults' Fertility Expectations and Events: Associations With College Enrollment and Persistence.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Kim, Yujin; Daniels, Kimberly

    2012-08-01

    The analyses described in this article investigated the association between adolescent fertility expectations and college enrollment (N = 7,838). They also explored the potential impact of fertility expectations and events on college persistence among 4-year (n = 2,605) and 2-year (n = 1,962) college students. The analysis, which used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort, showed a significant association between expectations for early parenthood and the likelihood of going to a 4-year college or 2-year college for both men and women. In addition, the authors found that pregnancies were associated with an increased risk of college dropout for women; however, if all of the estimated effect of pregnancies on the risk of dropout were causal, they would still not be a major factor contributing to educational attainment because fertile pregnancies among college women are so rare. PMID:23729862

  18. Associations among Aspects of Meaning in Life and Death Anxiety in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explored the relationship between two aspects of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life, and the fear of death and dying in young adults. A community sample of participants ("N" = 168) completed measures of meaning in life and death anxiety. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed…

  19. Alcohol-related expectancies in adults and adolescents: Similarities and disparities.

    PubMed

    Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to contrast student and not student outcome expectancies, and explore the diversity of alcohol-related cognitions within a wider student sample. Participants (n=549) were college students (higher education-typically aged 15-18 years), university students (further education-typically aged 18-22 years) and business people (white collar professionals <50 years) who completed questionnaires in their place of work or education. Overall positive expectancies were higher in the college students than in the business or university samples. However, not all expectancy subcategories followed this pattern. Participant groups of similar age were therefore alike in some aspects of their alcohol-related cognitions but different in others. Similarly, participant groups whom are divergent in age appeared to be alike in some of their alcohol-related cognitions, such as tension reduction expectancies. Research often homogenises students as a specific sub-set of the population, this paper hi-lights that this may be an over-simplification. Furthermore, the largely exclusive focus on student groups within research in this area may also be an oversight, given the diversity of the findings demonstrated between these groups. PMID:26990388

  20. Caregiving expectations and challenges among elders and their adult children in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Ranabahu, Shyama; Rajapakse, Harshini; Maselko, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The elderly population in Sri Lanka is growing rapidly. Elders are traditionally cared for in the homes of their adult children, but the shifting socio-economic environment in Sri Lanka challenges this arrangement. This paper describes the dynamics of elder-caregiver relationships in Southern Sri Lanka. Data included 4 focus group discussions and 5 in-depth interviews with elderly, and 10 in-depth interviews with adult children of the elderly. Discussion guide topics included caregiving arrangements, and roles/responsibilities of elders and caregivers. Using a grounded theory approach, a comprehensive analytic memo was developed and discussed to explore emerging themes on the caregiver dynamic. Both elders and caregivers felt that elders should be taken care of in the home by their children. They pointed to a sense of duty and role modeling of parental caregiving that is passed down through generations. Even as elders desired support from their children, they feared losing their independence, and saw financial autonomy as important for maintaining relationship balance. Caregiving challenges included: households where both the adult child and his/her spouse worked outside the home; households where elders had a disproportionate amount of household work; economically stressed households; and lack of direct communication between elders and caregivers regarding conflicts. Results point to strong values around caring for elderly in the home, but identify challenges to this arrangement in the future. PMID:25152553

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Visual Expectation and Reaction Time in the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Caro, Donna M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined developmental change and stability of visual expectation and reaction times among 5-, 7-, and 12-month-old term and preterm infants. Found that reaction times declined with age while anticipations increased. Infants with faster reaction times were more likely to anticipate upcoming events; this effect disappeared when time between stimuli…

  2. Expectations and Experiences of Latina and Anglo Girls and Parents for Life after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Kashiwabara, Eleanor; Geenen, Sarah; Powers, Laurie E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether Latina youth in special education and parents of Latinas in special education differ from their Anglo counterparts regarding transition expectations and experiences, and experiences of self-determination. Surveys were completed by 211 transition-aged Anglo and Latina females, and parents of Anglo girls and Latinas…

  3. Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

  4. An analysis of life expectancy of airplane wings in normal cruising flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Abbott A

    1945-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for judging the relative importance of wing failure by fatigue and by single intense gusts, an analysis of wing life for normal cruising flight was made based on data on the frequency of atmospheric gusts. The independent variables considered in the analysis included stress-concentration factor, stress-load relation, wing loading, design and cruising speeds, design gust velocity, and airplane size. Several methods for estimating fatigue life from gust frequencies are discussed. The procedure selected for the analysis is believed to be simple and reasonably accurate, though slightly conservative.

  5. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  6. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

  7. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  8. Speech rate effects on the processing of conversational speech across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Janse, Esther

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of speech rate on spoken word recognition across the adult life span. Contrary to previous studies, conversational materials with a natural variation in speech rate were used rather than lab-recorded stimuli that are subsequently artificially time-compressed. It was investigated whether older adults' speech recognition is more adversely affected by increased speech rate compared to younger and middle-aged adults, and which individual listener characteristics (e.g., hearing, fluid cognitive processing ability) predict the size of the speech rate effect on recognition performance. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants indicated with a mouse-click which visually presented words they recognized in a conversational fragment. Click response times, gaze, and pupil size data were analyzed. As expected, click response times and gaze behavior were affected by speech rate, indicating that word recognition is more difficult if speech rate is faster. Contrary to earlier findings, increased speech rate affected the age groups to the same extent. Fluid cognitive processing ability predicted general recognition performance, but did not modulate the speech rate effect. These findings emphasize that earlier results of age by speech rate interactions mainly obtained with artificially speeded materials may not generalize to speech rate variation as encountered in conversational speech. PMID:27106310

  9. Are age-related trends in suicide rates associated with life expectancy and socio-economic factors?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination. PMID:24946117

  10. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  11. Buying a Beauty Standard or Dreaming of a New Life? Expectations Associated with Media Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This study explored college women's ideas regarding how their lives would change if their appearance were consistent with a media-supported female beauty ideal. Participants rated self-generated life changes they associated with looking like a media ideal in terms of likelihood and positivity. Women's tendency to link positive and likely life…

  12. [The projection of autism spectrum disorders in adult life].

    PubMed

    Francis, K

    2012-06-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) consist a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are usually diagnosed in early childhood but they persist throughout life, although significant changes can happen. The prevalence of the ASDs is estimated to be 1-1.2%. Subjects with the more severe form of the disorder that are usually characterised by the absence of a communicative language and learning difficulties of various severity, are often referred as persons with lower functioning. In the other end of the spectrum we can find subjects with less severe symptomatology, communicative language and at least of normal intelligence that are referred as high functioning autistic people or -in case of an absence of a language delay- as suffering from Asperger syndrome. The lower functioning adults can be referred to an adult psychiatrist mainly due to their behavioral problems and disruptive behaviors. Their inability to express their difficulties, due to their language restrictions and empathy deficits, can lead these people to behavioural deviances (often self- or hetero-destructive) that challenge their personal environment ending up in the pursuit of psychiatric help. In most cases, although not always justified, psychotropic medications will be prescribed in an attempt to control their maladaptive behaviors. Special attention should be paid to the catatonic exacerbation of ASD, which can be exhibited after adolescence. The catatonic features presented shouldn't be perceived as a possible comorbidity with another disorder, such as schizophrenia, but rather as an extreme form anxiety within the context of an ASD. High Functioning adults with ASDs are more difficult to be detected, but they may also need psychiatric consultation. These subjects may have never been diagnosed with an ASD, but they could have in their history a variety of diagnostic categorizations. Their accurate diagnosis could be further hampered in cases where they are exhibiting remarkable abilities

  13. Collaborative Counseling: A Conceptual Framework and Approach for Counselors of Adults in Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, Joan P.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes collaborative counseling as a comprehensive definition of adult counseling. Presents rationale for definition based on broad implications for counselors of adult development and life transitions literature. Discusses three perspectives as a conceptual framework for defining the phenomenology of the counselor of adults. Outlines elements…

  14. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  15. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed. PMID:27245988

  16. Meeting American Geriatrics Society Competencies: Are Residents Meeting Expectations for Quality Care of Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Debra L; Wilson, Lindsay A; Ong, Thuan; Callahan, Kathryn E; Dalton, Thomas; Ohuabunwa, Ugochi

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine how often internal medicine and family medicine residents performed specific actions related to the geriatric competencies established by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) when caring for older hospitalized adults, a cross-sectional anonymous survey of residents at the University of North Carolina, University of Washington, Wake Forest University, Duke University, and Emory University was undertaken. Data on frequency of self-reported behaviors were analyzed, with comparisons made for different levels of training, institution, and program. A total of 375 residents responded for an overall response rate of 48%. Residents reported that they often do not demonstrate all of the AGS recommended core competencies when caring for older adults in the hospital setting. Residents report more frequently performing activities that are routinely integrated into hospital systems such as reviewing medication lists, working with an interdisciplinary team, evaluating for inappropriate bladder catheters, and evaluating for pressure ulcers. There were no consistent differences between institutions and only minor differences noted between Family Medicine and Internal Medicine residents. Operationalizing core competencies by integrating them into hospital systems' quality process indicators may prompt more consistent high-quality care and ensure systems support residents' competence. PMID:26313811

  17. Does modern medicine increase life-expectancy: Quest for the Moon Rabbit?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    The search for elixir of immortality has yielded mixed results. While some of the interventions like percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass grafting have been a huge disappointment at least as far as prolongation of life is concerned, their absolute benefit is meager and that too in very sick patients. Cardiac specific drugs like statins and aspirin have fared slightly better, being useful in patients with manifest coronary artery disease, particularly in sicker populations although even their usefulness in primary prevention is rather low. The only strategies of proven benefit in primary/primordial prevention are pursuing a healthy life-style and its modification when appropriate, like cessation of smoking, weight reduction, increasing physical activity, eating a healthy diet and bringing blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and blood glucose under control. PMID:26896262

  18. What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Environmental conditions on early Mars, from a microbial point of view, were largely similar to those on the early Earth. The oldest, well-preserved rocks on the early Earth (~3.5 Ga) host a wide range of morphological and geochemical traces of life, including chemolithotrophic, heterotrophic and photosynthetic anaerobic microorganisms. These microorganisms evolved in a tectonically evolving geological context, including carbonate platform formation. This scenario did not exist on Mars. Moreover, Mars was outside the habitable zone and standing bodies of water were probably ice-covered. Evolutionary advancement of martian life (if it appeared) would have been curtailed very early and it is unlikely that photosynthesis could have evolved. It is therefore unlikely that martian life will leave visible traces that can be detected with in situ instrumentation (no biolaminites or stromatolites). Geochemical detection of organic components will be possible but it is unlikely that the results will be conclusive. The return of suitable rocks from Mars is advocated. Early life on Earth and Mars The oldest, well preserved rocks on Earth, including both sedimentary and volcanic lithologies, contain abundant morphological and geochemical traces of life [1]. Evidence of borings into basalt lavas [2] and microbial colonies within volcanic sediments [3,4] testify to microbial utilisation of chemolithotrophy. Microscopic tunnels, tens of microns in length, containing traces of biologically important elements, such as C and N, in the vitreous rinds of pillow lavas are identified in petrographic thin section (Fig. 1) [2]. Similar 5-10 μm-sized tunnels have been channelled into the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains [4]. They contain the remains of microbial polymeric substances (EPS) but can only be identified in petrographic thin section and using the high magnification of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, volcanic sediments deposited in water contain

  19. What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

    2014-09-01

    Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services. PMID:25024121

  20. In Italy, healthy life expectancy drop dramatically: from 2004 to 2008 there was a 10 years drop among newborn girls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In this short essay, we would like to address a severe divergence observed in Italy between Life Expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Expectancy (Healthy LE) and a unique trend of worsening in Healthy LE, compared to the other European countries. Both issues emerge in recent data by EUROSTAT Report. Methods The analysis used by the authors of the EUROSTAT report is based on Sullivan method which combines 2 type of variables: mortality and morbidity data. Results While several European countries started to deal with comparable data about LE since 1960, in Italy, analogous data were available for the first time in EUROSTAT Report only in 1985. In Italy, in the period 1985-2008, there was a good progressive increase in L.E., following the best European values. Nevertheless, while until 2004 Italy was among the European best countries in terms of both LE and Healthy LE at birth, four years later in 2008 there was a shocking loss of 10 years of Healthy LE at birth in newborn girls. In the process, they lost their 2-years previous advantage with respect to males (the latter lost only 6 years of Healthy LE, in the same time span). Looking at healthy LE at age 65 in respect to 2004, Italian women in 2008 could expect to live healthy only about 7 years (as much as men) versus the almost 15 years of the European best values (14 years for men). Conclusions It is legitimate to wonder why no one official comment has been produced as a reaction after the first year of spectacular decline in Healthy Life Years in Italy: in counter-tendency with European values, from 2004 to 2008 there is a clear evidence of a 10 years drop in Healthy LE among newborn girls. The problem has not been taken into consideration even when the situation clearly appeared to worsen in the following years, dropping 4-6 more years for males and females in 2006 (for newborn babies); two more years of healthy life expectancy have been lost between 2006 and 2007 for each gender. One more year of

  1. What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Environmental conditions on early Mars, from a microbial point of view, were largely similar to those on the early Earth. The oldest, well-preserved rocks on the early Earth (~3.5 Ga) host a wide range of morphological and geochemical traces of life, including chemolithotrophic, heterotrophic and photosynthetic anaerobic microorganisms. These microorganisms evolved in a tectonically evolving geological context, including carbonate platform formation. This scenario did not exist on Mars. Moreover, Mars was outside the habitable zone and standing bodies of water were probably ice-covered. Evolutionary advancement of martian life (if it appeared) would have been curtailed very early and it is unlikely that photosynthesis could have evolved. It is therefore unlikely that martian life will leave visible traces that can be detected with in situ instrumentation (no biolaminites or stromatolites). Geochemical detection of organic components will be possible but it is unlikely that the results will be conclusive. The return of suitable rocks from Mars is advocated. Early life on Earth and Mars The oldest, well preserved rocks on Earth, including both sedimentary and volcanic lithologies, contain abundant morphological and geochemical traces of life [1]. Evidence of borings into basalt lavas [2] and microbial colonies within volcanic sediments [3,4] testify to microbial utilisation of chemolithotrophy. Microscopic tunnels, tens of microns in length, containing traces of biologically important elements, such as C and N, in the vitreous rinds of pillow lavas are identified in petrographic thin section (Fig. 1) [2]. Similar 5-10 μm-sized tunnels have been channelled into the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains [4]. They contain the remains of microbial polymeric substances (EPS) but can only be identified in petrographic thin section and using the high magnification of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, volcanic sediments deposited in water contain

  2. The interaction between child maltreatment, adult stressful life events and the 5-HTTLPR in major depression.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert A; Lecky-Thompson, Lucy; Fisher, Helen L; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Hosang, Georgina M; Uher, Rudolf; Powell-Smith, Georgia; Keers, Robert; Tropeano, Maria; Korszun, Ania; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nick; Craig, Ian W; Farmer, Anne E; McGuffin, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Both childhood maltreatment and adult stressful life events are established risk factors for the onset of depression in adulthood. However, the interaction between them can be viewed through two conflicting frameworks. Under a mismatch hypothesis stressful childhoods allow 'adaptive programming' for a stressful adulthood and so can be protective. Only when childhood and adulthood do not match is there a risk of behavioural problems. Alternatively, under the cumulative stress hypothesis we expect increased risk with each additional stressor. It has also been suggested that an individual's genetic background may determine the extent they undergo adaptive programming, and so which of these two hypotheses is relevant. In this study we test for an interaction between exposure to childhood maltreatment and adult stressful life events in a retrospective sample of 455 individuals, using major depression as the outcome. We also test whether this interaction differs by genotype at the 5-HTTLPR, a candidate for an individual's plasticity to adaptive programming. Early maltreatment and stressful life events in adulthood interacted to produce increased risk for depression over each individually (p = 0.055). This supports the cumulative stress hypothesis over the mismatch hypothesis, at least with respect to severe environmental risk factors. This effect was not altered by 5-HTTLPR allele, suggesting there was no difference by genotype in adaptive programming to these events. We suggest that the apparent additional vulnerability to stressful events of those who have experienced maltreatment has clinical relevance, highlighting the importance of providing support beyond the immediate aftermath of maltreatment into adulthood. PMID:23618376

  3. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

  4. Online Education of Older Adults and Its Relation to Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorin, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of participation in online education on the life satisfaction of the older adult. Life satisfaction was assessed by scores obtained using questions the from Nuegarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961) Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSI-A). Other data was obtained using demographic and procedural…

  5. Quality of Life for Young Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Thoughts and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Blacher, Jan; Simmerman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty mothers of transition-aged young adults (18-24 years) with severe intellectual disability were interviewed regarding their son or daughter's quality of life. All mothers completed the standardised Quality of Life Questionnaire and responded to several open-ended questions to further delineate quality of life for their child. Mothers were…

  6. DNA methylation levels at individual age-associated CpG sites can be indicative for life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Weidner, Carola I.; Costa, Ivan G.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Deary, Ian J.; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    DNA-methylation (DNAm) levels at age-associated CpG sites can be combined into epigenetic aging signatures to estimate donor age. It has been demonstrated that the difference between such epigenetic age-predictions and chronological age is indicative for of all-cause mortality in later life. In this study, we tested alternative epigenetic signatures and followed the hypothesis that even individual age-associated CpG sites might be indicative for life-expectancy. Using a 99-CpG aging model, a five-year higher age-prediction was associated with 11% greater mortality risk in DNAm profiles of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 study. However, models based on three CpGs, or even individual CpGs, generally revealed very high offsets in age-predictions if applied to independent microarray datasets. On the other hand, we demonstrate that DNAm levels at several individual age-associated CpGs seem to be associated with life expectancy – e.g., at CpGs associated with the genes PDE4C and CLCN6. Our results support the notion that small aging signatures should rather be analysed by more quantitative methods, such as site-specific pyrosequencing, as the precision of age-predictions is rather low on independent microarray datasets. Nevertheless, the results hold the perspective that simple epigenetic biomarkers, based on few or individual age-associated CpGs, could assist the estimation of biological age. PMID:26928272

  7. National independence, women’s political participation, and life expectancy in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women’s political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women’s political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. PMID:20172639

  8. Meeting Today's Data Life Cycle Expectations: Retrofitting Historical Sea Ice Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (NSIDC DAAC) has been archiving and distributing passive microwave data for over two decades. In recent years the passive microwave sea ice data sets have become very popular as they showcase the changes in our polar regions. These data sets were created during a time before detailed provenance was deemed important. As a result, the NSIDC DAAC has not required detailed data provenance for these legacy data sets. However, in the aftermath of Climategate and with the ever growing popularity of these data, it is becoming more important to properly capture and make available the provenance for these data sets, from data set production information to data set documentation. In this presentation, we will examine the experiences the NSIDC DAAC has had in changing our culture for capturing information over the life cycle of our data sets.

  9. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below. PMID:26361643

  10. Sources of life strengths appraisal scale: a multidimensional approach to assessing older adults' perceived sources of life strengths.

    PubMed

    Fry, Prem S; Debats, Dominique L

    2014-01-01

    Both cognitive and psychosocial theories of adult development stress the fundamental role of older adults' appraisals of the diverse sources of cognitive and social-emotional strengths. This study reports the development of a new self-appraisal measure that incorporates key theoretical dimensions of internal and external sources of life strengths, as identified in the gerontological literature. Using a pilot study sample and three other independent samples to examine older adults' appraisals of their sources of life strengths which helped them in their daily functioning and to combat life challenges, adversity, and losses, a psychometric instrument having appropriate reliability and validity properties was developed. A 24-month followup of a randomly selected sample confirmed that the nine-scale appraisal measure (SLSAS) is a promising instrument for appraising older adults' sources of life strengths in dealing with stresses of daily life's functioning and also a robust measure for predicting outcomes of resilience, autonomy, and well-being for this age group. A unique strength of the appraisal instrument is its critically relevant features of brevity, simplicity of language, and ease of administration to frail older adults. Dedicated to the memory of Shanta Khurana whose assistance in the pilot work for the study was invaluable. PMID:24772352

  11. Sources of Life Strengths Appraisal Scale: A Multidimensional Approach to Assessing Older Adults' Perceived Sources of Life Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Prem S.; Debats, Dominique L.

    2014-01-01

    Both cognitive and psychosocial theories of adult development stress the fundamental role of older adults' appraisals of the diverse sources of cognitive and social-emotional strengths. This study reports the development of a new self-appraisal measure that incorporates key theoretical dimensions of internal and external sources of life strengths, as identified in the gerontological literature. Using a pilot study sample and three other independent samples to examine older adults' appraisals of their sources of life strengths which helped them in their daily functioning and to combat life challenges, adversity, and losses, a psychometric instrument having appropriate reliability and validity properties was developed. A 24-month followup of a randomly selected sample confirmed that the nine-scale appraisal measure (SLSAS) is a promising instrument for appraising older adults' sources of life strengths in dealing with stresses of daily life's functioning and also a robust measure for predicting outcomes of resilience, autonomy, and well-being for this age group. A unique strength of the appraisal instrument is its critically relevant features of brevity, simplicity of language, and ease of administration to frail older adults. Dedicated to the memory of Shanta Khurana whose assistance in the pilot work for the study was invaluable PMID:24772352

  12. Persistence of "past-life" memories in adults who, in their childhood, claimed memories of a past life.

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Erlendur; Abu-Izzedin, Majd

    2012-11-01

    This article tests the consistency and the continuation of alleged "past-life" memories from childhood into adulthood and the possible detrimental effects of such childhood memories on the development into adult life. Twenty-eight adults aged 28 to 56 years who had claimed to have memories of a past life when they were children were interviewed in Lebanon. Their memories had been recorded when they were children, at the mean age of 6 years. Of the 28 participants, 24 still reported some past-life memories, whereas 4 had forgotten everything. Twenty-one were sure that their memories were a continuation of their past-life memories in childhood, whereas three were unsure about it. For those who were sure of still having genuine past-life memories, the mean number of statements about the past life fell from 30, as children, to 4, as adults. Only half of the currently reported statements were reported when the participants were interviewed as children, raising the question of false and distorted memories. There were no indications that the past-life memories had a detrimental effect on the participants' development into adulthood. They were all leading normal active lives. PMID:23124184

  13. Reliability and validity of the self-efficacy for exercise and outcome expectations for exercise scales with minority older adults.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Luisi, Daria; Vogel, Amanda; Junaleepa, Piyatida

    2004-01-01

    Older African Americans and Latinos tend to exercise less than older Whites and are more likely to have chronic diseases that could benefit from exercise. Measurement of self-efficacy of exercise and exercise outcome expectations in this older population is required if exercise is to be monitored carefully and enhanced in this population. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE) and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (OEE) in a sample of African American and Latino older adults. A total of 166 individuals, 32 males (19%) and 134 females (81%) with an average age of 72.8 +/- 8.4 years participated in the study. The SEE and OEE scales were completed using face-to-face interviews. There was evidence of internal consistency for both scales with alphas of .89 and .90 for the SEE scale and .72 and .88 for the OEE scale. There was some evidence of validity for both scales based on confirmatory factor analysis and hypothesis testing, because factor loadings were greater than .50 in all but two items in the OEE, and there were significant relationships between self-efficacy and outcome expectations and exercise behavior at all testing time-points. The measurement models showed a fair fit of the data to the models. The study provided some evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE when used with minority older adults, and it provides some guidelines for future scale revisions and use. PMID:16138727

  14. Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults With Cancer Experience: The Role of Optimism and Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Junhyoung

    2016-09-01

    Promoting health and well-being among individuals of advancing age is a significant issue due to increased incidence of cancer among older adults. This study demonstrates the benefits of expecting positive outcomes and participating in volunteer activities among older adults with cancer. We used a nationally representative sample of 2,670 individuals who have experienced cancer from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the associations of optimism, volunteerism, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The level of optimism was a significant predictor of volunteerism, which in turn affected life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The level of engagement in volunteer activities was found to have significant path coefficients toward both life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence that older adults who have experienced cancer and maintained a positive outlook on their lives and engaged in personally meaningful activities tended to experience psychological well-being and life satisfaction. PMID:27273518

  15. Continued improvement in survival of acute myeloid leukemia patients: an application of the loss in expectation of life.

    PubMed

    Bower, H; Andersson, T M-L; Björkholm, M; Dickman, P W; Lambert, P C; Derolf, Å R

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated temporal trends in survival of Swedish acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 using relative survival ratios (RSRs) and a measure called the loss in expectation of life (LEL). RSRs increased most for patients <60 years at diagnosis during the first calendar periods, but between 1997-2005 and 2006-2011 the most pronounced increase was for those aged 61-70 years at diagnosis; RSR changed from 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.19) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.23-0.33), respectively. The LEL for males aged 35 years at diagnosis was 41.0 (95% CI: 40.1-41.8) years in 1975 and 19.5 (95% CI: 16.4-22.5) years in 2011. For males aged 65 years, the corresponding figures were 13.8 (95% CI: 13.7-14.0) and 12.0 (95% CI: 11.3-12.8). Conditional LEL estimates suggested that patients who survive 5 years postdiagnosis have shorter remaining lifespan than the general population. The proportion of expected life lost (PELL) suggested that male 65-year-old patients lost 75% of their life expectancy in 2005 and 66% if they were diagnosed in 2011. Survival continued to increase to 2011, with larger improvements in those aged 61-70 years at diagnosis. The LEL and PELL are intuitive measures that may be useful in communicating survival statistics to patients, clinicians and health-care providers. PMID:26849011

  16. Continued improvement in survival of acute myeloid leukemia patients: an application of the loss in expectation of life

    PubMed Central

    Bower, H; Andersson, T M-L; Björkholm, M; Dickman, P W; Lambert, P C; Derolf, Å R

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated temporal trends in survival of Swedish acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 using relative survival ratios (RSRs) and a measure called the loss in expectation of life (LEL). RSRs increased most for patients <60 years at diagnosis during the first calendar periods, but between 1997–2005 and 2006–2011 the most pronounced increase was for those aged 61–70 years at diagnosis; RSR changed from 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13–0.19) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.23–0.33), respectively. The LEL for males aged 35 years at diagnosis was 41.0 (95% CI: 40.1–41.8) years in 1975 and 19.5 (95% CI: 16.4–22.5) years in 2011. For males aged 65 years, the corresponding figures were 13.8 (95% CI: 13.7–14.0) and 12.0 (95% CI: 11.3–12.8). Conditional LEL estimates suggested that patients who survive 5 years postdiagnosis have shorter remaining lifespan than the general population. The proportion of expected life lost (PELL) suggested that male 65-year-old patients lost 75% of their life expectancy in 2005 and 66% if they were diagnosed in 2011. Survival continued to increase to 2011, with larger improvements in those aged 61–70 years at diagnosis. The LEL and PELL are intuitive measures that may be useful in communicating survival statistics to patients, clinicians and health-care providers. PMID:26849011

  17. Groundwater age, life expectancy and transit time distributions in advective dispersive systems; 2. Reservoir theory for sub-drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.

    2006-09-01

    Groundwater age and life expectancy probability density functions (pdf) have been defined, and solved in a general three-dimensional context by means of forward and backward advection-dispersion equations [Cornaton F, Perrochet P. Groundwater age, life expectancy and transit time distributions in advective-dispersive systems; 1. Generalized reservoir theory. Adv Water Res (xxxx)]. The discharge and recharge zones transit time pdfs were then derived by applying the reservoir theory (RT) to the global system, thus considering as ensemble the union of all inlet boundaries on one hand, and the union of all outlet boundaries on the other hand. The main advantages in using the RT to calculate the transit time pdf is that the outlet boundary geometry does not represent a computational limiting factor (e.g. outlets of small sizes), since the methodology is based on the integration over the entire domain of each age, or life expectancy, occurrence. In the present paper, we extend the applicability of the RT to sub-drainage basins of groundwater reservoirs by treating the reservoir flow systems as compartments which transfer the water fluxes to a particular discharge zone, and inside which mixing and dispersion processes can take place. Drainage basins are defined by the field of probability of exit at outlet. In this way, we make the RT applicable to each sub-drainage system of an aquifer of arbitrary complexity and configuration. The case of the well-head protection problem is taken as illustrative example, and sensitivity analysis of the effect of pore velocity variations on the simulated ages is carried out.

  18. The Contribution of Health Care and Other Interventions to Black–White Disparities in Life Expectancy, 1980–2007

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Macinko, James

    2014-01-01

    Black–white mortality disparities remain sizable in the United States. In this study, we use the concept of avoidable/amenable mortality to estimate cause-of-death contributions to the difference in life expectancy between whites and blacks by gender in the United States in 1980, 1993, and 2007. We begin with a review of the concept of “avoidable mortality” and results of prior studies using this cause-of-death classification. We then present the results of our empirical analyses. We classified causes of death as amenable to medical care, sensitive to public health policies and health behaviors, ischemic heart disease, suicide, HIV/AIDS, and all other causes combined. We used vital statistics data on deaths and Census Bureau population estimates and standard demographic decomposition techniques. In 2007, causes of death amenable to medical care continued to account for close to 2 years of the racial difference in life expectancy among men (2.08) and women (1.85). Causes amenable to public health interventions made a larger contribution to the racial difference in life expectancy among men (1.17 years) than women (0.08 years). The contribution of HIV/AIDS substantially widened the racial difference among both men (1.08 years) and women (0.42 years) in 1993, but its contribution declined over time. Despite progress observed over the time period studied, a substantial portion of black–white disparities in mortality could be reduced given more equitable access to medical care and health interventions. PMID:24554793

  19. "It Just Consumes Your Life": Quality of Life for Informal Caregivers of Diverse Older Adults With Late-Life Disability.

    PubMed

    Thai, Julie N; Barnhart, Caroline E; Cagle, John; Smith, Alexander K

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) for informal caregivers of disabled older adults aged 65+ with diverse backgrounds. Forty-two caregivers were interviewed in English and Cantonese about their caregiving experiences, their recollections of QoL over time, and the factors influencing their appraisals. Overall, 52% of caregivers experienced a decline in QoL. Factors associated with decreased QoL were less time for self, competing financial demands, and the physical and emotional impact of the patient's illness. Factors associated with no change in QoL were minimal caregiving responsibilities, a sense of filial duty, and QoL being consistently poor over time. Factors associated with improved QoL were perceived rewards in caregiving, receiving institutional help, and increased experience. Chinese caregivers were more likely to cite filial duty as their motivator for continued caregiving than were Caucasian caregivers. In conclusion, informal caregivers take on a huge burden in enabling older adults to age in the community. These caregivers need more support in maintaining their QoL. PMID:25948041

  20. What is the difference? Evidence on the distribution of wealth, health, life expectancy, and health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Kennickell, Arthur B

    2008-09-10

    There is a literature of long standing that considers the relationship between income and differentials in mortality and morbidity, but information on differentials over the distribution of accumulated wealth have been far more scarce and subject to measurement problems. This paper provides evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances, which is designed as a survey of wealth, on the distribution of wealth and income and how those distributions have shifted in recent years. Particular attention is paid to the distribution of wealth across minority groups and across age groups. The paper also examines the relationship between wealth and health status, life expectancy, and health insurance coverage. PMID:18680166

  1. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in the Aged – Does It Impact Life Expectancy? A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maor, Yaakov; Malnick, Stephen D. H.; Melzer, Ehud; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in patients over 70 is similar to that of younger age groups. Evidence continues to mount that life expectancy (LE) increases with successful treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) patients with advanced fibrosis. The evidence in older people is more limited. Our aim was to estimate the life year (LY) and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by treatment of naïve patients with HCV as a function of patient's age and fibrosis stage. Methods We constructed a Markov model of HCV progression toward advanced liver disease. The primary outcome was LY and QALY saved. The model and the sustained virological response of HCV infected subjects treated with a fixed-dose combination of the NS5B polymerase inhibitor Sofosbuvir and the NS5A replication complex inhibitor Ledipasvir were based on the published literature and expert opinion. Results Generally, both the number of LY gained and QALY gained gradually decreased with advancing age but the rate of decline was slower with more advanced fibrosis stage. For patients with fibrosis stage F1, F2 and F3, LY gained dropped below six months if treated by the age of 55, 65 or 70 years, respectively, while for a patient with fibrosis stage F4, the gain was one LY if treated by the age of 75. The QALY gained for treated over untreated elderly were reasonably high even for those treated at early fibrosis stage. Conclusions There is a significant life expectancy benefit to HCV treatment in patients up to age 75 with advanced-stage fibrosis. PMID:27410963

  2. Role of children in end-of-life treatment planning among Korean American older adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make decisions about end-of-life treatment; (c) whether decision making should be the responsibility of the eldest son or of all the children; and (d) whether children would implement the parent's preferences for end-of-life treatment. Understanding the role of children in end-of-life decision making among Korean American older adults is important for culturally competent care. PMID:21132598

  3. The Male-Female Health-Survival Paradox and Sex Differences in Cohort Life Expectancy in Utah, Denmark and Sweden 1850-1910

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A.; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P.; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In Utah, prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviours are lower than in most other male populations while women experience higher mortality risk due to higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Methods Life tables from Utah, Denmark and Sweden, were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born 1850-1910. Results The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared to Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately two years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at age 50 were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. Conclusions The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing towards biological mechanisms, or other unmeasured risk factors. PMID:23453386

  4. Meaning in Life and Volunteerism in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Nancy E.; Michel, Rebecca; Rybak, Christopher; Randall, G. Kevin; Davidson, Jeannette

    2011-01-01

    A meaningful life is one of relatedness, significance, and fulfillment. Meaning provides context for life events so that people may develop connections between their experiences. A consistent, meaningful existence helps humans feel connected and focused. Meaning in life has been investigated with individuals across the lifespan. As the population…

  5. Life Insurance: A Suggested Adult Business Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This course is aimed at the buyer or potential buyer of life insurance for the purpose of helping him to a better understanding of life insurance and of aiding him in making decisions about his own life insurance coverage. It is structured to be taught one evening a week for six to eight weeks. Each session would last about two hours. The course…

  6. Off-Time Events and Life Quality of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Darlene; Zautra, Alex

    Many previous studies have found that daily life events influence community residents' perceived quality of life, which refers to the relative goodness of life as evaluated subjectively. A subsample population of 539 older residents, aged 55 and over, were interviewed in their homes. A 60-item scale was devised to measure the effects of "off-time"…

  7. Outcomes in Adult Life among Siblings of Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As…

  8. "Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

  9. Late-Life and Life History Predictors of Older Adults of High-Risk Alcohol Consumption and Drinking Problems

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55–65 to age 75–85. Design, Setting, Participants A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. Measurements At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Results Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10-year and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Conclusion Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. PMID:19969428

  10. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and high-risk sexual behavior among drinking adults in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Scott D.; Katamba, Achilles; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Sethi, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a risk factor for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered high in Uganda. The study was conducted to determine whether sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol help explain the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors in a population-based sample of adults in Kampala. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to identify residents in one division of Kampala for a cross-sectional study. Associations between alcohol use (current and higher-risk drinking) and high-risk sexual behaviors (multiple regular partners and casual sex) were tested. Final models included a sex-related alcohol outcome expectancy (AOE) summary score. In age-sex-adjusted models, having multiple regular partners was associated with current drinking (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)=1.15, 6.63) and higher-risk drinking (OR=3.35, 95%CI=1.28,8.71). Associations were similar but not statistically significant for having a causal sex partner. Sex-related AOE were associated with both alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior and attenuated relationships between multiple regular partners and both current drinking (OR=1.94, 95%CI=0.57,6.73) and higher-risk drinking (OR=2.44, 95%CI=0.68,8.80). In this setting sexual behaviors related with alcohol consumption were explained, in part, by sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol. These expectations could be an important component to target in HIV education campaigns. PMID:26315308

  11. A Qualitative Study of Alcohol, Health and Identities among UK Adults in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Graeme B.; Kaner, Eileen F. S.; Crosland, Ann; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Haighton, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing alcohol consumption among older individuals is a public health concern. Lay understandings of health risks and stigma around alcohol problems may explain why public health messages have not reduced rates of heavy drinking in this sector. A qualitative study aimed to elucidate older people's reasoning about drinking in later life and how this interacted with health concerns, in order to inform future, targeted, prevention in this group. In 2010 a diverse sample of older adults in North East England (ages 50–95) participated in interviews (n = 24, 12 male, 12 female) and three focus groups (participants n = 27, 6 male, 21 female). Data were analysed using grounded theory and discursive psychology methods. When talking about alcohol use older people oriented strongly towards opposed identities of normal or problematic drinker, defined by propriety rather than health considerations. Each of these identities could be applied in older people's accounts of either moderate or heavy drinking. Older adults portrayed drinking less alcohol as an appropriate response if one experienced impaired health. However continued heavy drinking was also presented as normal behaviour for someone experiencing relative wellbeing in later life, or if ill health was construed as unrelated to alcohol consumption. Older people displayed scepticism about health advice on alcohol when avoiding stigmatised identity as a drinker. Drinking patterns did not appear to be strongly defined by gender, although some gendered expectations of drinking were described. Identities offer a useful theoretical concept to explain the rises in heavy drinking among older populations, and can inform preventive approaches to tackle this. Interventions should engage and foster positive identities to sustain healthier drinking and encourage at the community level the identification of heavy drinking as neither healthy nor synonymous with dependence. Future research should test and assess such

  12. Improvement of surface ECG recording in adult zebrafish reveals that the value of this model exceeds our expectation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi Chi; Li, Li; Lam, Yun Wah; Siu, Chung Wah; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2016-01-01

    The adult zebrafish has been used to model the electrocardiogram (ECG) for human cardiovascular studies. Nonetheless huge variations are observed among studies probably because of the lack of a reliable and reproducible recording method. In our study, an adult zebrafish surface ECG recording technique was improved using a multi-electrode method and by pre-opening the pericardial sac. A convenient ECG data analysis method without wavelet transform was also established. Intraperitoneal injection of KCl in zebrafish induced an arrhythmia similar to that of humans, and the arrhythmia was partially rescued by calcium gluconate. Amputation and cryoinjury of the zebrafish heart induced ST segment depression and affected QRS duration after injury. Only cryoinjury decelerated the heart rate. Different changes were also observed in the QT interval during heart regeneration in these two injury models. We also characterized the electrocardiophysiology of breakdance zebrafish mutant with a prolonged QT interval, that has not been well described in previous studies. Our study provided a reliable and reproducible means to record zebrafish ECG and analyse data. The detailed characterization of the cardiac electrophysiology of zebrafish and its mutant revealed that the potential of the zebrafish in modeling the human cardiovascular system exceeds expectations. PMID:27125643

  13. The Impact of Osteoporosis, Falls, Fear of Falling and Efficacy Expectations on Exercise Among Community Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Eun Shim; Zhu, Shijun; Brown, Clayton; An, Minjeong; Park, Bukyung; Brown, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test a model delineating the factors known to influence fear of falling and exercise behavior among older adults. Design and Methods This was a secondary data analysis using baseline data from the Bone Health study. A total of 866 individuals from two online communities participated in the study, 161 (18.6%) were from SeniorNet and 683 (78.9%) were from MyHealtheVet. More than half (63%) of the participants were male with a mean age of 62.8 (SD= 8.5). The majority was white (89%), married (53%) and had some college (87%). Results Knowledge about osteoporosis and awareness one has a diagnosis of osteoporosis directly influenced fear of falling, and knowledge of osteoporosis directly and indirectly influenced exercise behavior. A diagnosis of osteoporosis indirectly influenced exercise behavior. Taken together, the hypothesized model explained 13% of the variance in exercise behavior. Implications Improving knowledge of osteoporosis and awareness of having a diagnosis of osteoporosis, decreasing fear of falling and strengthening self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise may help improve exercise behavior among older adults. PMID:25233207

  14. Improvement of surface ECG recording in adult zebrafish reveals that the value of this model exceeds our expectation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi Chi; Li, Li; Lam, Yun Wah; Siu, Chung Wah; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2016-01-01

    The adult zebrafish has been used to model the electrocardiogram (ECG) for human cardiovascular studies. Nonetheless huge variations are observed among studies probably because of the lack of a reliable and reproducible recording method. In our study, an adult zebrafish surface ECG recording technique was improved using a multi-electrode method and by pre-opening the pericardial sac. A convenient ECG data analysis method without wavelet transform was also established. Intraperitoneal injection of KCl in zebrafish induced an arrhythmia similar to that of humans, and the arrhythmia was partially rescued by calcium gluconate. Amputation and cryoinjury of the zebrafish heart induced ST segment depression and affected QRS duration after injury. Only cryoinjury decelerated the heart rate. Different changes were also observed in the QT interval during heart regeneration in these two injury models. We also characterized the electrocardiophysiology of breakdance zebrafish mutant with a prolonged QT interval, that has not been well described in previous studies. Our study provided a reliable and reproducible means to record zebrafish ECG and analyse data. The detailed characterization of the cardiac electrophysiology of zebrafish and its mutant revealed that the potential of the zebrafish in modeling the human cardiovascular system exceeds expectations. PMID:27125643

  15. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  16. Effects of Increased Mobility Skills on Meaningful Life Participation for an Adult with Severe Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a case study of an adult with severe, multiple disabilities and discusses issues affecting meaningful life participation. Emphasis is placed on the role of functional mobility skills to increase active engagement in age-appropriate activities and opportunities to make informed choices. MOVE for Adults (Mobility Opportunities…

  17. Perception of Quality of Life for Adults with Hearing Impairment in the LGBT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the this study was to examine the perception of both generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) in adults with hearing impairment who are members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Eighty-three adults who self-identified as having hearing impairment and as being members of the LGBT community and…

  18. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  19. Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Terry Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of spiritual coping in adult survivors' responses to current life stressors. Although there has been research on general coping and adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), there has been no work done on spiritual coping behaviour and survivors' current adjustment. Method: One…

  20. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  1. Voices of Young Adults with Autism and Their Perspective on Life Choices after Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative research study was to explore how young adults who have an autism spectrum disorder perceive their life choices after secondary education. The focus participants in the sample were young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For the purpose of this research, ASD includes autism and…

  2. Intergenerational Contact and the Life Course Status of Young Adult Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie; Hagendoorn, Louk

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the life course status of young adults--whether they have a romantic partner and whether they have children--is related to how often they have contact with their parents. Hypotheses were tested using recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. The main sample included 1,911 young adults between the ages of 18 and…

  3. Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on 2 dimensions: subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these 2 processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (ages 18-22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified…

  4. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  5. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed. PMID:22886349

  6. ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN LIFE EXPECTANCIES AND PER CAPITA GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AS WELL AS PHARMACEUTICAL AND NON-PHARMACEUTICAL HEALTHCARE EXPENDITURES.

    PubMed

    Hermanowski, Tomasz; Bystrov, Victor; Staszewska-Bystrova, Anna; Szafraniec-Buryło, Sylwia I; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kolasa, Katarzyna; Orlewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy is a common measure of population health. Macro-perspective based on aggregated data makes it possible to approximate the impact of different levels of pharmaceutical expenditure on general population health status and is often used in cross-country comparisons. The aim of the study was to determine whether there are long-run relations between life expectancy, total healthcare expenditures, and pharmaceutical expenditures in OECD countries. Common trends in per capita gross domestic products (GDPs) (excluding healthcare expenditures), per capita healthcare expenditures (excluding pharmaceutical expenditures), per capita pharmaceutical expenditures, and life expectancies of women and men aged 60 and 65 were analyzed across OECD countries. Short-term effect of pharmaceutical expenditure onto life expectancy was also estimated by regressing the deviations of life expectancies from their long-term trends onto the deviations of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical health expenditures, as well as GDP from their trends. The dataset was created on the basis of OECD Health Data for 34 countries and the years 1991-2010. Life expectancy variables were used as proxies for the health outcomes, whereas the pharmaceutical and healthcare expenditures represented drug and healthcare consumption, respectively. In general, both expenditures and life expectancies tended to increase in all of the analyzed countries; however, the growth rates differed across the countries. The analysis of common trends indicated the existence of common long-term trends in life expectancies and per capita GDP as well as pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical healthcare expenditures. However, there was no evidence that pharmaceutical expenditures provided additional information about the long-term trends in life expectancies beyond that contained in the GDP series. The analysis based on the deviations of variables from their long-term trends allowed concluding that pharmaceutical

  7. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersky, Jan Buchalter

    2009-01-01

    Life Satisfaction is considered a key component of psychological well-being as well as a psychological construct that gives an individual the ability to cognitively appraise his or her life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the successful resolution of Erikson's fifth (adolescence), seventh (adulthood), and eighth…

  8. Sex Role Orientation Across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaks, Peggy M.; And Others

    It was hypothesized that four different "life lines" would affect sex role orientations, specifically intimacy, parenting, grandparenting, and work. Subjects were 74 men and 43 women, white, upper middle class with a mean education level of 14 years. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, a Life Events…

  9. Psychiatric Comorbidity, Social Aspects and Quality of Life in a Population-Based Cohort of Expecting Fathers with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Simone Frizell; Veiby, Gyri; Bjørk, Marte Helene; Engelsen, Bernt A.; Daltveit, Anne-Kjersti; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate psychiatric disorders, adverse social aspects and quality of life in men with epilepsy during partner’s pregnancy. Method We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 76,335 men with pregnant partners. Men with epilepsy were compared to men without epilepsy, and to men with non-neurological chronic diseases. Results Expecting fathers in 658 pregnancies (mean age 31.8 years) reported a history of epilepsy, 36.9% using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at the onset of pregnancy. Symptoms of anxiety or depression were increased in epilepsy (7.0% and 3.9%, respectively) vs. non-epilepsy (4.6% and 2.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.023), and so were new onset symptoms of depression (2.0% vs. 1.0%, p < 0.031) and anxiety (4.3% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.023). Low self-esteem (2.5%) and low satisfaction with life (1.7%) were more frequent among fathers with epilepsy compared to fathers without epilepsy (1.3% and 0.7%, respectively, p = 0.01 and 0.010). Adverse social aspects and life events were associated with epilepsy vs. both reference groups. Self-reported diagnoses of ADHD (2.2%) and bipolar disorder (1.8%) were more common in epilepsy vs. non-epilepsy (0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, p = 0.002 and 0.003) and non-neurological chronic disorders (0.5% and 0.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.018). A screening tool for ADHD symptoms revealed a higher rate compared to self-reported ADHD (9.5% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001). Conclusion Expecting fathers with epilepsy are at high risk of depression and anxiety, adverse socioeconomic aspects, low self-esteem, and low satisfaction with life. Focus on mental health in fathers with epilepsy during and after pregnancy is important. The use of screening tools can be particularly useful to identify those at risk. PMID:26637130

  10. Health, Quality of Care and Quality of Life: A Case of Frail Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…

  11. Further Examination of Relationships Between Life Events and Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, D.; Sutherland, G.; Iacono, T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that people with intellectual disability (ID) might be similar to the general population in the way they respond to significant life events. Some preliminary findings have demonstrated that adults with ID who have experienced recent life events have an increased probability of having psychiatric problems. The aims…

  12. Life Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on life science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Life Process, Cells, Levels of Organization, Organ Systems, Food and Oxygen-Photosynthesis, Cycles, Energy, Resources, Cell…

  13. Development of a Japanese Quality of Life Instrument for Older Adults Experiencing Dementia (QLDJ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Abe, Toshiko; Okita, Yuko; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Sugishita, Chieko; Kamata, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    This study develops a quality of life instrument for older Japanese people experiencing dementia (QLDJ). Quality of life (QL) for these older adults is defined as a three dimensional construct including 1) interacting with surroundings, 2) expressing self, and 3) experiencing minimum negative behaviors. From 53 items in the initial item pool, 24…

  14. Family Quality of Life: Adult School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svraka, E.; Loga, S.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study endeavours to provide initial data on quality of life for families with adult children who have intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Canton of Sarajevo. Methods: The principal measure used was the "Family Quality of life Survey 2006-main caregivers of people with intellectual or developmental disabilities." The sample consisted…

  15. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  16. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  17. Prediction of life expectancy in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. A retrospective nationwide survey from 1980-1990.

    PubMed

    Okada, O; Tanabe, N; Yasuda, J; Yoshida, Y; Katoh, K; Yamamoto, T; Kuriyama, T

    1999-01-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease of unknown etiology usually followed by death within 5 years after diagnosis. Although heart-lung or lung transplantation is now offered to patients with advanced PPH, adequate criteria assessing an accurate prediction of life expectancy in PPH has been difficult to establish. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristic features associated with a poor prognosis in patients with PPH, and to attempt to establish an individual prognostic index that predicts with great accuracy survival or death of PPH after one year, thereby helping to define criteria for patient selection for transplantation. In 1991, a retrospective nation-wide survey on PPH was conducted in Japan, and the clinical and cardiorespiratory variables of 223 PPH cases (female; 144, male; 79) in the period from 1980-1990 were obtained. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) was 57.5+/-17.2 mm Hg (mean+/-SD), and the overall median survival time was 32.5 months since the first diagnostic catheterization. The characteristic features of 61 patients who died within one year of catheterization (Nonsurvivors group) were compared to 141 patients who survived one year or more from the time of catheterization (Survivors group). Among several clinical and cardiorespiratory variables, heart rate, PPA, right atrial pressure (PRA), stroke volume index (SI), pulmonary vascular resistance, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were significantly different between the two groups. As the independent factors, PPA, PRA, SI, and PaCO2 were selected for the multiple logistic analysis. Using a 0.7 probability cut-point to separate Nonsurvivors from Survivors, 84.6% of Nonsurvivors and Survivors could be correctly predicted from this logistic regression equation. Predictive equations like the present preliminary one can be used in the future to better assess life expectancy in patients with PPH in whom transplantation will be considered

  18. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  19. Quality of life in adolescents and adults with CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Nancy; Hudson, Alexandra; MacCuspie, Jillian; Kennert, Benjamin; Nacarato, Tasha; Hartshorne, Timothy; Blake, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Health-related Quality of Life and the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale were collected for 53 patients with CHARGE syndrome aged 13-39 years with a mean academic level of 4th grade. The most prevalent new and ongoing issues included bone health issues, sleep apnea, retinal detachment, anxiety, and aggression. Sleep issues were significantly correlated with anxiety, self-abuse, conduct problems, and autistic-like behaviors. Problems with overall health, behavior, and balance most affected the number of social activities in the individual's life. Sensory impairment most affected relationships with friends. Two contrasting case studies are presented and demonstrate that the quality of life exists on a broad spectrum in CHARGE syndrome, just as its physical features range from mild to very severe. A multitude of factors, including those beyond the physical manifestations, such as anxiety and sleep problems, influence quality of life and are important areas for intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27273681

  20. Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on two dimensions, subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these two processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (18 to 22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified four identity profiles. Two depict early and late patterns of identity; the others represent contrasting types of discordance, “pseudo-adult”, subjective age more advanced than maturation level and “anticipatory”, with subjective age less advanced than maturational level. The profiles vary by gender, socioeconomic status, and race-ethnicity as well as by adolescent (ages12–16) pubertal maturation, psychosocial adjustment, and family context. These results provide support for a more holistic, interdisciplinary understanding of adult identity, and show that young adult identities in the Add Health sample follow differentiated paths into the adult years, with largely unknown consequences for the subsequent life course. PMID:21668096

  1. Health Condition and Quality of Life in Older Adults: Adaptation of QOLIE-89

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia; Varsami, Maria; Mitadi, Ioanna; Economidis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at adapting the Questionnaire Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-89 version 1.0: Vickrey et al., 1993), Quality of Life in Epilepsy QoLIE-89 RAND (Santa Monica, CA)] so that it may be used to measure quality of life (QoL) of older adults, healthy or suffering from various chronic illnesses. The participants were 202 older adults…

  2. Beliefs about the "hot hand" in basketball across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Rossi, Aimee Drolet; McGillivray, Shannon

    2012-09-01

    Many people believe in streaks. In basketball, belief in the "hot hand" occurs when people think a player is more likely to make a shot if they have made previous shots. However, research has shown that players' successive shots are independent events. To determine how age would impact belief in the hot hand, we examined this effect across the adult life span. Older adults were more likely to believe in the hot hand, relative to younger and middle-aged adults, suggesting that older adults use heuristics and potentially adaptive processing based on highly accessible information to predict future events. PMID:22288426

  3. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock. PMID:26966963

  4. Population doses, excess deaths and loss of life expectancy from mass chest x-ray examination in Japan-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kumamoto, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The number of mass chest x-ray examinations in Japan in 1980 was 26.6 million and the average effective dose equivalent was 26 mrem per examination. The genetically significant dose was. 017 mrem per person per year, the per caput mean marrow dose was 5.9 mrem, the leukemia significant dose was 5.2 mrem and the malignancy significant dose was 2.8 mrem. The excess deaths were calculated to be 70-280 depending on the risk model used. Those would be in excess to the 3.7 million cancer deaths normally expected among the examined population. The loss of life expectancy calculated with a relative risk model was 38 yr for males and 43 yr for females due to leukemia with a latent period of 2 yr and an expression period of 25 yr, and 12 yr for males and 14 yr for females due to other cancers with a latent period of 10 yr and an expression period of lifetime in the 20-24 age group.

  5. Five Lives Well Lived: Life Histories of Jamaican Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on one of the riches of the country: its people. She interviewed five adult educators who have made significant contributions in Jamaica. The author's interest in this research began from the opportunities that she had to meet some of the participants through their programme's connections with JAMAL (the…

  6. Adult People with Language Impairment and Their Life Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrnqvist, Maria Carlson; Thulin, Sofia; Segnestam, Ylva; Horowitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome of language impairment (LI) was explored in interviews with three adults with LI (as children attended specialized boarding school) and four of their parents. The informants with LI expressed acceptance of LI and described themselves as independent. With driving education with adjusted pedagogy and initial governmental…

  7. Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: a cross-national study of less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J B; Boehmer, U

    1997-07-01

    A number of studies have attempted to account for cross-national differences in life expectancy, but relatively few have focused on female life expectancy, and even fewer on the relevance of predictors linked to gender stratification theory. The present study seeks to assess the utility of gender stratification theory in accounting for cross-national differences in female life expectancy in less developed countries. An incremental model building strategy is used to develop a final model that combines predictors linked to both industrialism theory and gender stratification theory. The analysis is based on multiple regression and cross-sectional samples that vary in size from 40 to 97 countries. Evidence is presented that several aspects of women's status have a positive effect on female life expectancy. Indicators of women's educational status, women's economic status, and women's reproductive autonomy all prove to be important predictors of female life expectancy. Analysis of interaction effects suggests that the strength of the effects of some aspects of women's economic status and the effect of some aspects of health status on female life expectancy vary with the level of economic development. A comprehensive assessment of the relative strength of alternative measures of women's education is carried out, and evidence is presented that it does make a difference how the level of women's education is measured. PMID:9225417

  8. Induced overexpression of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase extends the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingtao; Folk, Donna; Bradley, Timothy J; Tower, John

    2002-01-01

    A transgenic system ("FLP-out") based on yeast FLP recombinase allowed induced overexpression of MnSOD enzyme in adult Drosophila melanogaster. With FLP-out a brief heat pulse (HP) of young, adult flies triggered the rearrangement and subsequent expression of a MnSOD transgene throughout the adult life span. Control (no HP) and overexpressing (HP) flies had identical genetic backgrounds. The amount of MnSOD enzyme overexpression achieved varied among six independent transgenic lines, with increases up to 75%. Life span was increased in proportion to the increase in enzyme. Mean life span was increased by an average of 16%, with some lines showing 30-33% increases. Maximum life span was increased by an average of 15%, with one line showing as much as 37% increase. Simultaneous overexpression of catalase with MnSOD had no added benefit, consistent with previous observations that catalase is present in excess in the adult fly with regard to life span. Cu/ZnSOD overexpression also increases mean and maximum life span. For both MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD lines, increased life span was not associated with decreased metabolic activity, as measured by O2 consumption. PMID:12072463

  9. Induced overexpression of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase extends the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingtao; Folk, Donna; Bradley, Timothy J; Tower, John

    2002-06-01

    A transgenic system ("FLP-out") based on yeast FLP recombinase allowed induced overexpression of MnSOD enzyme in adult Drosophila melanogaster. With FLP-out a brief heat pulse (HP) of young, adult flies triggered the rearrangement and subsequent expression of a MnSOD transgene throughout the adult life span. Control (no HP) and overexpressing (HP) flies had identical genetic backgrounds. The amount of MnSOD enzyme overexpression achieved varied among six independent transgenic lines, with increases up to 75%. Life span was increased in proportion to the increase in enzyme. Mean life span was increased by an average of 16%, with some lines showing 30-33% increases. Maximum life span was increased by an average of 15%, with one line showing as much as 37% increase. Simultaneous overexpression of catalase with MnSOD had no added benefit, consistent with previous observations that catalase is present in excess in the adult fly with regard to life span. Cu/ZnSOD overexpression also increases mean and maximum life span. For both MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD lines, increased life span was not associated with decreased metabolic activity, as measured by O2 consumption. PMID:12072463

  10. Remaining life expectancy among older people in a rural area of Vietnam: trends and socioeconomic inequalities during a period of multiple transitions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Better understanding of the trends and disparities in health at old age in terms of life expectancy will help to provide appropriate responses to the growing needs of health and social care for the older population in the context of limited resources. As a result of rapid economic, demographic and epidemiological changes, the number of people aged 60 and over in Vietnam is increasing rapidly, from 6.7% in 1979 to 9.2% in 2006. Life expectancy at birth has increased but not much are known about changes in old ages. This study assesses the trends and socioeconomic inequalities in RLE at age 60 in a rural area in an effort to highlight this vulnerable group and to anticipate their future health and social needs. Methods An abridged life table adjusted for small area data was used to estimate cohort life expectancies at old age and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals from longitudinal data collected by FilaBavi DSS during 1999-2006, which covered 7,668 people at age 60+ with 43,272 person-years, out of a total of 64,053 people with 388,278 person-years. Differences in life expectancy were examined according to socioeconomic factors, including socio-demographic characteristics, wealth, poverty and living arrangements. Results Life expectancies at age 60 have increased by approximately one year from the period 1999-2002 to 2003-2006. The increases are observed in both sexes, but are significant among females and relate to improvements among those who belong to the middle and upper household wealth quintiles. However, life expectancy tends to decrease in the most vulnerable groups. There is a wide gap in life expectancy according to poverty status and living arrangements, and the gap by poverty status has widened over the study period. The gender gap in life expectancy is consistent across all socioeconomic groups and tends to be wider amongst the more disadvantaged population. Conclusions There is a trend of increasing life expectancy among older people

  11. Adult day care: promoting quality of life for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S

    1992-02-01

    1. Adult day care allows elderly clients to continue to be a part of their family. The program promotes maintenance of joint mobility, challenges the mind, and allows the client to be a productive part of the community. 2. As director of an adult day care center, it is the RN's responsibility to ensure quality of care for all clients. This includes providing inservice education, establishing quality assurance monitoring, and individualizing care plans for each client. 3. For appropriate placement in day care, the client must be oriented, cooperative, and able to comprehend communication. Physical endurance must allow the client to remain out of bed during the day, and the staff must be able to manage physical handicaps. PMID:1538082

  12. The Everyday Life of Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aspects of daily life have been considered in a population of people with Down syndrome, followed repeatedly from infancy to 21-years old, and again at 30-, 35- and 40-years old. A control sample of non-disabled babies were seen at the same ages. Method: Parents (usually the mothers) and/or carers were interviewed about the people's…

  13. Adult life with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: observations among an emerging and unforeseen patient population.

    PubMed

    Rahbek, Jes; Werge, Birgit; Madsen, Anny; Marquardt, John; Steffensen, Birgit Fynbo; Jeppesen, Joergen

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of adult life with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is sparse. The purpose of this study was to review existing information and describe body functional, social participatory and quality of life profiles of the ordinary adult Danish DMD patient. Sixty-five study subjects aged 18-42 years were included in a cross-sectional survey based on data from a semi-structured questionnaire comprising 197 items. The ordinary adult DMD patient states his quality of life as excellent; he is worried neither about his disease nor about the future. His assessment of income, hours of personal assistance, housing, years spent in school and ability to participate in desired activities are positive. Despite heavy immobilization, he is still capable of functioning in a variety of activities that are associated with normal life. He lacks qualifying education and he is in painful need of a love life. The frequency of pains is surprisingly high; nearly 40% has pains daily. The nature, magnitude, consequence and possible cure of these reported pains must be scrutinized. Parents and professionals, paediatricians not the least, must anticipate in all measures taken that the DMD boy grows up to manhood and will need competences for adult social life in all respects. PMID:15799132

  14. Variability modifies life satisfaction's association with mortality risk in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Julia K.; Winning, Ashley; Segerstrom, Suzanne; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction is associated with greater longevity, but its variability across time has not been examined relative to longevity. We investigated whether mean levels of life satisfaction across time, variability in life satisfaction across time, and their interaction were associated with mortality over 9 years of follow-up. Participants were 4,458 Australians initially ≥50 years old. During the follow-up, 546 people died. Adjusting for age, greater mean life satisfaction was associated with reduced risk and greater variability in life satisfaction was associated with increased risk of mortality. These findings were qualified by a significant interaction such that individuals with low mean satisfaction and high variability in satisfaction had the greatest risk of mortality over the follow-up period. In combination with mean levels of life satisfaction, variability in life satisfaction is relevant for mortality risk among older adults. Considering intraindividual variability provides additional insight into associations between psychological characteristics and health. PMID:26048888

  15. Oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2008-10-01

    Oral health affects older adults and their quality of life. Oral care is reported to have a low priority in nursing care of older adults, and repeated assessments to detect oral health problems are seldom performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among level of oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) and to identify predictors of OHRQL in Korean older adults. The design was a descriptive, correlational study. The level of oral pain contributed most significantly to OHRQL, followed by nutrition and number of teeth. These three predictor variables explained 46.4% of the variance in OHRQL. Older adults could benefit from oral health care, such as routine screening for oral health and nutritional status. Nurses are at the forefront in providing such services, and it is recommended they integrate oral health care into their routine nursing care plans. PMID:18942537

  16. Aggression, Recognition and Qualification: On the Social Psychology of Adult Education in Everyday Life. [Publications from the Adult Education Research Group].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Kirsten

    This paper discusses the impact of life history and everyday life in the context of training unskilled adults for social work in Denmark. It describes origins of these two texts used as empirical material: a discussion by a group of long-term unemployed skilled adult male workers who went through a 2-year training program to obtain permanent…

  17. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  18. Adults' Physical Activity Patterns across Life Domains: Cluster Analysis with Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Marshall, Simon J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Identifying adults' physical activity patterns across multiple life domains could inform the design of interventions and policies. Design Cluster analysis was conducted with adults in two US regions (Baltimore-Washington DC, n = 702; Seattle-King County, n = 987) to identify different physical activity patterns based on adults' reported physical activity across four life domains: leisure, occupation, transport, and home. Objectively measured physical activity, and psychosocial and built (physical) environment characteristics of activity patterns were examined. Main Outcome Measures Accelerometer-measured activity, reported domain-specific activity, psychosocial characteristics, built environment, body mass index (BMI). Results Three clusters replicated (kappa = .90-.93) across both regions: Low Activity, Active Leisure, and Active Job. The Low Activity and Active Leisure adults were demographically similar, but Active Leisure adults had the highest psychosocial and built environment support for activity, highest accelerometer-measured activity, and lowest BMI. Compared to the other clusters, the Active Job cluster had lower socioeconomic status and intermediate accelerometer-measured activity. Conclusion Adults can be clustered into groups based on their patterns of accumulating physical activity across life domains. Differences in psychosocial and built environment support between the identified clusters suggest that tailored interventions for different subgroups may be beneficial. PMID:20836604

  19. Quality of life (QOL) of older adult community choral singers in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Julene K; Louhivuori, Jukka; Stewart, Anita L; Tolvanen, Asko; Ross, Leslie; Era, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Background Enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults is an international area of focus. Identifying factors and experiences that contribute to QOL of older adults helps promote optimal levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between perceived benefits associated with choral singing and quality of life (QOL) among community-dwelling older adults. Methods One hundred and seventeen older adults who sing in community choirs in Jyväskylä, Finland completed self-report measures of QOL (WHOQOL-Bref), depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire about the benefits of singing in choir. Correlational analyses and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the benefits of singing in choir and QOL. Results Both correlation and regression analyses found significant relationships between the benefits of choral singing and three QOL domains: psychological, social relationships, and environment but not physical. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, older choral singers who reported greater benefits of choir singing had higher QOL in multiple domains. The older choral singers in the study also reported few symptoms of depression and high overall QOL and satisfaction with health. Conclusion Results suggest that singing in a community choir as an older adult may positively influence several aspects of QOL. These results suggest that community choral singing may one potential avenue for promoting quality of life in older adults. PMID:23574947

  20. Impact of Socio-Health Factors on Life Expectancy in the Low and Lower Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    MONDAL, Md. Nazrul Islam; SHITAN, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This study is concerned with understanding the impact of demographic changes, socioeconomic inequalities, and the availability of health factors on life expectancy (LE) in the low and lower middle income countries. Methods The cross-country data were collected from 91 countries from the United Nations agencies in 2012. LE is the response variable with demographics (total fertility rate, and adolescent fertility rate), socioeconomic status (mean year of schooling, and gross national income per capita), and health factors (physician density, and HIV prevalence rate) are as the three main predictors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to extract the main factors. Results The necessity of more healthcare resources and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages are more likely to increase LE. On the other hand, demographic changes and health factors are more likely to increase LE by way of de-cease fertility rates and disease prevalence. Conclusion These findings suggest that international efforts should aim at increasing LE, especially in the low income countries through the elimination of HIV prevalence, adolescent fertility, and illiteracy. PMID:26060637

  1. Large-scale hormone replacement therapy and life expectancy: results from an international comparison among European and North American populations.

    PubMed Central

    Panico, S; Galasso, R; Celentano, E; Ciardullo, A V; Frova, L; Capocaccia, R; Trevisan, M; Berrino, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An analysis was performed to determine the risks and benefits of a 10-year hormone replacement therapy regimen that had been applied to all women at 50 years of age in 8 countries. METHODS: Cumulative mortality with and without hormone replacement therapy over 20 years was estimated, with both current and predicted total and disease-specific secular mortality trends and the influence of a generational cohort effect taken into account. RESULTS: In countries with high ischemic heart disease frequency and predictable relative predominance of ischemic heart disease rates over breast cancer rates for the next 20 years, hormone replacement therapy could result in benefits with regard to overall mortality; this advantage decreases in younger-generation cohorts. In countries in which breast cancer mortality predominates over ischemic heart disease in early postmenopause and in which the predictable trends for both diseases reinforce this condition, a negative effect on overall mortality would be observed. In the United States, the effect of large-scale hormone replacement therapy would change over time. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term effect of hormone replacement therapy on life expectancy of postmenopausal women may vary among countries. PMID:10983196

  2. [The subjective quality of life of patients with schizophrenia: influence of psychopathology and patients' expectations. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Salomé, F; Petitjean, F; Germain, C; Demant, J-C

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on the quality of life (Qol) of patients with schizophrenia deal with objective living conditions and how they are perceived by hospitalized patients. The few studies that compare Qol for patients treated in part time services with the Qol of ambulatory patients do not show any significant difference in terms of subjective Qol. Some stu-dies evaluate the influence of psychopathology and needs (or expectations) on the subjective Qol in these groups of patients. Available data indicate that the general well-being is influenced by psychopathology (positive, negative or depressive symptoms) and unmet needs in ambulatory patients. They also show that subjective Qol in certain life domains (social relations, family relations, leisure, health, law and security) is influenced by negative symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients treated in part-time services. The aim of this study is to compare the objective and subjective Qol of patients with schizophrenia treated in part time services (day hospital and day care center) to the Qol of out-patients treated on a purely ambulatory basis (out patient clinic). We studied the Qol of 2 groups of 30 patients with schizophrenia (ICD 10 criteria) treated in various centers. The first group was made of ambulatory patients, the second one was constituted of patients treated in a day hospital or a day care center. Patients were matched for age, duration of illness, number of hospitalizations. The instruments used for rating were the following: Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Positive And Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10). The Qol was measured with a french version of the Lancashire Quality Of Life Profile (LQOLP) (Salomé, Germain, Petitjean, Demant and Boyer, 2000). This instrument measures the objective Qol as well as the subjective Qol. It does possess satisfying psychometric properties and offers the possibility to establish Qol profiles. All

  3. Multidimensional Quality of Life: A New Measure of Quality of Life in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitler, Shulamith; Kreitler, Michal M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new measure for assessing quality of life (QOL)--the Multidimensional Quality of Life (MQOL)--and describes its derivation, characteristics, structure and several applications. Reasons for developing the MQOL include the restricted range of assessed domains and the heavy emphasis on health in many standard assessment tools.…

  4. Sensory-processing sensitivity moderates the association between childhood experiences and adult life satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Charlotte; Standage, Helen; Fox, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH: hypothesizing that some individuals are more responsive to both positive and negative experiences) with adult personality traits. The current study examined the DSH by investigating the moderating effect of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) on childhood experiences and life satisfaction. A total of 185 adults completed measures of SPS, positive/negative childhood experiences and life satisfaction. SPS did moderate the association between childhood experiences and life satisfaction. Simple slopes analysis compared those reporting high and low SPS (+/− 1 SD) and revealed that the difference was observed only for those who reported negative childhood experiences; with the high SPS group reporting lower life satisfaction. There was no difference observed in those reporting positive childhood experiences, which supported a diathesis-stress model rather than the DSH. PMID:26688599

  5. Life satisfaction and happiness among young adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-30

    People with schizophrenia often experience persistent symptoms and impairments in community functioning; however, despite this, many individuals with the illness report high levels of well-being. We explored the level of subjective well-being in a sample of relatively young outpatients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Seventy-five outpatients with schizophrenia and 72 demographically matched healthy controls, aged 18-35 years, participated in the present study. Subjective well-being was defined as a combination of happiness and satisfaction with life, each of which were measured using validated instruments. Symptom severity, insight, and cognition were also evaluated. People with schizophrenia endorsed significantly lower levels of subjective well-being than healthy controls although, there was substantial overlap in scores, and many participants with schizophrenia endorsed a high level of well-being. Both depressive symptoms and motivational deficits demonstrated significant independent predictive value for determining level of well-being. At a group level, the mean level of happiness and life satisfaction was lower among people with schizophrenia than healthy comparison participants. However, despite this mean difference, there exists marked overlap in individual scores between those with and without schizophrenia, demonstrating that many young people with schizophrenia do, in fact, endorse high levels of subjective well-being. PMID:27288735

  6. Childhood Predictors and Adult Life Success of Adolescent Delinquency Abstainers.

    PubMed

    Mercer, N; Farrington, D P; Ttofi, M M; Keijsers, L; Branje, S; Meeus, W

    2016-04-01

    While much is known about adolescent delinquency, considerably less attention has been given to adolescent delinquency abstention. Understanding how or why some adolescents manage to abstain from delinquency during adolescence is informative for understanding and preventing adolescent (minor) delinquency. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (N = 411 males) to compare abstainers, self-report delinquents and convicted delinquents we found five childhood factors (ages 8-10) that predicted adolescent abstention (ages 10-18). First, we find that adolescent abstainers possess characteristics opposite to those of convicted delinquents (namely, abstainers are high on honesty, conformity and family income). However, we also found that abstainers also share some childhood characteristics with convicted delinquents (namely, low popularity and low school achievement). A latent class analysis indicated that the mixed factors predicting abstention can be accounted for by two groups of abstainers: an adaptive group characterized by high honesty, and a maladaptive group characterized by low popularity and low school achievement. Further, validation of these two types of abstainers using data collected at age 48 suggested that adaptive abstainers outperform all other adolescents in general life success, whereas maladaptive abstainers only fare better than delinquent adolescents in terms of lower substance use and delinquency later in life. PMID:26267237

  7. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. Methods We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981–2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India’s 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. Findings India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). Conclusions For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1–59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early. PMID:26683617

  8. The role of sexual expectancies of substance use as a mediator between adult attachment and drug use among gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Tuck, Andrew N.; Wells, Brooke E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research exploring substance use in gay and bisexual men has increasingly paid attention to interpersonal dynamics and relational concerns associated with the use of substances. The current study explored the role of adult attachment style on drug use as well as the potential mediating role of sexual expectancies of substance use among gay and bisexual men. Methods Online survey data were gathered from 122 gay and bisexual men across the U.S., with a mean age of 33 years of age. All participants were HIV-negative and identified their relationship status as single. Survey measures included attachment style, sexual expectancies of substance use, and recent drug use. Results While neither anxious or avoidant attachment were directly associated with the odds of recent drug use, they were positively associated with sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .27, p < .01, and β = .21, p < .05) which, in turn, were positively associated with the odds of drug use (expB = 1.09, p < .01). Bootstrapping tests of indirect effects revealed a significant indirect relationship between anxious attachment and drug use through sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .11, p < .05), but not for avoidant attachment. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of interpersonal expectancies as motivators for drug use among gay and bisexual men. Sexual expectancies of substance use were associated with drug use and anxious adult attachment was associated indirectly with drug use through these sexual expectancies. PMID:26051159

  9. Operation Bootstrap: Adult Education Program Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ella M.

    Adult educators need to ask themselves two basic questions: What are the problems which adults face today? What are the services which adult education can deliver to help adults individually, and collectively, resolve their problems? For many low-income adults, the problems of high death and unemployment rates, low life expectancy rates, limited…

  10. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  11. Ecdysteroid hormones link the juvenile environment to alternative adult life histories in a seasonal insect.

    PubMed

    Oostra, Vicencio; Mateus, Ana Rita A; van der Burg, Karin R L; Piessens, Thomas; van Eijk, Marleen; Brakefield, Paul M; Beldade, Patrícia; Zwaan, Bas J

    2014-09-01

    The conditional expression of alternative life strategies is a widespread feature of animal life and a pivotal adaptation to life in seasonal environments. To optimally match suites of traits to seasonally changing ecological opportunities, animals living in seasonal environments need mechanisms linking information on environmental quality to resource allocation decisions. The butterfly Bicyclus anynana expresses alternative adult life histories in the alternating wet and dry seasons of its habitat as endpoints of divergent developmental pathways triggered by seasonal variation in preadult temperature. Pupal ecdysteroid hormone titers are correlated with the seasonal environment, but whether they play a functional role in coordinating the coupling of adult traits in the alternative life histories is unknown. Here, we show that manipulating pupal ecdysteroid levels is sufficient to mimic in direction and magnitude the shifts in adult reproductive resource allocation normally induced by seasonal temperature. Crucially, this allocation shift is accompanied by changes in ecologically relevant traits, including timing of reproduction, life span, and starvation resistance. Together, our results support a functional role for ecdysteroids during development in mediating strategic reproductive investment decisions in response to predictive indicators of environmental quality. This study provides a physiological mechanism for adaptive developmental plasticity, allowing organisms to cope with variable environments. PMID:25141151

  12. Stressful Life Events, Sexual Orientation, and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine whether sexual minority young adults are more vulnerable to developing cardiometabolic risk following exposure to stressful life events than heterosexual young adults. Method Data came from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Shin, Edwards, & Heeren, 2009; Brummett et al., 2013), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood. A total of 306 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 6,667 heterosexual respondents met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Measures of cumulative stressful life events were drawn from all 4 waves of data collection; sexual orientation and cardiometabolic biomarkers were assessed at Wave 4 (2008–2009). Results Gay/bisexual men exposed to 1–2 (β = 0.71, p = .01) and 5 + (β = 0.87, p = .01) stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk, controlling for demographics, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. Moreover, in models adjusted for all covariates, lesbian/bisexual (β = 0.52, p = .046) women with 5 + stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk. There was no relationship between stressful life events and cardiometabolic risk among heterosexual men or women. Conclusion Stressful life events during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood place LGB young adults at heightened risk for elevated cardiometabolic risk as early as young adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require future study. PMID:25133830

  13. Extracorporeal Life Support for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Adults: Evolving Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kehrl, Thompson; Kaczorowski, David J

    2016-01-01

    For years, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been the cornerstone of treatment for cardiac arrest. However, the survival of patients that suffer a cardiac arrest is unsatisfactory despite the use of CPR. The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) to aid in the resuscitation of patients in cardiac arrest has the potential benefit of immediate restoration of circulation. Previously, several case reports and small series have suggested that ECLS might provide benefit for patients with refractory cardiac arrest. Several recent larger series, including a number of prospective studies, have emerged that provide further evidence for the utility of emergent institution of ECLS as an adjunct to conventional CPR in the management of cardiac arrest. These studies, which are reviewed here, have provided useful insight into the role of ECLS in cardiac arrest and have set the stage for randomized controlled trials. Ongoing ECLS trials, logistical issues, and future direction of ECLS are reviewed as well. PMID:26919179

  14. Emotion recognition in music changes across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cesar F; Castro, Sao Luis

    2011-06-01

    In comparison with other modalities, the recognition of emotion in music has received little attention. An unexplored question is whether and how emotion recognition in music changes as a function of ageing. In the present study, healthy adults aged between 17 and 84 years (N=114) judged the magnitude to which a set of musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) expressed happiness, peacefulness, sadness and fear/threat. The results revealed emotion-specific age-related changes: advancing age was associated with a gradual decrease in responsiveness to sad and scary music from middle age onwards, whereas the recognition of happiness and peacefulness, both positive emotional qualities, remained stable from young adulthood to older age. Additionally, the number of years of music training was associated with more accurate categorisation of the musical emotions examined here. We argue that these findings are consistent with two accounts on how ageing might influence the recognition of emotions: motivational changes towards positivity and, to a lesser extent, selective neuropsychological decline. PMID:21547762

  15. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  16. Early Life Environmental Exposures and Height, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Older Adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures like rainfall and temperature influence infectious disease exposure and nutrition, two key early life conditions linked to later life health. However, few tests of whether early life environmental exposures impact adult health have been performed, particularly in developing countries. This study examines the effects of experiencing rainfall and temperature shocks during gestation and up through the first four years after birth on measured height, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors using data on adults aged 50 and above (N=1,036) from the 2007–2008 World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and district-level meteorological data from India. Results from multivariate logistic regressions show that negative rainfall shocks during gestation and positive rainfall shocks during the post-birth period increase the risk of having adult hypertension and CVD risk factors. Exposure to negative rainfall shocks and positive temperature shocks in the post-birth period increases the likelihood of falling within the lowest height decile. Prenatal shocks may influence nutrition in utero, while postnatal shocks may increase exposure to infectious diseases and malnutrition. The results suggest that gestation and the first two years after birth are critical periods when rainfall and temperature shocks take on increased importance for adult health. PMID:26266969

  17. Trends in Longevity in the Americas: Disparities in Life Expectancy in Women and Men, 1965-2010

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, Ian R.; Howitt, Christina; Jeyaseelan, Selvi; Murphy, Madhuvanti M.; Hennis, Anselm J; Wilks, Rainford; Harris, E. Nigel; MacLeish, Marlene; Sullivan, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe trends in life expectancy at birth (LE) and between-country LE disparities since 1965, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods & Findings LE trends since 1965 are described for three geographical sub-regions: the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. LE disparities are explored using a suite of absolute and relative disparity metrics, with measurement consensus providing confidence to observed differences. LE has increased throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Compared to the Caribbean, LE has increased by an additional 6.6 years in Central America and 4.1 years in South America. Since 1965, average reductions in between-country LE disparities were 14% (absolute disparity) and 23% (relative disparity) in the Caribbean, 55% and 51% in Central America, 55% and 52% in South America. Conclusions LE in Latin America and the Caribbean is exceeding ‘minimum standard’ international targets, and is improving relative to the world region with the highest human longevity. The Caribbean, which had the highest LE and the lowest between-country LE disparities in Latin America and the Caribbean in 1965-70, had the lowest LE and the highest LE disparities by 2005-10. Caribbean Governments have championed a collaborative solution to the growing burden of non-communicable disease, with 15 territories signing on to the Declaration of Port of Spain, signalling regional commitment to a coordinated public-health response. The persistent LE inequity between Caribbean countries suggests that public health interventions should be tailored to individual countries to be most effective. Between- and within-country disparity monitoring for a range of health metrics should be a priority, first to guide country-level policy initiatives, then to contribute to the assessment of policy success. PMID:26091090

  18. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality. PMID:26177800

  19. Adult Role Transitions: Some Antecedents and Outcomes Early in the Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Focusing on the pre-adolescent to late-adolescent portion of the life cycle, research examined how "early" exit from student role and "early" entry into adult roles of parent or spouse reflects factors operating prior to adolescence. Interviews during 1969 with 1,202 fifth and sixth graders and their mothers in 6 southern states, and again during…

  20. Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

  1. CASAS Competencies: Essential Life and Work Skills for Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The CASAS Competencies identify more than 360 essential life skills that youth and adults need to be functionally competent members of their community, their family, and the workforce. Competencies are relevant across the full range of instructional levels, from beginning literacy through high school completion including transition to…

  2. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  3. Learning a Living: First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) is a large-scale co-operative effort undertaken by governments, national statistics agencies, research institutions and multi-lateral agencies. The development and management of the study were co-ordinated by Statistics Canada and the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in collaboration with the…

  4. Motives in American Men and Women across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates stability and change in four social motives (achievement, affiliation, fear of weakness, hope of power) over the adult life cycle. Motives were assessed in 1957 and 1976 by coding thematic apperceptive content in stories told about six pictures. Some age differences and cohort stability were evident for both sexes. (Author/CB)

  5. "Recurrent Socialization." A New View of "Adult" and "Education" in the Life-Long Education Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    The concept of recurrent re-socialization throughout a lifetime is discussed in relation to life-long education. The need for re-socialization, and thus renewal education through adult education, arises not only as a result of a change of physical environment but also at times of cultural shifts, critical periods, and commitment reductions. In a…

  6. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  7. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  8. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  9. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  10. Teaching Communication and Listening Skills to Medical Students Using Life Review with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Kay; Rhoades, Donna; Roberts, Ellen; Eleazer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The University of South Carolina School of Medicine introduced a seminar in 2003 to teach communication and listening skills to third year medical students. The students learned a structured communication format called "L-I-S-T-E-N" which they utilized to conduct a life review with an adult over age 65. The faculty evaluated this educational…

  11. The Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dayna S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wiley, Terry L.; Nondahl, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigate the impact of hearing loss on quality of life in a large population of older adults. Design and Methods: Data are from the 5-year follow-up Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based longitudinal study of age-related hearing impairment conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. Participants (N = 2,688) were 53-97…

  12. The Use of Digital Technologies across the Adult Life Span in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelfs, Anne; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2010, a survey was carried out to explore access to digital technology, attitudes to digital technology and approaches to studying across the adult life span in students taking courses with the UK Open University. In total, 7000 people were surveyed, of whom more than 4000 responded. Nearly all these students had access to a computer and…

  13. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  14. Stories of Learning across the Lifespan: Life History and Biographical Research in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Life history or biographical approaches to research in lifelong learning may be particularly useful for researchers working from a social purpose and/or feminist perspective. Adult educators working from an emancipatory framework are often curious about factors that shape people's lives, both from an individualistic, biographical perspective…

  15. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  16. Profiles of Reminiscence among Older Adults: Perceived Stress, Life Attitudes, and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…

  17. Approaches to Teaching Adult Development within a Life Span Development Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Bertrand, Rosanna

    1999-01-01

    Describes two exercises that convey the ways in which social biases influence adult development and aging: (1) involves sorting pictures of people by age illustrating the diversity of opinions about how to divide the life span; and (2) demonstrates how physical and social factors shape individual well-being in old age. (DSK)

  18. Building a Successful Adult Life: Findings from Youth-Directed Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky

    2007-01-01

    Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…

  19. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  20. Preparing Mildly Retarded Young Adults for Integration Into the Community: Observations on Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanrahan, James; Lusthaus, Evelyn

    The study looked at the quality of life of 24 retarded adults who had received a training program designed to teach them independent living skills, help them secure independent living settings, and provide them with followup services in these settings. Physical surroundings, financial conditions, social activities, and marital status of clients…

  1. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  2. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  3. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18-71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  4. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  5. Rasch Analysis of the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) among Chinese Adult Patients with Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zonghua; Zhou, Juan; Luo, Xingli; Xu, Yan; She, Xi; Chen, Ling; Yin, Honghua; Wang, Xianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of strabismus on visual function, self-image, self-esteem, and social interactions decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL).The purpose of this study was to evaluate and refine the adult strabismus quality of life questionnaire (AS-20) by using Rasch analysis among Chinese adult patients with strabismus. Methods We evaluated the fitness of the AS-20 with Rasch model in Chinese population by assessing unidimensionality, infit and outfit, person and item separation index and reliability, response ordering, targeting and differential item functioning (DIF). Results The overall AS-20 did not demonstrate unidimensional; however, it was achieved separately in the two Rasch-revised subscales: the psychosocial subscale (11 items) and the function subscale (9 items). The features of good targeting, optimal item infit and outfit, and no notable local dependence were found for each of the subscales. The rating scale was appropriate for the psychosocial subscale but a reduction to four response categories was required for the function subscale. No significant DIF were revealed for any demographic and clinical factors (e.g., age, gender, and strabismus types). Conclusion The AS-20 was demonstrated by Rasch analysis to be a rigorous instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in Chinese strabismus patents if some revisions were made regarding the subscale construct and response options. PMID:26544048

  6. Brazilian Adults' Sedentary Behaviors by Life Domain: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Grégore I.; da Silva, Inácio C. M.; Owen, Neville; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults. Methods A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927). Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home). Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position. Results On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5) hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5–8) hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling. Conclusion Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains. PMID:24619086

  7. Type and Intensity of Negative Life Events Are Associated With Depression in Adults With Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hove, Oddbjørn; Assmus, Jörg; Havik, Odd E

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the associations between types and intensity of life events and symptoms of depression among adults with intellectual disabilities. A community sample (N = 593) was screened for current depression and exposure to life events (i.e., loss, illness, change, and bullying) during the previous 12 months. Symptoms of depression were measured using the Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disabilities. Exposure to three of the four types of life events studied (loss, illness, and bullying) and the intensity of the events were associated with depression, particularly in the cases of loss of relatives and bullying. Quality of care moderated the association between bullying and depression and may buffer the adverse consequences of bullying. PMID:27611352

  8. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  9. The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, J; Zandveld, J; Mulder, M; Brakefield, P M; Kirkwood, T B L; Shanley, D P; Zwaan, B J

    2014-01-01

    Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both experiments, we kept adults on constant high or low food and compared these to flies that experienced fluctuations of food either once or twice a week. For these ‘yoyo’ groups, the initial food level and the duration of the dietary variation differed during adulthood, creating four ‘yoyo’ fly groups. In groups of flies, survival and weight were affected by adult food. However, for individuals, survival and reproduction, but not weight, were affected by adult food, indicating that single and group housing of female flies affects life-history trajectories. Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion. We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences. This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments. PMID:25417737

  10. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  11. Quality of Life in Adults with an Intellectual Disability: The Evaluation of Quality of Life Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nota, L.; Soresi, S.; Perry, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The construct of quality of life (QoL) has been the focus of a great deal of recent research and has been operationalized in the assessment of the effectiveness of biomedical and rehabilitative interventions. Consequently, the effective measurement of QoL has become a relevant issue. QoL assessment should take account of both objective…

  12. Everyday life of young adults with intellectual disabilities: inclusionary and exclusionary processes among young adults of parents with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-06-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending. PMID:23834213

  13. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  14. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  15. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

    PubMed

    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  16. Correlation of a set of gene variants, life events and personality features on adult ADHD severity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel J; Chiesa, Alberto; Mandelli, Laura; De Luca, Vincenzo; De Ronchi, Diana; Jain, Umesh; Serretti, Alessandro; Kennedy, James L

    2010-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could persist into adult life in a substantial proportion of cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of (1) adverse events, (2) personality traits and (3) genetic variants chosen on the basis of previous findings and (4) their possible interactions on adult ADHD severity. One hundred and ten individuals diagnosed with adult ADHD were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events in childhood and adulthood, and personality traits by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Common polymorphisms within a set of nine important candidate genes (SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, DRD5, HTR2A, CHRNA7, BDNF, PRKG1 and TAAR9) were genotyped for each subject. Life events, personality traits and genetic variations were analyzed in relationship to severity of current symptoms, according to the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS). Genetic variations were not significantly associated with severity of ADHD symptoms. Life stressors displayed only a minor effect as compared to personality traits. Indeed, symptoms' severity was significantly correlated with the temperamental trait of Harm avoidance and the character trait of Self directedness. The results of the present work are in line with previous evidence of a significant correlation between some personality traits and adult ADHD. However, several limitations such as the small sample size and the exclusion of patients with other severe comorbid psychiatric disorders could have influenced the significance of present findings. PMID:20006992

  17. Influence of Occupational Status on the Quality of Life of Chinese Adult Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiang-Min; Ding, Cheng-Yun; Wang, Ning; Xu, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Ze-Jie; Wang, Qin; Yao, Qin; Wang, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of occupational status on the quality of life of Chinese adult patients with epilepsy. Methods: This study surveyed 819 subjects clinically diagnosed with epilepsy for more than 1 year in 11 hospitals in Beijing; 586 were employed (71.55%). All subjects completed the case report form with inquiries on demographic data, social factors, and illness. The patients’ quality of life was assessed using the quality of life in patients with epilepsy-31 items (QOLIE-31) questionnaire. Results: The QOLIE-31 score in the employed group was significantly higher than that in the unemployed group. Furthermore, the scores in all the sections (overall quality of life, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, seizure worry, cognition, social function, and medication effects) of the employed group were higher than those of the unemployed group. Both the employed and unemployed groups achieved the highest difference in social function. The QOLIE-31 score of students was higher than those of farmers and workers. Both the students and workers scored higher in the quality of life compared with the adult peasants living with epilepsy. The students and farmers showed significant differences in QOLIE-31 score, cognition, emotional well-being, overall quality of life, energy/fatigue, and social function. In contrast, no significant difference was noted in seizure worry and medication effects across the three different kinds of occupation. Conclusion: Occupational status might affect the quality of life of Chinese adult patients with epilepsy, and social function is the most important contributing factor. PMID:27231164

  18. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. PMID:23417906

  19. New estimates of racial/ethnic differences in life expectancy with chronic morbidity and functional loss: evidence from the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Phillip A; Hayward, Mark D; Hummer, Robert A; Chiu, Chi-Tsun

    2013-09-01

    This study documents the mortality, chronic morbidity and physical functioning experiences of U.S. Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic blacks 50 years of age and older in the United States. Hispanics are classified by nativity to better assess an important source of heterogeneity in population health within that population. Drawing on mortality and morbidity data from the National Health Interview Survey, demographic models of healthy life expectancy are used to derive estimates of life expectancy, life expectancy with and without chronic morbidity conditions, and life expectancy with and without functional limitations. The results not only highlight the mortality advantages of foreign-born Hispanics, but also document their health advantages in terms of morbidity and physical functioning beyond age 50. Nativity is a highly important factor differentiating the health and mortality experiences of Hispanics: U.S.-born Hispanics have a health profile more indicative of their minority status while foreign-born Hispanics have much more favorable mortality and health profiles. Differences in smoking across racial/ethnic/nativity groups is suggested as an important reason behind the apparent health advantages of foreign-born Hispanics relative to whites as well as relative to their U.S.-born counterparts. PMID:23949255

  20. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p < 0.01) and mental (β = 1.663, p < 0.01) components. For men, intrinsic religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults. PMID:26274870

  1. Assessing Quality of Life in Older Adult Patients with Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Sherman, Susan N.; Tsevat, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Significance for Public Health The global population is aging. In the industrial world, adults over 65 outnumber children and comprise almost 20% of the population in some countries. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect their quality of life. Opportunity exists for developing and validating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect quality of life. In the last two decades, a number of instruments have been developed for use among general dermatology patients to assess the effects of treatment and disease progression, perceptions of well-being, and the value that patients place on their dermatologic state of health. This chapter reviews some health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (HRQoL) measures developed and validated specifically for dermatological conditions. However, opportunity exists for developing and validating HRQoL measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. PMID:22980159

  2. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  3. Do quality of life, participation and environment of older adults differ according to level of activity?

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Activity limitation is one of the most frequent geriatric clinical syndromes that have significant individual and societal impacts. People living with activity limitations might have fewer opportunities to be satisfied with life or experience happiness, which can have a negative effect on their quality of life. Participation and environment are also important modifiable variables that influence community living and are targeted by health interventions. However, little is known about how quality of life, participation and environment differ according to activity level. This study examines if quality of life, participation (level and satisfaction) and perceived quality of the environment (facilitators or obstacles in the physical or social environment) of community-dwelling older adults differ according to level of activity. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 156 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 76.9% women), living at home and having good cognitive functions, recruited according to three levels of activity limitations (none, slight to moderate and moderate to severe). Quality of life was estimated with the Quality of Life Index, participation with the Assessment of Life Habits and environment with the Measure of the Quality of the Environment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Welch F-ratio indicated if the main variables differed according to activity level. Results Quality of life and satisfaction with participation were greater with a higher activity level (p < 0.001). However, these differences were clinically significant only between participants without activity limitations and those with moderate to severe activity limitations. When activity level was more limited, participation level was further restricted (p < 0.001) and the physical environment was perceived as having more obstacles (p < 0.001). No differences were observed for facilitators in the physical and social environment or for obstacles in the social

  4. Extracorporeal life support for 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure.

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, S; Awad, S S; Rich, P B; Schreiner, R J; Hirschl, R B; Bartlett, R H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors retrospectively reviewed their experience with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure (ARF) to define techniques, characterize its efficacy and utilization, and determine predictors of outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Extracorporeal life support maintains gas exchange during ARF, providing diseased lungs an optimal environment in which to heal. Extracorporeal life support has been successful in the treatment of respiratory failure in infants and children. In 1990, the authors instituted a standardized protocol for treatment of severe ARF in adults, which included ECLS when less invasive methods failed. METHODS: From January 1990 to July 1996, the authors used ECLS for 100 adults with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (n = 94): paO2/FiO2 ratio of 55.7+/-15.9, transpulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) of 52+/-22%, or acute hypercarbic respiratory failure (n = 6): paCO2 84.0+/-31.5 mmHg, despite and after maximal conventional ventilation. The technique included venovenous percutaneous access, lung "rest," transport on ECLS, minimal anticoagulation, hemofiltration, and optimal systemic oxygen delivery. RESULTS: Overall hospital survival was 54%. The duration of ECLS was 271.9+/-248.6 hours. Primary diagnoses included pneumonia (49 cases, 53% survived), adult respiratory distress syndrome (45 cases, 51 % survived), and airway support (6 cases, 83% survived). Multivariate logistic regression modeling identified the following pre-ECLS variables significant independent predictors of outcome: 1) pre-ECLS days of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0003), 2) pre-ECLS paO2/FiO2 ratio (p = 0.002), and 3) age (years) (p = 0.005). Modeling of variables during ECLS showed that no mechanical complications were independent predictors of outcome, and the only patient-related complications associated with outcome were the presence of renal failure (p < 0.0001) and significant surgical site bleeding (p = 0

  5. Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: Beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den . E-mail: a.c.m.van.den.bergh@rt.umcg.nl; Berg, Gerrit van den; Schoorl, Michiel A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Hoving, Eelco W.; Szabo, Ben G.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of 122 patients, operated for NFA between 1979 and 1998. Recurrence was defined as regrowth on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The occurrence of hormonal deficiencies was defined as the starting date of hormonal substitution therapy. Results: Seventy-six patients had residual NFA after surgery and received immediate postoperative radiotherapy (Group 1); three patients developed a recurrence, resulting in a 95% local control rate at 10 years. Twenty-eight patients had residual NFA after surgery, but were followed by a wait-and-see policy (Group 2). Sixteen developed a recurrence, resulting in a local control rate of 49% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (p < 0.001 compared with Group 1). There were no differences between Group 1 and 2 regarding the need for substitution with thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones before first surgery, directly after surgery and at end of follow-up. There were no differences in hormone substitution free survival between Group 1 and Group 2 during the study period after first surgery. Life expectancy was similar in Group 1 and 2, and their median life expectancy did not differ from median life expectancy in the general population. Conclusions: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.

  6. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  7. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

    PubMed

    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults. Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas. Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV. PMID:26647277

  8. Attachment, forgiveness, and physical health quality of life in HIV + adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Luci A; Vosvick, Mark; Riggs, Shelley A

    2012-01-01

    Research aims to help HIV + individuals improve and maintain a healthy quality of life, while managing a chronic illness. Using Lazarus and Folkman's model of stress and coping, we examined the main and interactive effects of attachment style and forgiveness on physical health quality of life of HIV + adults. Participants (n=288, 49% women) were recruited in Dallas/Fort Worth and self-identified as African-American (52%), European-American (32%), Latino(a) (12%), and other (4%), with an average age of 41.7 (SD=8.6). The average number of years participants reported being HIV + was 7.6 (SD=5.4). Participants completed medical and demographic information, measures assessing attachment anxiety and avoidance, forgiveness of self and others, and five quality of life scales (physical functioning, pain, role functioning, social functioning, and health perceptions). Significant correlations revealed that attachment anxiety was inversely related to physical health quality of life, while forgiveness of self was associated with greater quality of life. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that attachment anxiety and avoidance, forgiveness of self and others, as well as interactions between attachment style and forgiveness, were related to the physical health quality of life of HIV + adults. Interpretation of the interactions identified that for individuals who endorsed greater attachment anxiety, forgiveness of others was associated with greater pain, while forgiveness of self was associated with a greater perception of health. Research has indicated that forgiveness interventions lead to positive health outcomes for most individuals; however, in HIV + adults, whether an outcome is health promoting may be dependent on attachment style. PMID:22292903

  9. Life Experience and Demographic Influences on Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ε4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ε4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483

  10. Young adults' perceptions on life prospects and gender roles as important factors to influence health behaviour: a qualitative study from Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Syed Farid-ul; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and expectations of young males and females, in Karachi, Pakistan, regarding their life prospects and gender roles, with resulting implications for health behaviour. The main theme emerging was "Young adults' prospects in life are hampered by psychosocial and gender equality constraints". Gender inequality and the low status of women in society were described as major obstacles to the overall development. Persistent withholding of information to the younger generation on sexual and reproductive health issues was perceived to increase exposure to health risks, particularly sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study reveals new discourses on equality among young adults, pointing towards an increasing, sound interaction between the sexes and aspirations for more gender equal relationships. Such views and awareness among the younger generation constitutes a strong force towards change of traditional norms, including reproductive health behaviour, and calls for policy change. PMID:22980235

  11. Mid-Life and Career Transitions. The Career Life Assessment Skills Series, Booklet Six. A Program to Meet Adult Developmental Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Bernadette M.; Hecklinger, Fred J.

    Information and accompanying exercises in this four-part booklet are designed to assist adults make changes in their career and personal lives. After introductory material describing career and life planning as a continual assessment process, Part I of the booklet reviews the common characteristics and problems of adults in each of five life…

  12. From Angela's ashes to the Celtic tiger: early life conditions and adult health in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Liam; McGovern, Mark; Smith, James P

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Irish census and exploit regional and temporal variation in infant mortality rates over the 20th century to examine effects of early life conditions on later life health. The urban mortality penalty collapsed in Ireland in the years right after World War II. Our main identification is public health interventions centered on improved sanitation and food safety, which we believed played a leading role in eliminating the Irish urban infant mortality penalty. Our estimates suggest that a unit decrease in mortality rates at time of birth reduces the probability of being disabled as an adult by about 12-18%. PMID:21051095

  13. Research participation by older adults at end of life: barriers and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Herr, Keela; Bergen-Jackson, Kimberly; Fine, Perry; Forcucci, Chris; Sanders, Sara

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to elaborate on barriers to research participation by older adults at end of life. We focus on the hospice setting and classify barriers to research participation into six domains: societal attitudes toward death, research procedures, health care organizations, agency staff, patients' families and caregivers, and patient characteristics. We characterize particular participation issues, uncertainties in participation for individuals with advanced illness, and infringements on patient self-determination, as well as potential solutions to these research challenges. Our observation of the complex palliative context includes the realization that a singular change will not have large enough impact on participation. We conclude that, along with the responsibility to expand the research base addressing the needs of dying individuals, there is also a need to understand the challenges of implementing research projects with older adults at end of life. PMID:20078006

  14. Development and Validation of a New Questionnaire Assessing Quality of Life in Adults with Hypopituitarism: Adult Hypopituitarism Questionnaire (AHQ)

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hitoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Okimura, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hizuka, Naomi; Kaji, Hidesuke; Hanew, Kunihiko; Oki, Yutaka; Yamashiro, Sayuri; Takano, Koji; Chihara, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate the Adult Hypopituitarism Questionnaire (AHQ) as a disease-specific, self-administered questionnaire for evaluation of quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with hypopituitarism. Methods We developed and validated this new questionnaire, using a standardized procedure which included item development, pilot-testing and psychometric validation. Of the patients who participated in psychometric validation, those whose clinical conditions were judged to be stable were asked to answer the survey questionnaire twice, in order to assess test-retest reliability. Results Content validity of the initial questionnaire was evaluated via two pilot tests. After these tests, we made minor revisions and finalized the initial version of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed with two domains, one psycho-social and the other physical. For psychometric assessment, analyses were performed on the responses of 192 adult patients with various types of hypopituitarism. The intraclass correlations of the respective domains were 0.91 and 0.95, and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.96 and 0.95, indicating adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency for each domain. For known-group validity, patients with hypopituitarism due to hypothalamic disorder showed significantly lower scores in 11 out of 13 sub-domains compared to those who had hypopituitarism due to pituitary disorder. Regarding construct validity, the domain structure was found to be almost the same as that initially hypothesized. Exploratory factor analysis (n = 228) demonstrated that each domain consisted of six and seven sub-domains. Conclusion The AHQ showed good reliability and validity for evaluating QOL in adult patients with hypopituitarism. PMID:22984490

  15. The importance of adult life-span perspective in explaining variations in political ideology.

    PubMed

    Sedek, Grzegorz; Kossowska, Malgorzata; Rydzewska, Klara

    2014-06-01

    As a comment on Hibbing et al.'s paper, we discuss the evolution of political and social views from more liberal to more conservative over the span of adulthood. We show that Hibbing et al.'s theoretical model creates a false prediction from this developmental perspective, as increased conservatism in the adult life-span trajectory is accompanied by the avoidance of negative bias. PMID:24970451

  16. SURGEONS EXPECT PATIENTS TO BUY-IN TO POSTOPERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT PREOPERATIVELY: RESULTS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Margaret L.; Redmann, Andrew J.; Alexander, G. Caleb; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that surgeons implicitly negotiate with their patients preoperatively about the use of life supporting treatments postoperatively as a condition for performing surgery. We sought to examine whether this surgical buy-in behavior is present among a large, nationally representative sample of surgeons who routinely perform high risk operations. Design Using findings from a qualitative study, we designed a survey to determine the prevalence of surgical buy-in and its consequences. Respondents were asked to consider their response to a patient at moderate risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation or dialysis who has a preoperative request to limit postoperative life supporting treatment. We used bivariate and multivariate analysis to identify surgeon characteristics associated with a) preoperatively creating an informal contract with the patient defining agreed upon limitations of postoperative life support and b) declining to operate on such patients. Setting and subjects US-mail based survey of 2100 cardiothoracic, vascular and neurosurgeons. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results The adjusted response rate was 56%. Nearly two-thirds of respondents (62%) reported they would create an informal contract with the patient describing agreed upon limitations of aggressive therapy and a similar number (60%) endorsed sometimes or always refusing to operate on a patient with preferences to limit life support. After adjusting for potentially confounding covariates, the odds of preoperatively contracting about life supporting therapy were more than twofold greater among surgeons who felt it was acceptable to withdraw life support on postoperative day 14 as compared to those who felt it was not acceptable to withdraw life support on postoperative day 14 (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence intervals 1.3-3.2). Conclusions Many surgeons will report contracting informally with patients preoperatively about the use of postoperative life support

  17. A Comprehensive Analysis of Connectivity and Aging Over the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Archer, Jo A; Lee, Annie; Qiu, Anqi; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel

    2016-03-01

    Aging has been associated with decreased intra- and internetwork connectivity during rest and task. Recent work has shown the influential role of the salience network over the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN). This study comprehensively investigates age-related changes in intra- and internetwork connectivity and effective connectivity between the DMN, ECN, and salience network across the adult life span. Two hundred ten participants completed a working memory task, an inhibition task, and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Networks were extracted using independent component analysis; then, regression analyses and t-tests between three age groups, 21-40 (younger), 41-60 (middle), and 61-80 (older), were conducted. Older age was associated with decreased intranetwork connectivity. Functional network connectivity analyses revealed older age was associated with increased internetwork connectivity between the salience network and the ECNs and DMNs. In both cases, the effects were more pronounced in the tasks compared to resting state. Granger causality analyses indicated the salience network was influenced by the DMN and ECN in all age groups during both tasks, but not rest. However, middle adults showed increased influence from the salience network to the right ECN compared to younger adults during the flanker task. Taking everything into account, these findings indicate the role of the salience network changes over the life span, which may have implications for the early detection of pathophysiology in older adults. PMID:26652914

  18. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal. PMID:24830480

  19. Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Baron, Kelly Glazer; Lu, Brandon; Naylor, Erik; Wolfe, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of moderate aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education to improve sleep, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. Methods Seventeen sedentary adults aged ≥55 years with insomnia (mean age 61.6 (SD±4.3) years; 16 female) participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of aerobic physical activity plus sleep hygiene to non-physical activity plus sleep hygiene. Eligibility included primary insomnia for at least 3 months, habitual sleep duration < 6.5 hours and a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score > 5. Outcomes included sleep quality, mood and quality of life questionnaires (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Short-form 36 [SF-36], Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). Results The physical activity group improved in sleep quality on the global PSQI (p<0.0001), sleep latency (p=0.049), sleep duration (p=0.04), daytime dysfunction (p=0.027), and sleep efficiency (p=0.036) PSQI sub-scores compared to the control group. The physical activity group also had reductions in depressive symptoms (p=0.044), daytime sleepiness (p=0.02) and improvements in vitality (p=0.017) compared to baseline scores. Conclusion Aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. PMID:20813580

  20. Chest CT abnormalities and quality of life: relationship in adult cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Lavelle, Lisa P.; McCarthy, Colin J.; McEvoy, Sinead H.; Fleming, Hannah; Gallagher, Annika; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm; McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relationship between lung parenchymal abnormalities on chest CT and health-related quality of life in adult cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods The chest CT scans of 101 consecutive CF adults (mean age 27.8±7.9, 64 males) were prospectively scored by two blinded radiologists in consensus using a modified Bhalla score. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the revised Quittner Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ-R). Multiple regressions were performed with each of the CFQ-R domains and all clinical and imaging findings to assess independent correlations. Results There were 18 inpatients and 83 outpatients. For the cohort of inpatients, CT abnormalities were significantly (P<0.005 for all) associated with Respiratory Symptoms (Air Trapping), and also with Social Functioning (Consolidation) and Role Functioning (Consolidation). For outpatients, CT abnormalities were significantly (P<0.005 for all) associated with Respiratory Symptoms (Consolidation) and also with Physical Functioning (Consolidation), Vitality (Consolidation, Severity of Bronchiectasis), Eating Problems (airway wall thickening), Treatment Burden (Total CT Score), Body Image (Severity of Bronchiectasis) and Role Functioning (Tree-in-bud nodules). Consolidation was the commonest independent CT predictor for both inpatients (predictor for 2 domains) and outpatients (predictor in 3 domains). Several chest CT abnormalities excluded traditional measures such as FEV1 and BMI from the majority of CFQ-R domains. Conclusions Chest CT abnormalities are significantly associated with quality of life measures in adult CF, independent of clinical or spirometric measurements. PMID:27047946

  1. The rate of source memory decline across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia; Martínez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gómez-Fernández, Tania; Ayala-Hernández, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garcés-Flores, Lissete; Gómez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltrán-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe García-Lázaro, Haydée; García-Gutiérrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernández-Apan, Luisa; Bärtschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodríguez-Ortiz, María Dolores

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between the ages of 21 and 80. Initially, images of common objects were randomly presented on one quadrant of a screen while the participants judged whether they were natural or artificial. During the retrieval phase, these same images were mixed with new ones, and all images were displayed in the center of the screen. The participants were asked to judge whether each image was new or old, and whether it was old, to indicate in which quadrant of the screen it had originally been presented. Source accuracy decreased linearly with advancing age at a rate of 0.6% per year across all decades even after controlling for educational level; this decline was unaffected by sex. These results reveal that either spatial information becomes less efficiently bound to episodic representations over time or that the ability to retrieve this information decreases gradually throughout the adult life span. PMID:22686174

  2. Low Life Jacket Use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. Methods We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Results Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Conclusions Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use. PMID:24211559

  3. Partner preferences across the life span: online dating by older adults.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Sheyna Sears-Roberts; Mendelsohn, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Stereotypes of older adults as withdrawn or asexual fail to recognize that romantic relationships in later life are increasingly common. The authors analyzed 600 Internet personal ads from 4 age groups: 20-34, 40-54, 60-74, and 75+ years. Predictions from evolutionary theory held true in later life, when reproduction is no longer a concern. Across the life span, men sought physical attractiveness and offered status-related information more than women; women were more selective than men and sought status more than men. With age, men desired women increasingly younger than themselves, whereas women desired older men until ages 75 and over, when they sought men younger than themselves. PMID:19485668

  4. A cascade model connecting life stress to risk behavior among rural African American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M

    2010-08-01

    A three-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  5. Quality of life impairments among adults with social phobia: the impact of subtype.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nina; Sarver, Dustin E; Beidel, Deborah C

    2012-01-01

    Social phobia is characterized by extreme fear in social or performance situations in which the individual may be exposed to embarrassment or scrutiny by others, which creates occupational, social and academic impairment. To date, there are few data examining the relationship of social phobia impairments to quality of life. In this investigation, we examined how demographic characteristics, comorbidity, and social competence are related to quality of life among patients with social phobia and normal controls. In addition, we examined the impact of social phobia subtype. Results indicated that individuals with generalized social phobia had significantly impaired quality of life when compared to individuals with no disorder or individuals with nongeneralized social phobia. Comorbid disorders decreased quality of life only for patients with nongeneralized social phobia. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that a diagnosis of social phobia and observer ratings of social effectiveness exerted strong and independent effects on quality of life scores. Results are discussed in terms of the role of social anxiety, social competence, and comorbidity on the quality of life for adults with social phobia. PMID:21964285

  6. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  7. Adult Sickle Cell Quality-of-Life Measurement Information System (ASCQ-Me)

    PubMed Central

    Treadwell, Marsha J.; Hassell, Kathryn; Levine, Roger; Keller, San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research-derived evidence about the impact of sickle cell disease (SCD) on the lives of affected adults is lacking. We conducted formative research to provide the basis for a comprehensive description of how SCD affects the lives of adults, with the goal of developing a SCD-specific quality-of-life measurement system. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review of patient-reported outcomes, followed by a series of focus groups and structured individual interviews with adults with SCD (n = 122) and their health care providers (n = 15). Results We reviewed 473 abstracts and included 86 articles in the final review. The literature revealed broad categories of the impact of SCD and its treatment on the lives of adults—pain; emotional distress; social-role functioning; overall quality-of-life; and quality of care. We classified 1213 incidents from the focus groups and interviews into a taxonomy (16 domains) that met the criterion for saturation and was demonstrated to be reliable for the classification of incidents. The final conceptual model was built upon the taxonomy. Discussion Our conceptual model was similar to previous models with the effects of pain predominating, interwoven with emotional distress, quality of care, and stigmatization. We found a broad range of emotions reflected, including positive effects of SCD. Items for the quality-of-life measure were derived from the taxonomy and the conceptual model may be of use in generating hypotheses for clinical research and improving understanding for clinicians of the lived experience of adults with SCD. PMID:24300219

  8. Impact on Life Expectancy of Withdrawing Thiopurines in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in Sustained Clinical Remission: A Lifetime Risk-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgesner, Julien; Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Sokol, Harry; Cosnes, Jacques; Schwarzinger, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Objective Long-term treatment with thiopurines is associated with a decreased risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) flare but an increased risk of various cancers depending on gender, age, and presence of extensive colitis. We evaluated risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines in patients with CD in prolonged remission. Methods We developed a Markov model assessing risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines compared to continuing thiopurines in a lifetime horizon. The model was stratified by age (35 and 65 years old at thiopurine withdrawal), gender and presence of extensive colitis. Parameter estimates were taken from French cohorts and hospital databases, cancer and death national registries and published literature. Life expectancy, rates of relapse, serious adverse events, and causes-of-death were evaluated. Results In patients without extensive colitis, continuing thiopurines increased life expectancy up to 0.03 years for 35 year-old men and women but decreased life expectancy down to 0.07 years for 65 year-old men and women. Withdrawal strategy became the preferred strategy at 40.6 years for men, and 45.7 years for women without extensive colitis. In patients with extensive colitis, continuation strategy was the preferred strategy regardless of age. Risk-benefit analysis was not modified by duration of CD activity. Conclusions Factors determining life expectancy associated with withdrawal or continuation of thiopurines in patients with CD and in sustained clinical remission vary substantially according to gender, age and presence of extensive colitis. Individual decisions to continue or withdraw thiopurines in patients with CD in sustained remission should take into account these parameters. PMID:27271176

  9. Second Life to Support Multicultural Literacy: Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosemani, Tahani Ibrahim; Shepherd, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine preservice teachers' attitudes using Second Life for multicultural literacy and to explore effective strategies to implement this technology in teacher preparation programs. Participants included thirty-six preserve teachers from early childhood, elementary, and secondary education programs.…

  10. Expected cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationships of well-behaved single cells and cell strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the factors which might influence the cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationship, taking into account the rate of loss of cell capacity, the amount of excess capacity built into the cells, and the penalty in capacity loss resulting from the use of deep depths of discharge. 'First principles' are used to develop a cell life model for somewhat arbitrary conditions. This model is then used to estimate the cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationships for 'well behaved' cells. The stochastic variations associated with groupings of single cells are then introduced to the battery pack cycle life model. The term 'well behaved' cell is used to describe a single cell which does not suffer any abrupt failure mode during the course of its operation. It gradually loses capacity for any number of the usual reasons at a rate which is the product of the fractional depth of discharge and a factor which is characteristic of the cell under consideration.

  11. How a romantic relationship can protect same-sex attracted youth and young adults from the impact of expected rejection.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M W; Jonas, Kai J

    2014-12-01

    Same-sex attracted youth's well-being is jeopardized by components of minority stress, but this stress can be buffered by social support. What is unknown is whether a romantic relationship can also serve as a buffer. With an online survey we examined the link between components of minority stress, psychological well-being, and its moderated relation by romantic relationship status among 309 Dutch same-sex attracted youth (16-24 years old, 52.9% female). The results showed that minority stress components (internalized homophobia, expected rejection, and meta-stereotyping) were negatively related to psychological well-being. Moderation analyses revealed that only the impact of "expected rejection" on psychological well-being was buffered for those involved in a romantic relationship. This shows the particular functional link of romantic support in rejection contexts. PMID:25291236

  12. Behavior Problems, Psychiatric Symptoms, and Quality of Life for Older Adults with Intellectual Disability with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Felce, David; Kerr, Michael; Hastings, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    The evidence base on outcomes associated with autism in older adulthood is limited. The expected increase in the prevalence of older adults with autism highlights the need to describe their profiles and service needs. Adults 50 years or older with an intellectual disability (ID) and the triad of impairments characteristic of autism spectrum…

  13. Dissociation of somatic growth, time of sexual maturity, and life expectancy by overexpression of an RGD-deficient IGFBP-2 variant in female transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hoeflich, Andreas; Reyer, Anja; Ohde, Daniela; Schindler, Nancy; Brenmoehl, Julia; Spitschak, Marion; Langhammer, Martina; Tuchscherer, Armin; Wirthgen, Elisa; Renner-Müller, Ingrid; Wanke, Rüdiger; Metzger, Friedrich; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Wolf, Eckhard

    2016-02-01

    Impaired growth is often associated with an extension of lifespan. However, the negative correlation between somatic growth and life expectancy is only true within, but not between, species. This can be observed because smaller species have, as a rule, a shorter lifespan than larger species. In insects and worms, reduced reproductive development and increased fat storage are associated with prolonged lifespan. However, in mammals the relationship between the dynamics of reproductive development, fat metabolism, growth rate, and lifespan are less clear. To address this point, female transgenic mice that were overexpressing similar levels of either intact (D-mice) or mutant insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) lacking the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif (E- mice) were investigated. Both lines of transgenic mice exhibited a similar degree of growth impairment (-9% and -10%) in comparison with wild-type controls (C-mice). While in D-mice, sexual maturation was found to be delayed and life expectancy was significantly increased in comparison with C-mice, these parameters were unaltered in E-mice in spite of their reduced growth rate. These observations indicate that the RGD-domain has a major influence on the pleiotropic effects of IGFBP-2 and suggest that somatic growth and time of sexual maturity or somatic growth and life expectancy are less closely related than thought previously. PMID:26507795

  14. Mortality under age 50 accounts for much of the fact that US life expectancy lags that of other high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2013-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in the United States is among the lowest of all high-income countries. Most recent studies have concentrated on older ages, finding that Americans have a lower life expectancy at age fifty and experience higher levels of disease and disability than do their counterparts in other industrialized nations. Using cross-national mortality data to identify the key age groups and causes of death responsible for these shortfalls, I found that mortality differences below age fifty account for two-thirds of the gap in life expectancy at birth between American males and their counterparts in sixteen comparison countries. Among females, the figure is two-fifths. The major causes of death responsible for the below-fifty trends are unintentional injuries, including drug overdose--a fact that constitutes the most striking finding from this study; noncommunicable diseases; perinatal conditions, such as pregnancy complications and birth trauma; and homicide. In all, this study highlights the importance of focusing on younger ages and on policies both to prevent the major causes of death below age fifty and to reduce social inequalities. PMID:23459724

  15. Health Values and Treatment Goals of Older, Multimorbid Adults Facing Life-Threatening Illness

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand D.; Martin, Lindsey A.; Moye, Jennifer; Karel, Michele J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify a taxonomy of health-related values that frame goals of care of older, multimorbid adults who recently faced cancer diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort study of multimorbid cancer survivors. SETTING Cancer registries from regional Department of Veterans Affairs networks in New England and southeast Texas. PARTICIPANTS Multimorbid adults who completed interviews 12 months after diagnosis of head and neck, colorectal, gastric, or esophageal cancer and after cancer treatment (N = 146). MEASUREMENTS An interdisciplinary team conducted thematic analyses of participants’ intuitive responses to two questions: Now that you have had cancer and may face ongoing decisions about medical care in the future, what would you want your family, friends, and doctors to know about you, in terms of what is most important to you in your life? If your cancer were to recur, is there anything you’d want to be sure your loved ones knew about you and your goals of care? RESULTS Analysis revealed five distinct health-related values that guide how multimorbid cancer survivors conceptualize specific health care goals and medical decisions: self-sufficiency, life enjoyment, connectedness and legacy, balancing quality and length of life, and engagement in care. Participants typically endorsed more than one value as important. CONCLUSION Older multimorbid adults who recently faced life-threatening cancer endorsed a multidimensional taxonomy of health-related values. These health-related values guide how they frame their goals for care and treatment preferences. Eliciting individuals’ sense of their values during clinical encounters may improve their experiences with health care and more effectively align treatments with goals of care. PMID:27000335

  16. Neonatal Exposure to Pneumococcal Phosphorylcholine Modulates the Development of House Dust Mite Allergy during Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. PMID:25957171

  17. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. PMID:25957171

  18. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    PubMed Central

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  19. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    PubMed

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  20. In the End It All Makes Sense: Meaning in Life at Either End of the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Annabel; Phillips, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    This study explored psychological well-being in Australian adults with a particular focus on meaning in life. Older adults (N = 57) reported lower levels of search for meaning and higher levels of presence of meaning than young adults (N = 208) suggesting that both groups were able to distinguish between the two aspects of meaning. For older adults, higher presence was associated with better mental health and well-being outcomes, regardless of level of search. For the young adults, higher presence and lower search was associated with better outcomes. These results suggest that presence of meaning is an important aspect of well-being for older adults living in a high income English-speaking country and may be an important focus when working with depressed or anxious older adults, while both presence of, and search for meaning may be more meaningful therapeutic targets when working with depressed or anxious younger adults. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:27166366

  1. A prospective study of the association of patient expectations with changes in health-related quality of life outcomes, following total joint replacement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient expectations regarding surgery may be related to outcomes in total joint replacement (TJR). The aim of this study was to determine the association of patient expectations with health related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes measured by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) and satisfaction with current symptoms measured on a 4-point Likert scale, one year after surgery, adjusting for Body Mass Index (BMI), age, gender, joint, education, previous intervention and baseline scores. Methods Consecutive patients preparing for TJR of the knee or hip due to primary osteoarthritis (OA) in 15 hospitals in Spain were recruited for the study. Patients completed questionnaires before surgery and 12 months afterwards: five questions about expectations before surgery; an item to measure satisfaction; two HRQoL instruments—WOMAC and SF-12; as well as questions about sociodemographic information. To determine the association of patient expectations at baseline, with changes in HRQoL 12 months after surgery and with satisfaction, general linear models and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results A total of 892 patients took part in the study. Patients who had higher pain relief or ability to walk expectations improved more in HRQoL at 12 months. Moreover, patients with high daily activity expectations were more satisfied. Conclusions Patients with higher baseline expectations for TJR, improved more in HRQoL at one year and had more likelihood to be satisfied than patients with lower expectations, adjusted for BMI, age, gender, joint, education, previous intervention and HRQoL baseline scores. PMID:25055728

  2. Impact of adiposity on cardiac structure in adult life: the childhood determinants of adult health (CDAH) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have examined the association between adiposity and cardiac structure in adulthood, using a life course approach that takes account of the contribution of adiposity in both childhood and adulthood. Methods The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study (CDAH) is a follow-up study of 8,498 children who participated in the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey (ASHFS). The CDAH follow-up study included 2,410 participants who attended a clinic examination. Of these, 181 underwent cardiac imaging and provided complete data. The measures were taken once when the children were aged 9 to 15 years, and once in adult life, aged 26 to 36 years. Results There was a positive association between adult left ventricular mass (LVM) and childhood body mass index (BMI) in males (regression coefficient (β) 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14 to 0.67; p = 0.003), and females (β = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.72; p < 0.001), and with change in BMI from childhood to adulthood (males: β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.51; p < 0.001, females: β = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.58; p < 0.001), after adjustment for confounding factors (age, fitness, triglyceride levels and total cholesterol in adulthood). After further adjustment for known potential mediating factors (systolic BP and fasting plasma glucose in adulthood) the relationship of LVM with childhood BMI (males: β = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.71; p = 0.001, females: β = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.68; p < 0.001) and change in BMI (males: β = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.49; p = 0.02, females: β = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.59; p < 0.001) did not change markedly. Conclusions Adiposity and increased adiposity from childhood to adulthood appear to have a detrimental effect on cardiac structure. PMID:24980215

  3. Assessment of physical health status and quality of life among Saudi older adults.

    PubMed

    Al Senany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated physical health status and quality of life among older Saudi adults. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included older adults (N = 55) aged 60-90 years (mean = 67.9± 7.71) from a major hospital in Jeddah. Subjects completed surveys and evaluations including assessments of personal and socio-demographic characteristics, caregiver presence, personal habits, perceived health, primary physical and psychological complaints, physician-diagnosed chronic diseases, and functional capacity (i.e., activities of daily living). [Results] Results showed a significant positive correlation between age and ADL; age and memory problems, anxiety, and loneliness; and sleep disturbance and falls. Main factors contributing to quality of life decline were chronic disease, falls, sedentary lifestyle, sleep disturbances, and financial concerns. Participants with diabetes mellitus (58.18%) and hypertension (29.0%) had a very high fall rate. Participants engaged in minimal physical activity (63%), often due to bone and joint pain (90.0%), and led sedentary lives (69%). Single sensory impairments were significantly and independently linked to high depression risk and decreased self-sufficiency. [Conclusion] Healthy lifestyle and behavioral changes should be promoted through community-based health education programs for older Saudi adults. Chronic disease screening programs for the elderly population (especially diabetes and hypertension) are recommended. PMID:26180299

  4. Effects of neonatal inflammation on the inflammatory and oxidative profile during experimental sepsis in adult life.

    PubMed

    Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Luft, Carolina; Pedrazza, Leonardo; Martha, Bianca Andrade; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of neonatal inflammation on the inflammatory and oxidative profile during experimental sepsis in adult life. Neonatal Balb/c mice received different treatments on day 10: LPS i.p. injection (100g/kg) (nLPS) or saline i.p. injection (nSal). As adults, fear/anxiety behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze. The following week, saline solution or LPS was administered and, after 12h, serum (inflammatory cytokines), liver (mitochondrial complexes and oxidative stress) and adrenal gland samples (angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors) were collected. There was an increase in the fear/anxiety behavior in the nLPS group. Neonatal administration of LPS increased the mRNA expression of the AT1 receptor and decreased the mRNA expression of the AT2 receptor in the adrenal glands of males. The complexes II and II-III increased in the nLPS saline male group when compared to control. The LPS administration in adult females, regardless of the neonatal treatment, induced a decrease of the glutathione enzyme activity. There were no differences in the inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that neonatal inflammation influenced mitochondrial respiratory chain metabolism and angiotensin II receptors in a sex-dependent manner. Balb/c mice fear and anxiety behaviors in adulthood were programmed by early life inflammatory stress. PMID:26314499

  5. The Relationship Between Executive Functions and Quality of Life in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Pollak, Yehuda; Bonne, Omer; Malik, Elad; Maeir, Adina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Adult ADHD is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL) and deficient executive function (EF). Given the absence of studies examining the relationship between EF and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in this population, the purpose of the present study was to do so, by the use of rating scales and tests. Method: Adults with ADHD (n = 81) completed ADHD and EF questionnaires and a neuropsychological battery. Results: Small to large significant correlations were found between EF ratings and HRQL for most of the variables. No significant correlations were found between all but one EF test and HRQL. Both ADHD symptoms and EF rating, but not the EF test, were found to have a unique contribution to the HRQL. Conclusion: These results strengthen the ecological validity of the EF rating scales and their utility in identifying EF deficits with real-world implications for adults with ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24189201

  6. Childhood Poverty and Depressive Symptoms for Older Adults in Mexico: A Life-Course Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n=8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71 % had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b=0.27, p<0.001). This effect is partially mediated by four adult socio-economic status measures, although decomposition analysis reveals the mediation effect to be primarily driven by educational achievement. These findings have important implications for Mexico’s rapidly aging population as well as efforts for childhood poverty reduction and gains in education. PMID:23783887

  7. Why do Americans have shorter life expectancy and worse health than people in other high-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Americans lead shorter and less healthy lives than people in other high-income countries. We review the evidence and explanations for these variations in longevity and health. Our overview suggests that the US health disadvantage applies to multiple mortality and morbidity outcomes. The American health disadvantage begins at birth and extends across the life-course, and it is particularly marked for American women and for regions in the US South and Midwest. Proposed explanations include differences in health care, individual behaviors, socioeconomic inequalities, and the physical and built environment. While these factors may contribute to poorer health in America, a focus on proximal causes fails to adequately account for the ubiquity of the US health disadvantage across the life-course. We discuss the role of specific public policies and conclude that while multiple causes are implicated, crucial differences in social policy might underlie an important part of the US health disadvantage. PMID:24422560

  8. Implementation challenges in end-of-life research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Savage, Teresa A; Moro, Teresa Thalia; Boyden, Jackelyn Y; Brown, Allison A; Kavanaugh, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    Although the 4 million+people in the U.S. with an intellectual or developmental disability (I/DD) experience the same life expectancy as those in the general population, end-of-life research including these individuals is lacking and can be difficult to implement. As will be described in this paper, it is possible to overcome barriers to successfully include people with I/DD in end-of-life research. In this paper, the implementation challenges, feasibility, and implications for successful end-of-life research with individuals with I/DD using focus groups are described. Individuals with I/DD were able to discuss their experiences and views about end-of-life care. However, while people with I/DD made valuable contributions to the focus groups, there were several modifications needed in order to execute this study. In order to gain a complete picture of end-of-life care for people with I/DD, it is imperative to include them in research to the best of their ability. By anticipating issues related to recruitment, the consent process, setting, and support needs of participants, focus groups can be successfully implemented. PMID:25457272

  9. The Impact of Stressful Life Events and Social Support on Drinking among Older Adults: A General Population Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed stressful life events, buffering hypothesis, and alcohol use in 1,418 older adults. Results indicated that older adults who experienced stressful losses were significantly more likely to drink excessively than those who had not experienced such losses or who had experienced them to lesser extent. Supportive resources appeared to have…

  10. Caring, Employment, and Quality of Life: Comparison of Employed and Nonemployed Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Kroger, Teppo; Fu, Li-yeh

    2010-01-01

    The effects of caregiving on mothers of adults with intellectual disability was examined by determining whether there are differences in quality of life and related factors between mothers with different employment status. Study participants were 302 working-age mothers who had adult children with intellectual disability based on the 2008 census…

  11. Exploring the Adult Life of Men and Women with Fragile X Syndrome: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartleyand, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Raspa, Melissa; Olmstead, Murrey; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a national family survey, the authors describe the adult lives (i.e., residence, employment, level of assistance needed with everyday life, friendships, and leisure activities) of 328 adults with the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and identify characteristics related to independence in these domains. Level of functional skills was…

  12. Older Adults' Coping with Negative Life Events: Common Processes of Managing Health, Interpersonal, and Financial/Work Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how older adults cope with negative life events in health, interpersonal, and financial/work domains and whether common stress and coping processes hold across these three domains. On three occasions, older adults identified the most severe negative event they faced in the last year and described how they appraised and coped…

  13. Placement, Relocation and End of Life Issues in Aging Adults with and without Down's Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, P.; Amble, K.; Flory, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aging adults with Down's syndrome (DS) experience more relocations and other life events than adults with intellectual disabilities aged 50 and older without DS. Age-related functional decline and the higher incidence of dementia were implicated as the contributing factors that led to relocation and nursing home placement. Method: A…

  14. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  15. Reducing depression among community-dwelling older adults using life-story review: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Leong, Katherine S P; Heng, Boon Ling; Mathew, Blessy Koottappal; Khan, Sher Banu A L; Lourdusamy, Sumathi Sagayamary; Nagapan, Mina; Woo, Sook Fan; Chee, Wai Yan; Ho, Roger C M; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    2014-01-01

    A life-story review can serve as an effective intervention to express one's inner feelings and provide emotional catharsis. The research aim was to examine the effects of life-story review on depression levels in community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. This pilot experimental pre-post-follow-up study was conducted from July 2012 to February 2013. Twenty-nine older Malays aged 60 and above, with mild to moderate depression, were randomly allocated to the life-story review (intervention) group (n = 15) or the non life-story review (control) group (n = 14). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and collected five times over eight weeks. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of the intervention on the elders' depression levels, controlled for age, gender, medication use, existence of chronic disease, and diary writing experience. Reductions in depression scores were found in the intervention group from week 1 (Mean ± SD 5.9 ± 2.3) to week 8 (1.9 ± 1.6) compared with the control group (week 1: 5.0 ± 1.3; week 8: 3.5 ± 1.5). At week 8, the intervention group showed a significantly lower level of depression than the control group (χ(2) = 14.61, p < 0.001). This study adds to prior research supporting the use of life story review in improving depression levels in cognitively intact community dwelling older adults. PMID:24246689

  16. Incidence, life expectancy and prognostic factors in cancer patients under prolonged mechanical ventilation: a nationwide analysis of 5,138 cases during 1998-2007

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study is aimed at determining the incidence, survival rate, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) and prognostic factors in patients with cancer in different organ systems undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Methods We used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 1998 to 2007 and linked it with the National Mortality Registry to ascertain mortality. Subjects who received PMV, defined as having undergone mechanical ventilation continuously for longer than 21 days, were enrolled. The incidence of cancer patients requiring PMV was calculated, with the exception of patients with multiple cancers. The life expectancies and QALE of patients with different types of cancer were estimated. Quality-of-life data were taken from a sample of 142 patients who received PMV. A multivariable proportional hazards model was constructed to assess the effect of different prognostic factors, including age, gender, type of cancer, metastasis, comorbidities and hospital levels. Results Among 9,011 cancer patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days, 5,138 undergoing PMV had a median survival of 1.37 months (interquartile range [IQR], 0.50 to 4.57) and a 1-yr survival rate of 14.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.3% to 15.3%). The incidence of PMV was 10.4 per 100 ICU admissions. Head and neck cancer patients seemed to survive the longest. The overall life expectancy was 1.21 years, with estimated QALE ranging from 0.17 to 0.37 quality-adjusted life years for patients with poor and partial cognition, respectively. Cancer of liver (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.78), lung (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.41) and metastasis (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.65) were found to predict shorter survival independently. Conclusions Cancer patients requiring PMV had poor long-term outcomes. Palliative care should be considered early in these patients, especially when metastasis has occurred

  17. Effect of Illness Representations and Catastrophizing on Quality of Life in Adults With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, LeeAnne B; Leary, Emily; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    There is limited understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which contributes to management difficulties and ineffective long-term treatment. The goal of the current study was to assess the effect illness representations and coping had on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with IBS. Self-report data were collected from 101 adults with IBS. Illness representations were measured with the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire; catastrophizing was measured with the catastrophizing subscale of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire; and HRQOL was measured using the IBS-Quality of Life Measure. Participants perceived their IBS to be a chronic, cyclical condition with negative consequences, moderate symptomatology, and strong negative emotional impact. Their quality of life was poor and catastrophic thinking was noted to be used. Therefore, integrating illness beliefs and coping style into the management of IBS may improve well-being and minimize suffering. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 44-53.]. PMID:27576228

  18. Past and present: conditions of life during childhood and mortality of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marília Miranda Forte; Turra, Cássio Maldonado; Fígoli, Moema Gonçalves Bueno; Duarte, Yeda A O; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze whether socioeconomic and health conditions during childhood are associated with mortality during old age. METHODS Data were extracted from the SABE Study (Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento – Health, Welfare and Aging), which were performed in 2000 and 2006. The sample consisted of 2004 (1,355 living and 649 dead) older adults. The statistical analysis was performed based on Poisson regression models, taking into account the time variation of risk observed. Older adults’ demographic characteristics and life conditions were evaluated, as were the socioeconomic and lifestyle conditions they acquired during their adult life. RESULTS Only the area of residence during childhood (rural or urban) remained as a factor associated with mortality at advanced ages. However, this association lost significance when the variables acquired during adulthood were added to the model. CONCLUSIONS Despite the information regarding the conditions during childhood being limited and perhaps not accurately measure the socioeconomic status and health in the first years of life, the findings of this study suggest that improving the environmental conditions of children and creating opportunities during early adulthood may contribute to greater survival rates for those of more advanced years. PMID:26786474

  19. Fatigue in adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease: biological and behavioral correlates and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Elswick, R K; Smith, Wally

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive, correlational study examined fatigue and potential biological and behavioral correlates in adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease. Sixty adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease completed the Brief Fatigue Inventory, Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form, Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue short form and measures of pain, sleep quality, anxiety, depressive mood, stress, disease severity, and quality of life. Blood samples were obtained for hemoglobin and cytokines. Fatigue scores were mostly moderate in severity. Fatigue interfered to a moderate degree with daily activities and correlated significantly with pain, sleep quality, state and trait anxiety, depressive mood, stress, and quality of life. Fatigue was correlated with hemoglobin on the PROMIS measure. Fatigue was not correlated with cytokines or age, nor differed by disease severity. Fatigue was common in these adolescents and young adults, interfered with daily activities such as school, work and exercise, and significantly correlated with several potentially modifiable factors. As life expectancy increases in sickle cell disease, research is needed to test interventions to reduce fatigue. PMID:24378816

  20. Effects of copper on adult and early life stages of the freshwater clam, Corbicula manilensis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult and larval stages of the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis was evaluated. In addition, copper concentrations in adult clams exposed for 4 to 10 wks to copper in a high-volume, flow-through bioassay are determined. The response of these clams to copper depended on life stage. Copper sensitivity of larvae decreased markedly in successive developmental stages. The LC50/sub 24/s of veliger and juvenile larve were 28 and 600 ..mu..g Cu/L, respectively. The mortality of trochophore larvae exposed to 10 ..mu..g Cu/L for 1 h was 91.5%. The sensitivity to copper decreased with the amount of larval shell deposition. Adult clams were resistant to copper; the LC50/sub 96/ was greater than 2600 ..mu..g Cu/L. By comparison the incipient concentration (ILC) was low - less than 10 ..mu..g Cu/L. Adult clams accumulated more copper as copper concentrations in the water increased. Evidence for copper loss near or at death was obtained.