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Sample records for adult life expectancy

  1. Life expectancy without depression increases among Brazilian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond; Wu, Fan; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate life expectancy with and without depressive symptoms in older adults for the years 2000 and 2010. METHODS We evaluated individuals aged 60 years or older (n = 1,862 in 2000 and n = 1,280 in 2010), participants of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Aging) study in in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Depression was measured using the shorter version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15); respondents scoring ≥ 6 were classified as having depression. Estimates of life expectancy with and without depression were obtained using the Sullivan method. RESULTS Data from 2000 indicate that 60-year-old men could expect to live, on average, 14.7 years without depression and 60-year-old women could expect to live 16.5 years without depression. By 2010, life expectancy without depression had increased to 16.7 years for men and 17.8 years for women. Expected length of life with depression differed by sex, with women expected to live more years with depression than men. CONCLUSIONS Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy without depression in Sao Paulo increased. However, older adults in Brazil, especially older women, still face a serious burden of mental illness. PMID:27143612

  2. Expectations of life and health among spinal cord injured adults.

    PubMed

    McColl, M A; Walker, J; Stirling, P; Wilkins, R; Corey, P

    1997-12-01

    While our understanding of aging and mortality in spinal cord injury is evolving, precise estimates are still not available for expectations of life and health following a spinal cord injury. In order to derive these estimates, information about mortality and health must be combined into a single estimate. Health expectancy estimates have been widely used in the literature of the last decade to try to understand the relationship between population health and survival, both in the general population and in special populations. This study brought the benefit of this methodology to the question of long-term survival following spinal cord injury. Specifically, the study aimed to calculate life and health expectancy in a population of spinal cord injured individuals; and to estimate the effect of factors associated with survival and health. The study involved a retrospective cohort, all of whom sustained a spinal cord injury between the ages of 25 and 34 years, and between 1945 and 1990. The study predicted a median survival time of 38 years post-injury, with 43% surviving at least 40 years. These findings suggest an increase in life expectancy of about 5 years over previous research on the same cohort. Factors affecting survival were age at injury, level and completeness of lesion. Expectations of health found in the present study are similar to those found in studies of the general population. This study showed seven remaining years of poor health expected at injury, and five remaining years expected at 40 years post injury, presumably occurring at the end of life.

  3. Measuring the Impact of Diabetes on Life Expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy Among Older Adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study is to investigate differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), disabled life expectancy (DLE), and personal care assistance between individuals with and without diabetes in Mexico. Methods. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative Mexican Health and Aging Study. Disability was assessed through a basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measure, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and the Nagi physical performance measure. The Interpolation of Markov Chains method was used to estimate the impact of diabetes on TLE and DFLE. Results. Results indicate that diabetes reduces TLE at ages 50 and 80 by about 10 and 4 years, respectively. Diabetes is also associated with fewer years in good health. DFLE (based on ADL measures) at age 50 is 20.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.2–22.3) for those with diabetes, compared with 29.9 years (95% CI: 28.8–30.9) for those without diabetes. Regardless of diabetes status, Mexican women live longer but face a higher disability burden than men. Conclusion. Among older adults in Mexico, diabetes is associated with shorter TLE and DFLE. The negative effect of diabetes on the number of years lived, particularly in good health, creates significant economic, social, and individual costs for elderly Mexicans. PMID:20028950

  4. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Anthony D; Knutson, Brian

    2011-04-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span.

  5. The Life Course in the Making: Gender and the Development of Adolescents' Expected Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental…

  6. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  7. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  8. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  9. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  10. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  11. Development of a 5 year life expectancy index in older adults using predictive mining of electronic health record data

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Jason Scott; Agrawal, Ankit; Feinglass, Joe; Cooper, Andrew J; Baker, David William; Choudhary, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Objective Incorporating accurate life expectancy predictions into clinical decision making could improve quality and decrease costs, but few providers do this. We sought to use predictive data mining and high dimensional analytics of electronic health record (EHR) data to develop a highly accurate and clinically actionable 5 year life expectancy index. Materials and methods We developed the index using EHR data for 7463 patients ≥50 years old with ≥1 visit(s) in 2003 to a large, academic, multispecialty group practice. We extracted 980 attributes from the EHRs of the practices and affiliated hospitals. Correlation feature selection with greedy stepwise search was used to find the attribute subset with best average merit. Rotation forest ensembling with alternating decision tree as underlying classifier was used to predict 5 year mortality. Model performance was compared with the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Walter life expectancy method. Results Within 5 years of the last visit in 2003, 838 (11%) patients had died. The final model included 24 attributes: two demographic (age, sex), 10 comorbidity (eg, cardiovascular disease), one vital sign (mean diastolic blood pressure), two medications (loop diuretic use, digoxin use), six laboratory (eg, mean albumin), and three healthcare utilization (eg, the number of hospitalizations 1 year prior to the last visit in 2003). The index showed very good discrimination (c-statistic 0.86) and outperformed comparators. Conclusions The EHR based index successfully distinguished adults ≥50 years old with life expectancy >5 years from those with life expectancy ≤5 years. This information could be used clinically to optimize preventive service use (eg, cancer screening in the elderly). PMID:23538722

  12. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; García-Ceballos, Raúl; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P; Mendoza-Cano, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. Objective To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to rank the leading causes of premature death. Design A cross-sectional study took place (2010-2014) and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF), YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. Results The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL). Conclusions Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health.

  13. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; García-Ceballos, Raúl; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P.; Mendoza-Cano, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. Objective To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to rank the leading causes of premature death. Design A cross-sectional study took place (2010–2014) and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF), YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. Results The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL). Conclusions Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health. PMID:27606969

  14. Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…

  15. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet/Nutrition Disability and Functioning Exercise or Physical Activity Obesity and Overweight Smoking Injuries Accidents or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries Assault or Homicide Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health ...

  16. A multistate analysis of active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A; Rogers, R G; Branch, L G

    1989-01-01

    With today's lower mortality rates, longer expectations of life, and new medical technologies, the nation's health policy focus has shifted from emphasis on individual survival to emphasis on personal health and independent living. Using longitudinal data sets and new methodological techniques, researchers have begun to assess active life expectancies, estimating not only how long a subpopulation can expect to live beyond each age, but what fractions of the expected remaining lifetime will be lived as independent, dependent, or institutionalized. New ideas are addressed, applying recently developed multistate life table methods to Waves One and Two of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. Expectations of active life are presented for those 65 and older who initially are in one of two functional states of well-being. Included are expectations of life, for those, for example, who were independent and remained so, or those who were dependent and became independent. Although public health officials are concerned about the number of elderly who cease being independent, preliminary analysis shows that a significant number of the dependent elderly regain their independence, a situation which needs to be addressed in health care planning.

  17. [Assessment of life expectancy in older people].

    PubMed

    Vaucher, Yves; Monod, Stéfanie; Büla, Christophe; Rochat, Stéphane

    2012-11-07

    Evaluation of the remaining life expectancy in elderly persons plays an important role in their care, most importantly when treatments are associated with severe side effects or when they reduce the quality of life. Prognostic scores, incorporating the functional status in addition to age and comorbidities, enable evaluation of the mortality risk during different periods of time. Despite some limitations, these scores are useful in establishing individualized treatment plans.

  18. Life Expectancy Among U.S.-born and Foreign-born Older Adults in the United States: Estimates From Linked Social Security and Medicare Data.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T; Engelman, Michal; Lauderdale, Diane S; Kestenbaum, Bert M

    2016-08-01

    In recent decades, the geographic origins of America's foreign-born population have become increasingly diverse. The sending countries of the U.S. foreign-born vary substantially in levels of health and economic development, and immigrants have arrived with distinct distributions of socioeconomic status, visa type, year of immigration, and age at immigration. We use high-quality linked Social Security and Medicare records to estimate life tables for the older U.S. population over the full range of birth regions. In 2000-2009, the foreign-born had a 2.4-year advantage in life expectancy at age 65 relative to the U.S.-born, with Asian-born subgroups displaying exceptionally high longevity. Foreign-born individuals who migrated more recently had lower mortality compared with those who migrated earlier. Nonetheless, we also find remarkable similarities in life expectancy among many foreign-born subgroups that were born in very different geographic and socioeconomic contexts (e.g., Central America, western/eastern Europe, and Africa).

  19. Life Expectancy in Pleural and Peritoneal Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Vavra-Musser, Kate; Lee, Jessica; Brooks, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Mesothelioma is a rare cancer with a historically dire prognosis. We sought to calculate life expectancies for patients with pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma, both at time of diagnosis and several years later, and to examine whether survival has improved in recent years. Methods. Data on 10,258 pleural and 1,229 peritoneal patients from the SEER US national cancer database, 1973–2011, were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results. The major factors related to survival were age, sex, stage, grade, histology, and treatment. Survival improved only modestly over the study period: 0.5% per year for pleural and 2% for peritoneal. Conclusions. Life expectancies were markedly reduced from normal, even amongst 5-year survivors with the most favorable characteristics and treatment options. PMID:28239496

  20. Age differences in expected satisfaction with life in retirement.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Helen C; Hershey, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Research on expected quality of life in retirement has focused on the perceptions of individuals either living in retirement or nearing retirement age. In this article, data are reported that examine expectations of (future) retirement quality of life among younger and middle-aged adults. Toward this end, a new scale--the Satisfaction with Life in Retirement Scale--is introduced. As part of the study, a pair of age-specific, theoretically-driven, hierarchically-structured path models were tested in which individuals' perceptions of future retirement satisfaction were regressed on indicators of financial knowledge, future time perspective, financial risk tolerance, and parental financial values. Models from both age groups were successful in accounting for variability in perceptions of future retirement satisfaction; however, age differences in the model were observed. The results of this investigation have implications for retirement counselors and intervention specialists who seek to cultivate positive perceptions of late life among individuals of different ages.

  1. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  2. Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

  3. The future of life expectancy and life expectancy inequalities in England and Wales: Bayesian spatiotemporal forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James E; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Best, Nicky; Kontis, Vasilis; Pearson, Clare; Hambly, Peter; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts. Methods We developed Bayesian spatiotemporal models for forecasting of age-specific mortality and life expectancy at a local, small-area level. The models included components that accounted for mortality in relation to age, birth cohort, time, and space. We used geocoded mortality and population data between 1981 and 2012 from the Office for National Statistics together with the model with the smallest error to forecast age-specific death rates and life expectancy to 2030 for 375 of England and Wales' 376 districts. We measured model performance by withholding recent data and comparing forecasts with this withheld data. Findings Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales was 79·5 years (95% credible interval 79·5–79·6) for men and 83·3 years (83·3–83·4) for women in 2012. District life expectancies ranged between 75·2 years (74·9–75·6) and 83·4 years (82·1–84·8) for men and between 80·2 years (79·8–80·5) and 87·3 years (86·0–88·8) for women. Between 1981 and 2012, life expectancy increased by 8·2 years for men and 6·0 years for women, closing the female–male gap from 6·0 to 3·8 years. National life expectancy in 2030 is expected to reach 85·7 (84·2–87·4) years for men and 87·6 (86·7–88·9) years for women, further reducing the female advantage to 1·9 years. Life expectancy will reach or surpass 81·4 years for men and reach or surpass 84·5 years for women in every district by 2030. Longevity inequality across districts, measured as the difference between the 1st and 99th percentiles of district life expectancies, has risen since 1981, and is forecast to rise steadily to 8·3 years (6·8–9·7) for men and 8·3 years (7·1

  4. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions.

  5. Ambitious Mothers--Successful Daughters: Mothers' Early Expectations for Children's Education and Children's Earnings and Sense of Control in Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Hawkes, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mothers' expectations for their children's educational attainment are related to children's educational and occupational attainment. Studies have yet to establish, however, the long-term links between maternal expectations and offspring earnings, which are not always related to occupational attainment especially in women, or between…

  6. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  7. Impact of diabetes mellitus on life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate life expectancy (LE) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) for Canadians with and without diabetes and to evaluate the impact of diabetes on population health using administrative and survey data. Mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2004 to 2006) and Health Utilities Index data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2000 to 2005) were used. Life table analysis was applied to calculate LE, HALE, and their confidence intervals using the Chiang and the adapted Sullivan methods. LE and HALE were significantly lower among people with diabetes than for people without the disease. LE and HALE for females without diabetes were 85.0 and 73.3 years, respectively (males: 80.2 and 70.9 years). Diabetes was associated with a loss of LE and HALE of 6.0 years and 5.8 years, respectively, for females, and 5.0 years and 5.3 years, respectively, for males, living with diabetes at 55 years of age. The overall gains in LE and HALE after the hypothetical elimination of prevalent diagnosed diabetes cases in the population were 1.4 years and 1.2 years, respectively, for females, and 1.3 years for both LE and HALE for males. The results of the study confirm that diabetes is an important disease burden in Canada impacting the female and male populations differently. The methods can be used to calculate LE and HALE for other chronic conditions, providing useful information for public health researchers and policymakers. PMID:22531113

  8. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Young Adult Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ≤ 50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687

  9. Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies: expressions and applications.

    PubMed

    Missov, Trifon I; Lenart, Adam

    2013-12-01

    In a population of individuals, whose mortality is governed by a Gompertz-Makeham hazard, we derive closed-form solutions to the life-expectancy integral, corresponding to the cases of homogeneous and gamma-heterogeneous populations, as well as in the presence/absence of the Makeham term. Derived expressions contain special functions that aid constructing high-accuracy approximations, which can be used to study the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to model parameters. Knowledge of Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies aids constructing life-table exposures.

  10. Political conditions and life expectancy in Europe, 1900-2008.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-04-01

    The rise of life expectancy in Europe has been a very uneven process, both in time and space. This paper aims to identify instances in which major political conditions are likely to have influenced the rise of life expectancy, focusing on formation and dissolution of states and supranational blocs and on differences between political regimes (democratic vs. authoritarian non-communist and communist rule). Data on life expectancy, cause-specific mortality and political conditions were compiled from existing data sources. Possible relations between political conditions and life expectancy were studied by direct comparisons of changes in life expectancy in countries with different political conditions but similar starting levels of life expectancy. We found that formation and dissolution of states often went together with convergence and divergence of life expectancy, respectively, and that otherwise similar countries that did or did not become part of the Soviet bloc had distinctly different life expectancy trajectories. Democratically governed states had higher life expectancies than authoritarian states throughout the 20th century. The gap narrowed between 1920 and 1960 due to rapid catching up of infectious disease control in both non-communist and communist authoritarian states. It widened again after 1960 due to earlier and more rapid progress in democratic states against cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents and other causes of death that have become amenable to intervention. We conclude that the history of life expectancy in Europe contains many instances in which political conditions are likely to have had a temporary or more lasting impact on population health. This suggests that there is scope for further in-depth studies of the impact of specific political determinants on the development of population health in Europe.

  11. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  12. Expectations of Adult Graduate Students in an Online Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David; Grover, Kenda; Kacirek, Kit

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the expectations of adult graduate students enrolled in an online degree program at a research university in the mid-South United States. Students who were pursuing their master of education degree were invited to participate in an e-Focus group regarding their expectations of the degree program. Focus groups…

  13. Estimating life expectancies for US small areas: a regression framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of area mortality variations and estimation of area life tables raise methodological questions relevant to assessing spatial clustering, and socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Existing small area analyses of US life expectancy variation generally adopt ad hoc amalgamations of counties to alleviate potential instability of mortality rates involved in deriving life tables, and use conventional life table analysis which takes no account of correlated mortality for adjacent areas or ages. The alternative strategy here uses structured random effects methods that recognize correlations between adjacent ages and areas, and allows retention of the original county boundaries. This strategy generalizes to include effects of area category (e.g. poverty status, ethnic mix), allowing estimation of life tables according to area category, and providing additional stabilization of estimated life table functions. This approach is used here to estimate stabilized mortality rates, derive life expectancies in US counties, and assess trends in clustering and in inequality according to county poverty category.

  14. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  15. Life expectancy after HIV diagnosis based on data from the counseling center for behavioral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Moein, Hassan Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Tayeri, Katayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Predicting life expectancy is an important component of public health, in that, it may affect policy making in fields such as social security and medical care., To estimate the life expectancy and the average years of life lost (AYLL) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-infected population, compared with that of the general population, and also to assess the impact of the CD4 count, risk factors of transmission, marital status, and employment status on life expectancy. Material and Methods: This study is a population-based cohort study. The sample consisted of HIV/AIDS-infected patients receiving care from 2001-2011. The patients were all adults (20-64 years) who were recruited from the Counseling Center of Behavioral Diseases. Life expectancy was measured based on an abridged life table, according to age-specific mortality rates and average years of life lost (AYLL) during the study period. Results: Forty-three of the 205 eligible patients died during 853 person-years follow-up. Compared to the general population, the life expectancy for patients with HIV infection at age 20 is about 36 years less. We have found that out a total of 1597 years of life lost during 2001-2011, compared to an overall AYLL for all HIV/AIDS, the deaths had occurred 36 years earlier than the life expectancy. Conclusion: Life expectancy in HIV/AIDS-infected patients is about 38 years less than that of the general population at the exact age of 20. The deaths caused by HIV/AIDS occurred about 36 years before what was expected in the general population at ages 20-64, and many of these years of life lost could be saved if the health care system was implemented against the risk factors of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24523793

  16. Siblings of Adults With Schizophrenia: Expectations About Future Caregiving Roles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2008-01-01

    Sibling expectations to provide future instrumental or emotional support for a brother or sister with schizophrenia when parents became disabled or died were examined. Data came from a sample of 137 siblings participating in a longitudinal study of aging families of adults with schizophrenia. Early socialization experiences, the quality of the sibling relationship, and personal caregiver gains propel siblings toward a future caregiving role, whereas geographic distance and beliefs about the controllability of psychiatric symptoms reduce expectations of future involvement. PMID:17352582

  17. Rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yasuo; Ju, Young-Su; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2010-02-01

    Japanese life expectancy increased by about 13.7 years during the first decade after World War II, despite the country's post-war poverty. Although it is known that medical progress explains part of this increase, roles of non-medical factors have not been systematically studied. This study hypothesizes that non-medical factors, in addition to medical factors, are associated with the rapid increase in life expectancy in Japan. We analyzed the time trends of potential explanatory factors and used regression analysis with historical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications' Historical Statistics of Japan during the period between 1946 and 1983. Time trends analysis revealed that the rapid increase in life expectancy preceded the dramatic growth of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 10 years. In education, the nearly universal enrollment in elementary schools and increased advancement to upper secondary schools for both sexes were associated with better health. Regarding legislation, 32 health laws were passed in the first decade after the war and these laws were associated with improved health. Using regression analysis, we found that the enrollment rate in elementary schools, the number of health laws, and expansion of community-based activity staff were significantly associated with the increased life expectancy during the first decade after World War II. To conclude, in addition to medical factors, non-medical factors applied across the country, particularly education, community-based activities and legislation were associated with the rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II.

  18. Adults seeking orthodontic treatment: expectations, periodontal and TMD issues.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L; Luther, F

    2015-02-16

    The growth in adult orthodontics presents new challenges to both the general dental practitioner and the orthodontist. Although many of the main objectives of orthodontic treatment are similar for adults, young adults and children, adult patients frequently bring significant challenges in several areas not often seen in the younger patient group. In areas such as planning realistic treatment outcomes, it is paramount that the patient's expectations are identified, respected and managed where appropriate. The adult patient's dental health often dictates deviation from the ideal treatment plan and periodontal problems are a common example. Based on current evidence, this paper presents an overview of some of the difficulties in the management of these issues, as well as highlighting developments with regard to pain conditions and their relevance to orthodontic treatment and its effects on temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) management.

  19. Trends in Life Expectancy and Lifespan Variation by Educational Attainment: United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The educational gradient in life expectancy is well documented in the United States and in other low-mortality countries. Highly educated Americans, on average, live longer than their low-educated counterparts, who have recently seen declines in adult life expectancy. However, limiting the discussion on lifespan inequality to mean differences alone overlooks other dimensions of inequality and particularly disparities in lifespan variation. The latter represents a unique form of inequality, with higher variation translating into greater uncertainty in the time of death from an individual standpoint, and higher group heterogeneity from a population perspective. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System from 1990 to 2010, this is the first study to document trends in both life expectancy and S25--the standard deviation of age at death above 25--by educational attainment. Among low-educated whites, adult life expectancy declined by 3.1 years for women and by 0.6 years for men. At the same time, S25 increased by about 1.5 years among high school-educated whites of both genders, becoming an increasingly important component of total lifespan inequality. By contrast, college-educated whites benefited from rising life expectancy and record low variation in age at death, consistent with the shifting mortality scenario. Among blacks, adult life expectancy increased, and S25 plateaued or declined in nearly all educational attainment groups, although blacks generally lagged behind whites of the same gender on both measures. Documenting trends in lifespan variation can therefore improve our understanding of lifespan inequality and point to diverging trajectories in adult mortality across socioeconomic strata.

  20. Clinical life: expectation and the double edge of medical promise.

    PubMed

    Shim, Janet K; Russ, Ann J; Kaufman, Sharon R

    2007-04-01

    This article introduces the concept of clinical life to capture a form of life produced in the pursuit and wake of medically achieved longevity. Relying on the retrospective accounts of 28 individuals over age 70 who have undergone cardiac bypass surgery, angioplasty or a stent procedure, as well as interviews with their families and with clinicians, we examine three features of clinical life. First, patients do not distinguish between clinical possibility and clinical promise, and thus assume that life can and will be improved by medical intervention in late life. Rather than anticipating a range of potential treatment outcomes, patients therefore expect the best-case scenario: that medical procedures will reverse aging, disease and the march of time. Second, patients then assess the value of their post-procedure lives in accordance with that expectation. Norms regarding what life 'should be like' at particular ages are continually recalibrated to the horizon of what is clinically possible. And third, the price of living longer entails a double-edged relationship with the clinic--it generates opportunities for bodily restoration and increased self-worth but also creates ambivalence about the value of life. This latter feature of clinical life is rarely publicly acknowledged in an environment that emphasizes medical promise.

  1. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2016-04-12

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects' relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects.

  2. Tropics, Income, and School Life Expectancy: An Intercountry Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Rati

    1999-01-01

    Using UNESCO's recent data, explores effects of a country's income and "tropicality" on school life expectancy. Although income's effect is important, distance from the equator also matters. Effects of tropicality were larger in 1980 than in 1992. Implications are discussed. (13 references) (MLH)

  3. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  4. Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

  5. Life Expectancy after Myocardial Infarction by Hospital Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bucholz, Emily M.; Butala, Neel M.; Ma, Shuangge; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thirty-day risk-standardized mortality rates after acute myocardial infarction are commonly used to evaluate and compare hospital performance. However, it is not known whether differences between hospitals in early patient survival are associated with differences in long-term survival. Methods We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction between 1994-96 with 17 years of follow-up. We grouped hospitals into five strata based on case-mix severity. Within each case-mix stratum, we compared life expectancy in patients admitted to high and low-performing hospitals, as defined by quintiles of thirty-day risk-standardized mortality rates. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate life expectancy. Results The study sample included 119,735 patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 1,824 hospitals. Within each case-mix stratum, survival curves for patients admitted to hospitals in each risk-standardized mortality rate quintile separated within the first 30 days and then remained parallel over 17 years of follow-up. Estimated life expectancy declined as hospital risk-standardized mortality rate quintile increased. On average, patients treated at high-performing hospitals lived between 1.14 and 0.84 years longer than patients treated at low-performing hospitals, depending on hospital case-mix. When 30-day survivors were examined separately, there was no difference in unadjusted or adjusted life expectancy across hospital risk-standardized mortality rate quintiles. Conclusion Patients admitted to high-performing hospitals after acute myocardial infarction had longer life expectancies than patients treated in low-performing hospitals. This survival benefit arose in the first 30 days and persisted over the long term. PMID:27705249

  6. Democratization and life expectancy in Europe, 1960-2008.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Hu, Yannan; Looman, Caspar W N

    2013-09-01

    Over the past five decades, two successive waves of political reform have brought democracy to, first, Spain, Portugal and Greece, and, more recently, Central and Eastern European countries. We assessed whether democratization was associated with improvements in population health, as indicated by life expectancy and cause-specific mortality rates. Data on life expectancy at birth, age-standardized total and cause-specific mortality rates, levels of democracy and potential time-variant confounding variables were collected from harmonized international databanks. In two pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses with country-fixed effects, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality were regressed on measures of current and cumulative democracy, controlling for confounders. A first analysis covered the 1960-1990 period, a second covered the 1987-2008 period. In the 1960-1990 period, current democracy was more strongly associated with higher life expectancy than cumulative democracy. The positive effects of current democracy on total mortality were mediated mainly by lower mortality from heart disease, pneumonia, liver cirrhosis, and suicide. In the 1987-2008 period, however, current democracy was associated with lower, and cumulative democracy with higher life expectancy, particularly among men. The positive effects of cumulative democracy on total mortality were mediated mainly by lower mortality from circulatory diseases, cancer of the breast, and external causes. Current democracy was associated with higher mortality from motor vehicle accidents in both periods, and also with higher mortality from cancer and all external causes in the second. Our results suggest that in Europe during these two periods democratization has had mixed effects. That short-term changes in levels of democracy had positive effects in the first but not in the second period is probably due to the fact that democratization in Central and Eastern Europe was part of a complete system change

  7. The maximum life expectancy for a micro-fabricated diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan; Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Popa, Viorica

    2015-02-01

    Micro-fabricated diaphragms can be used to provide pumping action in microvalve and microfluidic applications. The functionality of the microdiaphragm in a wirelessly actuated micropump plays a major role in low-powered device actuation. In developing micropumps and their components, it is becoming an increasing trend to predict the performance before the prototype is fabricated. Because performance prediction allows for an accurate estimation of yield and lifetime, in addition to developing better understanding of the device while taking into account the details of the device structure and second order effects. Hence avoid potential pitfalls in the device operation in a practical environment. The goal of this research is to determine via FEA the life expectancy for a corrugated circular diaphragm made out of an aluminum alloy. The geometry of the diaphragm is given below being generated within SolidWorks 2010, all the calculations were made using Ansys 13TM . The sound design of a micropump is heavily depending on the lifetime expectancy of the working part of the device which is the diaphragm. This will be subjected on cyclic loading and the fatigue will limit the life of this part. Once the diaphragm is breaking, the micropump is no more able to fulfill its scope. Any micropump manufacturer will then be very concerned on the life expectancy from the fatigue point of view of the diaphragms. The diaphragm circular and corrugated and made of Al alloy, showed a very good behavior from the fatigue point of view, the maximum life expectancy being 1.9 years of continuous functioning with 100 cycles per second. This work showed an simple and forward application of FEA analysis methods in order to estimate the fatigue behavior of corrugated circular microdiaphragms.

  8. What happened to life expectancy in Spain in the 1980s?

    PubMed Central

    Chenet, L; McKee, M; Otero, A; Ausin, I

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Life expectancy at birth in Spain improved between 1972 and 1982, by 2.5 years for males and 3.2 years for females. This slowed considerably in the following decade, with increases of only 0.5 and 1.7 years respectively. OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes of death that have been responsible for the failure by Spain to maintain in the 1980s and 1990s the rate of improvement in life expectancy seen during the 1970s. DESIGN: Data from WHO mortality tapes grouped in a series of clinically meaningful categories were used to calculate the contribution of each category, in five year age groups, to the changing life expectancy at birth in the two periods. SETTING: Spain. RESULTS: The trend in life expectancy at birth in Spain over this 20 year period can be considered to have two components, both with important consequences for public health policy. Underlying trends include a steady negative contribution from respiratory cancer in men and a reduction in cardiovascular disease. More recent trends include a considerable deterioration in deaths among young adults, most notably from accidents and, possibly, AIDS. CONCLUSION: The failure to maintain the rate of earlier gains in life expectancy in Spain can be attributed largely to a few conditions, although these may indicate less obvious underlying problems. These findings have important consequences for prioritising public health policies. PMID:9425460

  9. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease.

  10. Bayesian probabilistic projections of life expectancy for all countries.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Adrian E; Chunn, Jennifer L; Gerland, Patrick; Sevčíková, Hana

    2013-06-01

    We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for producing probabilistic forecasts of male period life expectancy at birth for all the countries of the world to 2100. Such forecasts would be an input to the production of probabilistic population projections for all countries, which is currently being considered by the United Nations. To evaluate the method, we conducted an out-of-sample cross-validation experiment, fitting the model to the data from 1950-1995 and using the estimated model to forecast for the subsequent 10 years. The 10-year predictions had a mean absolute error of about 1 year, about 40 % less than the current UN methodology. The probabilistic forecasts were calibrated in the sense that, for example, the 80 % prediction intervals contained the truth about 80 % of the time. We illustrate our method with results from Madagascar (a typical country with steadily improving life expectancy), Latvia (a country that has had a mortality crisis), and Japan (a leading country). We also show aggregated results for South Asia, a region with eight countries. Free, publicly available R software packages called bayesLife and bayesDem are available to implement the method.

  11. Prediction of life expectancy in patients with spinal epidural metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Ronald H.M.A.; de Ruiter, Godard; Feuth, Ton; Arts, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment of spinal epidural metastasis is multidisciplinary and usually involves a team of medical oncologists, radiologists, radiotherapists, and spinal surgeons. Life expectancy is one of the factors considered when deciding whether surgery is warranted. Because expert estimates of life expectancy are generally not reliable, a prediction model is needed. Here, we temporally validated a model that was previously validated geographically. Methods The records of 110 consecutive patients who were referred with a spinal epidural metastasis were collected prospectively from 2009 to 2013 in order to validate the model, which was published in 2011. The actual and estimated life expectancies were represented graphically, and calibration and discrimination were determined. The calibration slope, Harrell's c-index, D, and RD2 were calculated. Hazard ratios in the derivation set of 2011 were compared with the validation set. Misspecification was determined using the joint test for β*. Results The calibration slope was 0.64 ± 0.15 (95% CI: 0.34–0.94), Harrell's c-index was 0.72, D was 1.08, and RD2 was 0.22, indicating slightly worse discrimination in the derivation set. The joint test for β* = 0 was statistically significant and indicated misspecification; however, this misspecification was attributed entirely to the surgical group. Conclusions We validated a prediction model for surgical decision making, showing that the model's overall performance is good. Based on these results, this model will help clinicians to decide whether to offer surgery to patients with spinal epidural metastasis. PMID:26254478

  12. Life Expectancy and its Socioeconomic Determinants in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Delavari, Somayeh; Zandian, Hamed; Rezaei, Satar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Delavari, Sajad; Saber, Ali; Fallah, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Life expectancy at birth (LEB) is closely associated with the degree of economic and social development in developed and developing countries. This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic factors affecting LEB in Iran from 1985 to 2013. Methods Time series analysis was used to examine the effects of key explanatory factors (GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 population, degree of urbanization, food availability, CO2 emission, total fertility rate, inflation rate, and literacy rate) on LEB in Iran from 1985 to 2013. Study data were retrieved from the Central Bank of Iran (CBI), Iranian Statistical Center (ISC), and World Bank. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Banergy, Dolado, and Master (BDM) tests, Engle Granger approach, and an ordinary least-square (OLS) model were used to achieve the aim of the study. Data analysis was performed by Stata V.12 software. Results Our findings indicated that GDP per capita (p=0.003), number of doctors per 10,000 population (p=0.036), literacy rate (p=0.0001), and food availability (p=0.0001) have a positive and significant statistically effect on LEB. The relationship between total fertility rate and LEB was negative and significant (p=0.023). In addition, the effect of degree urbanization (p=0.811), CO2 emission (p=0.185), and inflation rate (p=0.579) on LEB were not significant. Conclusion GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 population, food availability, literacy rate, and total fertility were identified as the main factors affecting life expectancy in Iran. The study, however, suggests that life expectancy in Iran could be improved if attention is given to factors that reside outside of the health sector. PMID:27957304

  13. Heart Rate, Life Expectancy and the Cardiovascular System: Therapeutic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Borer, Jeffrey S; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that life span is inversely related to resting heart rate in most organisms. This association between heart rate and survival has been attributed to the metabolic rate, which is greater in smaller animals and is directly associated with heart rate. Studies have shown that heart rate is related to survival in apparently healthy individuals and in patients with different underlying cardiovascular diseases. A decrease in heart rate due to therapeutic interventions may result in an increase in survival. However, there are many factors regulating heart rate, and it is quite plausible that these may independently affect life expectancy. Nonetheless, a fast heart rate itself affects the cardiovascular system in multiple ways (it increases ventricular work, myocardial oxygen consumption, endothelial stress, aortic/arterial stiffness, decreases myocardial oxygen supply, other) which, in turn, may affect survival. In this brief review, the effects of heart rate on the heart, arterial system and survival will be discussed.

  14. A Unifying Framework for Assessing Changes in Life Expectancy Associated with Changes in Mortality: The Case of Violent Deaths*

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir

    2011-01-01

    For over forty years, demographers have worked intensely to develop methods that assess the gain in life expectancy from a reduction in mortality, either hypothetical or observed. This considerable body of research was motivated by assessing the gains in life expectancy when mortality declined in a particular manner and determining the contribution of a cause of death in observed changes in life expectancy over time. As yet, there has been no framework unifying this important demographic work. In this paper, we provide a unifying framework for assessing the change in life expectancy given a change in age and cause-specific mortality. We consider both conceptualizations of mortality change–counterfactual assessment of a hypothetical change and a retrospective assessment of an observed change. We apply our methodology to violent deaths, the leading cause of death among young adults, and show that realistic targeted reductions could have important impacts on life expectancy. PMID:21609727

  15. The Exceptionally High Life Expectancy of Costa Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Robust data from a voter registry show that Costa Rican nonagenarians have an exceptionally high live expectancy. Mortality at age 90 in Costa Rica is at least 14% lower than an average of 13 high-income countries. This advantage increases with age by 1% per year. Males have an additional 12% advantage. Age-90 life expectancy for males is 4.4 years, one-half year more than any other country in the world. These estimates do not use problematic data on reported ages, but ages are computed from birth dates in the Costa Rican birth-registration ledgers. Census data confirm the exceptionally high survival of elderly Costa Ricans, especially males. Comparisons with the United States and Sweden show that the Costa Rican advantage comes mostly from reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, coupled with a low prevalence of obesity, as the only available explanatory risk factor. Costa Rican nonagenarians are survivors of cohorts that underwent extremely harsh health conditions when young, and their advantage might be just a heterogeneity in frailty effect that might disappear in more recent cohorts. The availability of reliable estimates for the oldest-old in low-income populations is extremely rare. These results may enlighten the debate over how harsh early-life health conditions affect older-age mortality. PMID:18939667

  16. Gender differences in life expectancy among kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J

    1985-01-01

    A literature review of findings reveals that the life expectancy (LE) of females is longer than that of males and that a strong relationship exists between LE and gender differences in LE. The arguments of biological vs societal reasons for such gender differences are presented and the kibbutz society is offered as a setting to test the rivaling hypotheses. It is argued that the kibbutz society offers more similar roles for both genders than outside the kibbutz and therefore the gender differences in LE should be reduced in comparison to what is expected, given the very high LE of kibbutz members. Statistical data of the kibbutz population between the years 1975-1980 are analyzed and the results support the following conclusions: female members have higher LE but the difference is much less than expected on the basis of a regression analysis of data from 73 societies; the difference is smaller due to the relatively higher gain in LE by males; the gender differences are even smaller at age 50 compared to LE differences at birth. The Discussion section dwells upon interpretations of the findings and argues against alternative interpretations that assume selection processes for the kibbutz population. Suggestions for further studies are also made.

  17. Resolving the life cycle alters expected impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Buckley, Lauren B; Keitt, Timothy H; Smith, Colton D; Boateng, Kwasi O; Kumar, Davina S; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-08-22

    Recent models predict contrasting impacts of climate change on tropical and temperate species, but these models ignore how environmental stress and organismal tolerance change during the life cycle. For example, geographical ranges and extinction risks have been inferred from thermal constraints on activity during the adult stage. Yet, most animals pass through a sessile embryonic stage before reaching adulthood, making them more susceptible to warming climates than current models would suggest. By projecting microclimates at high spatio-temporal resolution and measuring thermal tolerances of embryos, we developed a life cycle model of population dynamics for North American lizards. Our analyses show that previous models dramatically underestimate the demographic impacts of climate change. A predicted loss of fitness in 2% of the USA by 2100 became 35% when considering embryonic performance in response to hourly fluctuations in soil temperature. Most lethal events would have been overlooked if we had ignored thermal stress during embryonic development or had averaged temperatures over time. Therefore, accurate forecasts require detailed knowledge of environmental conditions and thermal tolerances throughout the life cycle.

  18. Life expectancy and life expectancy with disability of normal weight, overweight, and obese smokers and nonsmokers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Majer, Istvan M; Nusselder, Wilma J; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kunst, Anton E

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate life expectancy (LE) and LE with disability (LwD) among normal weight, overweight, and obese smokers and nonsmokers in Western Europe. Data from four waves (1998-2001) of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) were used; a standardized multipurpose annual longitudinal survey. Self-reported health and socioeconomic information was collected repeatedly using uniform questionnaires for 66,331 individuals in nine countries. Health status was measured in terms of disability in daily activities. Multistate Markov (MSM) models were applied to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) and age-specific transition rates according to BMI and smoking status. Multistate life tables were computed using the predicted transition probabilities to estimate LE and LwD. Significant associations were observed between disability incidence and BMI (HR = 1.15 for overweight, HR = 1.64 for obese, compared to normal weight). The risk of mortality was negatively associated with overweight status among disabled (HR = 0.77). Overweight people had higher LE than people with normal-weight and obesity. Among women, overweight and obese nonsmokers expect 3.6 and 6.1 more years of LwD than normal weight persons, respectively. In contrast, daily smokers expect lower LE but a similar LwD. The same patterns were observed among people with high education and those with low education. To conclude, daily smoking is associated with mortality more than with disability, whereas obesity is associated with disability more than with mortality. The findings suggest that further tobacco control would contribute to increasing LE, while tackling the obesity epidemic is necessary to prevent an expansion of disability.

  19. Work, Love, and Learning in Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Clark, M. Carolyn

    To understand how work, love, and learning are interrelated in adults' lives, data were collected in two ways: through a life-history type instrument and through in-depth interviews with 19 men and women. A life event framework was chosen to illustrate the broad constructs of work and love. Respondents identified in two columns major life events…

  20. Facts of life for adults.

    PubMed

    Paxman, J M

    1991-04-01

    The editorial commentary reflects the desire for openness in providing contraceptive services for adolescents, rather than pretending that the emperor has new clothes. The simile is used to expose the coverup intended by adults who desire adolescent sexual behavior that does not exist. Examples of 4 European countries, (Sweden, Netherlands, France, and England and Wales) who support contraceptive use for teenagers are given. Lessons can be learned from these countries which have a 3 times lower teenage pregnancy rate than the US. In the Netherlands contraceptives are used by 90% of sexually active teenagers. The birth rate of 14/1000 and the abortion rate of 10/1000 is the lowest of the 4 countries. Swedish contraceptive, birth, and abortion rates are similar, but the age of the 1st sexual experience is the earliest. England and Wales has a similar contraception rate but the birth rate is also 45/1000 and the abortion rate is slightly higher. All countries provide teenage contraceptive services free or at low cost as well as sex education. The debate over contraception in other countries links access to sexual activity, when the facts of life are that teenagers become sexually active before contraception. In Sweden to curb abortions, contraception was increased between 1974-1981 with a concomitant decline of 27% in the abortion rate. In the US, it rose 59%. The experience of all 4 countries has been to reduce abortion, but still provide access to abortion services. The formula for successful management of teenage sexuality such as sex education, low cost contraceptive services, and access to early safe abortion services may not meet the needs of the AIDS pandemic. Many questions arise and Europe may provide the answers.

  1. The New Demographic Transition: Most Gains in Life Expectancy Now Realized Late in Life

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Karen N.; Fuchs, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    The share of increases in life expectancy realized after age 65 was only about 20 percent at the beginning of the 20th century for the US and 16 other countries at comparable stages of development; but that share was close to 80 percent by the dawn of the 21st century, and is almost certainly approaching 100 percent asymptotically. This new demographic transition portends a diminished survival effect on working life. For high-income countries at the forefront of the longevity transition, expected lifetime labor force participation as a percent of life expectancy is declining. Innovative policies are needed if societies wish to preserve a positive relationship running from increasing longevity to greater prosperity. PMID:25076810

  2. Life Satisfaction in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crom, Deborah B.; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, life-long deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors’ physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggests some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population–based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t-tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors’ general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. PMID:25027187

  3. Educational and Sex Differentials in Life Expectancies and Disability-Free Life Expectancies in São Paulo, Brazil, and Urban Areas in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate transition probabilities between disability states, total life expectancy, and the latter’s decomposition into years spent disabled and disability-free by age, sex and education among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico. Methods Applied a micro-simulation method (Interpolative Markov Chains) using longitudinal data. Results We found large between-country educational differences in incidence of and recovery from disability with higher rates in Mexico than in São Paulo, but no differences in mortality. Older adults in Mexico spent longer time being disability-free than in São Paulo for both levels of education. Males and females in São Paulo spent a larger fraction of their remaining life disabled at every age than their counterparts in urban areas in Mexico. Discussion There were educational differences in the prevalence of disability in São Paulo and urban areas in Mexico, and significant educational differences in disability incidence and recovery across sites. PMID:23781016

  4. Remaining Life Expectancy Measurement and PSA Screening of Older Men.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Mohile, Supriya G; Dale, William

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend informed decision-making regarding prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for men with at least 10 years of remaining life expectancy (RLE). Comorbidity measures have been used to judge RLE in previous studies, but assessments based on other common RLE measures are unknown. We assessed whether screening rates varied based on four clinically relevant RLE measures, including comorbidities, in a nationally-representative, community-based sample. METHODS: Using the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), we selected men over 65 without prostate cancer (n=709). They were stratified into three RLE categories (0-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13+ years) based on validated measures of comorbidities, self-rated health status, functional status, and physical performance. The independent relationship of each RLE measure and a combined measure to screening was determined using multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Self-rated health (OR = 6.82; p < 0.01) most closely correlated with RLE-based screening, while the comorbidity index correlated the least (OR = 1.50; p = 0.09). The relationship of RLE to PSA screening significantly strengthened when controlling for the number of doctor visits, particularly for comorbidities (OR= 43.6; p < 0.001). Men who had consistent estimates of less than 7 years RLE by all four measures had an adjusted PSA screening rate of 43.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the RLE measure used, men who were estimated to have limited RLE had significant PSA screening rates. However, different RLE measures have different correlations with PSA screening. Specific estimates of over-screening should therefore carefully consider the RLE measure used.

  5. Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, R; McGale, P; Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Peto, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life. Design The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950. Setting Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants Smoking status for 27 311 men and 40 662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed. Main outcome measures Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers. Results Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it. Conclusions The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35. PMID:23100333

  6. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population.

  7. Adding years to life: effect of avoidable mortality on life expectancy at birth.

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, F G; Orts, R; Pérez, S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the number of years that could be gained by preventing avoidable deaths. DESIGN--The study arose from the concept of avoidable causes of death and life expectancy at birth. Four abbreviated life tables were computed. The first included all causes of death; the second excluded all avoidable causes of death; the third and fourth excluded respectively primary and secondary avoidable causes of death. SETTING--Mortality and population data were taken from Mortality Statistics Offices in Valencia Region, Spain. MAIN RESULTS--Life expectancy at birth (LEB) was 75.7 years. After removing all avoidable deaths, LEB increased by 1.74 years. This improvement is attributed to avoidable deaths by primary prevention (1.09 years) and avoidable death by secondary prevention (0.37 year). CONCLUSIONS--According to these results the greatest improvement in LEB would be gained by primary prevention. PMID:1431715

  8. Years off your life? The effects of homicide on life expectancy by neighborhood and race/ethnicity in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Redelings, Matthew; Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001-2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates for Los Angeles County. Cause elimination techniques were used to estimate the impact of homicide on life expectancy. Homicide was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 0.4 years for Los Angeles County residents and by 2.1 years for black males. The impact of homicide on life expectancy was higher in low-income neighborhoods. In some low-income urban neighborhoods, homicide was estimated to decrease life expectancy in black males by nearly 5 years. Homicide causes substantial reductions in life expectancy in Los Angeles County. Its impact is magnified among black males and in low-income urban areas, underscoring the need for homicide reduction in urban centers.

  9. Andragogical Characteristics and Expectations of University of Hawai'i Adult Learners in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which andragogical characteristics and expectations of adult learners manifested themselves in the three-dimensional, multi-user virtual environment known as Second Life. This digital ethnographic study focused specifically on adult students within the University of Hawai'i Second Life group and their…

  10. Long life expectancy of alkaline fuel cells in hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kordesch, K.; Gsellmann, J.; Aronson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    The alkaline Hydrogen-Air fuel cell system with circulating KOH-electrolyte and low-cost catalyzed carbon electrodes has a simple design and a good efficiency (high voltage). With new electrodes current densities of 200 to 300 mA/cm 2 are expected with air operation at 80 o C. The Austin A-40 City Car Hybrid vehicle which K. Kordesch operated on public roads for 3 years, demonstrated already in the early 1970s that the useful life of the alkaline system with circulating electrolyte can be increased by completely shutting down the fuel cell part of an AFC-lead-acid battery hybrid system. In this way, only the operating hours during driving time of the vehicle are counting and the electrode deterioration processes going on at open circuit (e.g. carbon oxidation, deep wetting of the electrode interface, parasitic current phenomena, etc.) are reduced. Like with a combustion engine, 3000--4000 actual operating hours are what are required for 200.000 km driving. The stacks, which use low-cost modular cell units, could be replaced after that. Another objective is to lower the fuel cell system cost on a mass production scale to the range of $ 100 to 150 per kW, which is then competitive with car engines, which cost only $ 50 to 75 per kW. No other fuel cell system could even approach such cost estimates. For reasons demanded by space requirements the historic development of AFC's shifted to matrix AFC systems. However, for terrestrial applications the use of circulation systems is more advantageous for thermal and water management. Jet pumps are usable for providing a load-dependent gas circulation. The exchangeability of the KOH makes it possible to operate on air with a less than complete removal of the CO{sub 2}. Cell reversal of series-connected cells, a frequent failure mode during shut-down and starting, is one of the main causes for the short life of electrodes in a high voltage stack. It can be prevented by a parallel, potential providing circuit.

  11. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  12. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  13. Adult education and the quality of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijnman, Albert

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complementary role of adult education in influencing people's objective and subjective quality of life. The analytical strategy used to achieve this end is to estimate parameters in a path model which includes both objective indicators such as occupational status and earned income, and subjective indicators such as job satisfaction and perceived personal wellbeing. The investigation builds on Swedish data and employs the LISREL method in the fitting of the model to the data. The results indicate that adult education positively influences objective indicators of the quality of life. Even though adult education is found to relate to measures of perceived personal wellbeing, the hypothesis that it also influences the way men assess their life situation and evaluate their subjective quality of life cannot be confirmed.

  14. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia:Squamata:Varanidae) in North American zoos.

    PubMed

    Mendyk, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In zoos, life expectancy-the average lifespan of individuals within a population, and longevity-the maximum lifespan within a population, can be useful parameters for evaluating captive husbandry and animal welfare. Using life history and demographic data derived from regional studbooks, this study examined life expectancy and longevity in a total of 782 wild-caught (WC) and captive-bred (CB) varanid lizards of seven species maintained in North American zoos since 1926. The average lifespans for WC and CB animals were 6.3 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.4 years, respectively, with CB males living significantly longer than females (P = 0.009). A total of 26.4% of WC and 22.5% of CB animals experienced mortality during their first 2 years in captivity, with mortality during this period greatest among Varanus rudicollis and V. prasinus. A positive correlation was observed between life expectancy and adult body mass in captive-bred individuals (r = 0.981; P = 0.002). Wild-caught females with a history of successful reproduction had a significantly greater average lifespan than non-reproducing females (P < 0.0001). Results from this study suggest that varanids have not been reaching their lifespan capacities in North American zoos. In light of these findings, several husbandry-related factors which may be affecting the welfare and lifespans of varanids in zoos are identified and discussed. This study also highlights the utility of demographic and life history data in captive animal management, and offers a general framework for future herpetological studies of a similar nature.

  15. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  16. Social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of economic crisis (1993–2010) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea. PMID:23171369

  17. Life Expectancies in Hawai‘i: A Multi-ethnic Analysis of 2010 Life Tables

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn; Onaka, Alvin T; Horiuchi, Brian Y; Tottori, Caryn J; Wilkens, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine longevity disparities in Hawai‘i by race/ethnicity and gender based on age-specific death rates in 2010. Abridged life tables for Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawai‘i are presented for the age groups: <1, 1–4, every 5-year interval from 5–84, and 85+ years for the year of 2010. Death data were provided by the Hawai‘i Department of Health Office of Health Status Monitoring, and population data were based on 2010 Census modified based on ethnicity estimates from the Hawai‘i Health Survey. Life expectancy at birth in Hawai‘i has increased consistently from 69.5 years in 1950 to 82.4 years in 2010. Longevity disparities seen in past decades continue to persist between the longest-living groups, Japanese and Chinese, and the shortest-living group, Native Hawaiians, with a gap of approximately 10 years. In addition, females lived 6 years longer than males on average. Racial/ethnic disparities in longevity can be partially explained by differences in socioeconomic status, health behaviors, health care access, and racism. Native Hawaiians continue to have the shortest life expectancy of the ethnic groups examined, requiring expanded efforts to address Native Hawaiian health across the life course. Our findings also support more ethnic-specific research to understand the health care needs and utilization patterns of each group. PMID:28090398

  18. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Life Expectancy in an Elderly Population in Beijing, China, 1992–2000: An 8-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaobing; Tang, Zhe; Jiang, Jingmei; Fang, Xianghua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Han, Wei; Guan, Shaochen; Liu, Hongjun; Diao, Lijun; Sun, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on life expectancy and active life expectancy among persons aged 55 years or older in Beijing. Methods This study included 1593 men and 1664 women who participated in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging, which commenced in 1992 and had 4 survey waves up to year 2000. An abridged life table was used to estimate life expectancy, in which age-specific mortality and age-specific disability rates were adjusted by using a discrete-time hazard model to control confounders. Results The mean ages (SD) for men and women were 70.1 (9.25) and 70.2 (8.72) years, respectively; mortality and disability rates during follow-up were 34.7% and 8.0%, respectively. In both sexes, never smokers had the highest life expectancy and active life expectancy across ages, as compared with current and former smokers. Current heavy smokers had a shorter life expectancy and a shorter active life expectancy than light smokers. Among former smokers, male long-term quitters had a longer life expectancy and longer active life expectancy than short-term quitters, but this was not the case in women. Conclusions Older adults remain at higher risk of mortality and morbidity from smoking and can expect to live a longer and healthier life after smoking cessation. PMID:21747208

  19. A Second Look at "School-Life Expectancy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barakat, Bilal Fouad

    2012-01-01

    The number of years a child of school-entry age can expect to remain in school is of great interest both as a measure of individual human capital and of the performance of an education system. An approximate indicator of this concept is the sum of age-specific enrolment rates. The relatively low data demands of this indicator that are feasible to…

  20. An economic analysis of life expectancy by gender with application to the United States.

    PubMed

    Leung, Michael C M; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Junsen

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an economic model to explain the behavior of life expectancy of both sexes. It explicitly examines the relationship between the gender gap in life expectancy and the gender gap in pay. It shows that as the latter narrows over the course of economic development, the former may initially expand but will eventually shrink. Simulation results from our model accord with the behavior of life expectancy for both sexes since the 1940s in the United States.

  1. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  2. Quality of Life in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedoot, Caroline; Bouwmans, Clazien; Franken, Marie-Christine; Stolk, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to explore to what extent QoL is impaired in adults who stutter (AWS). In…

  3. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  4. The gap gets bigger: changes in mortality and life expectancy, by education, 1981-2000.

    PubMed

    Meara, Ellen R; Richards, Seth; Cutler, David M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine educational disparities in mortality and life expectancy among non-Hispanic blacks and whites in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite increased attention and substantial dollars directed to groups with low socioeconomic status, within race and gender groups, the educational gap in life expectancy is rising, mainly because of rising differentials among the elderly. With the exception of black males, all recent gains in life expectancy at age twenty-five have occurred among better-educated groups, raising educational differentials in life expectancy by 30 percent. Differential trends in smoking-related diseases explain at least 20 percent of this trend.

  5. Developing Community Expectations: The Critical Role of Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David; Miller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life in a community is directly tied to the capital available to its citizenry. The idea of capital refers to the resources related to the population--the wealth, the open-minded nature of individuals, the potential for jobs, and putting skills and talents to use to earn a living. There have been a wide range of studies and efforts…

  6. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    PubMed

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering.

  7. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  8. Differences in life expectancy due to race and educational differences are widening, and many may not catch up.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, S Jay; Antonucci, Toni; Berkman, Lisa; Binstock, Robert H; Boersch-Supan, Axel; Cacioppo, John T; Carnes, Bruce A; Carstensen, Laura L; Fried, Linda P; Goldman, Dana P; Jackson, James; Kohli, Martin; Rother, John; Zheng, Yuhui; Rowe, John

    2012-08-01

    It has long been known that despite well-documented improvements in longevity for most Americans, alarming disparities persist among racial groups and between the well-educated and those with less education. In this article we update estimates of the impact of race and education on past and present life expectancy, examine trends in disparities from 1990 through 2008, and place observed disparities in the context of a rapidly aging society that is emerging at a time of optimism about the next revolution in longevity. We found that in 2008 US adult men and women with fewer than twelve years of education had life expectancies not much better than those of all adults in the 1950s and 1960s. When race and education are combined, the disparity is even more striking. In 2008 white US men and women with 16 years or more of schooling had life expectancies far greater than black Americans with fewer than 12 years of education-14.2 years more for white men than black men, and 10.3 years more for white women than black women. These gaps have widened over time and have led to at least two "Americas," if not multiple others, in terms of life expectancy, demarcated by level of education and racial-group membership. The message for policy makers is clear: implement educational enhancements at young, middle, and older ages for people of all races, to reduce the large gap in health and longevity that persists today.

  9. Mortality ratios and life expectancy in X chromatin positive males.

    PubMed Central

    Price, W H; Clayton, J F; Collyer, S; de Mey, R

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective study of 466 X chromatin positive males an increase in mortality of about 50% has been observed. The increase is associated with a loss of about five years in life span. There is no convincing evidence that the increase is concentrated at any particular age group but this possibility could not be excluded. No effect of mode of ascertainment could be demonstrated. From this study we conclude that it is likely that the mortality experienced by chromatin positive males in general is at least 115% of that experienced by normal men and could be more than 200%. PMID:4039353

  10. Reduction of social inequalities in life expectancy in a city of Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around the world the life expectancy at birth has risen steadily over time. However, this increase in life years is not equally distributed among different social segments of the population. Studies have demonstrated that social groups living in deprived areas have a shorter life expectancy at birth in comparison to affluent ones. The aim of this study was to evaluate inequalities in life expectancy by socioeconomic strata in a city with one million inhabitants in Southeastern Brazil, in 2000 and 2005. Methods Through an ecological approach, the 49 areas of health care units of the city were classified into three socioeconomic strata, defined according to variables of income and educational level of the heads of household obtained from the 2000 Census. Life tables were constructed by sex for each of the three socioeconomic strata in 2000 and 2005. Results The life expectancy at birth for men and women living in poor areas was 6.9 and 5.5 years lower in comparison to the affluent ones in 2000. Between 2000 and 2005, these social inequalities in life expectancy at birth reduced, since the groups with lower socioeconomic level had gained more life years. The increase in life expectancy at birth experienced by areas with worse living conditions was 3 times higher than the increment estimated for prosperous areas for both sexes. Males had the greatest gain in life years, leading to a narrowing of gender differentials in life expectancy between 2000 and 2005. Conclusions The reduction of social inequalities in life expectancy suggests that living and health conditions have improved over time, due to social and health policies. The expansion of both health care coverage and cash transfer policies could have had positive effects on mortality reduction and on the consequent increase in the life expectancy, especially for the poor population. PMID:21871100

  11. People with Intellectual Disability: What Do We Know about Adulthood and Life Expectancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppus, A. M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the life expectancy of people with Intellectual Disability have followed similar trends to those found in the general population. With the exception of people with severe and multiple disabilities or Down syndrome, the life expectancy of this group now closely approximates with that of the general population. Middle and old age, which…

  12. Effects of Premature Parental Death on Subjective Life Expectancy, Death Anxiety, and Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denes-Raj, Veronika; Ehrlichman, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Subjective life expectancy, death anxiety, and health behavior were assessed in college students (n=36) with at least one parent who died prematurely of illness (PD group) and students (n=36) with both parents alive (PA group). PD group estimated their life expectancy to be shorter than the PA; subgroup of PD reported poorer diet. (Author/ABL)

  13. Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Maternal Mortality Declines. NBER Working Paper No. 13947

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayachandran, Seema; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Longer life expectancy should encourage human capital accumulation, since a longer time horizon increases the value of investments that pay out over time. Previous work has been unable to determine the empirical importance of this life-expectancy effect due to the difficulty of isolating it from other effects of health on education. We examine a…

  14. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  15. [Healthy life expectancy in older adults with social security].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ábrego, Gabriela; Ramírez-Sánchez, Teresita Jesús; Torres-Cosme, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: El envejecimiento poblacional incrementa la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas. Esta morbilidad incide en los niveles de mortalidad relativamente altos y tiene efectos discapacitantes. Los indicadores clásicos de salud —esperanza de vida al nacer y tasa bruta de mortalidad— se complementan con la esperanza de vida libre de discapacidad (EVLD), cuya ventaja es la estandarización de los conceptos, las fuentes de información y los métodos de cálculo. En esta investigación se estima la esperanza de vida saludable en población adulta mayor con seguridad social en México. MÉTODOS: la esperanza de vida se estimó a partir del análisis de la mortalidad y construcción de tablas de vida de la población derechohabiente del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se utilizó el método de Chiang y se modificó la tabla de vida ajustada por la prevalencia de discapacidad mediante el método de Sullivan. Se resaltó el análisis de la esperanza de vida saludable, esperanza de vida libre de discapacidad y esperanza de vida con discapacidad en el adulto mayor.

  16. Effects of context expectation on prospective memory performance among older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, Terrence K; Reese-Melancon, Celinda

    2017-01-01

    This experiment examined the impact of context expectation on prospective memory (PM) performance among older and younger adults. Participants responded to PM target words embedded in an ongoing lexical decision task (LDT). Older and younger adults performed similarly on the PM task. Regardless of age, PM was significantly better for participants in the correct context expectation condition and significantly worse in the incorrect context expectation condition relative to participants who held no expectations about the context in which targets would appear. Participants' LDT response latencies were used to assess cost of the PM task to the ongoing task. Latencies were discernibly longer in the LDT block where the PM targets were expected compared to the block where they were not expected. The findings provide new information about how context can be used to support PM aging and suggest that contextual information can be equally beneficial for older and younger adults.

  17. Qualitative analysis of young adult ENDS users' expectations and experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Despite extensive research into the determinants of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) uptake, few studies have examined the psychosocial benefits ENDS users seek and experience. Using a consumer ritual framework, we explored how ENDS users recreated or replaced smoking practices, and considered implications for smoking cessation. Design In-depth interviews; data analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 16 young adult ENDS users (age M=21.4, SD=1.9; 44% female). Results Participants reported using different ENDS to achieve varying outcomes. Some used ‘cigalikes’ to recreate a physically and visually similar experience to smoking; they privileged device appearance over nicotine delivery. In contrast, others used personally crafted mods to develop new rituals that differentiated them from smokers and showcased their technical expertise. Irrespective of the device they used, several former smokers and dual users of cigarettes and ENDS experienced strong nostalgia for smoking attributes, particularly the elemental appeal of fire and the finiteness of a cigarette. Non-smoking participants used ENDS to maintain social connections with their peers. Conclusions Participants used ENDS to construct rituals that recreated or replaced smoking attributes, and that varied in the emphasis given to device appearance, nicotine delivery, and social performance. Identifying how ENDS users create new rituals and the components they privilege within these could help promote full transition from smoking to ENDS and identify those at greatest risk of dual use or relapse to cigarette smoking. PMID:28270392

  18. Quality of life in short adults.

    PubMed

    Busschbach, J J; Rikken, B; Grobbee, D E; De Charro, F T; Wit, J M

    1998-01-01

    The use of (costly) growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children is often justified by the assumption that short stature considerably reduces quality of life in adults. We tested this assumption in 5 groups of short adults: 25 patients with isolated GH deficiency; 17 male patients with childhood onset renal failure; 25 women with Turner syndrome and 26 patients who were presented as a child to a paediatrician for idiopathic short stature. A group of 44 short individuals with presumably idiopathic short stature, who had not been presented to a paediatrician for short stature, was sampled from the general population ('normal shorts'). We measured quality of life in terms of socio-economic variables, the Nottingham Health Profile and time trade-off. The mean height of most groups was close to the 3rd percentile. The chance of having a partner was low for all groups, except for the normal shorts. Problems with job application were only reported in Turner syndrome. The scores on the Nottingham Health Profile were all within the normal range, but GH-deficient adults had a higher score on the domain energy than normal shorts. Women with Turner syndrome, individuals with renal failure, and those with idiopathic short stature had a wish to be taller, with an estimated reduction in quality of life of 2-4% (time trade-off). As the normal shorts did not show any sign of a reduced quality of life, we falsify the assumption of a direct relation between short stature and quality of life. The complaints of patients with idiopathic short stature around the 3rd percentile seem to be the result of unsuccessful coping strategies.

  19. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  20. A study of air pollutants influencing life expectancy and longevity from spatial perspective in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; BingganWei; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Zhang, Fengying; Rosenberg, Mark; Yang, Linsheng; Huang, Jixia; Krafft, Thomas; Wang, Wuyi

    2014-07-15

    Life expectancy and longevity are influenced by air pollutants and socioeconomic status, but the extend and significance are still unclear. Better understanding how the spatial differences of life expectancy and longevity are affected by air pollutants is needed for generating public health and environmental strategies since the whole of China is now threatened by deteriorated air quality. 85 major city regions were chosen as research areas. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) and Stepwise Regression (SR) were used to find the spatial correlations between health indicators and air pollutants, adjusted by per capita GDP(1). The results were, regions with higher life expectancy were mainly located in the east area and areas with good air quality, a regional difference of 10 μg/m(3) in ambient air SO2(2) could cause adjusted 0.28 year's difference in life expectancy, a regional difference of 10 μg/m(3) in ambient air PM10(3) could lead to a longevity ratio difference of 2.23, and per capita GDP was positively associating with life expectancy but not longevity ratio, with a regional difference of 10,000 RMB(4) associating with adjusted 0.49 year's difference in life expectancy. This research also showed the evidences that there exist spatially differences for ambient air PM10 and SO2 influencing life expectancy and longevity in China, and this influences were clearer in south China.

  1. Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighbourhoods.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M.; Daly, M.

    1997-01-01

    In comparisons among Chicago neighbourhoods, homicide rates in 1988-93 varied more than 100-fold, while male life expectancy at birth ranged from 54 to 77 years, even with effects of homicide mortality removed. This "cause deleted" life expectancy was highly correlated with homicide rates; a measure of economic inequality added significant additional prediction, whereas median household income did not. Deaths from internal causes (diseases) show similar age patterns, despite different absolute levels, in the best and worst neighbourhoods, whereas deaths from external causes (homicide, accident, suicide) do not. As life expectancy declines across neighbourhoods, women reproduce earlier; by age 30, however, neighbourhood no longer affects age specific fertility. These results support the hypothesis that life expectancy itself may be a psychologically salient determinant of risk taking and the timing of life transitions. PMID:9154035

  2. Stagnating Life Expectancies and Future Prospects in an Age of Uncertainty*

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Justin T.; McNown, Robert; Rogers, Richard G.; Doubilet, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article provides a timely assessment of U.S. life expectancy given recent stalls in the growth of length of life, the continuing drop in international rankings of life expectancy for the U.S., and during a period of growing social and economic insecurity. Methods Time series analysis is used on over 70 years of data from the Human Mortality Database to forecast future life expectancy to the year 2055. Results The results show limited improvements in U.S. life expectancy at birth, less than 3 years on average, for both men and women. Conclusions Even in uncertain times, it is important to look forward in preparing for the needs of future populations. The results presented here underscore the relevance of policy and health initiatives aimed at improving the nation’s health and reveal important insight into possible limits to mortality improvement over the next five decades. PMID:25506092

  3. 'Futureless persons': shifting life expectancies and the vicissitudes of progressive illness.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Barbara E; Zitzelsberger, Hilde; McKeever, Patricia

    2009-05-01

    Medical technological advances can have profound effects on people's lives by extending the life course and creating uncertain futures. This is the case for a number of persons with 'diseases of childhood' who can now survive well into adulthood with technological support. This paper draws on a Canadian qualitative study of young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)which examined the effects of a shifting life expectancy on personal identities. Engaging with Pierre Bourdieu's central concept of habitus, we discuss the temporal dimensions of social exclusion and marginalised identities. Participants' narrative accounts revealed how their dispositions were orientated to a shortened lifespan that exerted damaging effects regardless of actual lifespan. Compounding their material, social and symbolic isolation was a temporal isolation whereby the men had lived every day anticipating that it could be their last for as much as a decade. The findings suggest a need to re-orient medical and social discourses to serve and include adults with DMD and other conditions previously limited to childhood in their communities.

  4. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  5. Geographical variation in life expectancy at birth in England and Wales is largely explained by deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Woods, L.; Rachet, B.; Riga, M.; Stone, N.; Shah, A.; Coleman, M.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To describe the population mortality profile of England and Wales by deprivation and in each government office region (GOR) during 1998, and to quantify the influence of geography and deprivation in determining life expectancy. Design: Construction of life tables describing age specific mortality rates and life expectancy at birth from death registrations and estimated population counts. Life tables were created for (a) quintiles of income deprivation based on the income domain score of the index of multiple deprivation 2000, (b) each GOR and Wales, and (c) every combination of deprivation and geography. Setting: England and Wales. Patients/participants: Residents of England and Wales, 1998. Main results: Life expectancy at birth varies with deprivation quintile and is highest in the most affluent groups. The differences are mainly attributable to differences in mortality rates under 75 years of age. Regional life expectancies display a clear north-south gradient. Linear regression analysis shows that deprivation explains most of the geographical variation in life expectancy. Conclusions: Geographical patterns of life expectancy identified within these data for England and Wales in 1998 are mainly attributable to variations in deprivation status as defined by the IMD 2000 income domain score. PMID:15650142

  6. Adults' Learning Motivation: Expectancy of Success, Value, and the Role of Affective Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…

  7. Therapy Expectations: Preliminary Exploration and Measurement in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbane, Amy L.; Jahoda, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To carry out a preliminary exploration and measurement of therapy expectancy in adults with intellectual disabilities through the development and psychometric evaluation of the therapy expectation measure (TEAM). Design: The initial scale development phase combined top-down theory-driven and bottom-up data-driven processes to identify…

  8. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  9. Faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Warren C; Scherbov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people's time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age.

  10. Estimating the loss in expectation of life due to cancer using flexible parametric survival models.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Dickman, Paul W; Eloranta, Sandra; Lambe, Mats; Lambert, Paul C

    2013-12-30

    A useful summary measure for survival data is the expectation of life, which is calculated by obtaining the area under a survival curve. The loss in expectation of life due to a certain type of cancer is the difference between the expectation of life in the general population and the expectation of life among the cancer patients. This measure is used little in practice as its estimation generally requires extrapolation of both the expected and observed survival. A parametric distribution can be used for extrapolation of the observed survival, but it is difficult to find a distribution that captures the underlying shape of the survival function after the end of follow-up. In this paper, we base our extrapolation on relative survival, because it is more stable and reliable. Relative survival is defined as the observed survival divided by the expected survival, and the mortality analogue is excess mortality. Approaches have been suggested for extrapolation of relative survival within life-table data, by assuming that the excess mortality has reached zero (statistical cure) or has stabilized to a constant. We propose the use of flexible parametric survival models for relative survival, which enables estimating the loss in expectation of life on individual level data by making these assumptions or by extrapolating the estimated linear trend at the end of follow-up. We have evaluated the extrapolation from this model using data on four types of cancer, and the results agree well with observed data.

  11. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Richard; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Fylkesnes, Knut; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related mortality in Zambia. Methods We used data on all-cause and pregnancy-related deaths of females aged 15–49 reported in the Zambia 2010 census, and evaluated, adjusted and smoothed them using existing and verified techniques. We used associated single decrement life tables, assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths to estimate the potential gains in female life expectancy at birth, at age 15, and over the ages 15–49. We compared these gains with the gains from eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, violence and suicide. Results Complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths would extend life expectancy at birth among Zambian women by 1.35 years and life expectancy at age 15 by 1.65 years. In rural areas, this would be 1.69 years and 2.19 years, respectively, and in urban areas, 0.78 years and 0.85 years. An additional 0.72 years would be spent in the reproductive age group 15–49; 1.00 years in rural areas and 0.35 years in urban areas. Eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, suicide and violence among women aged 15–49 would cumulatively contribute 0.55 years to female life expectancy at birth. Conclusion Eliminating pregnancy-related mortality would extend female life expectancy in Zambia substantially, with more gains among adolescents and females in rural areas. The application of life table techniques to census data proved very valuable, although rigorous evaluation and adjustment of reported deaths and age was necessary to attain plausible estimates. The collection of detailed high quality cause-specific mortality data in future censuses is indispensable. PMID:26513160

  12. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    PubMed

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency.

  13. Arts and ageing; life expectancy of historical artists in the Low Countries.

    PubMed

    Mirzada, Fereshta; Schimberg, Anouk S; Engelaer, Frouke M; Bijwaard, Govert E; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J; van Poppel, Frans W A

    2014-01-01

    Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50), in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary and visual artists, who were born between 1700 and 1899 in the Low Countries. We compared the life expectancy at age 50 of the various artists with the elite and middle class of that time. In the birth cohorts before 1850, acoustic (LE50:14.5-19.5) and literary artists (LE50:17.8-20.8) had a similar life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite (LE50:18.0-19.0). Only visual artists (LE50:15.5-17.1) had a lower life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite at that time. For the most recent birth cohorts from 1850 through 1899, the comparison between artists and the elite reversed and acoustic and literary artist had a lower life expectancy at age 50, while visual artists enjoyed a similar life expectancy at age 50. Although artists belonged to the middle socioeconomic class and lived predominantly in urban areas with poor living conditions, they had a life expectancy similar to the elite population. This is in line with observed favourable effects of practicing arts on health in the short-term. From our historical analysis, we hypothesize several mechanisms through which artistic creativity could influence the ageing process and life expectancy. These hypotheses, however, should be formally tested before any definite conclusions on effects of arts on ageing can be drawn.

  14. Arts and Ageing; Life Expectancy of Historical Artists in the Low Countries

    PubMed Central

    Engelaer, Frouke M.; Bijwaard, Govert E.; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; van Poppel, Frans W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50), in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary and visual artists, who were born between 1700 and 1899 in the Low Countries. We compared the life expectancy at age 50 of the various artists with the elite and middle class of that time. In the birth cohorts before 1850, acoustic (LE50:14.5–19.5) and literary artists (LE50:17.8–20.8) had a similar life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite (LE50:18.0–19.0). Only visual artists (LE50:15.5–17.1) had a lower life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite at that time. For the most recent birth cohorts from 1850 through 1899, the comparison between artists and the elite reversed and acoustic and literary artist had a lower life expectancy at age 50, while visual artists enjoyed a similar life expectancy at age 50. Although artists belonged to the middle socioeconomic class and lived predominantly in urban areas with poor living conditions, they had a life expectancy similar to the elite population. This is in line with observed favourable effects of practicing arts on health in the short-term. From our historical analysis, we hypothesize several mechanisms through which artistic creativity could influence the ageing process and life expectancy. These hypotheses, however, should be formally tested before any definite conclusions on effects of arts on ageing can be drawn. PMID:24416148

  15. Transfer from paediatric rheumatology to the adult rheumatology setting: experiences and expectations of young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hilderson, Deborah; Eyckmans, Leen; Van der Elst, Kristien; Westhovens, Rene; Wouters, Carine; Moons, Philip

    2013-05-01

    Adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are transferred from paediatrics to adult-oriented healthcare when they reach early adulthood. Research on the extent to which patients' expectations about the adult healthcare setting match their actual experience after transfer, may promote successful transfer from paediatrics to adult care. As part of the 'Don't Retard' project ( http://www.kuleuven.be/switch2/rheuma.html ), experiences and expectations of young adults regarding their transfer from paediatric rheumatology to adult rheumatology were explored. A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured, in-depth interviews of 11 patients with JIA, aged 18 to 30. Data were analysed using procedures inherent to the content analysis approach. For both concepts, experiences and expectations, three main themes emerged: 'preparation', 'parental involvement' and an 'adapted setting for the late-adolescent or early adult'. The need for a gradual process covered the themes 'preparation' and 'parental involvement'. Young people with JIA prefer to have a say in the moment of transfer and in the reduction of parental involvement. The majority of the participants like their parents' presence at the first consultation at the adult rheumatology department. They expect a healthcare setting adapted to their needs and the possibility to meet peers in this setting. Sudden confrontation with older patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis at adult rheumatology was an unsettling experience for some of the young patients and they declared that better preparation is needed. This study enabled us to define three main themes important in transfer. These themes can facilitate healthcare professionals in developing specific interventions to prepare the young people to transfer, to regulate parental involvement and to arrange an adapted setting for them. Since we included patients who were in follow-up at one tertiary care centre, in which both paediatric and adult

  16. Increasing inequality in age of death at shared levels of life expectancy: A comparative study of Scotland and England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Rosie; Leyland, Alastair H; Popham, Frank

    2016-12-01

    There is a strong negative correlation between increasing life expectancy and decreasing lifespan variation, a measure of inequality. Previous research suggests that countries achieving a high level of life expectancy later in time generally do so with lower lifespan variation than forerunner countries. This may be because they are able to capitalise on lessons already learnt. However, a few countries achieve a high level of life expectancy later in time with higher inequality. Scotland appears to be such a country and presents an interesting case study because it previously experienced lower inequality when reaching the same level of life expectancy as its closest comparator England and Wales. We calculated life expectancy and lifespan variation for Scotland and England and Wales for the years 1950 to 2012, comparing Scotland to England and Wales when it reached the same level of life expectancy later on in time, and assessed the difference in the level of lifespan variation. The lifespan variation difference between the two countries was then decomposed into age-specific components. Analysis was carried out for males and females separately. Since the 1950s Scotland has achieved the same level of life expectancy at least ten years later in time than England and Wales. Initially it did so with lower lifespan variation. Following the 1980s Scotland has been achieving the same level of life expectancy later in time than England and Wales and with higher inequality, particularly for males. Decomposition revealed that higher inequality is partly explained by lower older age mortality rates but primarily by higher premature adult age mortality rates when life expectancy is the same. Existing studies suggest that premature adult mortality rates are strongly associated with the social determinants of health and may be amenable to social and economic policies. So addressing these policy areas may have benefits for both inequality and population health in Scotland.

  17. Expectation in Life Review: A Term of Spiritual Needs Easily Understood by Chinese Hospice Patients.

    PubMed

    Deng, Di; Deng, Qing; Liu, Xiaofang; Xie, Cong Hua; Wu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Terms such as spirituality and spiritual needs are abstract and difficult to understand. Realization of spirituality of hospice patients was premise in addressing expression of their spiritual needs. This study investigated expectations expressed during life review and tried to prove that the expectation was intelligible term for spiritual needs in Chinese hospice from May 2011 to June 2013. Among the 107 recruited patients, families were the most frequent emotion-expressing recipients, and 133 expectations related to patients' spiritual needs were identified. The emotion-expressing recipients and the patient's expectations were not affected by demographic characteristics. The expectations in life review with hospice patients and their families had the features of spiritual essence. The identified expectation contents could be used to address spiritual needs in hospice care in Chinese.

  18. Modeling absolute differences in life expectancy with a censored skew-normal regression approach.

    PubMed

    Moser, André; Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Parameter estimates from commonly used multivariable parametric survival regression models do not directly quantify differences in years of life expectancy. Gaussian linear regression models give results in terms of absolute mean differences, but are not appropriate in modeling life expectancy, because in many situations time to death has a negative skewed distribution. A regression approach using a skew-normal distribution would be an alternative to parametric survival models in the modeling of life expectancy, because parameter estimates can be interpreted in terms of survival time differences while allowing for skewness of the distribution. In this paper we show how to use the skew-normal regression so that censored and left-truncated observations are accounted for. With this we model differences in life expectancy using data from the Swiss National Cohort Study and from official life expectancy estimates and compare the results with those derived from commonly used survival regression models. We conclude that a censored skew-normal survival regression approach for left-truncated observations can be used to model differences in life expectancy across covariates of interest.

  19. Optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations predict better quality of life after robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Andrea A; Perez, Martin A; Oh, Sindy; Crocitto, Laura

    2012-06-01

    We examined the relations among generalized positive expectations (optimism), prostate-cancer specific expectations, and prostate cancer-related quality of life in a prospective sample of 83 men who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer. Optimism was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer-specific expectations, β = .36, p < .001. In addition, optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations were independent prospective predictors of better scores on the following prostate cancer-related quality of life scales: Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence; Masculine Self-Esteem (specific expectations only), Health Worry, Cancer Control, and Informed Decision Making (βs > .21, ps < .05). When considered simultaneously, both optimism and specific expectations contributed uniquely to better Health Worry and Cancer Control scores, optimism was a unique predictor of better Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence scores, and specific expectations uniquely predicted higher scores on Informed Decision Making. Although optimism and prostate-cancer specific expectations are related, they contribute uniquely to several prostate cancer-related quality of life outcomes following RALP and may be important targets for quality of life research with this population.

  20. Extracorporeal Life Support in Critically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has become increasingly popular as a salvage strategy for critically ill adults. Major advances in technology and the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome that characterized the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic have stimulated renewed interest in the use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to support the respiratory system. Theoretical advantages of ECLS for respiratory failure include the ability to rest the lungs by avoiding injurious mechanical ventilator settings and the potential to facilitate early mobilization, which may be advantageous for bridging to recovery or to lung transplantation. The use of venoarterial ECMO has been expanded and applied to critically ill adults with hemodynamic compromise from a variety of etiologies, beyond postcardiotomy failure. Although technology and general care of the ECLS patient have evolved, ECLS is not without potentially serious complications and remains unproven as a treatment modality. The therapy is now being tested in clinical trials, although numerous questions remain about the application of ECLS and its impact on outcomes in critically ill adults. PMID:25046529

  1. Education, Life Expectancy and Family Bargaining: The Ben-Porath Effect Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leker, Laura; Ponthiere, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Following Ben-Porath [1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life-Cycle of Earnings." "Journal of Political Economy" 75 (3): 352-365], the influence of life expectancy on education and on human capital has attracted much attention among growth theorists. Whereas existing growth models rely on an education decision made…

  2. Longevity in Slovenia: Past and potential gains in life expectancy by age and causes of death

    PubMed Central

    Lotrič Dolinar, Aleša; Došenović Bonča, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In Slovenia, longevity is increasing rapidly. From 1997 to 2014, life expectancy at birth increased by 7 and 5 years for men and women, respectively. This paper explores how this gain in life expectancy at birth can be attributed to reduced mortality from five major groups of causes of death by 5-year age groups. It also estimates potential future gains in life expectancy at birth. Methods The importance of the five major causes of death was analysed by cause-elimination life tables. The total elimination of individual causes of death and a partial hypothetical adjustment of mortality to Spanish levels were analysed, along with age and cause decomposition (Pollard). Results During the 1997–2014 period, the increase in life expectancy at birth was due to lower mortality from circulatory diseases (ages above 60, both genders), as well as from lower mortality from neoplasms (ages above 50 years) and external causes (between 20 and 50 years) for men. However, considering the potential future gains in life expectancy at birth, by far the strongest effect can be attributed to lower mortality due to circulatory diseases for both genders. If Spanish mortality rates were reached, life expectancy at birth would increase by more than 2 years, again mainly because of lower mortality from circulatory diseases in very old ages. Discussion and conclusions Life expectancy analyses can improve evidence-based decision-making and allocation of resources among different prevention programmes and measures for more effective disease management that can also reduce the economic burden of chronic diseases. PMID:28289472

  3. Life expectancy in HIV-positive persons in Switzerland: matched comparison with general population

    PubMed Central

    Gueler, Aysel; Moser, André; Calmy, Alexandra; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob; Fux, Christoph A.; Battegay, Manuel; Cavassini, Matthias; Vernazza, Pietro; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate life expectancy over 25 years in HIV-positive people and to compare their life expectancy with recent estimates for the general population, by education. Methods: Patients aged 20 years or older enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study 1988–2013 were eligible. Patients alive in 2001 were matched to up to 100 Swiss residents, by sex, year of birth, and education. Life expectancy at age 20 was estimated for monotherapy (1988–1991), dual therapy (1992–1995), early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, 1996–1998), later cART (1999–2005) and recent cART (2006–2013) eras. Parametric survival regression was used to model life expectancy. Results: In all, 16 532 HIV-positive patients and 927 583 residents were included. Life expectancy at age 20 of HIV-positive individuals increased from 11.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.2–12.5] in the monotherapy era to 54.9 years (95% CI 51.2–59.6) in the most recent cART era. Differences in life expectancy across educational levels emerged with cART. In the most recent cART period, life expectancy at age 20 years was 52.7 years (95% CI 46.4–60.1) with compulsory education, compared to 60.0 years (95% CI 53.4–67.8) with higher education. Estimates for the general population were 61.5 and 65.6 years, respectively. Male sex, smoking, injection drug use, and low CD4+ cell counts at enrolment were also independently associated with mortality. Conclusion: In Switzerland, educational inequalities in life expectancy were larger among HIV-infected persons than in the general population. Highly educated HIV-positive people have an estimated life expectancy similar to Swiss residents with compulsory education. Earlier start of cART and effective smoking-cessation programs could improve HIV-positive life expectancy further and reduce inequalities. PMID:27831953

  4. The impact of avoidable mortality on life expectancy at birth in Spain: changes between three periods, from 1987 to 2001

    PubMed Central

    Gispert, R; Serra, I; Barés, M A; Puig, X; Puigdefàbregas, A; Freitas, A

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of avoidable mortality on the changes in life expectancy at birth in Spain. Methods: Standard life table techniques and the Arriaga method were used to calculate and to decompose life expectancy (LE) changes by age, effects and groups of causes of avoidable mortality among three periods (1987–91, 1992–6 and 1997–2001). A list of causes of avoidable mortality reached by consensus and previously published in Spain was used. Main results: Life expectancy increased in all ages and both sexes. The main contribution to the increase of LE at birth was due to people over 50. Mortality in young adults produced a reduction in LE between the first two periods, but there was an important increase in LE between the last two periods; in both cases, this was the result of factors amenable to health policy interventions. The highest improvement in LE was due to non-avoidable causes, but avoidable mortality through health service interventions showed improvements in LE in those younger than 1 year and in those aged 45–75 years. Conclusions: Making a distinction between several groups of causes of avoidable mortality and using decomposition by causes, ages and effects allowed us to better explain the impact of avoidable mortality on the LE of the whole population and gave a new dimension to this indicator that could be very useful in public health. PMID:18701727

  5. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years.

  6. Quality of Life in Adults with Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Melinda Y.; Velez, Federico G.; Demer, Joseph L.; Isenberg, Sherwin J.; Coleman, Anne L.; Pineles, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess relative quality of life in patients with strabismus. Design Retrospective cohort study Methods The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was performed in 42 strabismic adults over the age of 50 years at a single institution. Subscale scores were compared with those of patients with other ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, cataract, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, and low vision. Results Median visual acuity was 20/20 (range 20/12.5 to 20/50), and 34 patients (81%) reported diplopia. Strabismic patients performed the same or worse on nearly all vision-related subscales than did patients with diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataract, and CMV retinitis. Additionally, strabismic patients reported significantly worse ocular pain than all comparison groups before any surgery was performed. Conclusions Strabismus impacts quality of life through both functional and psychosocial factors. Physicians treating strabismic patients should recognize these quality of life issues and address them accordingly. PMID:25498355

  7. Estimation of the effects of ambient air pollution on life expectancy of urban residents in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuicui; Zhou, Xiaodan; Chen, Renjie; Duan, Xiaoli; Kuang, Xingya; Kan, Haidong

    2013-12-01

    The air quality in China's cities has improved in recent years, but its impact on public health has rarely been investigated. This study was aimed at estimating the potential effects of air quality on life expectancy between 2003 and 2010 in China. We collected annual average concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in 113 key cities, covering all provinces in China, along with the national average age-specific mortality from 2003 to 2010. We constructed a cause-eliminated life table after excluding premature deaths attributable to PM10. The annual average PM10 levels in these cities decreased from 125.3 μg m-3 in 2003 to 88.3 μg m-3 in 2010. As the result, life expectancy loss due to PM10 decreased from 2.13 years in 2003 to 1.30 years in 2010. The estimated life expectancy increase due to PM10 mitigation accounted for 34% of the total increase in life expectancy in the same period. Our results suggested that air quality might have contributed substantially to life expectancy in China.

  8. Mammary gland: From embryogenesis to adult life.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano; Imbesi, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on the molecular factors that ensure the optimal development and maintenance of the mammary gland thanks to their integration and coordination. The development of the mammary gland is supported, not only by endocrine signals, but also by regulatory molecules, which are able to integrate signals from the surrounding microenvironment. A major role is certainly played by homeotic genes, but their incorrect expression during the spatiotemporal regulation of proliferative, functional and differentiation cycles of the mammary gland, may result in the onset of neoplastic processes. Attention is directed also to the endocrine aspects and sexual dimorphism of mammary gland development, as well as the role played by ovarian steroids and their receptors in adult life.

  9. Population Well-Being Measures Help Explain Geographic Disparities In Life Expectancy At The County Level

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Anita; Spatz, Erica; Herrin, Jeph; Riley, Carley; Roy, Brita; Kell, Kenneth; Coberley, Carter; Rula, Elizabeth; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparities in life expectancy are substantial and not fully explained by differences in race and socioeconomic status. To develop policies that address these inequalities, it is essential to identify other factors that account for this variation. In this study we investigated whether population well-being—a comprehensive measure of physical, mental, and social health—helps explain geographic variation in life expectancy. At the county level, we found that for every 1-standarddeviation (4.2-point) increase in the well-being score, life expectancy was 1.9 years higher for females and 2.6 years higher for males. Life expectancy and well-being remained positively associated, even after race, poverty, and education were controlled for. In addition, well-being partially mediated the established associations of race, poverty, and education with life expectancy. These findings highlight well-being as an important metric of a population’s health and longevity and as a promising focus for intervention. PMID:27834249

  10. Anatomy of a Municipal Triumph: New York City's Upsurge in Life Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Samuel H.; Elo, Irma T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the period 1990–2010, the increase in life expectancy for males in New York City was 6.0 years greater than for males in the United States. The female relative gain was 3.9 years. Male relative gains were larger because of extremely rapid reductions in mortality from HIV/AIDS and homicide, declines that reflect effective municipal policies and programs. Declines in drug- and alcohol-related deaths also played a significant role in New York City's advance, but every major cause of death contributed to its relative improvement. By 2010, New York City had a life expectancy that was 1.9 years greater than that of the US. This difference is attributable to the high representation of immigrants in New York's population. Immigrants to New York City, and to the United States, have life expectancies that are among the highest in the world. The fact that 38 percent of New York's population consists of immigrants, compared to only 14 percent in the United States, accounts for New York's exceptional standing in life expectancy in 2010. In fact, US-born New Yorkers have a life expectancy below that of the United States itself. PMID:25843989

  11. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health.

  12. [Methodological basics of prognosticating the life expectancy of population in big cities].

    PubMed

    Men', T Kh; Zaridze, D G

    2004-01-01

    The reasons of high mortality and of low life expectancy among Russian citizens as well as their sharp fluctuations observed in the 90-ies were explained differently by researchers, however, no attempt was made to analyze the impact made by a huge inflow of immigrant from the republics of the former USSR and "close abroad" in any case studies. In this paper we point at the fact that the mortality statistics and life expectancy in Moscow were influenced, at least for as long as 12 years, by a systemic error, which made the mortality index higher and the life expectancy lower, among Muscovites, due to overestimates of the absolute number of died Muscovites and to underestimates of the city residents. The 2001 life expectancy of men and women in Moscow calculated on the basis of data, from which non-residents who died in the capital were deleted, was 64.7 and 75.0, respectively, but not 61.7 and 73.5 as represented by the official statistics. The maximum negative effect of death cases of non-residents exerted on the life expectancy coincides with the overall mortality peak value in Moscow: life expectancy of Muscovites for 1994 estimated without accounting of the mortality rate for non-residents turned out to be 3.2 years higher for men and 1.5 years higher for women. Supposedly, the Russian mortality statistics is not nation-wide in line with the actual state of affairs. However, the influence of the discussed systemic error in Russia's regions can be expected to be less pronounced since the level of immigration in Moscow is most probably by far higher.

  13. Life expectancy and human capital: evidence from the international epidemiological transition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Casper Worm

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting preintervention variation in mortality from various infectious diseases, together with the time variation arising from medical breakthroughs in the late 1940s and the 1950s, this study examines how a large positive shock to life expectancy influenced the formation of human capital within countries during the second half of the 20th century. The results establish that the rise in life expectancy was behind a significant part of the increase in human capital over this period. According to the baseline estimate, for one additional year of life expectancy, years of schooling increase by 0.17 year. Moreover, the evidence suggests that declines in pneumonia mortality are the underlying cause of this finding, indicating that improved childhood health increases human capital investments.

  14. Healthy life expectancy in the context of population health and ageing in India.

    PubMed

    Lau, Robin S; Johnson, Shanthi; Kamalanabhan, T J

    2012-01-01

    This study examines life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) in India longitudinally over the period 2007 to 2020, providing projections into the future. Specifically, the Indian Healthy Life Expectancy Projection model was developed based on epidemiological data (mortality, disability rates) obtained from the World Health Organization and the Government of India. The current model contributed to 4 key findings: decreases in mortality but not in all age and gender groups; increasing disability in the Indian population over time; increase in LE and HLE into the future in all age and gender groups; and the largest gains in LE and HLE are in the older age bands starting from the 70+ age band in women and 65+ age band in men. This study sheds some light on the population health measures needed to improve the understanding of the determinants of health for the efficient allocation of resources and to inform policy in the planning of health and social services.

  15. Healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Law, C. K.; Yip, P. S. F.

    2003-01-01

    Sullivan's method and a regression model were used to calculate healthy life expectancy (HALE) for men and women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR) of China. These methods need estimates of the prevalence and information on disability distributions of 109 diseases and HALE for 191 countries by age, sex and region of the world from the WHO's health assessment of 2000. The population of Hong Kong SAR has one of the highest healthy life expectancies in the world. Sullivan's method gives higher estimates than the classic linear regression method. Although Sullivan's method accurately calculates the influence of disease prevalence within small areas and regions, the regression method can approximate HALE for all economies for which information on life expectancy is available. This paper identifies some problems of the two methods and discusses the accuracy of estimates of HALE that rely on data from the WHO assessment. PMID:12640475

  16. Adolescents' Changing Future Expectations Predict the Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Sarah J.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Peugh, James

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the transition to adulthood are well established. This study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in pathways to adulthood that have been observed in the broader U.S. population are mirrored in adolescents' expectations regarding when they will experience key adult role transitions (e.g., marriage). Patterns of…

  17. Examining Emerging-Adults' and Parents' Expectations about Autonomy during the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2009-01-01

    Our research goals were to document levels and examine the potential discrepancies of emerging-adults' and parents' expectations for autonomous behavior during the transition to college. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 204 incoming college freshmen (n = 150 females, n = 54 males) and 226 parents (n = 173 mothers, n = 53…

  18. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  19. Inferring frail life expectancies in Chicago from daily fluctuations in elderly mortality.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christian J; Lipfert, Frederick W

    2013-07-01

    Susceptible sub-populations with existing disease have exhibited stronger relationships between air quality and mortality in time-series studies, but their associated life expectancies have largely been overlooked. Murray and Nelson developed a new time-series model that estimated a small unobserved (frail) sub-population and their resulting life expectancies in Philadelphia, including environment relationships. As a further example in a different geographic area, we used this model with 1987-2000 daily mortality data in Chicago and found a stable frail population at risk of ∼900 persons with a mean life expectancy of ∼11 days; fewer than two daily deaths were associated with air pollution. We considered daily concentrations of CO, NO₂, O₃, PM₁₀ and SO₂, and found PM₁₀ and O₃ to have stronger associations with frail mortality. Our estimates of life expectancy and air pollution and temperature relationships are similar to those found in other studies that used different methods. Temperature was more important than air pollution during the 1995 heat wave, when mortality risks increased dramatically after 2 d exposure and life expectancies decreased to 3-5 d. Modeling this event separately had substantial effects on lagged mortality--air pollution relationships and the population at risk. The premises of the Murray-Nelson model were supported by simultaneously considering an additional subgroup of non-frail individuals; they contributed only ∼1% of total elderly deaths. We conclude that frail life expectancies estimated by the Murray-Nelson model are robust, and that under these conditions non-frail persons have little risk of acute mortality, with or without contributions from air pollution.

  20. Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2002 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yongping; Qualters, Judith R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term exposure to ground-level ozone is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The association remains uncertain between long-term exposure to ozone and life expectancy. We assessed the associations between seasonal mean daily 8-hour maximum (8-hr max) ozone concentrations measured during the ozone monitoring seasons and life expectancy at birth in 3109 counties of the conterminous U.S. during 2002 to 2008. We used latent class growth analysis to identify latent classes of counties that had distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations over the 7-year period and used linear regression analysis to determine differences in life expectancy by ozone levels. We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct seasonal mean daily 8-hr max ozone concentrations and rates of change. When compared with the counties with the lowest ozone concentrations, the counties with the highest ozone concentrations had 1.7- and 1.4-year lower mean life expectancy in males and females (both P < 0.0001), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of seasonal mean PM2.5 concentrations and other selected environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors (both P < 0.0001). A 5 ppb higher ozone concentration was associated with 0.25 year lower life expectancy in males (95% CI: -0.30 to -0.19) and 0.21 year in females (95% CI: -0.25 to -0.17). We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to a higher ozone concentration may be associated with a lower life expectancy.

  1. Impact of bariatric surgery on life expectancy in severely obese patients with diabetes: A Decision analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Daniel P.; Arterburn, David E.; Livingston, Edward H.; Coleman, Karen J.; Sidney, Steve; Fisher, David; O'Connor, Patrick; Fischer, David; Eckman, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create a decision analytic model to estimate the balance between treatment risks and benefits for severely obese patients with diabetes. Summary Background Data Bariatric surgery leads to many desirable metabolic changes, but long-term impact of bariatric surgery on life expectancy in patients with diabetes has not yet been quantified. Methods We developed a Markov state transition model with multiple Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models as inputs to compare bariatric surgery versus no surgical treatment for severely obese diabetic patients. The model is informed by data from three large cohorts: 1) 159,000 severely obese diabetic patients (4,185 had bariatric surgery) from 3 HMO Research Network sites, 2) 23,000 subjects from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), and 3) 18,000 subjects from the National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index. Results In our main analyses, we found that a 45 year-old female with diabetes and a BMI of 45 kg/m2 gained an additional 6.7 years of life expectancy with bariatric surgery (38.4 years with surgery vs. 31.7 without). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the gain in life expectancy decreased with increasing BMI, until a BMI of 62 kg/m2 is reached, at which point nonsurgical treatment was associated with greater life expectancy. Similar results were seen for both men and women in all age groups. Conclusions For most severely obese patients with diabetes, bariatric surgery appears to improve life expectancy; however, surgery may reduce life expectancy for the super obese with BMIs over 62 kg/m2. PMID:25844968

  2. Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2002 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S.; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yongping; Qualters, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term exposure to ground-level ozone is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The association remains uncertain between long-term exposure to ozone and life expectancy. We assessed the associations between seasonal mean daily 8-hour maximum (8-hr max) ozone concentrations measured during the ozone monitoring seasons and life expectancy at birth in 3109 counties of the conterminous U.S. during 2002 to 2008. We used latent class growth analysis to identify latent classes of counties that had distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations over the 7-year period and used linear regression analysis to determine differences in life expectancy by ozone levels. We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct seasonal mean daily 8-hr max ozone concentrations and rates of change. When compared with the counties with the lowest ozone concentrations, the counties with the highest ozone concentrations had 1.7- and 1.4-year lower mean life expectancy in males and females (both P < 0.0001), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of seasonal mean PM2.5 concentrations and other selected environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors (both P < 0.0001). A 5 ppb higher ozone concentration was associated with 0.25 year lower life expectancy in males (95% CI: −0.30 to −0.19) and 0.21 year in females (95% CI: −0.25 to −0.17). We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to a higher ozone concentration may be associated with a lower life expectancy. PMID:26886595

  3. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  4. Trends in life expectancy by education in Norway 1961-2009.

    PubMed

    Steingrímsdóttir, Olöf Anna; Næss, Øyvind; Moe, Joakim Oliu; Grøholt, Else-Karin; Thelle, Dag Steinar; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Bævre, Kåre

    2012-03-01

    Educational attainment and longevity are strongly related. Large population studies covering long periods to provide evidence of trends in educational inequalities regarding life expectancy are scarce though, especially prior to the 1980s. Our objective was to document changes in life expectancy by education in Norway in the period 1961-2009, and to determine whether the patterns differ between sexes. This is a register-based population study of all Norwegian residents over 34 years, with data from the National Central Population Registry and the National Education Database. For each calendar year during 1961-2009, death rates by 1 year age groups were calculated separately for each sex and three educational categories (primary, secondary and tertiary). Annual life tables were used to calculate life expectancy at age 35 (e ( 35 )) and survival probability for the three age-intervals 35-44, 45-64, and 65-90. All education groups increased their e ( 35 ) over time, but inequalities in e ( 35 ) between tertiary and primary educational categories widened 5.3 years for men and 3.2 years for women during the study period. The probability for women with primary education to survive to age 64 did not improve from 1961 to 2009. The gain in life expectancy lagged about 10 years in lower compared to higher education groups which might suggest that improvements in life sustaining factors reach different segments of the population at different times. The widening of the gap seems to have partly tapered off over the last two decades, and the changes in life expectancy should be followed carefully in the future to document the development.

  5. A state-level analysis of life expectancy in Mexico (1990-2006).

    PubMed

    Peláez, Oscar; Guijarro, Marta; Arias, Mercedes

    2010-11-01

    Using a methodology similar to that proposed by Barro & Sala-i-Martin (1995), it is found that, in the period 1990-2006, there was strong convergence among state-level life expectancy series, but a distancing in life expectancy in the Mexican Republic compared with more developed countries, especially during the new millennium. The interior convergence had taken place at the expense of the exterior; that is, not so much as a result of an improvement in living conditions in the poorer states, but more due to the low performance of the richer states. The causes of this situation are explained using the concept of 'epidemiological transition'.

  6. Clinician Factors Associated with Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening in Older Veterans with Limited Life Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Victoria L.; Shi, Ying; Fung, Kathy; Tan, Jessica; Espaldon, Roxanne; Sudore, Rebecca; Wong, Melisa L.; Walter, Louise C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Despite guidelines recommending against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in elderly men with limited life expectancy, PSA screening remains common. Objectives Identify clinician characteristics associated with PSA screening in older veterans stratified by life expectancy. Design and Setting Cross-sectional study in the VA healthcare system. Participants 826,286 veterans aged ≥65 years eligible for PSA screening that had VA laboratory tests performed in 2011. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the percentage of men with a screening PSA in 2011. Limited life expectancy was defined as age ≥85 with Charlson comorbidity score ≥1 or age ≥65 with Charlson comorbidity score ≥4. Primary predictors were clinician characteristics including degree-training level, specialty, age, and gender. We performed log-Poisson regression models for the association between each clinician characteristic and PSA screening stratified by patient life expectancy and adjusted for patient demographics and clinician clustering. Results In 2011, 56% of older veterans received PSA screening, including 39% of the 203,717 men with limited life expectancy. After adjusting for patient demographics, higher PSA screening in patients with limited life expectancy was associated with having a clinician who was an older male and was no longer in training. PSA screening ranged from 27% for men with a physician trainee to 42% for men with a physician attending (p <0.0001); 22% for men with a geriatrician to 82% for men with a urologist as their clinician (p <0.0001); 29% for men with a clinician ≤35 years old to 41% for those with a clinician ≥56 years old (p <0.0001); and 38% for men with a female clinician older than 55 years versus 43% for men with a male clinician older than 55 years (p=0.0008). Conclusion and Relevance Over a third of men with limited life expectancy received PSA screening. Men whose clinician was a physician trainee had substantially lower

  7. A systematic literature review of life expectancy prediction tools for localized prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Matthew; Vickers, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to develop a clinical decision support tool for clinicians counseling patients with localized prostate cancer. The tool would provide estimates of patient life expectancy from age, comorbidities, and tumor characteristics. We reviewed the literature to find suitable prediction models. Materials and Methods We searched the literature for prediction models for life expectancy. Models were evaluated in terms of whether they provided an estimate of risk, incorporated comorbidities, were clinically feasible and gave plausible estimates. Clinical feasibility was defined in terms of whether the model provided coefficients, could be used in the initial consultation for men across a wide range of ages without an undue burden of data gathering. Results Models in the literature were characterized by the use of life years rather than a risk of death, questionable approaches to comorbidities, implausible estimates, questionable recommendations, and poor clinical feasibility. We found tools based on applying an unvalidated approach to assessing comorbidities to a clearly erroneous life expectancy table, or required a treatment decision be made before life expectancy could be calculated or gave highly implausible estimates, such as a substantial risk of prostate cancer specific mortality even for a highly comorbid 80 year old with Gleason 6 disease. Conclusions We found gross deficiencies in current tools that predict risk of death from other causes. No existing model was suitable for implementation in our clinical decision support system. PMID:25463998

  8. Men Want Equality, but Women Don't Expect It: Young Adults' Expectations for Participation in Household and Child Care Chores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askari, Sabrina F.; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J.; Staebell, Samantha E.; Axelson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored whether there was a discrepancy between young adults' ideal and expected participation in household and child care chores as well as what variables predicted expectations for future chore division. Three-hundred fifty-eight unmarried, heterosexual participants with no children completed an online questionnaire assessing the…

  9. Describing the population health burden of depression: health-adjusted life expectancy by depression status in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Steensma, C.; Loukine, L.; Orpana, H.; McRae, L.; Vachon, J.; Mo, F.; Boileau-Falardeau, M.; Reid, C.; Choi, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. Methods: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status. National Population Health Survey (NPHS) participants 20 years and older (n = 12 373) were followed for mortality outcomes from 1994 to 2009, based on depression status. Depression was defined as having likely experienced a major depressive episode in the previous year as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Life expectancy was estimated by building period abridged life tables by sex and depression status using the relative risks of mortality from the NPHS and mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2007–2009). The Canadian Community Health Survey (2009/10) provided estimates of depression prevalence and Health Utilities Index as a measure of HRQOL. Using the combined mortality, depression prevalence and HRQOL estimates, HALE was estimated for the adult population according to depression status and by sex. Results: For the population of women with a recent major depressive episode, HALE at 20 years of age was 42.0 years (95% CI: 40.2–43.8) compared to 57.0 years (95% CI: 56.8–57.2) for women without a recent major depressive episode. For the population of Canadian men, HALE at 20 was 39.0 years (95% CI: 36.5–41.5) for those with a recent major depressive episode compared to 53.8 years (95% CI: 53.6–54.0) for those without. For the 15.0-year difference in HALE between women with and without depression, 12.3 years can be attributed to the HRQOL gap and the remaining 2.7 years to the mortality gap. The

  10. Intimate Adult Relationships, Quality of Life and Psychological Adjusment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…

  11. The Influence of Subjective Life Expectancy on Retirement Transition and Planning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl; Loh, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the construct of subjective life expectancy (SLE), or the estimation of one's probable age of death. Drawing on the tenets of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), we propose that SLE provides individuals with their own unique mental model of remaining time that is likely to affect their…

  12. Life Expectancy as an Objective Factor of a Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papavlassopulos, Nikolas; Keppler, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper has two parts. In the first part we offer a definition of well-being which makes life expectancy an explicit variable. We recognize the importance of happiness as a significant aspect of any definition of well-being, but we side-step the issue of what determines its level or how to measure it, and concentrate instead on the consequences…

  13. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  14. Measuring Longevity Achievements under Welfare Interdependencies: A Case for Joint Life Expectancy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponthiere, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Whereas period life expectancy constitutes an intuitive indicator of the survival conditions prevailing at a particular period, this paper argues that, given the existence of welfare interdependencies, that widespread indicator is nonetheless an incomplete measure of the longevity achievements relevant for human well-being. The central importance…

  15. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women’s life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects’ relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975–2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915–1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects. PMID:27035998

  16. Comparing the Social Support Systems and Friendship Expectancies of Young Adults and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Maria R.; Tryanski, Mandy

    Some research suggests that sources of social support change through the lifespan. Given that the support network changes because of both the individual's needs and the particular life stage of the individual, peer relationships may emerge as crucial sources of emotional support at different times in the lifespan. This study examined friend and…

  17. Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Morris L.

    1980-01-01

    For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

  18. Resilience and Life Expectations of Perinatally HIV-1 Infected Adolescents in France

    PubMed Central

    Funck-Brentano, Isabelle; Assoumou, Lambert; Veber, Florence; Moshous, Despina; Frange, Pierre; Blanche, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resilience of perinatally HIV-infected youth in European countries is poorly studied. Life satisfaction and expectations for adulthood are rarely examined. Objective: This cross-sectional, descriptive study of a French cohort of 54 perinatally HIV-infected adolescents raised in France (age 14-20 years) aimed to (1) evaluate their psychosocial adjustment, (2) identify their expectations for adulthood and (3) delineate risk and protective factors associated with mental health, life satisfaction, and HIV-1 viral load level. Method: Medical evaluation, psychological semi-structured interview, and self-report questionnaires were used. Results: All the adolescents had been receiving Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) for 9 to 11 years and 2/3 were healthy with controlled viral load (<50 copies/mL). The majority had medium to high levels of life satisfaction. They viewed HIV as having only minor impact on their current daily life and had positive expectations for adulthood. However, 46% exhibited psychiatric symptomatology. Multivariable analysis showed that having a deceased parent and current worries about HIV were substantial risk factors for psychiatric symptoms. Having two living parents and being satisfied with life were protective factors for mental health. Good quality of caregiver-adolescent relationships and high life satisfaction were significant protective factors for controlled viral load. Conclusion: These data indicate psychosocial resilience among perinatally HIV-1 infected adolescents with 10 years of HAART treatment. These findings demonstrate the influence of life satisfaction, parent’s life status and quality of caregiver-adolescent relationships on resilience and health outcomes in these patients. We conclude that healthcare providers should attend to these factors. PMID:27990195

  19. A new method of projecting populations based on trends in life expectancy and survival.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Les; Smith, David

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing concern about the lack of accuracy in population projections at national levels. A common problem has been the systematic underestimation of improvements in mortality, especially at older ages, resulting in projections that are too low. In this paper, we present a method that is based on projecting survivorship rather than mortality, which uses the same data but differs technically. In particular, rather than extrapolating trends in mortality, we use trends in life expectancy to establish a robust statistical relation between changes in life expectancy and survivorship using period life tables. We test the approach on data for England and Wales for the population aged 50 and over, and show that it gives more accurate projections than official projections using the same base data. Using the model to project the population aged 50 and over to 2020, our method suggests nearly 0.6 million more people in this age group than official projections.

  20. Gains and Losses in Creative Personality as Perceived by Adults across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Yeung, Dannii Y.; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C. K.; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age…

  1. Age of Migration Life Expectancy with Functional Limitations and Morbidity in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marc A; Valderrama-Hinds, Luis M; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Mutambudzi, Miriam S; Chen, Nai-Wei; Raji, Mukaila

    2017-03-30

    The U.S. Mexican American population enjoys longer life expectancies relative to other racial/ethnic groups but is disproportionately affected by chronic conditions and functional limitations. Studying the impact of heterogeneity in age, time and other characteristics of migration among older Mexican Americans can inform our understanding of health disparities and healthcare needs in later-life. This research used 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to assess the proportion of life spent with functional limitations and one or more morbidity (according to age of migration and sex) in the U.S. Mexican-American population. The results indicate that early-life and late-life migrant women spend more years with Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment limitations than U.S.-born women. Conversely, midlife migrant women were not statistically different from U.S.-born women in years spent disabled. In men, midlife migrants had longer life expectancies and had more disability-free years than U.S.-born men. For morbidity, late-life migrant women spent a significantly smaller proportion of their elderly years with morbidity than U.S.-born women, but late-life migrant men spent more years with morbidity than U.S.-born men. These findings illustrate that older Mexican Americans in the United States are heterogeneous in nativity and health outcomes. More years spent disabled or unhealthy may result in greater burden on family members and greater dependence on public resources. These findings have implications for the development of social and health policies to appropriately target the medical conditions and disabilities of older Mexican Americans entering late life.

  2. Month of birth and life expectancy: role of gender and age in a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    The effects of month of birth (MOB) on life expectancy of a German subpopulation was investigated. Data from people who died in North Rhine Westphalia in the years 1984 (n=188,515) and 1999 (n=188,850) were analyzed. For comparative purposes, all deaths that occurred at an age of <50 years were excluded (1984: 8.4%; 1999: 6.2%). In general, individuals born in May through July had the lowest age at death (1984: 75.27±0.09 years; 1999: 77.58±0.09 years), while those born between October and December had the highest (1984: 75.98±0.08 years; 1999: 78.35±0.09 years), supporting earlier findings. The observed amplitudes (differences between highest and lowest values) were more pronounced in men than in women. When comparing these data of MOB effects on life expectancy with earlier findings in Australia, Austria, Denmark, Ukraine, and the USA, it is evident that a negative correlation exists between the average age at death and the MOB amplitudes. Separate analyses by gender, possible for the data from Germany, the Ukraine, and the USA, revealed a significant negative correlation for men, but not for women. A new hypothesis is therefore presented describing an influence of life quality, as reflected by average life expectancy, on the extent of MOB effects; for example, seasonally variable sensitivities during pregnancy/early childhood.

  3. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  4. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy: A Register-Based Study of Swedes Aged 65 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Wastesson, Jonas W.; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Johnell, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. Design Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. Setting Nationwide register-based study. Participants A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1 to September 30, 2008. Measurements Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. Results At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent with polypharmacy after the age of 75 years. Women had a longer life expectancy, but also lived more years with polypharmacy than men. Discussion Older women and men spend a considerable proportion of their lives with polypharmacy. Conclusion Given the negative health outcomes associated with polypharmacy, efforts should be made to reduce the number of years older adults spend with polypharmacy to minimize the risk of unwanted consequences. PMID:26341036

  5. Telomere dynamics rather than age predict life expectancy in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Bize, Pierre; Criscuolo, François; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Nasir, Lubna; Monaghan, Pat

    2009-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence from in vitro studies that cellular senescence is linked to telomere dynamics, how this relates to whole-organism senescence and longevity is poorly understood and controversial. Using data on telomere length in red blood cells and long-term survival from wild Alpine swifts of a range of ages, we report that the telomere length and the rate of telomere loss are predictive of life expectancy, and that slow erosion of relatively long telomeres is associated with the highest survival probabilities. Importantly, because telomere dynamics, rather than chronological age, predict life expectancy, our study provides good evidence for a mechanistic link between telomere erosion and reduced organism longevity under natural conditions, chronological age itself possibly not becoming a significant predictor until very old ages beyond those in our sample. PMID:19324831

  6. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Loneliness Among LGB Adults and Heterosexual Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults.

  7. The impact of smoking on gender differences in life expectancy: more heterogeneous than often stated

    PubMed Central

    Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Throughout industrialized countries, tobacco consumption is seen as the predominant driver of both the trend and the extent of gender differences in life expectancy. However, several factors raise doubts to this generalization. We hypothesize that the impact of smoking on the gender gap is context-specific and differs between populations. Methods: We decompose the gender differences in life expectancy into fractions caused by smoking and other non-biological factors for 53 industrialized countries and the period 1955–2009 to assess the significance of smoking among the causes that can be influenced by direct or indirect interference. Results: The trend of the gender gap can indeed be attributed to smoking in most populations of the western world. However, with regard to the overall extent of male excess mortality, smoking is the main driver only in the minority of the studied populations. While the impact of smoking to gender differences in life expectancy declines in all populations, the contribution of other non-biological factors is in most cases higher at the end than at the beginning of the observation period. Conclusions: Over-generalized statements suggesting that smoking is the main driver of the gender gap in all populations can be misleading. The results of this study demonstrate that—regardless of the prevailing effect of smoking—many populations have still remarkable potentials to further narrow their gender gaps in life expectancy. Although measures to further reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption must be continued, more attention should be directed to the growing importance of other non-biological factors. PMID:25505018

  8. Donepezil and life expectancy in Alzheimer’s disease: A retrospective analysis in the Tajiri Project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) such as donepezil have the effect of delaying progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but their effect on life expectancy is unclear. We analyzed the influence of donepezil on life expectancy after onset of AD, together with the effects of antipsychotic drugs and residency in a nursing home. Methods All outpatients at the Tajiri Clinic from 1999–2012 with available medical records and death certificates were included in a retrospective analysis. The entry criteria were a dementia diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria and diagnosis of AD using NINCDS-ADRDA criteria; medical treatment for more than 3 months; and follow up until less than 1 year before death. Results We identified 390 subjects with medical records and death certificates, of whom 275 had a diagnosis of dementia that met the entry criteria. Of 100 patients diagnosed with AD, 52 had taken donepezil and 48 patients had not received the drug due to treatment prior to the introduction of donepezil in 1999 in Japan. The lifetime expectancies after onset were 7.9 years in the donepezil group and 5.3 years in the non-donepezil group. There was a significant drug effect with a significant covariate effect of nursing home residency. Other covariates did not reach a significant level. Conclusions Although this report has the limitation of all retrospective analyses: the lack of randomization, we found a positive effect of donepezil on lifetime expectancy after onset of AD. This may be due to a decreased mortality rate caused by reduction of concomitant diseases such as pneumonia. The similar life expectancies in patients taking donepezil at home and those not taking donepezil in a nursing home indicated a positive health economic effect of the drug. PMID:24720852

  9. Literacy for Life: Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…

  10. Major Life Decisions of Gifted Adults in Relation to Overall Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Ksiazak, Tracy M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Vannatter, Aarika; Hyatt, Claudine C.; Shepler, Dustin; Perrone, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, major life decisions of gifted adults were examined in relation to life satisfaction. Participants were 57 gifted adults who have been participating in a longitudinal study over the last two decades. Qualitative data were collected via written and online surveys, and were analyzed by a research team using phenomenological,…

  11. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  12. Myopathy in hypophosphataemic osteomalacia presenting in adult life.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wills, M R

    1975-01-01

    Three cases of hypophosphataemic osteomalacia presenting in adult life, in which a myopathy was a prominent presenting feature, are described. In one, a nasopharyngeal haemangioma was also present. Possible mechanisms underlying the myopathy are discussed briefly. PMID:1151410

  13. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Marta I; Rodriguez, David A; Kawata, Ariane K; Degboe, Arnold N; Wilcox, Teresa K; Burk, Caroline T; Daniels, Selena R; Roberts, Wendy E

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years), comprising black (30.8%), Hispanic (17.6%), Asian/other (17.3%), and white (34.3%). More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%). Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC) (47.4%) versus prescription medications (16.6%). OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05). The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA) (34.3%) and benzoyl peroxide (BP) (32.1%). Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05), Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0.05), and Asian/other (57.0±32.4 vs 46.9±37.2 days, P>0.05) subjects. Most subjects expected OTC (73.7%) and prescription (74.7%) treatments to work quickly. Fewer than half of the subjects were satisfied with OTC treatment (BP, 47.0%; SA, 43.0%), often due to skin dryness (BP, 26.3%; SA, 44.3%) and flakiness (BP, 12.3%; SA, 31.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups in their level of satisfaction with OTC or

  14. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: influence of stress and environment.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Ryu, J J; Karra, P; Shrotriya, P; Tvergaard, V; Gaisser, M; Weik, T

    2011-11-01

    Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy of modular hip implants. First, material removal on a stressed surface of Ti6Al4V subjected to single asperity contact is investigated experimentally to identify the influence of contact load, in-plane stress and chemical environment on mean wear rates. A range of known stress levels are applied to the specimen while its surface is mechanically stimulated in different non-reactive to oxidizing aqueous environments. Evolution of surface degradation is monitored, and its mechanism is elucidated. This phase allows estimation of Preston Constant which is later used in the analysis. Second phase of the work is semi-analytical and computational, where, based on the estimated Preston constant and other material and process parameters, the scratch propensity (consisting of magnitude of scratch depth and their frequency per unit area) due to micro-motion in modular hip implants is estimated. The third phase views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient body weight, as well as proximity of the joint fluid to its iso-electric point play key roles in determining wear rates and associated life expectancies of modular hip implants

  15. The Mid-Life Crisis and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Brian E.

    1977-01-01

    Blocks to formal learning during mid-life (ages thirty-five to forty-five) are fairly prevalent. Discusses five psychological blocks to successful learning for adults in this age period and suggests ways adult educators can deal with these blocks. (EM)

  16. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression

    PubMed Central

    Etges, William J.; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2015-01-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behavior have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg to adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analyzed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodeling, and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis, and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status, and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg to adult development time, and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  17. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  18. It's only a dream if you wake up: Young adults' achievement expectations, opportunities, and meritocratic beliefs.

    PubMed

    Shane, Jacob; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2017-02-01

    The present paper examines university graduates' beliefs about how meritocratic socioeconomic status (SES) attainment in U.S. society is for themselves (merit agency beliefs) and for most other people (merit societal beliefs), and how these distinct beliefs are differentially associated with labour market experiences and achievement-goal attitudes and expectations in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Data from a 10-month longitudinal study of 217 graduates from the 2013 class of a large public U.S. university were analysed using multilevel modelling. The results indicate that most participants optimistically expected to attain upward social mobility. Furthermore, participants' merit agency beliefs were reflective of their labour market prospects and experiences, and calibrated their achievement-goal attitudes and expectations. However, participants' merit societal beliefs were not associated with these labour market experiences and achievement-goal attitudes and expectations. The distinction between merit agency beliefs and merit societal beliefs may be motivationally beneficial by allowing individuals to continue striving toward the uncertain long-term goal pursuit of upward social mobility despite the short-term struggles and setbacks many young adults are likely to experience in the aftermath of the Great Recession.

  19. Outcome and Life Satisfaction of Adults with Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Heidi; McMahon, Kelly; Heise, Elizabeth; Eubanks, Sonja; Garrett, Melanie; Gregory, Simon; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Background Myelomeningocele (MMC) commonly causes impairments in body structure and functions as well as cognitive disabilities that can have an adverse effect on adult life. Improved medical care has resulted in increased numbers of individuals with MMC surviving to adulthood, however little is known about the impact of MMC on the lives of adults age 25 years or older. Objective To gain a better understanding of outcomes in education, employment, relationships, reproduction and life satisfaction of adults with MMC. Methods A primarily quantitative multiple-choice questionnaire designed to capture outcomes in education, employment, relationships and reproduction, along with a previously validated life satisfaction checklist (LiSat-11), was completed by adults with MMC. Relationships between demographic variables, outcomes and life satisfaction were determined using cross tabulation analysis, logistic regression and linear regression. Results Ninety adults with MMC, age 25 to 85 years (median age 32), reported a diverse range of outcomes in education, employment, relationships and reproduction. The most consistent variable associated with difficulty attaining adult milestones was hydrocephalus, the presence of which reduced the likelihood of living independently (p=<0.001), having a partner (p=0.003) and reproducing (p=<0.001), but did not contribute to reduced life satisfaction. Conclusions Adults with MMC, especially those without hydrocephalus, can obtain gainful employment, live independently, form partner relationships and have children, and these achievements contribute to life satisfaction. While MMC does not affect overall reported life satisfaction for adults, attention should be paid to specific domains with less reported satisfaction. PMID:23769483

  20. Expected cycle life versus depth of discharge relationships of well behaved single cells and cell strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that might influence the cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationship are examined. This is done first at the single cell level using a progressively more complex cell life model. This is then extended to multicell battery strings where the stochastic aspects associated with groupings of cells are introduced. These relationships are important when considering the weight, cost, and life of battery packs. The results of this theoretical study are compared with a recent review of actual cell cycling data. The factors examined are the rate of capacity loss, the amount of excess capacity built into the cells, and the penalty in capacity loss resulting from the use of deep depths of discharge. This study suggests that the relationship between cycle life and depth of discharge is not one that can be varied of significantly improved by cell research. The relationship appears to be determined by certain more or less fixed cell parameters. Among multicell strings, the standard deviation, as expected, plays an important role in determining overall battery life.

  1. College Expectations for All? The Early Adult Outcomes of Low-Achieving Adolescents Who Expect to Earn a Bachelor's Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo

    2016-01-01

    Critics of the college-for-all ethos argue that it encourages low-achieving adolescents to develop unrealistically high expectations. This argument posits that low-achievers waste time and money, and risk disappointment and self-recrimination, pursuing college when they are unlikely to complete it. The present study uses two national data…

  2. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  3. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  4. Ethnic and gender specific life expectancies of the Singapore population, 1965 to 2009 – converging, or diverging?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in life expectancy and the persistence of expectancy gaps between different social groups in the 20th century are well-described in Western developed countries, but less well documented in the newly industrialised countries of Asia. Singapore, a multiethnic island-state, has undergone a demographic and epidemiologic transition concomitant with economic development. We evaluate secular trends and differences in life expectancy by ethnicity and gender in Singapore, from independence to the present. Methods Period abridged life tables were constructed to derive the life expectancy of the Singapore population from 1965 to 2009 using data from the Department of Statistics and the Registry of Births and Deaths, Singapore. Results All 3 of Singapore’s main ethnic groups, and both genders, experienced an increase in life expectancy at birth and at 65 years from 1965 to 2009, though at substantially different rates. Although there has been a convergence in life expectancy between Indians and Chinese, the (substantial) gap between Malays and the other two ethnic groups has remained. Females continued to have a higher life expectancy at birth and at 65 years than males throughout this period, with no evidence of convergence. Conclusions Ethnic and gender differences in life expectancy persist in Singapore despite its rapid economic development. Targeted chronic disease prevention measures and health promotion activities focusing on people of Malay ethnicity and the male community may be needed to remedy this inequality. PMID:24160733

  5. Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Ailiana; Schröders, Julia; Vaezghasemi, Masoud; Ng, Nawi

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the increase in life expectancy (LE) globally is coupled with a postponement of morbidity and disability. Evidence on trends and determinants of disability-free life expectancies (DFLEs) are available in high-income countries but less in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the levels of and inequalities in LE, disability and DFLE between men and women across different age groups aged 50 years and over in six countries with developing economies. Methods This study utilised the cross-sectional data (n=32 724) from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa in 2007–2010. Disability was measured with the activity of daily living (ADL) instrument. The DFLE was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and ADL-disability proportions. Results The disability prevalence ranged from 13% in China to 54% in India. The prevalence of disability was highest and occurred at younger age in both sexes in India. Women were more disadvantaged with higher prevalence of disability across all age groups, and the situation was worst among older women in Mexico and the Russian Federation. Though women had higher LE, their proportion of remaining LE free from disability was lower than men. Conclusions There are inequalities in the levels of disability and DFLE among men and women in different age groups among people aged over 50 years in these six countries. Countermeasures to decrease intercountry and gender gaps in DFLE, including improvements in health promotion and healthcare distribution, with a gender equity focus, are needed. PMID:26994068

  6. Life Events and Alcohol Behavior among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Anthony J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated relationship between life events and alcohol behavior among those 60 years of age and older (N=1,410) in two retirement and two age-hetereogeneous communities. Found, contrary to expectations, the experience of life events pointed toward a decrease in drinking. Social support networks were not significant mediators of the impact of…

  7. Differences by Sexual Orientation in Expectations About Future Long-Term Care Needs Among Adults 40 to 65 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Shippee, Tetyana P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether and how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults between 40 and 65 years of age differ from heterosexual adults in long-term care (LTC) expectations. Methods. Our data were derived from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. We used ordered logistic regression to compare the odds of expected future use of LTC among LGB (n = 297) and heterosexual (n = 13 120) adults. We also used logistic regression models to assess the odds of expecting to use specific sources of care. All models controlled for key socioeconomic characteristics. Results. Although LGB adults had greater expectations of needing LTC in the future than their heterosexual counterparts, that association was largely explained by sociodemographic and health differences. After control for these differentials, LGB adults were less likely to expect care from family and more likely to expect to use institutional care in old age. Conclusions. LGB adults may rely more heavily than heterosexual adults on formal systems of care. As the older population continues to diversify, nursing homes and assisted living facilities should work to ensure safety and culturally sensitive best practices for older LGB groups. PMID:26378822

  8. From stage to age in variable environments: life expectancy and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol C

    2006-06-01

    Stage-based demographic data are now available on many species of plants and some animals, and they often display temporal and spatial variability. We provide exact formulas to compute age-specific life expectancy and survivorship from stage-based data for three models of temporal variability: cycles, serially independent random variation, and a Markov chain. These models provide a comprehensive description of patterns of temporal variation. Our formulas describe the effects of cohort (birth) environmental condition on mortality at all ages, and of the effects on survivorship of environmental variability experienced over the course of life. This paper complements existing methods for time-invariant stage-based data, and adds to the information on population growth and dynamics available from stochastic demography.

  9. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Gunvi; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up. PMID:26066517

  10. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gunvi; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21-29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme "Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective" consisting of three categories: "Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects." The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

  11. Questionnaires for outcome expectancy, self-regulation, and behavioral expectation for resistance training among young-old adults: development and preliminary validity.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M; Kelleher, Sarah A; Marinik, Elaina L; Winett, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop questionnaires to assess outcome expectancy for resistance training (RT), behavioral expectation in the context of perceived barriers to RT, and self-regulation strategies for RT among young-old adults (50-69 years). Measurement development included (a) item generation through elicitation interviews (N = 14) and open-ended questionnaires (N = 56), (b) expert feedback on a preliminary draft of the questionnaires (N = 4), and (c) a quantitative longitudinal study for item-reduction and psychometric analyses (N = 94). Elicitation procedures, expert feedback, and item reduction yielded four questionnaires with a total of 33 items. Positive outcome expectancy (α = .809), negative outcome expectancy (α = .729), behavioral expectation (α = .925), and self-regulation (α = .761) had-with one exception-moderate bivariate associations with two different indicators of self-reported RT behavior at one-month follow-up (r = .298 to .506). The present research provides preliminary support for newly developed questionnaires to facilitate understanding of the psychosocial determinants of RT among young-old adults.

  12. Lost life expectancy rate: An application to environmental levels of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1997-08-01

    The risk index Lost Life Expectancy Rate (LLER) provides a unitless number (time of life expectancy lost per time exposed) describing the risk from exposure to a given hazard or from partaking in a given activity. Simple equations to calculate the LLER from radiation-induced cancers caused by an exposure to low-level radiation were derived using the relative risk models developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (upper bound estimate), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation-1988, and the National Academy of Science`s Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR V). Estimates of the LLER to an average person from a continuous exposure to 0.1 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} based on these models, respectively, are 5.5 x 10{sup -4}, 9.5 x 10{sup -4}, and 9.4 x 10{sup -4}. These values compare to LLERs of 0.015 from occupational accidents, 0.25 from being an automobile passenger, and 2.0 from cigarette smoking. Factors effecting LLER from radiation exposures examined in this work include dose rate, age, sex, race and smoking status. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Senescence in cell oxidative status in two bird species with contrasting life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bize, Pierre; Cotting, Sophie; Devevey, Godefroy; van Rooyen, Juan; Lalubin, Fabrice; Glaizot, Olivier; Christe, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative stress occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an organism exceeds its capacity to mitigate the damaging effects of the ROS. Consequently, oxidative stress hypotheses of ageing argue that a decline in fecundity and an increase in the likelihood of death with advancing age reported at the organism level are driven by gradual disruption of the oxidative balance at the cellular level. Here, we measured erythrocyte resistance to oxidative stress in the same individuals over several years in two free-living bird species with contrasting life expectancy, the great tit (known maximum life expectancy is 15.4 years) and the Alpine swift (26 years). In both species, we found evidence for senescence in cell resistance to oxidative stress, with patterns of senescence becoming apparent as subjects get older. In the Alpine swift, there was also evidence for positive selection on cell resistance to oxidative stress, the more resistant subjects being longer lived. The present findings of inter-individual selection and intra-individual deterioration in cell oxidative status at old age in free-living animals support a role for oxidative stress in the ageing of wild animals.

  14. The problem of genotype and sex differences in life expectancy in transgenic AD mice.

    PubMed

    Rae, Eric A; Brown, Richard E

    2015-10-01

    The lifespan of mice shows genotype, sex and laboratory effects, but little is known about genotype or sex differences in life expectancy of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper examines the lifespan of males and females of different mouse models of AD and their wildtype strains. Genotype and sex dependent differences in longevity have important implications for designing experiments with Alzheimer's mouse models, comparing genotype and sex differences in aging mouse models, designing drug treatment regimes and the translation of mouse data to human clinical studies. We conclude that the concept of aging and age-related disorders in mice must be reconsidered based on genotype and sex differences in mouse life expectancy data. Use of concepts such as relative age, prospective lifespan and proportion of lifespan remaining should be included in studies of age-related changes in mouse brains and behavior. Finally, measures such as the Frailty Index, which is independent of chronological age might be used to determine a common scale of aging for all mouse strains.

  15. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-07-07

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry.

  16. Mental distress, economic hardship and expectations of life in Canada among Sudanese newcomers.

    PubMed

    Simich, Laura; Hamilton, Hayley; Baya, B Khamisa

    2006-09-01

    As part of a settlement needs assessment of 220 recently arrived Sudanese refugees and immigrants in seven cities, we examined overall health status, indicators of mental distress, economic hardship and expectations of life in Canada. Data were collected in a community-based study using qualitative and quantitative techniques. Results indicate that those Sudanese for whom life in Canada was not what they expected and those who experienced economic hardship as measured by worry over having enough money for food or medicine experienced poorer overall health and reported a greater number of symptoms of psychological distress. After controlling for demographic and related variables, we found that individuals who were experiencing economic hardship were between 2.6 and 3.9 times as likely to experience loss of sleep, constant strain, unhappiness and depression, and bad memories as individuals who do not experience hardship. Healthcare providers should be aware of how postmigration social disadvantages may increase the risk of mental distress particularly among refugees.

  17. The weaker sex? Exploring lay understandings of gender differences in life expectancy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate

    2008-09-01

    Despite increasing interest in gender and health, 'lay' perceptions of gender differences in mortality have been neglected. Drawing on semi-structured interview data from 45 men and women in two age cohorts (born in the early 1950s and 1970s) in the UK, we investigated lay explanations for women's longer life expectancy. Our data suggest that respondents were aware of women's increased longevity, but found this difficult to explain. While many accounts were multifactorial, socio-cultural explanations were more common, more detailed and less tentative than biological explanations. Different socio-cultural explanations (i.e. gendered social roles, 'macho' constraints on men and gender differences in health-related behaviours) were linked by the perception that life expectancy would converge as men and women's lives became more similar. Health behaviours such as going to the doctor or drinking alcohol were often located within wider structural contexts. Female respondents were more likely to focus on women's reproductive and caring roles, while male respondents were more likely to focus on how men were disadvantaged by their 'provider' role. We locate these narratives within academic debates about conceptualising gender: e.g. 'gender as structure' versus 'gender as performance', 'gender as difference' versus 'gender as diversity'.

  18. [150 years of life expectancy of Dutch members of parliament; 1848-1989].

    PubMed

    Noteboom, W M; Rosendaal, F R; Vandenbroucke, J P

    1991-12-21

    To determinate whether the stressful lifestyle of members of parliament (MP) might lead to excess mortality, as suggested in British Medical Journal in 1989, we investigated the mortality and life expectancy of 1589 members of the Dutch parliament over the period 1848-1989. Total mortality (all causes) for members of parliament who had been in function for at least one year (n = 1472) was compared to that of the general population of the Netherlands, adjusted for age, sex and calendar period. We calculated a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from beginning of exposure as well as from ten years after entry in order to correct for a healthy cohort effect. The total number of deaths was 986 (863 with follow-up after 10 years after entry) and did not exceed the expected number of deaths based on population mortality rates. We conclude that MPs have no higher death risk than those who elected them, although one might have expected a lower death risk because of their social background.

  19. Phenylketonuria: treatment in adolescence and adult life.

    PubMed

    Brenton, D P; Tarn, A C; Cabrera-Abreu, J C; Lilburn, M

    1996-07-01

    In our clinic the decision on whether to continue with dietary treatment of phenylketonuria or not is left to each adolescent and adult patient after the advantages and disadvantages, as discussed in this paper, of continuing diet have been presented to them. As a result 61 of 132 patients have stopped diet or declined to restart and only 4 of them have phenylalanine values below 1000 mumol/l. Seventy-one patients have remained on diet or started again with phenylalanine values below 1000 mumol/l in 58 of them. This series of 132 excludes women who returned to diet to conceive.

  20. Exploring life expectancy limits: First exit time modeling, parameter analysis and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiadas, Christos H.; Skiadas, Charilaos

    In this paper we explore the life expectancy limits by based on the stochastic modeling of mortality and applying the first exit or hitting time theory of a stochastic process. The main assumption is that the health state or the "vitality", according to Strehler and Mildvan, of an individual is a stochastic variable and thus it was introduced and applied a first exit time density function to mortality data. The model is used to estimate the development of mortality rates in the late stages of the human life span, to make better fitting to population mortality data including the infant mortality, to compare it with the classical Gompertz curve, and to make comparisons between the Carey medfly data and the population mortality data estimating the health state or "vitality" functions. Furthermore, we apply the model to the life table data of Italy, France, USA, Canada, Sweden, Norway and Japan, and we analyze the characteristic parameters of the model and make forecasts. The case of female mortality in Sweden is extensively studied and forecasts to 2025 and 2050 are presented.

  1. Reported Expectations for Nursing Home Placement among Older Adults and Their Role as Risk Factors for Nursing Home Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akamigbo, Adaeze B.; Wolinsky, Frederic D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Individual expectations among community-dwelling older adults and their subsequent effect on placement status have recently been considered. Previous studies, however, have been limited by eligibility and exclusion criteria, treating expectations as a continuous measure, omitting potential confounders, and ignoring Race x Gender…

  2. Exploring Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Dakar.

    PubMed

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Montepare, Joann M; Gueye, Lamine

    2015-12-01

    Studies on correlates of subjective well-being of older adults are virtually non-existent in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, understanding and improving the well-being of older adults should be a focal point of research and policy directed at this fast growing population. The aim of this study was to assess the links between socio-demographic factors, economic conditions, health, social relations, and the life satisfaction of older adults in Dakar. To this end, a survey was conducted on a sample of 500 dwellers of the Senegalese capital, aged 50 to 100, using the quota method for greater representativeness. Results revealed that with advancing age older adults expressed greater life satisfaction, and that older women were more satisfied than older men. As well, economic conditions were a main predictor of life satisfaction, along with good social relations. In contrast to findings with Western populations, neither self-rated health nor physical disabilities were associated with aging adults' life satisfaction. Findings suggest a number of avenues for future research.

  3. Estimating diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in Mexico and seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean, plus Mexico as a whole. Methods Data from the Health, Well-being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean project (n = 10 602) and Mexican Health and Aging Study (n = 6 953) on individuals 60 or more years of age were used in this study. Estimates of diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy were obtained by applying the Sullivan method. Results Diabetes life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Mexico City (4.5 years) and Bridgetown (3.4 years), and lowest in Havana (1.3 years). Diabetes-free life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Santiago (17.6 years) and lowest in Bridgetown (14.2 years) and São Paulo (14.3 years). For women, diabetes life expectancy was highest in Bridgetown (5.4 years), followed by Mexico City and Havana. Bridgetown, Mexico City and Havana had the lowest diabetes-free life expectancy. Women 60 years of age in Buenos Aires had the lowest diabetes life expectancy (2.5 years), and in Santiago, the highest, with a diabetes-free life expectancy of 20.7 years. Conclusions Older individuals in Latin America and the Caribbean can expect to live a large proportion of their remaining lives with diabetes. There were also important differences across settings; in particular, the pronounced diabetes burden in Barbados and Mexico and among women. Given the fast growth of the elderly population in these societies, it is crucial to promote healthy eating and exercising as a way of reducing the burden of diabetes. PMID:19814876

  4. Life expectancy and health care expenditures: a new calculation for Germany using the costs of dying.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Friedrich; Felder, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Some people believe that the impact of population ageing on future health care expenditures will be quite moderate due to the high costs of dying. If not age per se but proximity to death determines the bulk of expenditures, a shift in the mortality risk to higher ages will not affect lifetime health care expenditures as death occurs only once in every life. We attempt to take this effect into account when we calculate the demographic impact on health care expenditures in Germany. From a Swiss data set, we derive age-expenditure profiles for both genders, separately for persons in their last 4 years of life and for survivors, which we apply to the projections of the age structure and mortality rates for the German population between 2002 and 2050 as published by the Statistische Bundesamt. In the extreme case, we assume that morbidity is compressed at the end of life in such a way that a 60-year old in 2050 is as healthy as a 56-year old today if his life expectancy is 4 years higher. We calculate that at constant prices, per-capita health expenditures of Social Health Insurance would rise from 2596 Euro in 2002 to between 2959 Euro and 3102 Euro in 2050 when only the age structure of the population changes and everything else remains constant at the present level, and to between 5232 Euro and 5485 Euro with a technology-driven exogenous cost increase of 1% per annum. A "naïve" projection based only on the age distribution of health care expenditures, but not distinguishing between survivors and decedents, yields values of 3217 Euro and 5688 Euro for 2050, respectively. Thus, the error of excluding the "costs of dying" effect is small compared with the error of underestimating the financial consequences of expanding medical technology.

  5. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.

  6. A Poisson common factor model for projecting mortality and life expectancy jointly for females and males.

    PubMed

    Li, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    We examine the application of a Poisson common factor model for the projection of mortality jointly for females and males. The model structure is an extension of the classical Lee-Carter method in which there is a common factor for the aggregate population, while a number of additional sex-specific factors can also be incorporated. The Poisson distribution is a natural choice for modelling the number of deaths, and its use provides a formal statistical framework for model selection, parameter estimation, and data analysis. Our results for Australian data show that this model leads to projected life expectancy values similar to those produced by the separate projection of mortality for females and males, but possesses the additional advantage of ensuring that the projected male-to-female ratio for death rates at each age converges to a constant. Moreover, the randomness of the corresponding residuals indicates that the model fit is satisfactory.

  7. The Contribution of Smoking to Educational Gradients in U.S. Life Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica Y; Fenelon, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Researchers have documented widening educational gradients in mortality in the United States since the 1970s. While smoking has been proposed as a key explanation for this trend, no prior study has quantified the contribution of smoking to increasing education gaps in longevity. We estimate the contribution of smoking to educational gradients in life expectancy using data on white men and women ages 50 and older from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (N = 283,430; 68,644 deaths) and the National Health Interview Survey (N = 584,811; 127,226 deaths) in five periods covering the 1980s to 2006. In each period, smoking makes an important contribution to education gaps in longevity for white men and women. Smoking accounts for half the increase in the gap for white women but does not explain the widening gap for white men in the most recent period. Addressing greater initiation and continued smoking among the less educated may reduce mortality inequalities.

  8. Factors explaining the geographical differences in Disability Free Life Expectancy in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Fisac, J. L.; Gispert, R.; Sola, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the geographical variations in Disability Free Life Expectancy (DFLE) at birth (DFLEb) and at 65 years (DFLE65) in Spain and to identify the main factors that explain these variations.
DESIGN—Ecological study with the 50 provinces of Spain as the units of analysis. Sullivan's method is used to calculate DFLE for each province based on information from the death registry and the survey on disabilities, impairments and handicaps. Information on the independent variables—socioeconomic level, factors related with the health system and risk factors—was taken from various sources.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Simple correlation coefficients were obtained between each dependent variable (DFLEb and DLFE65) and the independent variables. Two multiple linear regression models were fit to obtain the best set of factors that explain the geographical distribution of DFLEb and DLFE65.
RESULTS—Both DFLEb and DLFE65 vary widely among provinces. The multiple linear regression analysis shows that the illiteracy rate, the percentage of the unemployed and the percentage of smokers in the population were the main factors associated with the geographical variation of DFLE. The models explained approximately 40% of the variance for DFLEb and 30% for DLFE65.
CONCLUSIONS—The results obtained show the influence of education, the unemployment rate and smoking on the geographical differences of DFLE. The DFLE indicators are shown to be valid for use in health policy.


Keywords: Disability Free Life Expectancy; geographical differences PMID:10818121

  9. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  10. First-time Taiwanese expectant fathers' life experiences during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chien-Huei; Long, Ann

    2004-03-01

    This descriptive phenomenological study was designed to explore the life experiences of 14 Taiwanese first-time expectant fathers while their wives were in the third trimester of pregnancy. The authors used unstructured interviews to obtain the data from each participant. Data were analyzed by Colaizzi ' s (1978) method as a qualitative content analysis. In addition, the researcher used the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985) to enhance the rigorousness of this study. The findings demonstrated that during the third trimester of their wives ' pregnancy eight key themes emerged among the first-time expectant fathers, as follows: (1). Jubilation; (2). Feelings of uuncertainty (3). Adjustment; (4). Preparation for fatherhood; (5). Engagement; (6). Gender concerns; (7). The wonder of fetal movement, and (8). Expanded vision. The findings from this study have an important contribution to make to an advancement of practice, education and research concerning first-time fathers ' needs and aspirations. In addition, the findings showed that there is a need to reaffirm the place of caring in nursing and midwifery if our goal is to provide a high quality service which meets the needs of the woman and her family. It is essential for nurses to champion the advancement of family-centred care which involves their partners in pregnancy.

  11. Mood regulation and quality of life in social anxiety disorder: an examination of generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sharon C; Porter, Eliora; Robinaugh, Donald J; Marks, Elizabeth H; Marques, Luana M; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined negative mood regulation expectancies, anxiety symptom severity, and quality of life in a sample of 167 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 165 healthy controls with no DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Participants completed the Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMR), the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. SAD symptom severity was assessed using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Individuals with SAD scored significantly lower than controls on the NMR. Among SAD participants, NMR scores were negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms and SAD severity, and positively correlated with quality of life. NMR expectancies positively predicted quality of life even after controlling for demographic variables, comorbid diagnoses, anxiety symptoms, and SAD severity. Individuals with SAD may be less likely to engage in emotion regulating strategies due to negative beliefs regarding their effectiveness, thereby contributing to poorer quality of life.

  12. Life expectancy in a western and immigrant receiving population (El Ejido, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Luna, Francisco; García-Moro, Clara; Alonso, Verónica

    2007-12-01

    This study deals with the mortality pattern of El Ejido population, an agricultural Spanish community with a sub-tropical climate, located on the western Mediterranean coast (Andalusia). Based on the incorporation of modern agrarian techniques, this region has experienced a great economic development. Its demographic consequences were relevant, such as the arrival of immigrants throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The analysis of several demographic parameters shown in the abridged life table has revealed a small but non-random decrease of mortality during the last two decades of the past century. Furthermore, from the low value reached by the current entropy coefficient (H = 0.131), and the comparison of El Ejido life-expectancy at birth (e0) with Spain and Andalusia, we concluded that: a) The current mortality of El Ejido has approached a theoretical situation, where all deaths tend to take place at the age of 78.09 (its e0), and the death probability is very low at earlier ages. b) Some peculiar characteristics of its immigration as well as the high influence of the great public health system reached currently in Spain, reveal that El Ejido mortality does not depend on its remarkable immigration.

  13. The Impact of Arthritis on Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckhardt, Carol S.

    Poor health has been implicated as a suppressor of the life satisfaction of older adults. To clarify the contribution of arthritis to this process, functional disability, negative affect, pain, current severity of the disease, self-esteem, perception of general health, and internal health locus of control, were placed within a causal model as…

  14. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  15. Life-Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…

  16. Increasing Student/Older Adult Interaction by Life Review Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Edward D.; Haight, Barbara K.

    1993-01-01

    A method for increasing interaction between students and older adults in a geriatric pharmacy course uses an instructional module on stereotypes, age and personality, role changes, and nursing home living. The course requires students to conduct a life review of someone over age 65. The exercise improves student communication skills and…

  17. Lifetime Trauma, Emotional Support, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among lifetime exposure to traumatic events, emotional support, and life satisfaction in three cohorts of older adults. Design and Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of 1,518 older people in 2003. Approximately 500 elders were interviewed in…

  18. Self Concept Development through the Adult Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mervin D.; Lynch, Carol Lee

    1991-01-01

    The developmental model of self-concept proposed by M. Lynch and M. Levy (1982) is extended through the entire adult life cycle. Self-concept is seen as a set of cognitive rules that have affective or cognitive consequences and that operate like the ego functions proposed by Freud. (SLD)

  19. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. METHODS We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. RESULTS On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction. PMID:27809456

  20. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  1. Life experience of the adult and ageing patient with haemophilia. Practical aspects for psychological support.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ortuño, A; Cid-Sabatel, R; Barbero, J; García-Dasí, M

    2017-03-15

    This article discusses, from a psychological perspective, the life experience of the adult and ageing person with haemophilia, including psychological issues, aspects of his personal and social integration, decision-making, communication and other factors that may affect treatment adherence and quality of life. The aim was to provide haematologists and healthcare staff with knowledge and resources to improve communication and support for adult persons with haemophilia, and raise awareness on psychosocial issues related to quality of life, sexuality and aspects associated with ageing with haemophilia. Adulthood is a period of many personal and social changes, and ageing with haemophilia is a relatively new phenomenon due to increased life expectancy in this population. Patients have to adapt to the disease continuously when facing new expectations, life projects and issues arising with increasing age, so the healthcare team should be ready to provide support. A good therapeutic alliance with the patient must be accompanied by assessment and counselling in aspects including satisfaction, perceived difficulties and barriers, and emotional needs. Raising awareness of all this will result in the patient benefiting from the recent improvements in treatments.

  2. Physical activity, disability, and quality of life in older adults.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2010-05-01

    This article provides an overview of physical activity and its association with function, disability, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes among older adults. The rationale and the associated onset of chronic disease conditions that influence function, disability, and QOL is embedded in the "Graying of America". The literature reviewed in this article yielded 3 general conclusions: (1) there is an alarming rate of physical inactivity among older adults, particularly those aging with a disability; (2) there is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on impairment, function, and health-related aspects of QOL among older adults, but there is less conclusive evidence for positive effects of physical activity on disability and global QOL; and (3) there is emerging support for self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between physical activity and disability, and QOL outcomes in older adults. Researchers should consider designing and testing programs that incorporate strategies for enhancing self-efficacy along with the promotion of physical activity as a means of preventing disablement and improving QOL among older adults. Such work will go a long way in identifying practical approaches that can be applied for improving the later years of life and is critical because many Americans will soon be affected by the aging of adults in the United States.

  3. BARRIERS TO LIFE JACKET USE AMONG ADULT RECREATIONAL BOATERS

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.; Bennett, Elizabeth E.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify barriers to life jacket use. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Nine public boat ramps in western Washington State, USA, August-November, 2008. Participants 675 adult boaters (>18 years) on motor boats <26 feet long. Main outcome Low or no life jacket use (0–50% of time) versus high life jacket use (51–100% of time). Results Low/no life jacket use (0%–50% of time) was associated with longer boat length (per foot, risk ratio [RR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.05), alcohol use (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.20), perception of life jackets as “uncomfortable” (RR 1.29, 95%CI 1.09–1.52), perceived greater level of swimming ability (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.53 for “expert swimmer”), and possibly with lack of confidence that a life jacket may save one from drowning (RR 1.13, 95%CI 0.96–1.32). Low life jacket use was less likely when a child was onboard (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.99), or if the respondent had taken a boating safety class (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87–1.01). Conclusions Life jacket use may increase with more comfortable devices, such as inflatable life jackets, and with increased awareness of their efficacy in preventing drowning. Boater education classes may be associated with increased life jacket use among adults. PMID:24686261

  4. Transition to adult life in the monogenic epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Ingrid E; Dravet, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    There are many monogenic disorders associated with epilepsy that begin in childhood and persist into adult life. Each of these disorders raises specific issues for transition, in addition to common issues facing this group of patients as they move from pediatric to adult care. Such comorbidities include psychiatric and movement disorders. Epileptic encephalopathies may be caused by monogenic disorders, with Dravet syndrome being the best characterized. Although some patients have a relatively good adult outcome, others have persisting severe epilepsy complicated by autistic spectrum disorder and problems with gait. When reevaluating a patient as they transition to adult care, a thorough reconsideration of the genetic etiology of their epilepsy should be performed. This should be followed by genetic counseling for the patient and their family members.

  5. Life Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful sub-groups within the total sample. The six groups are: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying sub-groups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual’s life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554

  6. Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Combination antiretroviral therapy has led to significant increases in survival and quality of life, but at a population-level the effect on life expectancy is not well understood. Our objective was to compare changes in mortality and life expectancy among HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration is a multinational collaboration of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America. Patients were included in this analysis if they were aged 16 years or over and antiretroviral-naive when initiating combination therapy. We constructed abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies for individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, stratified by sex, baseline CD4 cell count, and history of injecting drug use. The average number of years remaining to be lived by those treated with combination antiretroviral therapy at 20 and 35 years of age was estimated. Potential years of life lost from 20 to 64 years of age and crude death rates were also calculated. Findings 18 587, 13 914, and 10 854 eligible patients initiated combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, respectively. 2056 (4·7%) deaths were observed during the study period, with crude death rates decreasing from 16·3 deaths per 1000 person-years in 1996–99 to 10·0 deaths per 1000 person-years in 2003–05. Potential years of life lost per 1000 person-years also decreased over the same time, from 366 to 189 years. Life expectancy at age 20 years increased from 36·1 (SE 0·6) years to 49·4 (0·5) years. Women had higher life expectancies than men. Patients with presumed transmission via injecting drug use had lower life expectancies than those from other transmission groups (32·6 [1·1] years vs 44·7 [0·3] years in 2003–05). Life expectancy was lower in patients with lower baseline CD4 counts than in those with higher baseline counts

  7. Estimation of life expectancy of patients diagnosed with the most common cancers in the Valparaiso Region, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Taramasco, C; Figueroa, K; Lazo, Y; Demongeot, J

    2017-01-01

    Background The 1000s of people who die from cancer each year have become one of the leading causes of death among the Chilean population, placing it as the second cause of death in the region of Valparaiso between 1997 and 2003. Statistics have provided different measures regarding the life expectancy of cancer patients which have resulted in being useful to establish courses of action for prevention and treatment plans to follow. Methods Data was extracted from the cancer module of the Epidemiology Assistance System (SADEPI for its initials in Spanish) which stores information about cancer cases in the provinces of Valparaiso and Petorca. The survival period is defined as the difference in days between the date of occurrence and the date of death of the patient by separating the data into quartiles. Results The more frequent cancers in the region of Valparaiso behave similarly to global behaviours of the disease. The majority of affected patients are around 65 years of age which progressively lowers its occurrence in younger adults under the age of 45. Conclusions Further efforts are required for early detection and timely access to treatment for cancer patients. Statistics are an important support in achieving this. PMID:28144287

  8. Tying it all together: telomeres, sexual size dimorphism and the gender gap in life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Stindl, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The classic explanation that women outlive men solely due to hormonal and lifestyle differences, does not withstand a critical analysis. In developed countries, the average gap in life expectancy between the sexes is 7 years. It has widened over the last decades, despite the trend of women copying the 'unhealthy' lifestyle of men. Estrogen levels in postmenopausal women are virtually identical to estrogen levels in males and can hardly explain the discrepancy. Furthermore, testosterone got its bad reputation from one study on mentally retarded men, which has to be interpreted with caution. However, sexual size dimorphism with men being the larger sex in conjunction with the limited replication potential of human somatic cells might account for higher mortality rates in males, especially at old age. The hypothesis, as presented here, is based on the well-known concept of a cellular mitotic clock, which was discovered by Leonard Hayflick almost half a century ago. The underlying counting mechanism, namely the gradual erosion of chromosome ends (telomeres) due to the end replication problem of linear DNA molecules, was first described by Alexey Olovnikov in 1971 and with minor modifications has become a widely accepted paradigm. In a recent Lancet study, an inverse correlation between mean telomere length and mortality in people has been found. In this and two other studies, it was confirmed that males do have shorter telomeres than females at the same age. This is almost certainly a consequence of men being usually taller than women, although nobody has done an investigation yet. Clearly, a larger body requires more cell doublings, especially due to the ongoing regeneration of tissues over a lifetime. Accordingly, the replicative history of male cells might be longer than that of female cells, resulting in the exhaustion of the regeneration potential and the early onset of age-associated diseases predominantly in large-bodied males. Inherited telomere length

  9. Life Expectancy with and without Cognitive Impairment in Seven Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Jagger, Carol; Fouweather, Tony; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of cognitive impairment is an increasing challenge with the ageing of our populations but little is known about the burden in low- and middle- income Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC) that are aging more rapidly than their developed counterparts. We examined life expectancies with cognitive impairment (CILE) and free of cognitive impairment (CIFLE) in seven developing LAC countries. Methods Data from The Survey on Health, Well-being and Ageing in LAC (N = 10,597) was utilised and cognitive status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The Sullivan Method was applied to estimate CILE and CIFLE. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of age, gender and education on cognitive outcome. Meta-regression models were fitted for all 7 countries together to investigate the relationship between CIFLE and education in men and women at age 60. Results The prevalence of CI increased with age in all countries except Uruguay and with a significant gender effect observed only in Mexico where men had lower odds of CI compared to women [OR = 0.464 95% CInt (0.268 – 0.806)]. Low education was associated with increased prevalence of CI in Brazil [OR = 4.848 (1.173–20.044)], Chile [OR = 3.107 (1.098–8.793), Cuba [OR = 2.295 (1.247–4.225)] and Mexico [OR = 3.838 (1.368–10.765). For males, total life expectancy (TLE) at age 60 was highest in Cuba (19.7 years) and lowest in Brazil and Uruguay (17.6 years). TLE for females at age 60 was highest for Chileans (22.8 years) and lowest for Brazilians (20.2 years). CIFLE for men was greatest in Cuba (19.0 years) and least in Brazil (16.7 years). These differences did not appear to be explained by educational level (Men: p = 0.408, women: p = 0.695). Conclusion Increasing age, female sex and low education were associated with higher CI in LAC reflecting patterns found in other countries. PMID:25799186

  10. Spatial inequalities in life expectancy within postindustrial regions of Europe: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; Parcell, Sophie; Hartmann, Anja; Poirier, Gilles; Strniskova, Dana; Hanlon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare spatial inequalities in life expectancy (LE) in West Central Scotland (WCS) with nine other postindustrial European regions. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting WCS and nine other postindustrial regions across Europe. Participants Data for WCS and nine other comparably deindustrialised European regions were analysed. Male and female LEs at birth were obtained or calculated for the mid-2000s for 160 districts within selected regions. Districts were stratified into two groups: small (populations of between 141 000 and 185 000 people) and large (populations between 224 000 and 352 000). The range and IQR in LE were used to describe within-region disparities. Results In small districts, the male LE range was widest in WCS and Merseyside, while the IQR was widest in WCS and Northern Ireland. For women, the LE range was widest in WCS, though the IQR was widest in Northern Ireland and Merseyside. In large districts, the range and IQR in LE was widest in WCS and Wallonia for both sexes. Conclusions Subregional spatial inequalities in LE in WCS are wide compared with other postindustrial mainland European regions, especially for men. Future research could explore the contribution of economic, social and political factors in reducing these inequalities. PMID:24889851

  11. The Contribution of Smoking to Educational Gradients in U.S. Life Expectancy*

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.; Fenelon, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have documented widening educational gradients in mortality in the United States since the 1970s. While smoking has been proposed as a key explanation for this trend, no prior study has quantified the contribution of smoking to increasing education gaps in longevity. We estimate the contribution of smoking to educational gradients in life expectancy using data on white men and women aged 50 and above from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (N=283,430; 68,644 deaths) and the National Health Interview Survey (N=584,811; 127,226 deaths) in five periods covering the 1980s to 2006. In each period, smoking makes an important contribution to education gaps in longevity for white men and women. Smoking accounts for half the increase in the gap for white women but does not explain the widening gap for white men in the most recent period. Addressing greater initiation and continued smoking among the less educated may reduce mortality inequalities. PMID:26199287

  12. Delayed symptom onset and increased life expectancy in Sandhoff disease mice treated with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin

    PubMed Central

    Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Butters, Terry D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Hunnam, Victoria; Proia, Richard L.; Perry, V. Hugh; Dwek, Raymond A.; Platt, Frances M.

    1999-01-01

    Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the β-subunit of β-hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve CNS pathology, including the GM2 gangliosidoses. One strategy for treating this and related diseases is substrate deprivation. This would utilize an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis to balance synthesis with the impaired rate of catabolism, thus preventing storage. One such inhibitor is N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, which currently is in clinical trials for the potential treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease, a related disease that involves glycosphingolipid storage in peripheral tissues, but not in the CNS. In this study, we have evaluated whether this drug also could be applied to the treatment of diseases with CNS storage and pathology. We therefore have treated a mouse model of Sandhoff disease with the inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. The treated mice have delayed symptom onset, reduced storage in the brain and peripheral tissues, and increased life expectancy. Substrate deprivation therefore offers a potentially general therapy for this family of lysosomal storage diseases, including those with CNS disease. PMID:10339597

  13. [Life expectancy of clinically occult breast cancer. Study of a comparative patient sample since 1975].

    PubMed

    Paterok, E M; Neudert, M; Rosenthal, H; Richter, S; Säbel, N

    1993-05-01

    We have been observing 2 groups of 50 female patients with occult or clinical breast cancer each of whom was initially treated at the Gynaecologic Hospital of the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg between 1975 and 1978. During the follow-up period, 2 patients out of the group of occult cancer and 13 out of the group of clinical carcinoma died of their primary disease. Four women out of the group of occult cancer and 3 from the group of "clinical carcinoma" have developed recurrences. The differences in survival times according to Kaplan-Meier are immense, even if they are not significant owing to the small number of patients. But it is difficult to obtain and to evaluate larger groups of patients and longer follow-up periods due to the low percentage of occult cancer (7.7 to 10.5% only). There are 30 women out of the group of occult breast cancer living without relapse after an observation period up to 15 years. 27 patients out of the group of "clinical cancer" have not shown any evidence of recurrence up to now. This small difference after such a long follow-up period can be explained by the general life expectancy and by the age at initial treatment.

  14. Obesidad y Esperanza de Vida en México Obesity and life expectancy in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Malena; Novak, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The high and increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in Latin American and the Caribbean and the increasing prevalence of some obesity-related chronic diseases could be changing the current mortality patterns and the improvements in life expectancy of this population. The main objective of this study is to measure the effect of overweight and obesity on mortality in Mexico among elderly people (60 years and older). We use the Mexican Health and Ageing Study (MHAS, 2001 and 2003) that is a panel nationally-representative study of the population 50 years and older in Mexico. Our results show that excess body weight (defined by the two highest quintiles of Body Mass Index-BMI-) increases the risk of mortality at 60 years and older in Mexico. As much as 11% of the deaths among elderly that occurred during the period 2001-2003 in Mexico would have been avoided if overweight and obese people (individuals belonging to the highest two quintiles of BMI) had had the "ideal" weight (defined by the middle quintile, or third quintile, of BMI). At individual level, we estimate that individuals 60 years old with excess body weight (fourth and fifth quintiles of BMI) survive four years less, in average, than individuals with normal body weight (third quintile of BMI).

  15. Obesidad y Esperanza de Vida en México Obesity and life expectancy in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Monteverde, Malena; Novak, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The high and increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in Latin American and the Caribbean and the increasing prevalence of some obesity-related chronic diseases could be changing the current mortality patterns and the improvements in life expectancy of this population. The main objective of this study is to measure the effect of overweight and obesity on mortality in Mexico among elderly people (60 years and older). We use the Mexican Health and Ageing Study (MHAS, 2001 and 2003) that is a panel nationally-representative study of the population 50 years and older in Mexico. Our results show that excess body weight (defined by the two highest quintiles of Body Mass Index-BMI-) increases the risk of mortality at 60 years and older in Mexico. As much as 11% of the deaths among elderly that occurred during the period 2001-2003 in Mexico would have been avoided if overweight and obese people (individuals belonging to the highest two quintiles of BMI) had had the “ideal” weight (defined by the middle quintile, or third quintile, of BMI). At individual level, we estimate that individuals 60 years old with excess body weight (fourth and fifth quintiles of BMI) survive four years less, in average, than individuals with normal body weight (third quintile of BMI). PMID:25705173

  16. The Contribution of Specific Diseases to Educational Disparities in Disability-Free Life Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Nusselder, Wilma J.; Looman, Caspar W.N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Huisman, Martijn; van Oyen, Herman; Deboosere, Patrick; Gadeyne, Sylvie; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution that specific diseases, as causes of both death and disability, make to educational disparities in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). Methods. We used disability data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (1997) and mortality data from the National Mortality Follow-Up Study (1991–1996) to assess education-related disparities in DFLE and to partition these differences into additive contributions of specific diseases. Results. The DFLE advantage of higher-educated compared with lower-educated persons was 8.0 years for men and 5.9 years for women. Arthritis (men, 1.3 years; women, 2.2 years), back complaints (men, 2.1 years), heart disease/stroke (men, 1.5 years; women, 1.6 years), asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (men, 1.2 years; women, 1.5 years), and “other diseases” (men, 2.4 years) contributed the most to this difference. Conclusions. Disabling diseases, such as arthritis, back complaints, and asthma/COPD, contribute substantially to differences in DFLE by education. Public health policy aiming to reduce existing disparities in the DFLE and to improve population health should not only focus on fatal diseases but also on these nonfatal diseases. PMID:16195519

  17. Relationship between tongue strength and 1-year life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Yuri; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tamura, Fumiyo; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-05

    Tongue strength is a useful indicator of oral function and has been found to decrease with aging and reduced physical functioning. The present study aimed to assess the relationships of tongue strength with physical function, mental function, and nutritional status, and also between these factors and 1-year outcomes, to determine whether tongue strength is related to life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care. The subjects were 140 elderly individuals requiring needing nursing care (49 men and 91 women; ≥65 years). The investigated items included sex, age, activities of daily living (ADL), comorbidity, cognitive function, nutritional status, eating function, occlusal support, and tongue strength. Furthermore, a follow-up study was conducted 1 year later, and factors related to death were identified. The mean tongue strength of the total 140 subjects was 20.3 ± 8.6 kPa. Tongue strength was assessed relative to each of the investigated items, using the t test and one-way analysis of variance. Tongue strength was significantly related to ADL, comorbidity, cognitive function, calf circumference, food intake, and occlusal support. Fifteen subjects were found to have died at the 1-year follow-up study. We assessed the relationships of 1-year outcomes with each of the factors examined, and 1-year outcomes were found to be significantly related to ADL and tongue strength.

  18. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century.

  19. Challenging the 10-year rule: The accuracy of patient life expectancy predictions by physicians in relation to prostate cancer management

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kevin M.Y.B.; Hopman, Wilma M; Kawakami, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We assess physicians’ ability to accurately predict life expectancies. In prostate cancer this prediction is especially important as it affects screening decisions. No previous studies have examined accuracy in the context of real cases and concrete end points. Methods: Seven clinical scenarios were summarized from charts of deceased patients. We recruited 100 medical professionals to review these scenarios and estimate each patient’s life expectancy. Responses were analyzed with respect to the patients’ actual survival end points, then stratified based on the demographic information provided. Results: Respondent factors, such as sex, level of training, location of work or specialty, made no significant difference on prediction accuracy. Furthermore, respondents were typically pessimistic in their estimations with a negative linear trend between estimated life expectancy and actual survival. Overall, respondents were within 1 year of actual life expectancy only 15.9% of the time; on average, respondents were 67.4% inaccurate in relation to actual survival. If framed in terms of correctly identifying which patients would live more than or less than 10 years (dichotomous accuracy), physicians were correct 68.3% of the time. Conclusions: Physicians do poorly at predicting life expectancy and tend to underestimate how long patients have left to live. This overall inaccuracy raises the question of whether physicians should refine screening and treatment criteria, find a better proxy or dispose of the criteria altogether. PMID:23093629

  20. [Work stress in the second half of adult life].

    PubMed

    Schmid, Andreas

    2014-08-20

    Stress at work is a risk factor for common mental and somatic diseases. As we get past 50 and enter the second half of adult life, our body reminds us relentlessly of our advancing age. In a society dominated by ideals of youth and success, employees in the second half of their lives, experience special forms of stress. Based upon contemporary concepts of stress, solutions for the particular stressful challenges met by older people at work are discussed.

  1. IQ and ability across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2011-07-01

    The experience of cognitive decline can be a potent source of anxiety and concern for many people. While an IQ consistent with estimated optimal levels or previously recorded scores may indicate no significant change in cognitive function, the patient may be accurately reporting a normal age-related deterioration in actual ability. The aim of this article is to chart the age-related changes in intellectual abilities evident on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The norms from the WAIS-IV manual were examined to plot the age-related changes in Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and composite scores across the adult life span, while holding actual ability level constant across the age groups. Here we present a graphical representation of the normal cognitive developments and declines in FSIQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed across the adult life span. This graphical representation provides a rational basis for the identification of atypical profiles/complaints of cognitive deterioration that may require further specialist neuropsychological evaluation. These graphs can be used to provide reassurance for healthy adults with concerns of cognitive decline and as an educative tool for their referring agencies.

  2. Measuring Older Adults Filial Responsibility Expectations: Exploring the Application of a Vignette Technique and an Item Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pas, Suzan; van Tilburg, Theo; Knipscheer, Kees C. P. M.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on two conceptually distinct measures of the filial responsibility expectations of older adults: a vignette technique and an attitude item scale. Data were based on 1,553 respondents aged 61 to 92 years who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam in 1998 to 1999.The results showed that the item scale had multiple…

  3. Radiation exposure from CT-guided ablation of renal masses: effects on life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D; Gervais, Debra A; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Sabir, Sharjeel H; Paul, Aaron B; Pandharipande, Pari V

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to project the effects of radiation exposure on life expectancy (LE) in patients who opt for CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) instead of surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We developed a decision-analytic Markov model to compare LE losses attributable to radiation exposure in hypothetical 65-year-old patients who undergo CT-guided RFA versus surgery for small (≤ 4 cm) RCC. We incorporated mortality risks from RCC, radiation-induced cancers (for procedural and follow-up CT scans), and all other causes; institutional data informed the RFA procedural effective dose. Radiation-induced cancer risks were generated using an organ-specific approach. Effects of varying model parameters and of dose-reduction strategies were evaluated in sensitivity analysis. RESULTS. Cumulative RFA exposures (up to 305.2 mSv for one session plus surveillance) exceeded those from surgery (up to 87.2 mSv). In 65-year-old men, excess LE loss from radiation-induced cancers, comparing RFA to surgery, was 11.7 days (14.6 days for RFA vs 2.9 days for surgery). Results varied with sex and age; this difference increased to 14.6 days in 65-year-old women and to 21.5 days in 55-year-old men. Dose-reduction strategies that addressed follow-up rather than procedural exposure had a greater impact. In 65-year-old men, this difference decreased to 3.8 days if post-RFA follow-up scans were restricted to a single phase; even elimination of RFA procedural exposure could not achieve equivalent benefits. CONCLUSION. CT-guided RFA remains a safe alternative to surgery, but with decreasing age, the higher burden of radiation exposure merits explicit consideration. Dose-reduction strategies that target follow-up rather than procedural exposure will have a greater impact.

  4. Improvement of Life Expectancy of Jute Based Needlepunched Geotextiles Through Bitumen Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Ray Gupta, K.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Sahu, R. B.; Mandol, S.

    2014-12-01

    Geotextiles have witnessed unrivalled growth worldwide in recent years in the field of different civil engineering constructions. The world of Geotextiles includes mainly non-biodegradable synthetic materials which are not environmentally compatible. With the increasing human awareness on environmental pollution aspects, biodegradable Jute Geotextile is increasingly gaining ground over its synthetic non-biodegradable counterpart. Though Jute is advantageous for its complete biodegradability in one hand but on the other hand it is disadvantageous for its poor microbial resistance and quicker biodegradation particularly under moist soil conditions, when applied as Geotextiles under soil. Therefore, it is a great challenge to the present researchers to make jute more microbial resistant (rot resistant) keeping its biodegradability intact during its performance period. Thorough investigation and study regarding the improvement of the durability of natural Jute Geotextile reveals the fact that though several attempts including chemical treatments have been made to enhance the life expectancy of jute fabrics yet these methods were neither found to be suitable nor techno-economically viable. Therefore, in order to accomplish the objective and based on the researchers' report of satisfactory thermal compatibility between hot bitumen and jute nonwoven fabrics, in the present study Bitumen emulsion with essential additives has been applied following a special technique, apart from the conventional method, on the Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics in different add on percentages to make a comparative assessment of the performance of both Grey Jute Fabrics and Bituminized Jute Nonwoven Fabrics by Soil Burial Test as per the BIS standard test method. The test results revealed that the durability and performance of the Bituminized Nonwoven Jute Fabrics are much better than that of Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics.

  5. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries

    PubMed Central

    YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; HAGHDOOST, Aliakbar; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossein; AMINIAN, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. Methods: In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. Results: GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient −0.039; 95% CI: −0.058, −0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (−0.019; 95% CI: −0.035, −0.003), GNI (−0.035; 95% CI: −0.055, −0.015), and both EI and GNI (−0.017; 95% CI: −0.033, −0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. Conclusion: The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries. PMID:25905077

  6. Crosslinking of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides to modulate the expected half-life.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, L; Madaghiele, M; Parisi, C; Gatti, F; Sannino, A

    2014-12-01

    The microstructural, mechanical, compositional, and degradative properties of a nerve conduit are known to strongly affect the regenerative process of the injured peripheral nerve. Starting from the fabrication of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides, according to a spin-casting process reported in the literature, this study further investigates the possibility to modulate the degradation rate of the scaffolds over a wide time frame, in an attempt to match different rates of nerve regeneration that might be encountered in vivo. To this aim, three different crosslinking methods, that is, dehydrothermal (DHT), carbodiimide-based (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde-based (GTA) crosslinking, were selected. The elastically effective degree of crosslinking, attained by each method and evaluated according to the classical rubber elasticity theory, was found to significantly tune the in vitro half-life (t1/2 ) of the matrices, with an exponential dependence of the latter on the crosslink density. The high crosslinking efficacy of EDAC and GTA treatments, respectively threefold and fourfold when compared to the one attained by DHT, led to a sharp increase of the corresponding in vitro half-lives (ca., 10, 172, and 690 h, for DHT, EDAC, and GTA treated matrices, respectively). As shown by cell viability assays, the cytocompatibility of both DHT and EDAC treatments, as opposed to the toxicity of GTA, suggests that such methods are suitable to crosslink collagen-based scaffolds conceived for clinical use. In particular, nerve guides with expected high residence times in vivo might be produced by finely controlling the biocompatible reaction(s) adopted for crosslinking.

  7. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  8. Contributions of music to aging adults' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Solé, Carme; Mercadal-Brotons, Melissa; Gallego, Sofia; Riera, Mariangels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) To evaluate and to compare the impact of three music programs (choir, music appreciation and preventive music therapy sessions) on the quality of life of healthy older adults, and (b) to identify the motivations and the difficulties that seniors encounter when participating in activities of this type, in order to come up with recommendations and strategies for the design of appropriate programs for older adults. A pre-posttest quasi-experimental design without equivalent control group was used in this project. The sample included 83 persons over 65 years of age. The data collection was carried out through an ad hoc questionnaire that included the four aspects of the construct of quality of life (physical health, subjective health, psychological well-being and interpersonal relations), a questionnaire on motivation and another on satisfaction about the program. This questionnaire on quality of life was administered twice: at the beginning of the programs (pretest) and at the end (posttest). The results of this study indicate that the participants perceived improvements in some aspects of their quality of life. In addition, the main reasons which motivate participation in these musical activities are to broaden the social network and to acquire new knowledge. The results are discussed in the light of the challenges of active and satisfactory aging.

  9. Early life conditions, rapid demographic changes and older adult health in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    McEniry, Mary; McDermott, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The demographic transition of the 1930s–1960s dramatically improved life expectancy in some developing countries. Cohorts born during this time are increasingly characterized by their survivorship of poor early life conditions, such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases. As a result, they are potentially more susceptible to the effects of these conditions at older ages. This study examines this conjecture by comparing obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in older adults born in the beginning portion of the 1930s–1960s across different mortality regimes using a subset of harmonized cross national data from seven low and middle income countries (RELATE, n=16,836). Using birthplace and height as indicators of early life conditions, results show (1) higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes and higher likelihood of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in middle income countries but, (2) no convincing evidence to indicate stronger effects of early life conditions on health in these countries. However, shorter adults living in urban areas were more likely to be obese indicating the overall importance of early life conditions and the potential negative impact of urban exposures during adulthood. Obesity results may foreshadow the health of future cohorts born in the later portion of the 1930s–1960s as they reach older ages (60+). PMID:26266970

  10. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  11. Predictors and social consequences of daily pain expectancy among adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Mun, Chung Jung; Thummala, Kirti; Davis, Mary C; Karoly, Paul; Tennen, Howard; Zautra, Alex J

    2017-03-21

    Previous research suggests that for people living with chronic pain, pain expectancy can undermine access to adaptive resources and functioning. We tested and replicated the unique effect of pain expectancy on subsequent pain through 2 daily diary studies. We also extended previous findings by examining cognitive and affective antecedents of pain expectancy and the consequences of pain expectancy for daily social enjoyment and stress. In study 1, 231 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis completed 30 end-of-day diaries. Results of multilevel structural equation model showed that controlling for today's pain, pain expectancy predicted next day pain. In study 2, diary assessments of affective, cognitive, and social factors were collected during the morning, afternoon, and evening for 21 days from a sample of 220 individuals with fibromyalgia. Results showed that both positive affect and the extent to which pain interfered with daily activities in the afternoon predicted evening pain expectancy in the expected direction. However, negative affect and pain coping efficacy were not associated with pain expectancy. Consistent with study 1, more than usual evening pain expectancy was related to greater next morning pain. We also found that next morning pain predicted next afternoon social enjoyment but not social stress. The findings of these 2 studies point to the importance of promoting positive affect and reducing pain expectancy as a way of decreasing the detrimental effect of chronic pain on enjoyable social experiences.

  12. Life in varying environments: experimental evidence for delayed effects of juvenile environment on adult life history.

    PubMed

    Helle, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

    2012-05-01

    1. The effects of environment experienced during early development on phenotype as an adult has started to gain vast amounts of interest in various taxa. Some evidence on long-term effects of juvenile environment is available, but replicated experimental studies in wild animals are still lacking. 2. Here we report the first replicated experiment in wild mammals which examines the long-term effects of juvenile and adult environments on individual fitness (reproduction, survival and health). The early development of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) individuals took place in either food-supplemented or un-supplemented outdoor enclosures. After the summer, adult individuals were reciprocally changed to either a similar or opposite resource environment to overwinter. 3. Adult environment had an overriding effect on reproductive success of females so that females overwintering in food-supplemented enclosures had a higher probability of breeding and advanced the initiation of breeding. However, the characteristics of their litters were determined by juvenile environment: females initially grown in food-supplemented conditions subsequently produced larger litters with bigger pups and a male-biased sex ratio. 4. In males, individuals growing in un-supplemented conditions had the highest survival irrespective of adult environment during winter, whereas in females, neither the juvenile nor adult environments affected their survival significantly. The physiological condition of voles in spring, as determined by haematological parameters, was also differentially affected by juvenile (plasma proteins and male testosterone) and adult (haematocrit) environments. 5. Our results suggest that (i) life-history trajectories of voles are not strictly specialized to a certain environment and (ii) the plastic life-history responses to present conditions can actually be caused by delayed effects of the juvenile environment. More generally, the results are important for understanding

  13. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60) data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60) and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each group. Results Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care. PMID:27814777

  14. Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

  15. Approximations for Estimating Change in Life Expectancy Attributable to Air Pollution in Relation to Multiple Causes of Death Using a Cause Modified Life Table.

    PubMed

    Stieb, David M; Judek, Stan; Brand, Kevin; Burnett, Richard T; Shin, Hwashin H

    2015-08-01

    There is considerable debate as to the most appropriate metric for characterizing the mortality impacts of air pollution. Life expectancy has been advocated as an informative measure. Although the life-table calculus is relatively straightforward, it becomes increasingly cumbersome when repeated over large numbers of geographic areas and for multiple causes of death. Two simplifying assumptions were evaluated: linearity of the relation between excess rate ratio and change in life expectancy, and additivity of cause-specific life-table calculations. We employed excess rate ratios linking PM2.5 and mortality from cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, and lung cancer derived from a meta-analysis of worldwide cohort studies. As a sensitivity analysis, we employed an integrated exposure response function based on the observed risk of PM2.5 over a wide range of concentrations from ambient exposure, indoor exposure, second-hand smoke, and personal smoking. Impacts were estimated in relation to a change in PM2.5 from 19.5 μg/m(3) estimated for Toronto to an estimated natural background concentration of 1.8 μg/m(3) . Estimated changes in life expectancy varied linearly with excess rate ratios, but at higher values the relationship was more accurately represented as a nonlinear function. Changes in life expectancy attributed to specific causes of death were additive with maximum error of 10%. Results were sensitive to assumptions about the air pollution concentration below which effects on mortality were not quantified. We have demonstrated valid approximations comprising expression of change in life expectancy as a function of excess mortality and summation across multiple causes of death.

  16. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  17. Family Background, Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students' Career and Life Success Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  18. Young Adults' Fertility Expectations and Events: Associations with College Enrollment and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raley, R. Kelly; Kim, Yujin; Daniels, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The analyses described in this article investigated the association between adolescent fertility expectations and college enrollment (N = 7,838). They also explored the potential impact of fertility expectations and events on college persistence among 4-year (n = 2,605) and 2-year (n = 1,962) college students. The analysis, which used data from…

  19. Type 1 diabetes prevalence increasing globally and regionally: the role of natural selection and life expectancy at birth

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Peng; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease is increasing worldwide. We aim to test correlation of T1D prevalence to the reduced natural selection measured by Biological State Index (Ibs). Research design and methods Country-specific estimates of T1D prevalence, life expectancy, obesity prevalence rate, urbanization rates, per capita sugars consumption and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained. Ibs and country-specific longevity (e50) increase for each country were self-calculated. These data were then matched to T1D prevalence by country for our ecological study among 118 countries. Countries were also grouped to study the associations in different regions. SPSS V.22 was used for correlation analysis. Results Worldwide, both Ibs and life expectancy at birth (Ibs proxy) were significantly correlated to T1D prevalence in Pearson r (r=0.713, p<0.001 and r=0.722, p<0.001, respectively) and Spearman's r (r=0.724, p<0.001 and r=0.689, p<0.001, respectively). T1D prevalence was not correlated to longevity increase measured as life expectancy at 50 years old. T1D prevalence was significantly associated with Ibs (r=0.307, p<0.001) and newborn life expectancy (r=0.349, p<0.001) independent of per capita total sugar consumption, per capita GDP, urbanization and obesity prevalence in partial correlation. Globally, both life expectancy at birth and Ibs exponentially correlated to T1D prevalence. Pearson correlations generally existed in different country categorizations by geographic region, culture background and economic status. Conclusions Reduced natural selection may have contributed to the increasing T1D prevalence worldwide. T1D epidemiology study in total population may be the practical solution to identify the causes of increasing T1D prevalence. PMID:26977306

  20. Gender differences in health and health expectancies of older adults in Singapore: an examination of diseases, impairments, and functional disabilities.

    PubMed

    Yong, Vanessa; Saito, Yasuhiko; Chan, Angelique

    2011-06-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 4,511 Singaporeans aged 55+ from the 2005 National Survey of Senior Citizens (NSSC), this paper examines gender differences in specific diseases, impairments, and disabilities, and computes health expectancies for these health dimensions. Results show that women have higher prevalence for hypertension, bone/joint, eye/vision, and walking problems, while heart diseases and stroke are more common among men, particularly at younger ages. At ages 75+, women have more disabilities related to basic activities of daily living (bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, and feeding) than men. Health expectancies computations by the Sullivan method reveal that while women live longer than men, they can also expect more years of life both without and with diseases, impairments, and disabilities. At age 65, a larger proportion of women's remaining life is with hypertension, bone/joint problems, vision impairments, walking difficulties, and functional disabilities compared to same-aged men. The findings largely support the gender health-survival paradox found in Western countries--that women have higher morbidity rates despite longer life expectancy. The morbidity differences between men and women, however, vary depending on the particular health dimension and measure examined. Older women in Singapore tend to be advantaged in prevalence of diseases and disease-free life expectancy, but have more impairments and functional disabilities, and a larger proportion of remaining life with these difficulties compared to older men. Health policies and programs in Singapore will need to cater to these gender differences in specific health dimensions and measures.

  1. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  2. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates.

  3. Quality of life of older adults in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Naile; Arpacı, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting the quality of life of the elderly people in Turkey. Three-hundred community-dwelling older adults (Mage=68.35, SD=5.80 years) participated in this study. The quality of life was examined through World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Older Adults Module Turkish Version (WHOQOL-OLD Turkish). Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) showed significant age differences in sensory abilities, social participation, and intimacy sub-scale scores. Post hoc Scheffe Test results indicated that elderly people aged 75 years and over differed from other age groups; although their scores in social participation and intimacy were lower; they had higher scores in sensory abilities than those aged 60-65 and 66-74 years. There were significant differences between the educational levels of these elderly people in sensory abilities, autonomy, past-present-and-future activities, social participation, and death-and-dying sub-scales. The autonomy, past-present-and-future activities, social participation, and death-and-dying scores of those with high school education were higher than that of those with secondary school or less education except in sensory abilities scores. There were differences found between the variable of with whom the elderly people lived and of QOL sub-scales of the elderly people's sensory abilities, past-today-and-future activities, death-and-dying, social participation, and intimacy. In addition, the total average score of the QOL sub-scales with the sufficiency of income of the elderly people were interconnected. In conclusion, the findings revealed that gender, age, education, marital status, childbearing, social insurance, health status, living arrangement and income variables are the determinant to improving the quality of life of elderly people.

  4. Is quality of life poorer for older adults with HIV/AIDS? International evidence using the WHOQOL-HIV.

    PubMed

    Skevington, S M

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly older adults are being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. In 2002, UNAIDS indicated that 13 aspects of quality of life (QoL) were poorer for older adults, but only sparse, inconsistent cross-cultural evidence is available. This statement was investigated using a reliable, valid measure (the WHOQOL-HIV) distributed in nine cultures (eight countries). HIV positive and well adults (n = 2089) were assessed across 30 QoL facets; 403 were 40+ years. It was confirmed that sleep, fatigue and sex-life were poorer areas of QoL for older HIV adults than younger. Furthermore, they could be misinterpreted as normal ageing signs. Moreover, older people reported greater dependency on medication. However, older HIV adults had better QoL than expected on 11 dimensions; negative feelings, social inclusion, and several environmental and spiritual facets. This highlights the extent of poor QoL in younger adults. After accounting for culture and gender, overall QoL and health in older HIV adults was explained by eight facets comprising 61.3% of the variance. Social relationships were paramount, especially personal relationships (41%), but support and sex-life also. Energy, negative feelings, cognitions, financial resources and HIV symptoms also contributed. Social interventions for ageing communities would improve well-being. This evidence could support global ageing and HIV policy.

  5. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  6. Proximal Foundations of Jealousy: Expectations of Exclusivity in the Infant's First Year of Life.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sybil L

    2016-10-01

    In this synthesis, we summarize studies that yielded evidence of jealousy in young infants. To shed light on this phenomenon, we present evidence that jealousy's foundation rests on history of dyadic interactions with caregivers which engender infants' expectations of exclusivity, and on maturation of sociocognitive capacities that enable infants to evaluate whether an exchange between their caregiver and another child represents a violation of that expectation. We conclude with a call for greater study of the antecedents and sequelae of both normative and atypical presentations of jealousy. In addition, we recommend approaches that address jealousy across a range of relationships, both within and beyond those which include attachment figures.

  7. Proximal Foundations of Jealousy: Expectations of Exclusivity in the Infant’s First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sybil L.

    2016-01-01

    In this synthesis, we summarize studies that yielded evidence of jealousy in young infants. To shed light on this phenomenon, we present evidence that jealousy’s foundation rests on history of dyadic interactions with caregivers which engender infants’ expectations of exclusivity, and on maturation of sociocognitive capacities that enable infants to evaluate whether an exchange between their caregiver and another child represents a violation of that expectation. We conclude with a call for greater study of the antecedents and sequelae of both normative and atypical presentations of jealousy. In addition, we recommend approaches that address jealousy across a range of relationships, both within and beyond those which include attachment figures. PMID:28232851

  8. Parent Expectations Mediate Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Anne V.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2,…

  9. Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…

  10. The Lived Experience of How Adult Nursing Students Blend Lifestyle Obligations with Nursing School Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutrier, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many adult nursing students have lifestyle obligations that require integration with nursing school programs in order to graduate and fulfill their dreams of becoming a nurse. Fourteen participants shared their stories of how they were able to blend their lifestyles commitments with nursing school. Student interaction between lifestyle obligations…

  11. Expectations and Experiences of Latina and Anglo Girls and Parents for Life after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Kashiwabara, Eleanor; Geenen, Sarah; Powers, Laurie E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether Latina youth in special education and parents of Latinas in special education differ from their Anglo counterparts regarding transition expectations and experiences, and experiences of self-determination. Surveys were completed by 211 transition-aged Anglo and Latina females, and parents of Anglo girls and Latinas…

  12. Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

  13. Alcohol-related expectancies in adults and adolescents: Similarities and disparities.

    PubMed

    Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2016-03-02

    This study aimed to contrast student and not student outcome expectancies, and explore the diversity of alcohol-related cognitions within a wider student sample. Participants (n=549) were college students (higher education-typically aged 15-18 years), university students (further education-typically aged 18-22 years) and business people (white collar professionals <50 years) who completed questionnaires in their place of work or education. Overall positive expectancies were higher in the college students than in the business or university samples. However, not all expectancy subcategories followed this pattern. Participant groups of similar age were therefore alike in some aspects of their alcohol-related cognitions but different in others. Similarly, participant groups whom are divergent in age appeared to be alike in some of their alcohol-related cognitions, such as tension reduction expectancies. Research often homogenises students as a specific sub-set of the population, this paper hi-lights that this may be an over-simplification. Furthermore, the largely exclusive focus on student groups within research in this area may also be an oversight, given the diversity of the findings demonstrated between these groups.

  14. [The medical and social impact of the gross domestic product on the life expectancy and infantile mortality in Romania].

    PubMed

    Rada, Cornelia; Albu, Adriana; Baciu, Adina; Gavăt, Viorica; Petrariu, F D

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have analyzed the correlations between the GDP reported on every inhabitant and the life expectancy respective the infantile mortality rates. Analysis cover 11 countries, divided in four categories: three former countries members of EU (France, Italy, Sweden), three countries recently admitted (2004) in E.U. (Poland, Slovenia, Hungary), two countries which will join E.U. in 2007 and other three countries none located in Europe (Canada, Japan, USA). In the countries that invest a lot in health care system the life expectancy at birth is bigger that in other countries, but this relation is not a linear one. Infantile mortality in modern society is strongly influenced by the socio-economic status.

  15. Parental Educational Attainment and Adult Offspring Personality: An Intergenerational Life Span Approach to the Origin of Adult Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Stephan, Yannick; Robins, Richard W; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-03-13

    Why do some individuals have more self-control or are more vulnerable to stress than others? Where do these basic personality traits come from? Although a fundamental question in personality, more is known about how traits are related to important life outcomes than their developmental origins. The present research took an intergenerational life span approach to address whether a significant aspect of the childhood environment-parental educational attainment-was associated with offspring personality traits in adulthood. We tested the association between parents' educational levels and adult offspring personality traits in 7 samples (overall age range 14-95) and meta-analytically combined the results (total N > 60,000). Parents with more years of education had children who were more open, extraverted, and emotionally stable as adults. These associations were small but consistent, of similar modest magnitude to the association between life events and change in personality in adulthood, and were also supported by longitudinal analyses. Contrary to expectations, parental educational attainment was unrelated to offspring Conscientiousness, except for a surprisingly negative association in the younger cohorts. The results were similar in a subsample of participants who were adopted, which suggested that environmental mechanisms were as relevant as shared genetic variants. Participant levels of education were associated with greater conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness and partially mediated the relation between parent education and personality. Child IQ and family income were also partial mediators. The results of this research suggest that parental educational attainment is 1 intergenerational factor associated with offspring personality development in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008).

  17. Tradeoffs between income, air pollution and life expectancy: Brief report on the US experience, 1980-2000.

    PubMed

    Pope, C Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Dockery, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    During the period of 1980-2000, the US obtained substantial reductions in air pollution and improvements in life expectancy (LE). Multiple factors contributed to improved health. This report explores and illustrates trade-offs between income, air pollution, and LE. Both improved air quality and income growth contributed to LE gains - without evidence of substantial negative tradeoffs between air pollution and income. Cleaner air may be considered an "economic good" with contributions to health, wellbeing, and human capital.

  18. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    were children, without diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality, as such a diagnosis is not appropriate at early childhood or adolescence. Psychopathic or/and antisocial tendencies sometimes are recognized in children and early adolescent age. Such behaviors lead usually to the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in early years of life and increase the possibility to have a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality as an adult. There are many studies on the underlying risk factors for Psychopathic Personality, focusing in genetic, neurobiological, developmental, environmental, social and other factors. There is no effective treatment for Psychopathic Personality in adult life. Children with a specific neurobiological profile or behavioral disturbances that increase the risk of developing a Psychopathic Personality in adult life, have better chances to respond in exceptionally individualized interventions, depending on the character of the child. The parents are educated to supervise their children, to overlook annoying behaviors and to encourage the positive ones. It appears that the punishment does not attribute, on the contrary it strengthens undesirable behaviors. Use of reward appears to have better results. Programs of early highly focused therapeutic interventions in vulnerable members of the population are our best hope for the reduction of fully blown psychopaths in the general adult population.

  19. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  20. Buying a Beauty Standard or Dreaming of a New Life? Expectations Associated with Media Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This study explored college women's ideas regarding how their lives would change if their appearance were consistent with a media-supported female beauty ideal. Participants rated self-generated life changes they associated with looking like a media ideal in terms of likelihood and positivity. Women's tendency to link positive and likely life…

  1. Patients undergoing subacute rehabilitation have accurate expectations of their health-related quality of life at discharge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expectations held by patients and health professionals may affect treatment choices and participation (by both patients and health professionals) in therapeutic interventions in contemporary patient-centered healthcare environments. If patients in rehabilitation settings overestimate their discharge health-related quality of life, they may become despondent as their progress falls short of their expectations. On the other hand, underestimating their discharge health-related quality of life may lead to a lack of motivation to participate in therapies if they do not perceive likely benefit. There is a scarcity of empirical evidence evaluating whether patients’ expectations of future health states are accurate. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy with which older patients admitted for subacute in-hospital rehabilitation can anticipate their discharge health-related quality of life. Methods A prospective longitudinal cohort investigation of agreement between patients’ anticipated discharge health-related quality of life (as reported on the EQ-5D instrument at admission to a rehabilitation unit) and their actual self-reported health-related quality of life at the time of discharge from this unit was undertaken. The mini-mental state examination was used as an indicator of patients’ cognitive ability. Results Overall, 232(85%) patients had all assessment data completed and were included in analysis. Kappa scores ranged from 0.42-0.68 across the five EQ-5D domains and two patient cognition groups. The percentage of exact correct matches within each domain ranged from 69% to 85% across domains and cognition groups. Overall 40% of participants in each cognition group correctly anticipated all of their self-reported discharge EQ-5D domain responses. Conclusions Patients admitted for subacute in-hospital rehabilitation were able to anticipate their discharge health-related quality of life on the EQ-5D instrument with a moderate level of

  2. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  3. Does modern medicine increase life-expectancy: Quest for the Moon Rabbit?

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    The search for elixir of immortality has yielded mixed results. While some of the interventions like percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass grafting have been a huge disappointment at least as far as prolongation of life is concerned, their absolute benefit is meager and that too in very sick patients. Cardiac specific drugs like statins and aspirin have fared slightly better, being useful in patients with manifest coronary artery disease, particularly in sicker populations although even their usefulness in primary prevention is rather low. The only strategies of proven benefit in primary/primordial prevention are pursuing a healthy life-style and its modification when appropriate, like cessation of smoking, weight reduction, increasing physical activity, eating a healthy diet and bringing blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and blood glucose under control. PMID:26896262

  4. Does modern medicine increase life-expectancy: Quest for the Moon Rabbit?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    The search for elixir of immortality has yielded mixed results. While some of the interventions like percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass grafting have been a huge disappointment at least as far as prolongation of life is concerned, their absolute benefit is meager and that too in very sick patients. Cardiac specific drugs like statins and aspirin have fared slightly better, being useful in patients with manifest coronary artery disease, particularly in sicker populations although even their usefulness in primary prevention is rather low. The only strategies of proven benefit in primary/primordial prevention are pursuing a healthy life-style and its modification when appropriate, like cessation of smoking, weight reduction, increasing physical activity, eating a healthy diet and bringing blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and blood glucose under control.

  5. What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Environmental conditions on early Mars, from a microbial point of view, were largely similar to those on the early Earth. The oldest, well-preserved rocks on the early Earth (~3.5 Ga) host a wide range of morphological and geochemical traces of life, including chemolithotrophic, heterotrophic and photosynthetic anaerobic microorganisms. These microorganisms evolved in a tectonically evolving geological context, including carbonate platform formation. This scenario did not exist on Mars. Moreover, Mars was outside the habitable zone and standing bodies of water were probably ice-covered. Evolutionary advancement of martian life (if it appeared) would have been curtailed very early and it is unlikely that photosynthesis could have evolved. It is therefore unlikely that martian life will leave visible traces that can be detected with in situ instrumentation (no biolaminites or stromatolites). Geochemical detection of organic components will be possible but it is unlikely that the results will be conclusive. The return of suitable rocks from Mars is advocated. Early life on Earth and Mars The oldest, well preserved rocks on Earth, including both sedimentary and volcanic lithologies, contain abundant morphological and geochemical traces of life [1]. Evidence of borings into basalt lavas [2] and microbial colonies within volcanic sediments [3,4] testify to microbial utilisation of chemolithotrophy. Microscopic tunnels, tens of microns in length, containing traces of biologically important elements, such as C and N, in the vitreous rinds of pillow lavas are identified in petrographic thin section (Fig. 1) [2]. Similar 5-10 μm-sized tunnels have been channelled into the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains [4]. They contain the remains of microbial polymeric substances (EPS) but can only be identified in petrographic thin section and using the high magnification of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, volcanic sediments deposited in water contain

  6. Meeting American Geriatrics Society Competencies: Are Residents Meeting Expectations for Quality Care of Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Debra L; Wilson, Lindsay A; Ong, Thuan; Callahan, Kathryn E; Dalton, Thomas; Ohuabunwa, Ugochi

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine how often internal medicine and family medicine residents performed specific actions related to the geriatric competencies established by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) when caring for older hospitalized adults, a cross-sectional anonymous survey of residents at the University of North Carolina, University of Washington, Wake Forest University, Duke University, and Emory University was undertaken. Data on frequency of self-reported behaviors were analyzed, with comparisons made for different levels of training, institution, and program. A total of 375 residents responded for an overall response rate of 48%. Residents reported that they often do not demonstrate all of the AGS recommended core competencies when caring for older adults in the hospital setting. Residents report more frequently performing activities that are routinely integrated into hospital systems such as reviewing medication lists, working with an interdisciplinary team, evaluating for inappropriate bladder catheters, and evaluating for pressure ulcers. There were no consistent differences between institutions and only minor differences noted between Family Medicine and Internal Medicine residents. Operationalizing core competencies by integrating them into hospital systems' quality process indicators may prompt more consistent high-quality care and ensure systems support residents' competence.

  7. A divergent pattern of the sex difference in life expectancy: Sweden and Japan, early 1970s-late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Frank; Heyen, Nils B

    2003-01-01

    For most of the 20th century the sex gap in life expectancy in the industrialized countries has widened in favor of women. By the early 1980s a reversal in the long-term pattern of this differential had occurred in some countries, where it reached a maximum and thereafter followed a declining trend. Of particular interest to the present investigation is the anomalous experience of Japan, where unlike other high-income countries the female advantage in life expectancy has been expanding. We contrast the case of Japan with that of Sweden, where, like many other high-income nations, the sex differential in longevity has been narrowing in recent years. We observe that in Sweden, until the early 1980s, the sex gap in life expectancy (female-male) exceeded that of Japan; but this situation reversed in subsequent periods, when the Swedish differential narrowed and that of Japan widened. A decomposition analysis indicates that these divergent patterns since 1980 have resulted mainly from larger than expected reductions in male mortality in Sweden due to heart disease and from accidents and violence, lung cancer and "other" cancers. In Japan, death rates for men and women from heart disease--which is a leading cause of death--have tended to decline more or less at the same pace since the early 1980s; and with regard to lung cancer, and "other" neoplasms, male death rates in Japan have been rising while those of women have either declined or risen more slowly. Moreover, during the 1990s, male and female suicide rates rose in Japan, but the rates for men went up faster. Altogether, the net effect of these divergent mortality trends for men and women in Japan underlie much of the observed widening of its sex differential in longevity in recent years.

  8. Expectancy, Self-Efficacy, and Placebo Effect of a Sham Supplement for Weight Loss in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults with metabolic syndrome. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement, (2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo, or (3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy.

  9. Rapid increase in human life expectancy: will it soon be limited by the aging of elastin?

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Robert, A M; Fülöp, T

    2008-04-01

    The postponement of the most frequent age-related diseases stimulated speculations of the possibility of "dying of old age". The selective decline of individual physiological functions-aging in spare-parts-indicates however the potential limitation of the life-span by the rapid decline of some of the vital parameters. We explored a possibility of such a limitation of maximal life-span by the age-related alteration of elastin, consisting in Ca-accumulation, lipid deposition and elastolytic degradation. The quantitative evaluation of these processes suggests an approximative upper limit for the elastic properties of the cardio-respiratory system of about 100-120 years, at least, as far as elastin is involved. This process, age-related alterations of elastic fibers, is however not the only one limiting the functional value of the cardiovascular system. Crosslinking of collagen fibers by advanced glycation end-products certainly contributes also to the age-dependent rigidification of the cardiovascular system. Therefore the answer to the initial question, can age-dependent alterations of a single matrix macromolecule be limiting such vital functions as the cardio-respiratory system-is a cautious yes, with however the caveat that other, independent mechanisms, such as the Maillard reaction, can also interfere with and limit further the functional value of such vital physiological functions.

  10. National independence, women’s political participation, and life expectancy in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women’s political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women’s political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. PMID:20172639

  11. Associations among Aspects of Meaning in Life and Death Anxiety in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explored the relationship between two aspects of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life, and the fear of death and dying in young adults. A community sample of participants ("N" = 168) completed measures of meaning in life and death anxiety. A multivariate analysis of variance was…

  12. Expectations about single event probabilities in the first year of life: The influence of perceptual and statistical information

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Chris A.; Rakison, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that infants can generate expectations about future events from a sample of probabilistic data. However, little is known about the conditions that support the development of this ability. Three experiments tested the prediction that 8- and 12-month-olds respond to base rates as well as perceptual cues when they generate expectations from a sample of probabilistic data. Results revealed that 12-month-olds were sensitive to the statistical and perceptual properties of the evidence depending on the distribution of high-to-low base rate items in the sample. Specifically, 12-month-olds focused on perceptual features of the evidence when a sample was large and more skewed (e.g., 6:1), whereas they attended to statistical properties when the sample was smaller and less skewed (e.g., 4:1). In contrast, eight-month-olds always focused on the perceptual features of the evidence. Neither group generated expectations from a small, less skewed sample (e.g., 2:1). These results suggest that the ability to generate expectations about future events is mediated by specific features of the available evidence and undergoes significant change during the 1st year of life. PMID:24285932

  13. Expectations about single event probabilities in the first year of life: The influence of perceptual and statistical information.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Chris A; Rakison, David H

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that infants can generate expectations about future events from a sample of probabilistic data. However, little is known about the conditions that support the development of this ability. Three experiments tested the prediction that 8- and 12-month-olds respond to base rates as well as perceptual cues when they generate expectations from a sample of probabilistic data. Results revealed that 12-month-olds were sensitive to the statistical and perceptual properties of the evidence depending on the distribution of high-to-low base rate items in the sample. Specifically, 12-month-olds focused on perceptual features of the evidence when a sample was large and more skewed (e.g., 6:1), whereas they attended to statistical properties when the sample was smaller and less skewed (e.g., 4:1). In contrast, eight-month-olds always focused on the perceptual features of the evidence. Neither group generated expectations from a small, less skewed sample (e.g., 2:1). These results suggest that the ability to generate expectations about future events is mediated by specific features of the available evidence and undergoes significant change during the 1(st) year of life.

  14. The Contribution of Health Care and Other Interventions to Black–White Disparities in Life Expectancy, 1980–2007

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Macinko, James

    2014-01-01

    Black–white mortality disparities remain sizable in the United States. In this study, we use the concept of avoidable/amenable mortality to estimate cause-of-death contributions to the difference in life expectancy between whites and blacks by gender in the United States in 1980, 1993, and 2007. We begin with a review of the concept of “avoidable mortality” and results of prior studies using this cause-of-death classification. We then present the results of our empirical analyses. We classified causes of death as amenable to medical care, sensitive to public health policies and health behaviors, ischemic heart disease, suicide, HIV/AIDS, and all other causes combined. We used vital statistics data on deaths and Census Bureau population estimates and standard demographic decomposition techniques. In 2007, causes of death amenable to medical care continued to account for close to 2 years of the racial difference in life expectancy among men (2.08) and women (1.85). Causes amenable to public health interventions made a larger contribution to the racial difference in life expectancy among men (1.17 years) than women (0.08 years). The contribution of HIV/AIDS substantially widened the racial difference among both men (1.08 years) and women (0.42 years) in 1993, but its contribution declined over time. Despite progress observed over the time period studied, a substantial portion of black–white disparities in mortality could be reduced given more equitable access to medical care and health interventions. PMID:24554793

  15. Age- and gender-specific epistasis between ADA and TNF-α influences human life-expectancy.

    PubMed

    Napolioni, Valerio; Carpi, Francesco M; Giannì, Paola; Sacco, Roberto; Di Blasio, Luca; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Lucarini, Nazzareno; Persico, Antonio M

    2011-11-01

    Aging is a complex phenotype with multiple determinants but a strong genetic component significantly impacts on survival to extreme ages. The dysregulation of immune responses occurring with increasing age is believed to contribute to human morbidity and mortality. Conversely, some genetic determinants of successful aging might reside in those polymorphisms for the immune system genes regulating immune responses. Here we examined the main effects of single loci and multi-locus interactions to test the hypothesis that the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes may influence human life-expectancy. ADA (22G>A, rs73598374) and TNF-α (-308G>A, rs1800629; -238G>A, rs361525) functional SNPs have been determined for 1071 unrelated healthy individuals from Central Italy (18-106 years old) divided into three gender-specific age classes defined according to demographic information and accounting for the different survivals between sexes: for men (women), the first class consists of individuals<66 years old (<73 years old), the second class of individuals 66-88 years old (73-91 years old), and the third class of individuals>88 years old (>91 years old). Single-locus analysis showed that only ADA 22G>A is significantly associated with human life-expectancy in males (comparison 1 (age class 2 vs. age class 1), O.R. 1.943, P=0.036; comparison 2 (age class 3 vs. age class 2), O.R. 0.320, P=0.0056). Age- and gender-specific patterns of epistasis between ADA and TNF-α were found using Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR). In comparison 1, a significant two-loci interaction occurs in females between ADA 22G>A and TNF-α -238G>A (Sign Test P=0.011). In comparison 2, both two-loci and three-loci interaction are significant associated with increased life-expectancy over 88 years in males. In conclusion, we report that a combination of functional SNPs within ADA and TNF-α genes can influence life-expectancy in a gender

  16. 'So few fat ones grow old': diet, health, and virtue in the golden age of rising life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Veit, Helen Zoe

    2011-06-01

    Life expectancy and chronic disease rates both rose dramatically in the United States during the first third of the twentieth century. As a result of this concurrence, Americans in this era increasingly thought about things they could do to extend their own lives, especially eating less, exercising more, and limiting stress, all factors thought to reduce chronic disease. New recognition of the correlation between daily physical habits and long lives made longevity look like a sign of virtue. At the same time, amidst discussions about the relationship between individual longevity and national vitality, this correlation also contributed to Americans' moralization of diet, exercise, and emotional self-control.

  17. What is the difference? Evidence on the distribution of wealth, health, life expectancy, and health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Kennickell, Arthur B

    2008-09-10

    There is a literature of long standing that considers the relationship between income and differentials in mortality and morbidity, but information on differentials over the distribution of accumulated wealth have been far more scarce and subject to measurement problems. This paper provides evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances, which is designed as a survey of wealth, on the distribution of wealth and income and how those distributions have shifted in recent years. Particular attention is paid to the distribution of wealth across minority groups and across age groups. The paper also examines the relationship between wealth and health status, life expectancy, and health insurance coverage.

  18. Speech rate effects on the processing of conversational speech across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Janse, Esther

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of speech rate on spoken word recognition across the adult life span. Contrary to previous studies, conversational materials with a natural variation in speech rate were used rather than lab-recorded stimuli that are subsequently artificially time-compressed. It was investigated whether older adults' speech recognition is more adversely affected by increased speech rate compared to younger and middle-aged adults, and which individual listener characteristics (e.g., hearing, fluid cognitive processing ability) predict the size of the speech rate effect on recognition performance. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants indicated with a mouse-click which visually presented words they recognized in a conversational fragment. Click response times, gaze, and pupil size data were analyzed. As expected, click response times and gaze behavior were affected by speech rate, indicating that word recognition is more difficult if speech rate is faster. Contrary to earlier findings, increased speech rate affected the age groups to the same extent. Fluid cognitive processing ability predicted general recognition performance, but did not modulate the speech rate effect. These findings emphasize that earlier results of age by speech rate interactions mainly obtained with artificially speeded materials may not generalize to speech rate variation as encountered in conversational speech.

  19. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in the Aged – Does It Impact Life Expectancy? A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maor, Yaakov; Malnick, Stephen D. H.; Melzer, Ehud; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in patients over 70 is similar to that of younger age groups. Evidence continues to mount that life expectancy (LE) increases with successful treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) patients with advanced fibrosis. The evidence in older people is more limited. Our aim was to estimate the life year (LY) and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by treatment of naïve patients with HCV as a function of patient's age and fibrosis stage. Methods We constructed a Markov model of HCV progression toward advanced liver disease. The primary outcome was LY and QALY saved. The model and the sustained virological response of HCV infected subjects treated with a fixed-dose combination of the NS5B polymerase inhibitor Sofosbuvir and the NS5A replication complex inhibitor Ledipasvir were based on the published literature and expert opinion. Results Generally, both the number of LY gained and QALY gained gradually decreased with advancing age but the rate of decline was slower with more advanced fibrosis stage. For patients with fibrosis stage F1, F2 and F3, LY gained dropped below six months if treated by the age of 55, 65 or 70 years, respectively, while for a patient with fibrosis stage F4, the gain was one LY if treated by the age of 75. The QALY gained for treated over untreated elderly were reasonably high even for those treated at early fibrosis stage. Conclusions There is a significant life expectancy benefit to HCV treatment in patients up to age 75 with advanced-stage fibrosis. PMID:27410963

  20. Patients' perception of chemotherapy side effects: Expectations, doctor-patient communication and impact on quality of life - An Italian survey.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Domenica; Bria, Emilio; Costantini, Anna; Di Maio, Massimo; Rosti, Giovanni; Mancuso, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy side effects (CSE) have a strong impact on patients' quality of life (QOL). To assess patient perceptions of CSE, their impact on QOL and doctor-patient communication regarding these aspects, a survey was conducted among Italian cancer patients. Patients at least 18 years of age, who received chemotherapy, were administered a dedicated questionnaire to assess their point of view on five domains: expectations about CSE and impact on QOL; doctor-patient communication about CSE; treatments to reduce the impact of CSE; sexual life; family relationships/activities and employment. A total of 761 patients participated. CSE had a considerable impact on patient QOL. Nausea/vomiting was the most feared adverse effect before initiating chemotherapy and the one most commonly experienced during treatment. Patients generally reported good doctor-patient communication regarding information about CSE. In almost all cases, the oncologists prescribed an antiemetic treatment, but the incidence of nausea/vomiting was high. Cancer and CSE severely affected sexual life, daily activities and employment. CSE had a strong negative impact on QOL. Good doctor-patient communication is essential. Improving antiemetic strategies may improve QOL. Doctors' ability to inform patients about delicate issues, such as the impact of CSE on sexual life, needs to be improved.

  1. The Male-Female Health-Survival Paradox and Sex Differences in Cohort Life Expectancy in Utah, Denmark and Sweden 1850-1910

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A.; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P.; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In Utah, prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviours are lower than in most other male populations while women experience higher mortality risk due to higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Methods Life tables from Utah, Denmark and Sweden, were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born 1850-1910. Results The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared to Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately two years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at age 50 were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. Conclusions The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing towards biological mechanisms, or other unmeasured risk factors. PMID:23453386

  2. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  3. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

  4. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  5. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed.

  6. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  7. Factors Contributing to Employment and Enhancement in Quality of Life of Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jane

    A statistical analysis of an adult high school was conducted to determine factors for achievement and enhancement of quality of life of adult learners. Participants were 206 adult students studying English as a Second Language or enrolled in upgrading and business courses at a metropolitan Toronto (Ontario, Canada) secondary school. Variables…

  8. Cognitive algebra of love through the adult life.

    PubMed

    Falconi, Anne; Mullet, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    The study was aimed at characterizing the exact algebraic structure of the love schema in order to trace possible changes in the conceptualization of love throughout the adult life cycle, notably as regards the weight attributed to the three components of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment. The methodological framework was the Functional Theory of Cognition. Irrespective of the gender and age of the participants (from 18 to 93), the structure of the love schema was shown to obey an equal-weight-averaging rule; the love schema was conceived as a strictly compensatory schema. Irrespective of age and gender, passion was the most important factor (w = .51), followed by intimacy (.29) and commitment (.20). The relationship between overall love value and degree of passion (or intimacy or commitment) was not conceived as a linear one, but as an exponential one. The weight of passion was shown to decline over age, and the weight of commitment was shown to increase over age. This change was, however, very limited and observed in elderly participants only.

  9. What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

    2014-09-01

    Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services.

  10. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and high-risk sexual behavior among drinking adults in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Scott D.; Katamba, Achilles; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Sethi, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a risk factor for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered high in Uganda. The study was conducted to determine whether sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol help explain the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors in a population-based sample of adults in Kampala. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to identify residents in one division of Kampala for a cross-sectional study. Associations between alcohol use (current and higher-risk drinking) and high-risk sexual behaviors (multiple regular partners and casual sex) were tested. Final models included a sex-related alcohol outcome expectancy (AOE) summary score. In age-sex-adjusted models, having multiple regular partners was associated with current drinking (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)=1.15, 6.63) and higher-risk drinking (OR=3.35, 95%CI=1.28,8.71). Associations were similar but not statistically significant for having a causal sex partner. Sex-related AOE were associated with both alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior and attenuated relationships between multiple regular partners and both current drinking (OR=1.94, 95%CI=0.57,6.73) and higher-risk drinking (OR=2.44, 95%CI=0.68,8.80). In this setting sexual behaviors related with alcohol consumption were explained, in part, by sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol. These expectations could be an important component to target in HIV education campaigns. PMID:26315308

  11. [Gains in life expectancy at birth in Brazil after the year 2000: the impact of mortality variations by age and cause of death].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Érika Ribeiro Pereira; Miranda-Ribeiro, Adriana de

    2017-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth is a synthetic mortality indicator that reflects the general living conditions of the population. Changes in mortality by age and causes of death generate no explicit changes in the indicator. The application of a decomposition method can bring light to the analysis of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of age groups and causes of death in the variation in life expectancy at birth, for men and women, from 2000 to 2010, by applying Pollard's decomposition method. Brazilian life tables were obtained from IBGE and death data from SIM. The results indicate that the age group that most contributed to the increase in life expectancy was of less than 1 year old. Among the defined causes, cardiovascular diseases were responsible for the largest increase in life expectancy.

  12. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

  13. The mismatch between patient life expectancy and the service life of implantable devices in current cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: a call for larger device batteries.

    PubMed

    Neuzner, Jörg

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, Bob Hauser published a paper in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology entitled "The growing mismatch between patient longevity and the service life of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators". Now, nearly a decade later, I would like to perform a second look on the problem of a mismatching between ICD device service life and the survival of ICD recipients. Since 2005, the demographics of the ICD population has changed significantly. Primary prevention has become the dominant indication in defibrillator therapy and device implantation is indicated more and more in earlier stages of cardiac diseases. In former larger scale ICD trials, the patient average 5-year survival probability was in a range of 68-71%; in newer CRT-D trials in a range of 72-88%. Due to a progressively widened ICD indication and implantation preferentially performed in patients with better life expectancy, the problem of inadequate device service life is of growing importance. The early days of defibrillator therapy started with a generator volume of 145 ccm and a device service life <18 months. In this early period, the device miniaturization and extension of service life were similar challenges for the technicians. Today, we have reached a formerly unexpected extent of device miniaturization. However, technologic improvements were often preferentially translated in further device miniaturization and not in prolonging device service life. In his analysis, Bob Hauser reported a prolonged device service life of 2.3 years in ICD models with a larger battery capacity of 0.54 up to 0.69 Ah. Between 2008 and 2014, several studies had been published on the problem of ICD longevity in clinical scenarios. These analyses included "older" and currently used single chamber, dual chamber and CRT devices. The reported average 5-year device service life ranged from 0 to 75%. Assuming today technology, larger battery capacities will only result in minimal increase in device volume. Selected

  14. ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN LIFE EXPECTANCIES AND PER CAPITA GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AS WELL AS PHARMACEUTICAL AND NON-PHARMACEUTICAL HEALTHCARE EXPENDITURES.

    PubMed

    Hermanowski, Tomasz; Bystrov, Victor; Staszewska-Bystrova, Anna; Szafraniec-Buryło, Sylwia I; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kolasa, Katarzyna; Orlewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy is a common measure of population health. Macro-perspective based on aggregated data makes it possible to approximate the impact of different levels of pharmaceutical expenditure on general population health status and is often used in cross-country comparisons. The aim of the study was to determine whether there are long-run relations between life expectancy, total healthcare expenditures, and pharmaceutical expenditures in OECD countries. Common trends in per capita gross domestic products (GDPs) (excluding healthcare expenditures), per capita healthcare expenditures (excluding pharmaceutical expenditures), per capita pharmaceutical expenditures, and life expectancies of women and men aged 60 and 65 were analyzed across OECD countries. Short-term effect of pharmaceutical expenditure onto life expectancy was also estimated by regressing the deviations of life expectancies from their long-term trends onto the deviations of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical health expenditures, as well as GDP from their trends. The dataset was created on the basis of OECD Health Data for 34 countries and the years 1991-2010. Life expectancy variables were used as proxies for the health outcomes, whereas the pharmaceutical and healthcare expenditures represented drug and healthcare consumption, respectively. In general, both expenditures and life expectancies tended to increase in all of the analyzed countries; however, the growth rates differed across the countries. The analysis of common trends indicated the existence of common long-term trends in life expectancies and per capita GDP as well as pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical healthcare expenditures. However, there was no evidence that pharmaceutical expenditures provided additional information about the long-term trends in life expectancies beyond that contained in the GDP series. The analysis based on the deviations of variables from their long-term trends allowed concluding that pharmaceutical

  15. Improvement of surface ECG recording in adult zebrafish reveals that the value of this model exceeds our expectation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi Chi; Li, Li; Lam, Yun Wah; Siu, Chung Wah; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2016-01-01

    The adult zebrafish has been used to model the electrocardiogram (ECG) for human cardiovascular studies. Nonetheless huge variations are observed among studies probably because of the lack of a reliable and reproducible recording method. In our study, an adult zebrafish surface ECG recording technique was improved using a multi-electrode method and by pre-opening the pericardial sac. A convenient ECG data analysis method without wavelet transform was also established. Intraperitoneal injection of KCl in zebrafish induced an arrhythmia similar to that of humans, and the arrhythmia was partially rescued by calcium gluconate. Amputation and cryoinjury of the zebrafish heart induced ST segment depression and affected QRS duration after injury. Only cryoinjury decelerated the heart rate. Different changes were also observed in the QT interval during heart regeneration in these two injury models. We also characterized the electrocardiophysiology of breakdance zebrafish mutant with a prolonged QT interval, that has not been well described in previous studies. Our study provided a reliable and reproducible means to record zebrafish ECG and analyse data. The detailed characterization of the cardiac electrophysiology of zebrafish and its mutant revealed that the potential of the zebrafish in modeling the human cardiovascular system exceeds expectations. PMID:27125643

  16. Comparing adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mammalian species and orders: influence of chronological age and life history stage.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Irmgard; Isler, Karin; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a prominent event in rodents. In species with longer life expectancies, newly born cells in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation are less abundant or can be completely absent. Several lines of evidence indicate that the regulatory mechanisms of adult neurogenesis differ between short- and long-lived mammals. After a critical appraisal of the factors and problems associated with comparing different species, we provide a quantitative comparison derived from seven laboratory strains of mice (BALB, C57BL/6, CD1, outbred) and rats (F344, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar), six other rodent species of which four are wild-derived (wood mouse, vole, spiny mouse and guinea pig), three non-human primate species (marmoset and two macaque species) and one carnivore (red fox). Normalizing the number of proliferating cells to total granule cell number, we observe an overall exponential decline in proliferation that is chronologically equal between species and orders and independent of early developmental processes and life span. Long- and short-lived mammals differ with regard to major life history stages; at the time points of weaning, age at first reproduction and average life expectancy, long-lived primates and foxes have significantly fewer proliferating cells than rodents. Although the database for neuronal differentiation is limited, we find indications that the extent of neuronal differentiation is subject to species-specific selective adaptations. We conclude that absolute age is the critical factor regulating cell genesis in the adult hippocampus of mammals. Ontogenetic and ecological factors primarily influence the regulation of neuronal differentiation rather than the rate of cell proliferation.

  17. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed.

  18. Quality of Life for Young Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Thoughts and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Blacher, Jan; Simmerman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty mothers of transition-aged young adults (18-24 years) with severe intellectual disability were interviewed regarding their son or daughter's quality of life. All mothers completed the standardised Quality of Life Questionnaire and responded to several open-ended questions to further delineate quality of life for their child. Mothers were…

  19. Factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family.

    PubMed

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family. Participants included 267 adults age 65 and older who met eligibility criteria. Analyses showed that the prediction model of the life satisfaction of older adults who are living with their family was significant (F=24.429, p<0.001). The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.306, which corresponds to the explanatory power of 30.6%. The factor found to have the greatest influence on these adults' life satisfaction was depression (beta=0.090), monthly pocket money (beta=0.060), and age (beta=0.040). It is possible that older adults' life satisfaction increases when they are provided with nursing interventions and are able to effectively manage their health. Nursing interventions must strive to improve their self-esteem and address their depression.

  20. Socioeconomic, remoteness and sex differences in life expectancy in New South Wales, Australia, 2001–2012: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Gupta, Leena; Thackway, Sarah; Broome, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Despite being one of the healthiest countries in the world, Australia displays substantial mortality differentials by socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and sex. In this study, we examined how these mortality differentials translated to differences in life expectancy between 2001 and 2012. Design and setting Population-based study using mortality and estimated residential population data from Australia's largest state, New South Wales (NSW), between 2001 and 2012. Age-group-specific death rates by socioeconomic disadvantage quintile, remoteness (major cities vs regional and remote areas), sex and year were estimated via Poisson regression, and inputted into life table calculations to estimate life expectancy. Results Life expectancy decreased with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage in males and females. The disparity between the most and least socioeconomically deprived quintiles was 3.77 years in males and 2.39 years in females in 2012. Differences in life expectancy by socioeconomic disadvantage were mostly stable over time. Gender gaps in life expectancy ranged from 3.50 to 4.93 years (in 2012), increased with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage and decreased by ∼1 year for all quintiles between 2001 and 2012. Overall, life expectancy varied little by remoteness, but was 1.8 years higher in major cities compared to regional/remote areas in the most socioeconomically deprived regions in 2012. Conclusions Socioeconomic disadvantage and sex were strongly associated with life expectancy. The disparity in life expectancy across the socioeconomic spectrum was larger in males and was stable over time. In contrast, gender gaps reduced for all quintiles between 2001 and 2012, and a remoteness effect was evident in 2012, but only for those living in the most deprived areas. PMID:28073794

  1. Psychiatric Comorbidity, Social Aspects and Quality of Life in a Population-Based Cohort of Expecting Fathers with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Simone Frizell; Veiby, Gyri; Bjørk, Marte Helene; Engelsen, Bernt A.; Daltveit, Anne-Kjersti; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate psychiatric disorders, adverse social aspects and quality of life in men with epilepsy during partner’s pregnancy. Method We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 76,335 men with pregnant partners. Men with epilepsy were compared to men without epilepsy, and to men with non-neurological chronic diseases. Results Expecting fathers in 658 pregnancies (mean age 31.8 years) reported a history of epilepsy, 36.9% using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at the onset of pregnancy. Symptoms of anxiety or depression were increased in epilepsy (7.0% and 3.9%, respectively) vs. non-epilepsy (4.6% and 2.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.023), and so were new onset symptoms of depression (2.0% vs. 1.0%, p < 0.031) and anxiety (4.3% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.023). Low self-esteem (2.5%) and low satisfaction with life (1.7%) were more frequent among fathers with epilepsy compared to fathers without epilepsy (1.3% and 0.7%, respectively, p = 0.01 and 0.010). Adverse social aspects and life events were associated with epilepsy vs. both reference groups. Self-reported diagnoses of ADHD (2.2%) and bipolar disorder (1.8%) were more common in epilepsy vs. non-epilepsy (0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, p = 0.002 and 0.003) and non-neurological chronic disorders (0.5% and 0.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.018). A screening tool for ADHD symptoms revealed a higher rate compared to self-reported ADHD (9.5% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001). Conclusion Expecting fathers with epilepsy are at high risk of depression and anxiety, adverse socioeconomic aspects, low self-esteem, and low satisfaction with life. Focus on mental health in fathers with epilepsy during and after pregnancy is important. The use of screening tools can be particularly useful to identify those at risk. PMID:26637130

  2. The Role of Age-Friendly Environments on Quality of Life among Thai Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tiraphat, Sariyamon; Peltzer, Karl; Thamma-Aphiphol, Kriengsak; Suthisukon, Kawinarat

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the significance of age-friendly environments towards quality of life among older adults have been limited. This study aimed to examine the association between age-friendly environments and quality of life among Thai older adults. Cross-sectional interview survey data were collected from 4183 older adults (≥60 years) using multistage stratified systematic sampling from all four regions in Thailand. The outcome variable was the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale, while independent variables included sociodemographic factors, having a health problem, and neighbourhood age-friendly environment variables. In multivariable logistic regression, significant age-friendly environments predictors of quality of life included walkable neighbourhood, neighbourhood aesthetics, neighbourhood service accessibility, neighbourhood criminal safety, neighbourhood social trust, neighbourhood social support, and neighbourhood social cohesion. The present study confirms the important role of age-friendly neighbourhoods in terms of physical and social environments towards the quality of life of older adults. PMID:28282942

  3. Mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters in Hamburg, Germany: a cohort study 1950 – 2000

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Norbert L; Berger, Jürgen; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Koch, Peter; Köchel, Anja; Peschke, Michel; Ossenbach, Trude

    2006-01-01

    Background The healthy worker effect may hide adverse health effects in hazardous jobs, especially those where physical fitness is required. Fire fighters may serve as a good example because they sometimes are severely exposed to hazardous substances while on the other hand their physical fitness and their strong health surveillance by far exceeds that of comparable persons from the general population. Methods To study this effect a historic cohort study was conducted to assess mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters of the City of Hamburg, Germany. Fire departments and trade unions questioned the validity of existing studies from outside Germany because of specific differences in the professional career. No mortality study had been conducted so far in Germany and only few in Europe. Information on all active and retired fire fighters was extracted from personnel records. To assure completeness of data the cohort was restricted to all fire fighters being active on January 1, 1950 or later. Follow up of the cohort ended on June 30th 2000. Vital status was assessed by personnel records, pension fund records and the German residence registries. Mortality of fire fighters was compared to mortality of the Hamburg and German male population by means of standardized mortality ratios. Life expectancy was calculated using life table analysis. Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of seniority, time from first employment, and other occupational characteristics on mortality. Results The cohort consists of 4640 fire fighters accumulating 111796 person years. Vital status could be determined for 98.2% of the cohort. By the end of follow up 1052 person were deceased. Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for the total cohort was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.74–0.84) compared to Hamburg reference data and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.74–0.83) compared to National German reference data. Conditional life expectancy of a 30 year old fire fighter was 45

  4. Estimating NIRR-1 burn-up and core life time expectancy using the codes WIMS and CITATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, B.; Ahmed, Y. A.; Balogun, G. I.; Agbo, S. A.

    The Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) is a low power miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria. The reactor went critical with initial core excess reactivity of 3.77 mk. The NIRR-1 cold excess reactivity measured at the time of commissioning was determined to be 4.97 mk, which is more than the licensed range of 3.5-4 mk. Hence some cadmium poison worth -1.2 mk was inserted into one of the inner irradiation sites which act as reactivity regulating device in order to reduce the core excess reactivity to 3.77 mk, which is within recommended licensed range of 3.5 mk and 4.0 mk. In this present study, the burn-up calculations of the NIRR-1 fuel and the estimation of the core life time expectancy after 10 years (the reactor core expected cycle) have been conducted using the codes WIMS and CITATION. The burn-up analyses carried out indicated that the excess reactivity of NIRR-1 follows a linear decreasing trend having 216 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD) operations. The reactivity worth of top beryllium shim data plates was calculated to be 19.072 mk. The result of depletion analysis for NIRR-1 core shows that (7.9947 ± 0.0008) g of U-235 was consumed for the period of 12 years of operating time. The production of the build-up of Pu-239 was found to be (0.0347 ± 0.0043) g. The core life time estimated in this research was found to be 30.33 years. This is in good agreement with the literature

  5. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock.

  6. Extrapolaholics anonymous: why demographers' rejections of a huge rise in cohort life expectancy in this century are overconfident.

    PubMed

    de Grey, Aubrey D N J

    2006-05-01

    Criticisms of demographers by other demographers have become frequent in scientific literature, generally consisting of accusations that trends observed in the recent past have been extrapolated unjustifiably into the future. Demographers, along with their colleagues in the actuarial profession, are in an invidious position in this regard, knowing full well that extrapolation is almost always only minimally justifiable, but knowing also that their readers, colleagues, and sources of funding tend to be much more interested in the future than in the past. It is unfortunate that, while actuaries typically resolve this dilemma by emphasizing the limitations of their methods and thereby lowering expectations that their predictions will be accurately fulfilled, demographers are more prone to respond combatively, attempting to reinforce the credibility of their extrapolations by recourse to data from areas in which their expertise is less tested, such as biology. This is valuable in that it raises the profile of the debate on the likely rate of scientific progress relevant to mortality rates, but it also runs the risk of lowering the technical quality of that debate, by telling policy makers and the public what they want to hear and thereby entrenching their expectations without recourse to the relevant biological facts. Extrapolations based on plausible sequences of scientific advances and the sociopolitical responses to them, summarized in this article, have led to the prediction of four-digit life expectancies of cohorts born in the 21st century and possibly even in the 20th. This prediction has attracted inevitable ridicule from prominent demographers, but being founded on science and sociology rather than on history it may be much more reliable than the extrapolations that those demographers presently prefer.

  7. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance. PMID:24302503

  8. Life Insurance: A Suggested Adult Business Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This course is aimed at the buyer or potential buyer of life insurance for the purpose of helping him to a better understanding of life insurance and of aiding him in making decisions about his own life insurance coverage. It is structured to be taught one evening a week for six to eight weeks. Each session would last about two hours. The course…

  9. Off-Time Events and Life Quality of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Darlene; Zautra, Alex

    Many previous studies have found that daily life events influence community residents' perceived quality of life, which refers to the relative goodness of life as evaluated subjectively. A subsample population of 539 older residents, aged 55 and over, were interviewed in their homes. A 60-item scale was devised to measure the effects of…

  10. Latitude of residence and position in time zone are predictors of cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and life expectancy at birth.

    PubMed

    Borisenkov, Mikhail F

    2011-03-01

    According to the hypothesis of circadian disruption, external factors that disturb the function of the circadian system can raise the risk of malignant neoplasm and reduce life span. Recent work has shown that the functionality of the circadian system is dependent not only on latitude of residence but also on the region's position in the time zone. The purpose of the present research was to examine the influence of latitude and time zone on cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and life expectancy at birth. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was carried out on residents of 59 regions of the European part of the Russian Federation (EPRF) using age-standardized parameters (per 100,000) of cancer incidence (CI), cancer mortality (CM), and life expectancy at birth (LE, yrs) as dependent variables. The geographical coordinates (latitude and position in the time zone) of the regions were used as independent variables, controlling for the level of economic development in the regions. The same analysis was carried out for LE in 31 regions in China. Latitude was the strongest predictor of LE in the EPRF population; it explained 48% and 45% of the variability in LE of women and men, respectively. Position within the time zone accounted for an additional 4% and 3% variability of LE in women and men, respectively. The highest values for LE were observed in the southeast of the EPRF. In China, latitude was not a predictor of LE, whereas position in the time zone explained 15% and 18% of the LE variability in women and men, respectively. The highest values of LE were observed in the eastern regions of China. Both latitude and position within the time zone were predictors for CI and CM of the EPRF population. Latitude was the best predictor of stomach CI and CM; this predictor explained 46% and 50% of the variability, respectively. Position within the time zone was the best predictor of female breast CM; it explained 15% of the variability. In most cases, CI and CM increased

  11. Psychological needs, purpose in life, and problem video game playing among Chinese young adults.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lei, Lamis L M; Ku, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The negative impacts of excessive and problematic video game playing on both children and adults are attracting increasing concern. Based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study hypothesized that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with purpose in life, which in turn acts as a protective factor against problem video game playing among Chinese young adult players. Through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 165 Chinese adults aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age = 22.7 years), we found that perceived autonomy, competence, relatedness, and purpose in life were all negatively correlated with problem game playing. The demographic and psychological factors explained 38% of the variances of problem game playing. Specifically, gender, perceived relatedness, and purpose in life emerged as the three most salient predictors of problem game playing among the Chinese young adults. The mediating role of purpose in life was evidenced and it was found that purpose in life mediated the influences of the psychological needs proposed by SDT on problem game playing. Moreover, young men were significantly more susceptible to problem game playing than their female counterparts. To conclude, psychological needs and purpose in life influenced Chinese young adults' vulnerability to problem game playing directly or indirectly. Intervention programs that encourage social involvement and voluntary work, as well as counseling service that helps clients to search for life purpose, are suggested for intervening in problem game playing among Chinese young adults.

  12. Early life exposure to air pollution induces adult cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gorr, Matthew W.; Velten, Markus; Nelin, Timothy D.; Youtz, Dane J.; Sun, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the progression of cardiovascular disease, particularly in susceptible populations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether early life exposure to air pollution causes persistent cardiovascular consequences measured at adulthood. Pregnant FVB mice were exposed to filtered (FA) or concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) during gestation and nursing. Mice were exposed to PM2.5 at an average concentration of 51.69 μg/m3 from the Columbus, OH region for 6 h/day, 7 days/wk in utero until weaning at 3 wk of age. Birth weight was reduced in PM2.5 pups compared with FA (1.36 ± 0.12 g FA, n = 42 mice; 1.30 ± 0.15 g PM2.5, n = 67 P = 0.012). At adulthood, mice exposed to perinatal PM2.5 had reduced left ventricular fractional shortening compared with FA-exposed mice (43.6 ± 2.1% FA, 33.2 ± 1.6% PM2.5, P = 0.001) with greater left ventricular end systolic diameter. Pressure-volume loops showed reduced ejection fraction (79.1 ± 3.5% FA, 35.5 ± 9.5% PM2.5, P = 0.005), increased end-systolic volume (10.4 ± 2.5 μl FA, 39.5 ± 3.8 μl PM2.5, P = 0.001), and reduced dP/dt maximum (11,605 ± 200 μl/s FA, 9,569 ± 800 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.05) and minimum (−9,203 ± 235 μl/s FA, −7,045 ± 189 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.0005) in PM2.5-exposed mice. Isolated cardiomyocytes from the hearts of PM2.5-exposed mice had reduced peak shortening (%PS, 8.53 ± 2.82% FA, 6.82 ± 2.04% PM2.5, P = 0.003), slower calcium reuptake (τ, 0.22 ± 0.09 s FA, 0.26 ± 0.07 s PM2.5, P = 0.048), and reduced response to β-adrenergic stimulation compared with cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to FA. Histological analyses revealed greater picro-sirius red-positive-stained areas in the PM2.5 vs. FA group, indicative of increased collagen deposition. We concluded that these data demonstrate the detrimental role of early life exposure to ambient particulate air pollution in programming of adult cardiovascular

  13. A Qualitative Study of Alcohol, Health and Identities among UK Adults in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Graeme B.; Kaner, Eileen F. S.; Crosland, Ann; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Haighton, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing alcohol consumption among older individuals is a public health concern. Lay understandings of health risks and stigma around alcohol problems may explain why public health messages have not reduced rates of heavy drinking in this sector. A qualitative study aimed to elucidate older people's reasoning about drinking in later life and how this interacted with health concerns, in order to inform future, targeted, prevention in this group. In 2010 a diverse sample of older adults in North East England (ages 50–95) participated in interviews (n = 24, 12 male, 12 female) and three focus groups (participants n = 27, 6 male, 21 female). Data were analysed using grounded theory and discursive psychology methods. When talking about alcohol use older people oriented strongly towards opposed identities of normal or problematic drinker, defined by propriety rather than health considerations. Each of these identities could be applied in older people's accounts of either moderate or heavy drinking. Older adults portrayed drinking less alcohol as an appropriate response if one experienced impaired health. However continued heavy drinking was also presented as normal behaviour for someone experiencing relative wellbeing in later life, or if ill health was construed as unrelated to alcohol consumption. Older people displayed scepticism about health advice on alcohol when avoiding stigmatised identity as a drinker. Drinking patterns did not appear to be strongly defined by gender, although some gendered expectations of drinking were described. Identities offer a useful theoretical concept to explain the rises in heavy drinking among older populations, and can inform preventive approaches to tackle this. Interventions should engage and foster positive identities to sustain healthier drinking and encourage at the community level the identification of heavy drinking as neither healthy nor synonymous with dependence. Future research should test and assess such

  14. A nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in Israel before an expected effect of PCV7.

    PubMed

    Regev-Yochay, Gili; Rahav, Galia; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Bishara, Jihad; Katzir, Michal; Chowers, Michal; Finkelstein, Renato; Chazan, Bibiana; Zimhony, Oren; Dagan, Ron

    2013-05-01

    Pneumococcal infections in adults vary in severity and incidence is affected by childhood vaccination policy. Here, we try to define the host determinants and the interaction with specific serotypes that result in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) before an expected effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A nationwide active surveillance was initiated on July 2009, at the time of national implementation of PCV7 in Israel. The surveillance included all 27 laboratories and medical centers performing blood cultures in Israel, providing all blood and CSF pneumococcal isolates from persons ≥18y. Capture-recapture method assured that >95% of all cases were reported. IPD outcome and medical history were recorded and isolates were serotyped. Four hundred and sixty IPD cases were reported (annual incidence [/100,000] of 9.25). Incidence increased with age, from 2.6 among 18-34y to 66.8 among ≥85y. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (72.4%), followed by bacteremia with no apparent focus (20.2%). Case fatality rate increased with age and number of comorbidities (34.5% for ≥75y or those with ≥3 comorbidities vs. 9.2-11.2% among <65y or those with no comorbidities; p=0.015). Variables independently associated with mortality were: age ≥75, chronic renal failure, malignancy, neurosurgery, alcohol abuse, multi-lobar pneumonia and sepsis with no apparent focus. The predominant serotypes in patients 18-49y were 1, 5, 8, 7F and 9V (constituting 56.3% in this age-group vs. 11.9% in ≥75y; p<0.01). The predominant serotypes among patients ≥75y were 3, 19A, 23F and 14 (40.3% of this age-group vs. 12.9% of 18-49y; p<0.01). Overall, PCV7 and PCV13 covered 25.6% and 63.7% of isolates, respectively, and 30.9% and 67.9% of isolates in mortality cases respectively. This nationwide active surveillance provides the baseline incidence, mortality rates and risk group distributions of IPD in adults before expected PCV effect.

  15. Educational differences in disability-free life expectancy: a comparative study of long-standing activity limitation in eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Eikemo, Terje; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, Olle; Ostergren, Olof; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-10-01

    Healthy life expectancy is a composite measure of length and quality of life and an important indicator of health in aging populations. There are few cross-country comparisons of socioeconomic differences in healthy life expectancy. Most of the existing comparisons focus on Western Europe and the United States, often relying on older data. To address these deficiencies, we estimated educational differences in disability-free life expectancy for eight countries from all parts of Europe in the early 2000s. Long-standing severe disability was measured as a Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI) derived from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey. Census-linked mortality data were collected by a recent project comparing health inequalities between European countries (the EURO-GBD-SE project). We calculated sex-specific educational differences in disability-free life expectancy between the ages of 30 and 79 years using the Sullivan method. The lowest disability-free life expectancy was found among Lithuanian men and women (33.1 and 39.1 years, respectively) and the highest among Italian men and women (42.8 and 44.4 years, respectively). Life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy were directly related to the level of education, but the educational differences were much greater in the latter in all countries. The difference in the disability-free life expectancy between those with a primary or lower secondary education and those with a tertiary education was over 10 years for males in Lithuania and approximately 7 years for males in Austria, Finland and France, as well as for females in Lithuania. The difference was smallest in Italy (4 and 2 years among men and women, respectively). Highly educated Europeans can expect to live longer and spend more years in better health than those with lower education. The size of the educational difference in disability-free life expectancy varies significantly between countries

  16. Leading Causes of Death Contributing to Decrease in Life Expectancy Gap Between Black and White Populations: United States, 1999-2013.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Anderson, Robert N; Arias, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Life expectancy at birth has increased steadily since 1900 to a record 78.8 years in 2013. But differences in life expectancy between the white and black populations still exist, despite a decrease in the life expectancy gap from 5.9 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2013. Differences in the change over time in the leading causes of death for the black and white populations have contributed to this decrease in the gap in life expectancy. Between 1999 and 2013, the decrease in the life expectancy gap between the black and white populations was mostly due to greater decreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, HIV disease, unintentional injuries, and perinatal conditions among the black population. Similarly, the decrease in the gap between black and white male life expectancy was due to greater decreases in death rates for HIV disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, heart disease, and perinatal conditions in black males. For black females, greater decreases in diabetes death rates, combined with decreased rates for heart disease and HIV disease, were the major causes contributing to the decrease in the life expectancy gap with white females. The decrease in the gap in life expectancy between the white and black populations would have been larger than 3.6 years if not for increases in death rates for the black population for aortic aneurysm, Alzheimer’s disease, and maternal conditions. For black males, the causes that showed increases in death rates over white males were hypertension, aortic aneurysm, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease, while the causes that showed increases in death rates for black females were Alzheimer’s disease, maternal conditions, and atherosclerosis. This NCHS Data Brief is the second in a series of data briefs that explore the causes of death contributing to differences in life expectancy between detailed ethnic and racial populations in the United States. The first data brief focused on the racial differences in life

  17. Strengths, Pitfalls, and Lessons from Longitudinal Childhood Asthma Cohorts of Children Followed Up into Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common problem worldwide and longitudinal studies of children followed up into adult life enable the assessment of clinical outcomes, examine the pattern of lung function outcomes, and importantly provide insight into aetiology and prognosis for patients with asthma. The aim of this review is to examine the major childhood asthma cohort studies which have continued into adult life, describing the strengths and weaknesses and the lessons that can be learnt regarding pathophysiology and potential future directions for research. PMID:27872847

  18. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  20. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  1. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  2. Perception of Quality of Life for Adults with Hearing Impairment in the LGBT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the this study was to examine the perception of both generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) in adults with hearing impairment who are members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Eighty-three adults who self-identified as having hearing impairment and as being members of the LGBT community and…

  3. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersky, Jan Buchalter

    2009-01-01

    Life Satisfaction is considered a key component of psychological well-being as well as a psychological construct that gives an individual the ability to cognitively appraise his or her life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the successful resolution of Erikson's fifth (adolescence), seventh (adulthood), and eighth…

  4. Family Quality of Life: Adult School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svraka, E.; Loga, S.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study endeavours to provide initial data on quality of life for families with adult children who have intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Canton of Sarajevo. Methods: The principal measure used was the "Family Quality of life Survey 2006-main caregivers of people with intellectual or developmental disabilities." The sample…

  5. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  6. Health, Quality of Care and Quality of Life: A Case of Frail Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…

  7. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  8. Life Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on life science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Life Process, Cells, Levels of Organization, Organ Systems, Food and Oxygen-Photosynthesis, Cycles, Energy, Resources, Cell…

  9. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  10. Prediction of childhood ADHD symptoms to quality of life in young adults: adult ADHD and anxiety/depression as mediators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Nien; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-10-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may persist, co-occur with anxiety and depression (ANX/DEP), and influence quality of life (QoL) in later life. However, the information about whether these persistent ADHD and ANX/DEP mediate the influence of childhood ADHD on adverse QoL in adulthood is lacking. This study aimed to determine whether adult ADHD symptoms and/or ANX/DEP mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL. We assessed 1382 young men aged 19-30 years in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires for retrospective recall of ADHD symptoms at ages 6-12, and assessment of current ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms, and QoL. We conducted mediation analyses and compared the values of mediation ratio (PM) by adding mediators (adult ADHD and ANX/DEP), individually and simultaneously into a regression model with childhood ADHD as an independent variable and QoL as a dependent variable. Our results showed that both adult ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms significantly mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL (PM=0.71 for ANX/DEP, PM=0.78 for adult ADHD symptoms, and PM=0.91 for both). The significance of negative correlations between childhood ADHD and four domains of adult QoL disappeared after adding these two mediators in the model. Our findings suggested that the strong relationship between childhood ADHD and adult life quality can be explained by the presence of persistent ADHD symptoms and co-occurring ANX/DEP. These two mediators are recommended to be included in the assessment and intervention for ADHD to offset the potential adverse life quality outcome in ADHD.

  11. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kotaro; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3) and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:28243100

  12. Young adults as users of adult healthcare: experiences of young adults with complex or life-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Beresford, B; Stuttard, L

    2014-08-01

    Awareness is growing that young adults may have distinctive experiences of adult healthcare and that their needs may differ from those of other adult users. In addition, the role of adult health teams in supporting positive transitions from paediatrics is increasingly under discussion. This paper contributes to these debates. It reports a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults - all with complex chronic health conditions - as users of adult health services. Key findings from the study are reported, including an exploration of factors that help to explain interviewees' experiences. Study findings are discussed in the context of existing evidence from young adults in adult healthcare settings and theories of 'young adulthood'. Implications for training and practice are considered, and priorities for future research are identified.

  13. Widening social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark. A register-based study on social composition and mortality trends for the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dynamics of the social composition of the population might influence the interpretation of statements of the increasing gap of social inequality in life expectancy. The aim of the study was to estimate trends during a quarter of a century in social inequality in life expectancy and to compare results based on different social stratifications. Methods Life tables by sex and various levels of education and income were constructed for each year in the period 1987–2011 by linking individual data from nationwide registers comprising information on all Danish citizens on date of birth, date of death, education and income. Trends in life expectancies were compared for different categories of social grouping of the population. Results When categories of educational level were kept fixed, implying a decreasing proportion of persons with a short education, the educational inequality in life expectancy increased. Thus, the difference in life expectancy at age 30 between men with primary or lower secondary education and men with tertiary education increased from 4.8 years in 1987 to 6.4 years in 2011. For women the difference increased from 3.7 years in 1987 to 4.7 in 2011. A similar growing social disparity was observed when educational level was based on quartiles established from prescribed length of education. A considerable increasing inequality was reached for men when the population was divided in quartiles of equivalent disposable income, whereas the change was only modest for women. Conclusions During the past 25 years, the social gap in life expectancy has widened in Denmark. This conclusion could not be explained by changes of the social compositions of the population. PMID:23158780

  14. Legacy Making Through Illness Blogs: Online Spaces for Young Adults Approaching the End-of-Life.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Adelstein, Katharine; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about young adults with cancer at the end-of-life, but life review and legacy making may be important modalities to process the emotions associated with anticipatory grief. The study analyzed the illness blogs of five young women (aged 25-39 years) at the end-of-life using a narrative approach. Key elements of legacy making and grief processing were explored. The women had varying experiences before their death, but uniform posthumous occurrences with the use of the blog for a space of grief for loved ones. The use of online blogs among adolescents and young adults with advanced cancer is an area of needed further study.

  15. Health Condition and Quality of Life in Older Adults: Adaptation of QOLIE-89

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia; Varsami, Maria; Mitadi, Ioanna; Economidis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at adapting the Questionnaire Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-89 version 1.0: Vickrey et al., 1993), Quality of Life in Epilepsy QoLIE-89 RAND (Santa Monica, CA)] so that it may be used to measure quality of life (QoL) of older adults, healthy or suffering from various chronic illnesses. The participants were 202 older adults…

  16. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  17. Adult People with Language Impairment and Their Life Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrnqvist, Maria Carlson; Thulin, Sofia; Segnestam, Ylva; Horowitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome of language impairment (LI) was explored in interviews with three adults with LI (as children attended specialized boarding school) and four of their parents. The informants with LI expressed acceptance of LI and described themselves as independent. With driving education with adjusted pedagogy and initial governmental…

  18. From Embryo to Adult: Hematopoiesis along the Drosophila Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ramond, Elodie; Meister, Marie; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2015-05-26

    Studies on Drosophila hematopoiesis have thus far focused on the embryonic and larval origin of hemocytes, the fly blood cells. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ghosh et al. (2015) identify adult hematopoietic hubs containing progenitors that can differentiate into different blood cell types.

  19. Key issues of daily life in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ladouceur, Magalie; Iserin, Laurence; Cohen, Sarah; Legendre, Antoine; Boudjemline, Younes; Bonnet, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Increasing survival rates of patients with congenital heart disease have resulted in a new and growing patient population of adults with operated congenital heart disease. Medical professionals face the specific medical needs of these patients but must also deal with their daily life issues. Adult patients with congenital heart disease report difficulties in several areas of daily life, such as sport, employment, insurability and travel or driving. Moreover, they must have a healthy lifestyle to prevent cardiovascular complications. All these issues can be addressed in a specific educational program. In this review, we discuss the different daily life issues of adults with congenital heart disease and the preventive measures that can be proposed to improve their quality of life.

  20. Aging parents of adults with disabilities: the gratifications and frustrations of later-life caregiving.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Seltzer, M M; Greenley, J R

    1993-08-01

    Using a stress process model, we investigated the impact of later-life caregiving on 105 mothers of adult children with mental illness and 208 mothers of adult children with mental retardation. As hypothesized, mothers of persons with mental illness reported higher levels of frustrations and lower levels of gratifications. Whereas the adult child's behavior problems were the strongest predictor of maternal gratifications, the adult child's diagnosis was the strongest predictor of maternal frustrations once all other factors were controlled. In addition, the size of the mother's social network, the family social climate, and the child's participation in an out-of-home program were associated with the effect of caregiver stress.

  1. Life regrets and pride among low-income older adults: relationships with depressive symptoms, current life stressors and coping resources.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Jun, Jina

    2009-03-01

    We examined the contents and intensities of both life regrets and pride among a convenience sample of 213 low-income older adults and the associations between the contents and intensities of life regrets and pride, on the one hand, and the older adults' current life stressors, coping resources and depressive symptoms, on the other. Regrets about education, career and marriage were common, but intensities of regrets were higher for issues related to finance/money, family conflict and children's problems, loss and grief, and health. Common sources of pride were related to children and parenting, career, volunteering/informal caregiving, long/strong marriage and personal growth/self. Controlling for current life stressors of disability, money worries, loneliness and overdependence on others for management of daily life, and coping resources of social support and religiosity, the intensities of loss-and-grief related regrets and the pride in long/strong marriage were significant predictors of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) scores. However, the regrets and pride explained a small amount of the variance in the GDS scores, while the current life stressors explained a large portion of the variance.

  2. Discussing life expectancy with surgical patients: Do patients want to know and how should this information be delivered?

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Michael G; Kennedy, Katherine P; MacDonagh, Ruaraidh P

    2008-01-01

    Background Predicted patient life expectancy (LE) and survival probability (SP), based on a patient's medical history, are important components of surgical decision-making and informed consent. The objective of this study was to assess patients' interpretation of and desire to know information relating to LE, in addition to establishing the most effective format for discussion. Methods A cross sectional survey of 120 patients (mean age = 68.7 years, range 50–90 years), recruited from general urological and surgical outpatient clinics in one District General and one Teaching hospital in Southwest England (UK) was conducted. Patients were included irrespective of their current diagnosis or associated comorbidity. Hypothetical patient case scenarios were used to assess patients' desire to know LE and SP, in addition to their preferred presentation format. Results 58% of patients expressed a desire to know their LE and SP, if it were possible to calculate, with 36% not wishing to know either. Patients preferred a combination of numerical and pictorial formats in discussing LE and SP, with numerical, verbal and pictorial formats alone least preferred. 71% patients ranked the survival curve as either their first or second most preferred graph, with 76% rating facial figures their least preferred. No statistically significant difference was noted between sexes or educational backgrounds. Conclusion A proportion of patients seem unwilling to discuss their LE and SP. This may relate to their current diagnosis, level of associated comorbidity or degree of understanding. However it is feasible that by providing this information in a range of presentation formats, greater engagement in the shared decision-making process can be encouraged. PMID:18554419

  3. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality.

  4. Influence of Marital Status on the Quality of Life of Chinese Adult Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fu-Li; Gu, Xiang-Min; Hao, Bao-Yun; Wang, Shan; Chen, Ze-Jie; Ding, Cheng-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent seizures and has significant psychological and social consequence for everyday living. Epilepsy affects various aspects of ones’ social life. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of marital status on the quality of life of adult Chinese patients with epilepsy. Methods: This study surveyed 805 Chinese adults who have been clinically diagnosed with epilepsy for longer than 1 year in 11 hospitals in Beijing. In this survey, 532 (66.1%) participants were married. All of them completed the case report form with enquiries on demographic data, social factors, and illness. The marriage status of adult epileptic quality of life was the dependent variable, and demographic data and clinical data were independent variables, analyzed through the multiple linear regression analysis methods. The patients’ quality of life was assessed using the Quality of Life in patients with Epilepsy-31 items (QOLIE-31) questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 items (GAD-7). Results: The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores in the unmarried group (PHQ-9 = 6.0 and GAD-7 = 5.0) were significantly higher than that of the married group (PHQ-9 = 4.0 and GAD-7 =3.0). The scores of married adult patients with epilepsy on QOLIE (61.8 ± 15.3) and social function (70.9 ± 22.7) were higher than the scores of the unmarried patients aged between 20 and 44 years. The scores of married adult epileptics on the QOLIE (58.4 ± 14.6) and the energy/fatigue (62.1 ± 20.4) were higher than the scores of the unmarried patients (QOLIE = 58.4 ± 14.6 and the energy/fatigue = 62.1 ± 20.4) aged between 45 and 59 years. For the adult epilepsy patients, depression, anxiety, seizures within the last year, disease course, medical expense category, and marriage* age are negatively correlated with the quality of life. Occupation, educational level, and average monthly income are closely

  5. Rapid evolution of larval life history, adult immune function and flight muscles in a poleward-moving damselfly.

    PubMed

    Therry, L; Nilsson-Örtman, V; Bonte, D; Stoks, R

    2014-01-01

    Although a growing number of studies have documented the evolution of adult dispersal-related traits at the range edge of poleward-expanding species, we know little about evolutionary changes in immune function or traits expressed by nondispersing larvae. We investigated differentiation in larval (growth and development) and adult traits (immune function and flight-related traits) between replicated core and edge populations of the poleward-moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum. These traits were measured on individuals reared in a common garden experiment at two different food levels, as allocation trade-offs may be easier to detect under energy shortage. Edge individuals had a faster larval life history (growth and development rates), a higher adult immune function and a nearly significant higher relative flight muscle mass. Most of the differentiation between core and edge populations remained and edge populations had a higher relative flight muscle mass when corrected for latitude-specific thermal regimes, and hence could likely be attributed to the range expansion process per se. We here for the first time document a higher immune function in individuals at the expansion front of a poleward-expanding species and documented the rarely investigated evolution of faster life histories during range expansion. The rapid multivariate evolution in these ecological relevant traits between edge and core populations is expected to translate into changed ecological interactions and therefore has the potential to generate novel eco-evolutionary dynamics at the expansion front.

  6. Is the strength and the desirability of alcohol-related expectancies positively related? A test with an adult Swedish sample.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, R

    1991-08-01

    Workers at the Swedish Telephone Company participated in the present study to explore the alcohol-related expectancies for a general sample of Swedish citizens and relate these expectancies to various background factors and whether the expected effects of alcohol also were desired effects. A slightly modified version of the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was used and data were analyzed in terms of six general factors. Results indicated that men expected more sexual enhancement than women and that high consumers expected more strong effects for all six factors than the low consumers. Men further rated both sexual enhancement, physical and social pleasure, and social assertiveness as more desirable effects than did women, and the high consumers rated all six effects as more desirable than the low consumers. Results are discussed in terms of expectancies as causes of drinking.

  7. The Everyday Life of Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aspects of daily life have been considered in a population of people with Down syndrome, followed repeatedly from infancy to 21-years old, and again at 30-, 35- and 40-years old. A control sample of non-disabled babies were seen at the same ages. Method: Parents (usually the mothers) and/or carers were interviewed about the people's…

  8. Customer for life: marketing oral health care to older adults.

    PubMed

    Niessen, L C

    2000-01-01

    Respect for and awareness of the needs of older patients from dental office staff will help such patients feel welcome in a practice. Marketing to older patients is built upon this foundation. In addition, there are other strategies for internal and external marketing aimed at older people. This article addresses the concept of turning aging patients into "customers for life."

  9. Associations between adult attachment characteristics, medical burden, and life satisfaction among older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, Helmut; Nolte, Tobias; Runkewitz, Kristin; Bayerle, Lisa; Becker, Simone; Blasczyk, Verena; Lindloh, Julia; Strauss, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether attachment security, measured by the Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR), was correlated with life satisfaction, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, medical burden, and age-related coping strategies in a sample of 81 patients (69-73 years) recruited from the register of a general primary care practice. Furthermore, we examined whether patients classified as AAPR-secure reported better adjustment to medical burden in terms of higher life satisfaction than did insecure patients. Attachment security was independently related to life satisfaction. Moreover, the association between medical burden and lower life satisfaction was significantly stronger for insecure than for secure participants. Our findings indicate that interventions to improve attachment security or coping processes related to attachment could help older adults retain life satisfaction.

  10. Effects of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine on adult disease in later life: an overview.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, T J; van der Meulen, J H; Ravelli, A C; Osmond, C; Barker, D J; Bleker, O P

    2001-10-01

    People who were small at birth have been shown to have an increased risk of CHD and chronic bronchitis in later life. These findings have led to the fetal origins hypothesis that proposes that the fetus adapts to a limited supply of nutrients, and in doing so it permanently alters its physiology and metabolism, which could increase its risk of disease in later life. The Dutch famine--though a historical disaster--provides a unique opportunity to study effects of undernutrition during gestation in humans. People who had been exposed to famine in late or mid gestation had reduced glucose tolerance. Whereas people exposed to famine in early gestation had a more atherogenic lipid profile, somewhat higher fibrinogen concentrations and reduced plasma concentrations of factor VII, a higher BMI and they appeared to have a higher risk of CHD. Though the latter was based on small numbers, as could be expected from the relatively young age of the cohort. Nevertheless, this is the first evidence in humans that maternal undernutrition during gestation is linked with the risk of CHD in later life. Our findings broadly support the hypothesis that chronic diseases originate through adaptations made by the fetus in response to undernutrition. The long-term effects of intrauterine undernutrition, however, depend upon its timing during gestation and on the tissues and systems undergoing critical periods of development at that time. Furthermore, our findings suggest that maternal malnutrition during gestation may permanently affect adult health without affecting the size of the baby at birth. This gives the fetal origins hypothesis a new dimension. It may imply that adaptations that enable the fetus to continue to grow may nevertheless have adverse consequences for health in later life. CHD may be viewed as the price paid for successful adaptations to an adverse intra-uterine environment. It also implies that the long-term consequences of improved nutrition of pregnant women will be

  11. Do You See What I See? Understanding Filipino Elderly's Needs, Benefits, and Expectations from an Adult Continuing Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escolar Chua, Rowena L.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2014-01-01

    As the elderly population increases, encouraging older adults to participate in lifelong learning has become a priority for many countries. Properly structured lifelong learning programs have consistently yielded numerous benefits to older adults; therefore, careful attention and effort should be exerted to ensure its effectiveness by involving…

  12. Aggression, Recognition and Qualification: On the Social Psychology of Adult Education in Everyday Life. [Publications from the Adult Education Research Group].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Kirsten

    This paper discusses the impact of life history and everyday life in the context of training unskilled adults for social work in Denmark. It describes origins of these two texts used as empirical material: a discussion by a group of long-term unemployed skilled adult male workers who went through a 2-year training program to obtain permanent…

  13. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life and Life-Space Mobility in Community-Swelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Clay, Olivio J.; Matthews, Jonathan C.; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M..

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the associations between measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and life-space mobility (LSM) in community-dwelling older adults. Design Cross-sectional study using a 54-item OHRQoL questionnaire. Setting Five counties in central Alabama: Jefferson and Tuscaloosa (urban), and Bibb, Hale, and Pickens (rural). Participants The 288 Dental Study volunteers were recruited from participants in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of mobility in community-dwelling adults age 65 and older. Measurements Participants completed an in-home interview about their OHRQoL and LSM. Life-space was assessed by asking questions about where, how often, and the degree of independence in getting to areas ranging from the home to beyond town. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were used to quantify associations between OHRQoL and LSM. Other factors examined included: age, race, gender, income, education, residence, transportation difficulty, marital status, depressive symptoms, and comorbidity. Results Unadjusted and adjusted analyses suggested significant associations between OHRQoL and LSM in these components of oral health: oral functional limitation, oral pain and discomfort, oral disadvantage, and self-rated oral health. Conclusion OHRQoL decrements reported by participants were associated with decreased LSM, suggesting that perceptions of oral well-being have a significant impact on mobility and the social participation of older adults. PMID:21361883

  14. Teacher Shortages: A Policy Brief Exploring Important Issues Raised by the "2006 MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Expectations and Experiences." Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report explores issues raised by the "2006 MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Expectations and Experiences." focusing on the belief of the majority of education leaders and principals responding to the survey that a shortage of qualified teachers will be a serious problem in the near future. The brief explores what research says about…

  15. Adults' Physical Activity Patterns across Life Domains: Cluster Analysis with Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Marshall, Simon J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Identifying adults' physical activity patterns across multiple life domains could inform the design of interventions and policies. Design Cluster analysis was conducted with adults in two US regions (Baltimore-Washington DC, n = 702; Seattle-King County, n = 987) to identify different physical activity patterns based on adults' reported physical activity across four life domains: leisure, occupation, transport, and home. Objectively measured physical activity, and psychosocial and built (physical) environment characteristics of activity patterns were examined. Main Outcome Measures Accelerometer-measured activity, reported domain-specific activity, psychosocial characteristics, built environment, body mass index (BMI). Results Three clusters replicated (kappa = .90-.93) across both regions: Low Activity, Active Leisure, and Active Job. The Low Activity and Active Leisure adults were demographically similar, but Active Leisure adults had the highest psychosocial and built environment support for activity, highest accelerometer-measured activity, and lowest BMI. Compared to the other clusters, the Active Job cluster had lower socioeconomic status and intermediate accelerometer-measured activity. Conclusion Adults can be clustered into groups based on their patterns of accumulating physical activity across life domains. Differences in psychosocial and built environment support between the identified clusters suggest that tailored interventions for different subgroups may be beneficial. PMID:20836604

  16. Sinonasal characteristics and quality of life by SNOT-22 in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suzie Hyeona; Meotti, Camila Degen; Bombardelli, Karine; Piltcher, Otávio Bejzman; de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of chronic sinus disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) has gradually increased. Sinonasal involvement may have influence on pulmonary exacerbations and can have a negative impact on the quality of life. To evaluate nasal characteristics and quality of life in adult patients with CF; to establish an association and determine the predictors in SNOT-22 questionnaire. Cross- sectional study with prospective data collection was performed to evaluate adult CF patients. Patients underwent clinical evaluation, lung function tests, nasal endoscopy, and paranasal sinuses CT scan. All the patients answered the SNOT-22 questionnaire.

  17. Childhood Predictors and Adult Life Success of Adolescent Delinquency Abstainers.

    PubMed

    Mercer, N; Farrington, D P; Ttofi, M M; Keijsers, L; Branje, S; Meeus, W

    2016-04-01

    While much is known about adolescent delinquency, considerably less attention has been given to adolescent delinquency abstention. Understanding how or why some adolescents manage to abstain from delinquency during adolescence is informative for understanding and preventing adolescent (minor) delinquency. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (N = 411 males) to compare abstainers, self-report delinquents and convicted delinquents we found five childhood factors (ages 8-10) that predicted adolescent abstention (ages 10-18). First, we find that adolescent abstainers possess characteristics opposite to those of convicted delinquents (namely, abstainers are high on honesty, conformity and family income). However, we also found that abstainers also share some childhood characteristics with convicted delinquents (namely, low popularity and low school achievement). A latent class analysis indicated that the mixed factors predicting abstention can be accounted for by two groups of abstainers: an adaptive group characterized by high honesty, and a maladaptive group characterized by low popularity and low school achievement. Further, validation of these two types of abstainers using data collected at age 48 suggested that adaptive abstainers outperform all other adolescents in general life success, whereas maladaptive abstainers only fare better than delinquent adolescents in terms of lower substance use and delinquency later in life.

  18. Life satisfaction and happiness among young adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-30

    People with schizophrenia often experience persistent symptoms and impairments in community functioning; however, despite this, many individuals with the illness report high levels of well-being. We explored the level of subjective well-being in a sample of relatively young outpatients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Seventy-five outpatients with schizophrenia and 72 demographically matched healthy controls, aged 18-35 years, participated in the present study. Subjective well-being was defined as a combination of happiness and satisfaction with life, each of which were measured using validated instruments. Symptom severity, insight, and cognition were also evaluated. People with schizophrenia endorsed significantly lower levels of subjective well-being than healthy controls although, there was substantial overlap in scores, and many participants with schizophrenia endorsed a high level of well-being. Both depressive symptoms and motivational deficits demonstrated significant independent predictive value for determining level of well-being. At a group level, the mean level of happiness and life satisfaction was lower among people with schizophrenia than healthy comparison participants. However, despite this mean difference, there exists marked overlap in individual scores between those with and without schizophrenia, demonstrating that many young people with schizophrenia do, in fact, endorse high levels of subjective well-being.

  19. Sensory-processing sensitivity moderates the association between childhood experiences and adult life satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Charlotte; Standage, Helen; Fox, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH: hypothesizing that some individuals are more responsive to both positive and negative experiences) with adult personality traits. The current study examined the DSH by investigating the moderating effect of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) on childhood experiences and life satisfaction. A total of 185 adults completed measures of SPS, positive/negative childhood experiences and life satisfaction. SPS did moderate the association between childhood experiences and life satisfaction. Simple slopes analysis compared those reporting high and low SPS (+/− 1 SD) and revealed that the difference was observed only for those who reported negative childhood experiences; with the high SPS group reporting lower life satisfaction. There was no difference observed in those reporting positive childhood experiences, which supported a diathesis-stress model rather than the DSH. PMID:26688599

  20. Sensory-processing sensitivity moderates the association between childhood experiences and adult life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Booth, Charlotte; Standage, Helen; Fox, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    There are few studies testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH: hypothesizing that some individuals are more responsive to both positive and negative experiences) with adult personality traits. The current study examined the DSH by investigating the moderating effect of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) on childhood experiences and life satisfaction. A total of 185 adults completed measures of SPS, positive/negative childhood experiences and life satisfaction. SPS did moderate the association between childhood experiences and life satisfaction. Simple slopes analysis compared those reporting high and low SPS (+/-1 SD) and revealed that the difference was observed only for those who reported negative childhood experiences; with the high SPS group reporting lower life satisfaction. There was no difference observed in those reporting positive childhood experiences, which supported a diathesis-stress model rather than the DSH.

  1. [Income differences in health and life expectancy--cross-sectional and longitudinal findings of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Kroll, L E

    2006-04-01

    Income is an important determinant of individual standards of living and participation in social life. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel shows that the level of income also affects a person's health and life expectancy. People's self-assessment of their health and health-related quality of life follow a distribution pattern which can be described as a gradient: the lower the income, the more frequent the impairments to subjective health. Life expectancy statistics also reflect income differences, primarily due to premature deaths among lower-income groups. Clues for explaining income-related differences in health and life expectancy can be found in the results on health-related behaviour and use of the medical system: people in the lower income groups smoke more frequently, are slaker in sports and are less likely to go to a doctor when their health is impaired. Furthermore, work environment and job-specific influences, stress burdens and reactions, social comparison processes and disease-induced processes of declining social mobility and social exclusion are discussed as possible explanations.

  2. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  3. Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: Beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den . E-mail: a.c.m.van.den.bergh@rt.umcg.nl; Berg, Gerrit van den; Schoorl, Michiel A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Hoving, Eelco W.; Szabo, Ben G.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of 122 patients, operated for NFA between 1979 and 1998. Recurrence was defined as regrowth on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The occurrence of hormonal deficiencies was defined as the starting date of hormonal substitution therapy. Results: Seventy-six patients had residual NFA after surgery and received immediate postoperative radiotherapy (Group 1); three patients developed a recurrence, resulting in a 95% local control rate at 10 years. Twenty-eight patients had residual NFA after surgery, but were followed by a wait-and-see policy (Group 2). Sixteen developed a recurrence, resulting in a local control rate of 49% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (p < 0.001 compared with Group 1). There were no differences between Group 1 and 2 regarding the need for substitution with thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones before first surgery, directly after surgery and at end of follow-up. There were no differences in hormone substitution free survival between Group 1 and Group 2 during the study period after first surgery. Life expectancy was similar in Group 1 and 2, and their median life expectancy did not differ from median life expectancy in the general population. Conclusions: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.

  4. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    PubMed

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life.

  5. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  6. Extracorporeal life support for adults with severe acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Cypel, Marcelo; Fan, Eddy

    2014-02-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is an artificial means of maintaining adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination to enable injured lungs to recover from underlying disease. Technological advances have made ECLS devices smaller, less invasive, and easier to use. ECLS might, therefore, represent an important step towards improved management and outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nevertheless, rigorous evidence of the ability of ECLS to improve short-term and long-term outcomes is needed before it can be widely implemented. Moreover, how to select patients and the timing and indications for ECLS in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome remain unclear. We describe the physiological principles, the putative risks and benefits, and the clinical evidence supporting the use of ECLS in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, we discuss controversies and future directions, such as novel technologies and indications, mechanical ventilation of the native lung during ECLS, and ethics considerations.

  7. Emotion recognition in music changes across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cesar F; Castro, Sao Luis

    2011-06-01

    In comparison with other modalities, the recognition of emotion in music has received little attention. An unexplored question is whether and how emotion recognition in music changes as a function of ageing. In the present study, healthy adults aged between 17 and 84 years (N=114) judged the magnitude to which a set of musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) expressed happiness, peacefulness, sadness and fear/threat. The results revealed emotion-specific age-related changes: advancing age was associated with a gradual decrease in responsiveness to sad and scary music from middle age onwards, whereas the recognition of happiness and peacefulness, both positive emotional qualities, remained stable from young adulthood to older age. Additionally, the number of years of music training was associated with more accurate categorisation of the musical emotions examined here. We argue that these findings are consistent with two accounts on how ageing might influence the recognition of emotions: motivational changes towards positivity and, to a lesser extent, selective neuropsychological decline.

  8. The development of alcohol use and outcome expectancies among American Indian young adults: a growth mixture model.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christina M; Beals, Janette

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental period for understanding alcohol use. American Indian youth are a group for whom various preventive interventions focusing on alcohol use have been implemented but have not necessarily been widely successful, highlighting the need to further refine our approaches. In the work reported here, we followed 464 14- to 18-year-old American Indian youth annually for seven years. We examined the development of alcohol use and positive alcohol outcome expectancies in parallel, using growth mixture modeling to identify classes with different trajectories of alcohol use and expectancies. We found five classes; the largest (n = 198) was made up of youth who experienced increases in both alcohol use and positive outcome expectancies. Initial levels of outcome expectancies were related to subsequent changes in alcohol use, while the reverse was not true, suggesting that interventions focusing on outcome expectancies are appropriate for a substantial number of youth. However, class heterogeneity in the relationships between the two processes pointed out that changes in expectancies may not always precede changes in alcohol use. Thus, intervention design implications are discussed for the class structures.

  9. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  10. Quality of life among adults with confirmed dengue in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Nascimento, Nazareth Elias; Suaya, Jose A; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Turchi, Marilia Dalva; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira; Peres, Joao Borges; Shepard, Donald S

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to measure the quality of life (QoL) during a dengue episode. We conducted a facility-based survey in central Brazil in 2005 and recruited 372 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients greater than 12 years of age in hospital and ambulatory settings. We administered the World Health Organization QoL instrument approximately 15 days after the onset of symptoms. We used principal component analysis with varimax rotation to identify domains related to QoL. The median age of interviewees was 36 years. Most (85%) reported their general health status as very good or good before the dengue episode. Although ambulatory patients were mainly classified as having dengue fever, 44.8% of hospitalized patients had dengue hemorrhagic fever or intermediate dengue. Principal component analysis identified five principal components related to cognition, sleep and energy, mobility, self-care, pain, and discomfort, which explained 73% of the variability of the data matrix. Hospitalized patients had significantly lower mean scores for dimensions cognition, self-care, and pain than ambulatory patients. This investigation documented the generally poor QoL during a dengue episode caused by the large number of domains affected and significant differences between health care settings.

  11. Quality of Life among Adults with Confirmed Dengue in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Nascimento, Nazareth Elias; Suaya, Jose A.; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Turchi, Marilia Dalva; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira; Peres, Joao Borges; Shepard, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to measure the quality of life (QoL) during a dengue episode. We conducted a facility-based survey in central Brazil in 2005 and recruited 372 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients greater than 12 years of age in hospital and ambulatory settings. We administered the World Health Organization QoL instrument approximately 15 days after the onset of symptoms. We used principal component analysis with varimax rotation to identify domains related to QoL. The median age of interviewees was 36 years. Most (85%) reported their general health status as very good or good before the dengue episode. Although ambulatory patients were mainly classified as having dengue fever, 44.8% of hospitalized patients had dengue hemorrhagic fever or intermediate dengue. Principal component analysis identified five principal components related to cognition, sleep and energy, mobility, self-care, pain, and discomfort, which explained 73% of the variability of the data matrix. Hospitalized patients had significantly lower mean scores for dimensions cognition, self-care, and pain than ambulatory patients. This investigation documented the generally poor QoL during a dengue episode caused by the large number of domains affected and significant differences between health care settings. PMID:21976580

  12. Leaving Home: An Examination of Late-Life Relocation among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungers, Christin M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes older adults' experiences of a late-life residential relocation from a home to a long-term health care setting. Findings from 14 participants who engaged in a focus group and/or an individual interview supported 8 major themes. Thematic experiences were related to precipitating factors prior to the move, risks and protective…

  13. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  14. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  15. A Guide. Life Situations: Incorporating Community Resources into the Adult ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra

    "Life Situations," a program designed for adult ESL (English as a second language) students, expands the curriculum through the use of community resources: trips, speakers, films, and related materials. These are incorporated into topical units of two to four weeks duration, along with dialogues and role playing using structures and vocabulary…

  16. The Life Course of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers: Childhood Living Arrangements and Young Adult Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquilino, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Explored living arrangements among children born to unmarried mothers and the impact of childhood living arrangements on the young adult's life course. Analyses showed that living arrangement patterns after birth to a single mother influenced the likelihood of high school completion, post secondary education, and other conditions. (RJM)

  17. Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

  18. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  19. CASAS Competencies: Essential Life and Work Skills for Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The CASAS Competencies identify more than 360 essential life skills that youth and adults need to be functionally competent members of their community, their family, and the workforce. Competencies are relevant across the full range of instructional levels, from beginning literacy through high school completion including transition to…

  20. Learning a Living: First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) is a large-scale co-operative effort undertaken by governments, national statistics agencies, research institutions and multi-lateral agencies. The development and management of the study were co-ordinated by Statistics Canada and the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in collaboration with the…

  1. Adult Role Transitions: Some Antecedents and Outcomes Early in the Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Focusing on the pre-adolescent to late-adolescent portion of the life cycle, research examined how "early" exit from student role and "early" entry into adult roles of parent or spouse reflects factors operating prior to adolescence. Interviews during 1969 with 1,202 fifth and sixth graders and their mothers in 6 southern…

  2. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  3. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  4. The Relations between Enuresis in Childhood and Nocturnal Polyuria Syndrome in Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Murat; Altunkol, Adem; Öncel, Halil; Yeni, Ercan; Verit, Ayhan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study, to investigate whether there is any association between enuresis in childhood and nocturnal polyuria syndrome (NPS) in adult life. Methods The study consisted of thirty five patients with nocturnal polyuria, and thirty five healthy people without nocturnal polyuria in adult life, were asked to assess their enuresis in childhood. Results There was a history of enuresis in childhood in 18 (51.42%) of 35 of men with nocturnal polyuria and in 4 (11.42%) of 35 without nocturnal polyuria. Enuresis in childhood was significantly more common in men with nocturnal polyuria than without nocturnal polyuria. The difference was significant (P<0.0001). The prevalence of enuresis in the nocturnal polyuria (51.42%) was more than two-fold higher than reported prevalence in general populations. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the history of enuresis in childhood seems to increase the risk of having NPS in adult life. This relationship should be taken into account in the evaluation of men with complaints from NPS in adult life and the possible common pathophysiology should be considered in the treatment planning. PMID:22500252

  5. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  6. The Use of Digital Technologies across the Adult Life Span in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelfs, Anne; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2010, a survey was carried out to explore access to digital technology, attitudes to digital technology and approaches to studying across the adult life span in students taking courses with the UK Open University. In total, 7000 people were surveyed, of whom more than 4000 responded. Nearly all these students had access to a computer and…

  7. Learning about Sex in Later Life: Sources of Education and Older Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fileborn, Bianca; Lyons, Anthony; Hinchliff, Sharron; Brown, Graham; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the preferred sexuality education sources of older Australian adults in later life. Drawing on findings from qualitative interviews with 30 men and 23 women aged 60 years and older, we consider the sources that participants currently use, or would like to use, in seeking information about sex. Where relevant, we examine…

  8. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  9. The Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dayna S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wiley, Terry L.; Nondahl, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigate the impact of hearing loss on quality of life in a large population of older adults. Design and Methods: Data are from the 5-year follow-up Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based longitudinal study of age-related hearing impairment conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. Participants (N = 2,688) were 53-97…

  10. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  11. The Life Cycle of an Adult Education Enterprise --The Swarthmore Chautauqua. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillavou, George J.

    A study to present a history of the Swarthmore Chautauqua as an adult education enterprise was conducted by investigating documents from many sources previously gathered for a review of the life of the Swarthmore Chautauqua. Several tape-recorded personal interviews were used to add to the documentation, and visits were made to towns where the…

  12. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  13. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  14. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Hong Kong: The Role of Social Support from Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Vivian W. Q.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…

  15. Stories of Learning across the Lifespan: Life History and Biographical Research in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Life history or biographical approaches to research in lifelong learning may be particularly useful for researchers working from a social purpose and/or feminist perspective. Adult educators working from an emancipatory framework are often curious about factors that shape people's lives, both from an individualistic, biographical perspective and…

  16. Building a Successful Adult Life: Findings from Youth-Directed Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky

    2007-01-01

    Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…

  17. Adults' Diaries: Changes Made to Written Narratives across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Examines diaries kept by 8 adults (born between 1856 and 1876) over a 70-year period of their lives. Analyzes the complexity of the narrative structure and the cohesion of the text. Finds that the diarists' narratives became structurally more complex across the life span, although they became less cohesive as ambiguous anaphors increased. (KEH)

  18. Transition to Adult Life for People with Disabilities. Bulletin No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, John

    This document describes and discusses aspects of the transition to adult life for people with disabilities in Great Britain and sets it in an international context. The first three sections describe the transition process, the difficulties of implementing a framework for transition, and the aims of the transition process. The aims are the…

  19. Profiles of Reminiscence among Older Adults: Perceived Stress, Life Attitudes, and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…

  20. A Register Study of Life Events in Young Adults Born to Mothers with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Ida; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults, born to population-representative mothers with intellectual disability (ID), were targeted for psychosocial/life event follow-up. Methods: The whole group originally comprised 42 individuals but 3 had died and 1 had moved abroad. The remaining 38 were approached and 10 consented to participate in an interview study.…

  1. Birth weight and cognitive function in young adult life: historical cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, H. T.; Sabroe, S.; Olsen, J.; Rothman, K. J.; Gillman, M. W.; Fischer, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function in young adult life. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluation for military service. SUBJECTS: 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973 and 1975. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean score in the Boerge Prien test of cognitive function; score is the number of correct answers to 78 questions and correlates with full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). RESULTS: Mean score in the Boerge Prien test increased from 39.9 at a birth weight of < or = 2500 g to 44.6 at a birth weight of 4200 g even after adjustment for gestational age and length at birth, maternal age and parity, and other variables. Above a birth weight of 4200 g the test score decreased slightly. CONCLUSION: Birth weight is associated with cognitive performance in young adult life. Interference with fetal growth may influence adult cognitive performance. PMID:9277604

  2. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed.

  3. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  4. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

    PubMed

    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults. Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas. Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV.

  5. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Whyne, Erum

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e. SF36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elders Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Results: Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with higher levels of trait mindfulness. Conclusions: The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on mental health. PMID:24940847

  6. The contribution of estuary-resident life histories to the return of adult Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Jones, K K; Cornwell, T J; Bottom, D L; Campbell, L A; Stein, S

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated estuarine habitat use, life-history composition, growth and survival of four successive broods of coho salmon Oncoryhnchus kisutch in Salmon River, Oregon, U.S.A. Subyearling and yearling O. kisutch used restored and natural estuarine wetlands, particularly in the spring and winter. Stream-reared yearling smolts spent an average of 2 weeks in the estuary growing rapidly before entering the ocean. Emergent fry also entered the estuary in the spring, and some resided in a tidal marsh throughout the summer, even as salinities increased to >20. A significant portion of the summer stream-resident population of juvenile O. kisutch migrated out of the catchment in the autumn and winter and used estuary wetlands and adjacent streams as alternative winter-rearing habitats until the spring when they entered the ocean as yearling smolts. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag returns and juvenile life-history reconstructions from otoliths of returning adults revealed that four juvenile life-history types contributed to the adult population. Estuarine-associated life-history strategies accounted for 20-35% of the adults returning to spawn in the four brood years, indicating that a sizable proportion of the total O. kisutch production is ignored by conventional estimates based on stream habitat capacity. Juvenile O. kisutch responses to the reconnection of previously unavailable estuarine habitats have led to greater life-history diversity in the population and reflect greater phenotypic plasticity of the species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest than previously recognized.

  7. Remarkable differences: the course of life of young adults with galactosaemia and PKU.

    PubMed

    Bosch, A M; Maurice-Stam, H; Wijburg, F A; Grootenhuis, M A

    2009-12-01

    Although the need for insight in factors influencing the quality of life of patients with an inborn error of metabolism is recognized, psychological adjustment of adults with metabolic diseases has not been properly studied. Adult patients with PKU were demonstrated not to differ from healthy controls in terms of their course of life (CoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, adults with galactosaemia had a lower HRQoL with significant lower scores on the domains of cognitive and social function. This study investigated the CoL and the social demographical outcomes in these young adults with galactosaemia, and compared them with the general population and with PKU patients. A total of 15 (88%) adult patients with classical galactosaemia participated in this study. Classical galactosaemia patients had a delayed social and psychosexual development compared to their peers from the general population and to PKU patients. Also, they were significantly less frequently married or living together and significantly less frequently employed than the general population. Our study shows a stark contrast between patients with galactosaemia and patients with PKU, although both are diagnosed in the neonatal period and need life-long dietary restrictions. The observed difference is likely due to the long-term somatic complications frequently seen in galactosaemia and thus not due to the burden of a chronic disease necessitating life-long dietary restrictions. We conclude that it is essential that parents and clinicians encourage children with galactosaemia to participate in peer-related activities in order to stimulate social performance, which may result in a more normal CoL.

  8. The role of interpersonal sensitivity, social support, and quality of life in rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest

    The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.

  9. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    PubMed

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  10. Legacy Making Through Illness Blogs: Online Spaces for Young Adults Approaching the End-of-Life

    PubMed Central

    Adelstein, Katharine; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about young adults with cancer at the end-of-life, but life review and legacy making may be important modalities to process the emotions associated with anticipatory grief. The study analyzed the illness blogs of five young women (aged 25–39 years) at the end-of-life using a narrative approach. Key elements of legacy making and grief processing were explored. The women had varying experiences before their death, but uniform posthumous occurrences with the use of the blog for a space of grief for loved ones. The use of online blogs among adolescents and young adults with advanced cancer is an area of needed further study. PMID:26697270

  11. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  12. "They don't want to hear us": Hispanic elders and adult children speak about end-of-life planning.

    PubMed

    Gutheil, Irene A; Heyman, Janna C

    2006-01-01

    This study used focus groups to understand Hispanic elders' and adult children's concerns about end-of-life planning. Ten older persons participated in the elders group, and ten adult children in a separate group. Themes in both groups included communication, control, burden, spirituality, religious issues, and importance of family relationships. Communication regarding end-of-life planning was of particular importance to both elders and adult children. The most striking indication of the challenges in communication about end-of-life issues is the insistence by both the elders and the adult children that their children/ parents do not want to have these discussions.

  13. Poor growth prior to early childhood: decreased health and life-span in the adult.

    PubMed

    Clark, G A; Hall, N R; Armelagos, G J; Borkan, G A; Panjabi, M M; Wetzel, F T

    1986-06-01

    Previous studies in animal populations have shown that stunted neural and thymolymphatic growth early in development may result in permanently impaired neural and immune function, decreased body growth, vertebral wedging, and decreased life-span. In the human adult, small vertebral neural canal (VNC) diameters may reflect early stunted neural and immune development and impaired function that leads to decreased health (inferred by greater vertebral wedging) and life-span in the adult. VNC, which complete their growth by early childhood (age 4), are markers of early development in adults. On the other hand, features following general body growth, such as height, weight (represented here by vertebral body height) continues to grow until young adulthood. They are less reliable, because they readily experience catch-up growth (even in chronically stressed populations) and, unlike VNC, may mask poor early growth. To test associations between early growth and adult health and life-span in humans, we measured 2,060 VNC, vertebral heights, vertebral wedging, nerve-root tunnel lengths, severity of vertebral osteophytosis, and ages at death in 90 adult (aged 15-55 years) prehistoric skeletons (950-1300 A.D.). Tibial lengths were also measured in a subsample (n = 30). Multivariate, bivariate, and nonparametric analyses showed that small VNC are significantly associated with greater vertebral wedging and decreased life-span (P less than 0.05-0.00001). VNC are independent of vertebral body heights and tibial lengths (general body growth). VNC, but not statural components, are useful in predicting adult health, presumably because they reflect neural and immune development and do not readily experience catch-up growth. Thus, longitudinal retrospective measures of early growth and adult health were systematically linked within individuals regardless of confounding factors operating over the 350-year time period. Since this research was completed, this model has repeatedly been

  14. The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, J; Zandveld, J; Mulder, M; Brakefield, P M; Kirkwood, T B L; Shanley, D P; Zwaan, B J

    2014-11-01

    Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both experiments, we kept adults on constant high or low food and compared these to flies that experienced fluctuations of food either once or twice a week. For these 'yoyo' groups, the initial food level and the duration of the dietary variation differed during adulthood, creating four 'yoyo' fly groups. In groups of flies, survival and weight were affected by adult food. However, for individuals, survival and reproduction, but not weight, were affected by adult food, indicating that single and group housing of female flies affects life-history trajectories. Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion. We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences. This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.

  15. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  16. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  17. Impact on Life Expectancy of Withdrawing Thiopurines in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in Sustained Clinical Remission: A Lifetime Risk-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgesner, Julien; Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Sokol, Harry; Cosnes, Jacques; Schwarzinger, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Objective Long-term treatment with thiopurines is associated with a decreased risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) flare but an increased risk of various cancers depending on gender, age, and presence of extensive colitis. We evaluated risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines in patients with CD in prolonged remission. Methods We developed a Markov model assessing risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines compared to continuing thiopurines in a lifetime horizon. The model was stratified by age (35 and 65 years old at thiopurine withdrawal), gender and presence of extensive colitis. Parameter estimates were taken from French cohorts and hospital databases, cancer and death national registries and published literature. Life expectancy, rates of relapse, serious adverse events, and causes-of-death were evaluated. Results In patients without extensive colitis, continuing thiopurines increased life expectancy up to 0.03 years for 35 year-old men and women but decreased life expectancy down to 0.07 years for 65 year-old men and women. Withdrawal strategy became the preferred strategy at 40.6 years for men, and 45.7 years for women without extensive colitis. In patients with extensive colitis, continuation strategy was the preferred strategy regardless of age. Risk-benefit analysis was not modified by duration of CD activity. Conclusions Factors determining life expectancy associated with withdrawal or continuation of thiopurines in patients with CD and in sustained clinical remission vary substantially according to gender, age and presence of extensive colitis. Individual decisions to continue or withdraw thiopurines in patients with CD in sustained remission should take into account these parameters. PMID:27271176

  18. Birth weight, Early Life Course BMI, and Body Size Change: Chains of Risk to Adult Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.; McDade, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course predict high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly .3sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between .3–1sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American-and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  19. Correlation of a set of gene variants, life events and personality features on adult ADHD severity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel J; Chiesa, Alberto; Mandelli, Laura; De Luca, Vincenzo; De Ronchi, Diana; Jain, Umesh; Serretti, Alessandro; Kennedy, James L

    2010-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could persist into adult life in a substantial proportion of cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of (1) adverse events, (2) personality traits and (3) genetic variants chosen on the basis of previous findings and (4) their possible interactions on adult ADHD severity. One hundred and ten individuals diagnosed with adult ADHD were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events in childhood and adulthood, and personality traits by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Common polymorphisms within a set of nine important candidate genes (SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, DRD5, HTR2A, CHRNA7, BDNF, PRKG1 and TAAR9) were genotyped for each subject. Life events, personality traits and genetic variations were analyzed in relationship to severity of current symptoms, according to the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS). Genetic variations were not significantly associated with severity of ADHD symptoms. Life stressors displayed only a minor effect as compared to personality traits. Indeed, symptoms' severity was significantly correlated with the temperamental trait of Harm avoidance and the character trait of Self directedness. The results of the present work are in line with previous evidence of a significant correlation between some personality traits and adult ADHD. However, several limitations such as the small sample size and the exclusion of patients with other severe comorbid psychiatric disorders could have influenced the significance of present findings.

  20. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  1. Second Life to Support Multicultural Literacy: Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosemani, Tahani Ibrahim; Shepherd, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine preservice teachers' attitudes using Second Life for multicultural literacy and to explore effective strategies to implement this technology in teacher preparation programs. Participants included thirty-six preserve teachers from early childhood, elementary, and secondary education programs.…

  2. Reasonable expectations: how much aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life can improve with exercise training in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark A; Pozehl, Bunny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the literature that describes the magnitude of functional and quality of life gains with a traditional moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training programs is reviewed, and differences between the impact of exercise training in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction versus heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are discussed.

  3. Perceived physical health and heart-focused anxiety among daily adult cigarette smokers: associations with affect-relevant smoking motives and outcome expectancies.

    PubMed

    Leyro, Teresa M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Johnson, Kirsten; Gregor, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined heart-focused anxiety and perceived physical health in terms of affect-relevant cigarette smoking motives and outcome expectancies. Participants were a community sample of 140 adult daily smokers (81 women, mean age = 29.60 years, SD = 11.98). In terms of smoking motives, both heart-focused anxiety and perceived physical health incrementally predicted smoking for negative affect reduction motives above and beyond relevant covariates (gender, weekly alcohol consumption, daily smoking rate). Yet heart-focused anxiety, but not perceived physical health, was incrementally predictive of habitual motives, relative to the same covariates. With regard to smoking outcome expectancies, heart-focused anxiety was incrementally predictive of negative reinforcement outcome expectancies, whereas perceived physical health was not. Alternatively, perceived physical health was incrementally predictive of negative personal consequence outcome expectancies, but heart-focused anxiety was not. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of perceived health vulnerabilities in clarifying affect-oriented smoking motives and expectancies.

  4. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    PubMed Central

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  5. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    PubMed

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives.

  6. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p < 0.01) and mental (β = 1.663, p < 0.01) components. For men, intrinsic religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults. PMID:26274870

  7. A prospective study of the association of patient expectations with changes in health-related quality of life outcomes, following total joint replacement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient expectations regarding surgery may be related to outcomes in total joint replacement (TJR). The aim of this study was to determine the association of patient expectations with health related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes measured by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) and satisfaction with current symptoms measured on a 4-point Likert scale, one year after surgery, adjusting for Body Mass Index (BMI), age, gender, joint, education, previous intervention and baseline scores. Methods Consecutive patients preparing for TJR of the knee or hip due to primary osteoarthritis (OA) in 15 hospitals in Spain were recruited for the study. Patients completed questionnaires before surgery and 12 months afterwards: five questions about expectations before surgery; an item to measure satisfaction; two HRQoL instruments—WOMAC and SF-12; as well as questions about sociodemographic information. To determine the association of patient expectations at baseline, with changes in HRQoL 12 months after surgery and with satisfaction, general linear models and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results A total of 892 patients took part in the study. Patients who had higher pain relief or ability to walk expectations improved more in HRQoL at 12 months. Moreover, patients with high daily activity expectations were more satisfied. Conclusions Patients with higher baseline expectations for TJR, improved more in HRQoL at one year and had more likelihood to be satisfied than patients with lower expectations, adjusted for BMI, age, gender, joint, education, previous intervention and HRQoL baseline scores. PMID:25055728

  8. Associations between early life experience, chronic HPA axis activity, and adult social rank in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Wooddell, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank. We found that mother-peer-reared (MPR) monkeys acquired higher social ranks than either of the two nursery-reared (NR) groups (peer-reared, PR, or surrogate-peer-reared, SPR monkeys) (β = -0.07, t(89) = -2.16, p = 0.034). We also found that MPR HCCs were lower during the juvenile period at 18 months (F(2,25) = 3.49, p = 0.047). Furthermore, for MPR but not NR monkeys, changes in HCCs from 18 to 24 months (r(s) = -0.627, p = 0.039) and adult HCCs (r(s) = -0.321, p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with adult social rank. These findings suggest that chronic HPA axis regulation in juvenility, and perhaps in adulthood, may influence adult social status for primates that experience typical early rearing. However, early life adversity may result in dissociation between neuroendocrine stress regulation and adult social competence, which may be risk factors for adverse health outcomes.

  9. Early life permethrin insecticide treatment leads to heart damage in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Vadhana, M S Dhivya; Carloni, Manuel; Nasuti, Cinzia; Fedeli, Donatella; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2011-09-01

    Early life environmental exposure to xenobiotics could represent a critical period for the onset of permanent alterations in the structure and function of different organs. Cardiovascular diseases can be related to various factors including environmental toxicants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of early life permethrin treatment (1/50 LD(50), from 6th to 21st day of life) on heart of adult rats. Increased DNA damage, decreased heart cell membrane fluidity, increased cholesterol content, protein and lipid oxidation were measured in heart cells from adult rats treated with permethrin during the neonatal period with respect to control rats. Moreover, the same group showed higher levels of cholesterol, IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, rat-Rantes and IL-10 cytokines and decreased albumin content in plasma. Lower cholesterol levels and perturbation in the phospholipid lateral diffusion together with decreased GSH levels and increased GPx activity were measured in heart mitochondria of the treated group. Our findings support the evidence that the neonatal period has a critical role in the development of heart disease in adulthood. We hypothesize that the alterations observed in adult rats could depend on epigenetic changes that occurred during this period which influence gene expression throughout the rat's life, leading to alterations of certain parameters related to cardiac function.

  10. Loneliness and Quality of Life in Chronically Ill Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Loneliness is a contributing factor to various health problems in older adults, including complex chronic illness, functional decline, and increased risk of mortality. Objectives A pilot study was conducted to learn more about the prevalence of loneliness in rural older adults with chronic illness and how it affects their quality of life. The purposes of the data analysis reported here were twofold: to describe loneliness, chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, prescription medication use, and quality of life in a sample of rural older adults; and to examine the relationships among these elements. Methods A convenience sample of 60 chronically ill older adults who were community dwelling and living in Appalachia was assessed during face-to-face interviews for loneliness and quality of life, using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (version 3) and the CASP-12 quality of life scale. Chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, and medication use data were collected through review of participants’ electronic medical records. Results Overall mean loneliness scores indicated significant loneliness. Participants with a mood disorder such as anxiety or depression had the highest mean loneliness scores, followed by those with lung disease and those with heart disease. Furthermore, participants with mood disorders, lung disease, or heart disease had significantly higher loneliness scores than those without these conditions. Loneliness was significantly related to total number of chronic illnesses and use of benzodiazepines. Use of benzodiazepines, diuretics, nitrates, and bronchodilators were each associated with a lower quality of life. Conclusions Nurses should assess for loneliness as part of their comprehensive assessment of patients with chronic illness. Further research is needed to design and test interventions for loneliness. PMID:23958674

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  12. Extracorporeal life support for 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure.

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, S; Awad, S S; Rich, P B; Schreiner, R J; Hirschl, R B; Bartlett, R H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors retrospectively reviewed their experience with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure (ARF) to define techniques, characterize its efficacy and utilization, and determine predictors of outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Extracorporeal life support maintains gas exchange during ARF, providing diseased lungs an optimal environment in which to heal. Extracorporeal life support has been successful in the treatment of respiratory failure in infants and children. In 1990, the authors instituted a standardized protocol for treatment of severe ARF in adults, which included ECLS when less invasive methods failed. METHODS: From January 1990 to July 1996, the authors used ECLS for 100 adults with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (n = 94): paO2/FiO2 ratio of 55.7+/-15.9, transpulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) of 52+/-22%, or acute hypercarbic respiratory failure (n = 6): paCO2 84.0+/-31.5 mmHg, despite and after maximal conventional ventilation. The technique included venovenous percutaneous access, lung "rest," transport on ECLS, minimal anticoagulation, hemofiltration, and optimal systemic oxygen delivery. RESULTS: Overall hospital survival was 54%. The duration of ECLS was 271.9+/-248.6 hours. Primary diagnoses included pneumonia (49 cases, 53% survived), adult respiratory distress syndrome (45 cases, 51 % survived), and airway support (6 cases, 83% survived). Multivariate logistic regression modeling identified the following pre-ECLS variables significant independent predictors of outcome: 1) pre-ECLS days of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0003), 2) pre-ECLS paO2/FiO2 ratio (p = 0.002), and 3) age (years) (p = 0.005). Modeling of variables during ECLS showed that no mechanical complications were independent predictors of outcome, and the only patient-related complications associated with outcome were the presence of renal failure (p < 0.0001) and significant surgical site bleeding (p = 0

  13. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  14. Relationship Between Ties With Adult Children and Life Satisfaction Among the Middle-Aged, the Young-Old, and the Oldest-Old Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hye Won; Jun, Hey Jung

    2016-01-01

    One of the important determinants of well-being among aging parents is their relationship with adult children. Using the two waves of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this study examined how different types of ties with adult children affect the life satisfaction of the Korean middle-aged, the young-old, and the oldest-old adults. Multigroup analysis was used to see if the effects of ties with adult children differ by the three age-groups. The results showed that frequency of contact had positive effect on life satisfaction for all of the age-groups. However, coresidence with children had a negative effect for the middle-aged, but a positive effect for the oldest-old. Finally, exchanges of support with adult children had significant effects only for the young-old. These results show that the importance of different types of ties with children change according to aging parents' life stages.

  15. Why do Americans have shorter life expectancy and worse health than people in other high-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Americans lead shorter and less healthy lives than people in other high-income countries. We review the evidence and explanations for these variations in longevity and health. Our overview suggests that the US health disadvantage applies to multiple mortality and morbidity outcomes. The American health disadvantage begins at birth and extends across the life-course, and it is particularly marked for American women and for regions in the US South and Midwest. Proposed explanations include differences in health care, individual behaviors, socioeconomic inequalities, and the physical and built environment. While these factors may contribute to poorer health in America, a focus on proximal causes fails to adequately account for the ubiquity of the US health disadvantage across the life-course. We discuss the role of specific public policies and conclude that while multiple causes are implicated, crucial differences in social policy might underlie an important part of the US health disadvantage. PMID:24422560

  16. Life Experience and Demographic Influences on Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ε4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ε4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483

  17. Clinical Profile and Quality of Life of Adult Patients After the Fontan Procedure.

    PubMed

    Bordin, Giulia; Padalino, Massimo Antonio; Perentaler, Sonja; Castaldi, Biagio; Maschietto, Nicola; Michieli, Pierantonio; Crepaz, Roberto; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Vida, Vladimiro Lorenzo; Milanesi, Ornella

    2015-08-01

    Increasingly, more patients with univentricular heart reach adulthood. Therefore, long-term psychological features are an important concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and psychological profile of post-Fontan adult patients and to identify the most significant determinants of quality of life. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we reviewed the surgical and medical history of post-Fontan adult patients. Patients underwent a 24-h electrocardiogram, echocardiography and exercise testing. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess the Work Ability Index, quality of life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), perceived health status (SF-36 questionnaire), coping strategies (Brief Cope questionnaire) and presence of mood disorders (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Thirty-nine patients aged between 18 and 48 years (mean 27.5 years) were enrolled. The mean follow-up was 21.5 years. Most patients were unmarried (82.9 %), had a high school diploma (62.9 %) and were employed (62.9 %). Twenty-nine patients (82.3 %) had at least one long-term complication. The median single ventricle ejection fraction was 57 %, and the median maximal oxygen consumption was 26.8 ml/min/kg. This population tended to be anxious and to use adaptive coping strategies. Quality of life was perceived as excellent or good in 57.2 % of cases and was not related to either cardiac function or exercise capacity. Both quality of life and SF-36 domains were related to the Work Ability Index. This cohort of post-Fontan adult patients enjoyed a good quality of life irrespective of disease severity.

  18. Seed after-ripening and dormancy determine adult life history independently of germination timing.

    PubMed

    de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Kovach, Katherine; Dittmar, Emily; Barua, Deepak; Barco, Brenden; Donohue, Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    • Seed dormancy can affect life history through its effects on germination time. Here, we investigate its influence on life history beyond the timing of germination. • We used the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to chilling at the germination and flowering stages to test the following: how seed dormancy affects germination responses to the environment; whether variation in dormancy affects adult phenology independently of germination time; and whether environmental cues experienced by dormant seeds have an effect on adult life history. • Dormancy conditioned the germination response to low temperatures, such that prolonged periods of chilling induced dormancy in nondormant seeds, but stimulated germination in dormant seeds. The alleviation of dormancy through after-ripening was associated with earlier flowering, independent of germination date. Experimental dormancy manipulations showed that prolonged chilling at the seed stage always induced earlier flowering, regardless of seed dormancy. Surprisingly, this effect of seed chilling on flowering time was observed even when low temperatures did not induce germination. • In summary, seed dormancy influences flowering time and hence life history independent of its effects on germination timing. We conclude that the seed stage has a pronounced effect on life history, the influence of which goes well beyond the timing of germination.

  19. Adults with X-linked agammaglobulinemia: impact of disease on daily lives, quality of life, educational and socioeconomic status, knowledge of inheritance, and reproductive attitudes.

    PubMed

    Winkelstein, Jerry A; Conley, Mary Ellen; James, Cynthia; Howard, Vanessa; Boyle, John

    2008-09-01

    Since many children with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) can now be expected to reach adulthood, knowledge of the status of adults with XLA would be of importance to the patients, their families, and the physicians caring for these patients. We performed the current study in adults with XLA to examine the impact of XLA on their daily lives and quality of life, their educational and socioeconomic status, their knowledge of the inheritance of their disorder, and their reproductive attitudes. Physicians who had entered adult patients with XLA in a national registry were asked to pass on a survey instrument to their patients. The patients then filled out the survey instrument and returned it directly to the investigators. Adults with XLA were hospitalized more frequently and missed more work and/or school than did the general United States population. However, their quality of life was comparable to that of the general United States population. They achieved a higher level of education and had a higher income than did the general United States population. Their knowledge of the inheritance of their disease was excellent. Sixty percent of them would not exercise any reproductive planning options as a result of their disease. The results of the current study suggest that although the disease impacts the daily lives of adults with XLA, they still become productive members of society and excel in many areas.

  20. Contemporary Portraits of Japanese Adult Women: Life Course Plans and Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    It has been documented that at the age of 20, Japanese women have not yet discovered the realities of the adult world. With the end of high growth in the Japanese economy, women of Japan have to face a new challenge. They frequently have to be not only a homemaker but also a breadwinner. Life course is a pathway along which people live, and life…

  1. Therapeutic landscapes and wellbeing in later life: Impacts of blue and green spaces for older adults.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Jessica; Franke, Thea; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2015-07-01

    This paper extends the concept of therapeutic landscapes by investigating how green and blue spaces affect older adult health and wellbeing. We draw on interview data from participants aged 65-86 years old who described their everyday experiences with green and especially blue spaces across Metro Vancouver, Canada. Landscapes embedded with therapeutic qualities included parks, gardens, street greenery, lakes, and the ocean. Interactions with these spaces influenced participants' perceived physical, mental, and social health. Issues of safety, accessibility, and personal perception complicated this relationship. Overall, the findings indicate that nature plays a nuanced and influential role in the everyday lives of older adults. Better understanding how older adults experience health and landscape is critical towards developing everyday contact with nature that can improve quality of life for ageing populations.

  2. Are expectations too high for transitioning adolescents with IBD? Examining adult medication knowledge and self-management skills

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Laurie N.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Lakin, Paul R.; Masciarelli, Lisa; Flier, Sarah N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Transition readiness assessment has focused attention on adolescent knowledge and skills, but data-driven benchmarks have not been established. Methods Patients with IBD, aged 25–55 years, attending an outpatient gastroenterology clinic, were recruited to complete a voluntary, confidential survey asking patients to recall medications and potential side effects, and to rate their degree of independence performing health maintenance tasks. Results The 141 respondents (48% response rate) had mean age of 36 years with median disease duration of 11 years. They were 60% female, 54% had Crohn’s disease, and 23% were diagnosed before age 18. Nearly all patients were fully independent answering doctor’s questions during the visit (93%) and scheduling office visits (92%). Excluding pharmacy pick up, full independence seen in only 57%, while 16% significantly delegated tasks. No differences by gender, disease type, medication class, age at disease onset, or disease duration were found across levels of self-management. Almost all (97%) respondents could recall medication name, while fewer were able to recall dose (63%) or frequency (65%). Side effect knowledge was poor; among 81 patients on a biologic or immunomodulator, only 17 (21%) cited cancer and 22 (27%) cited infection. Conclusions Adolescent IBD transition programs now have empiric data from this study about adult benchmarks for independence in self-management skills. Further research can establish which skills correlate with medication adherence and active collaboration with the medical team. This study also exposes important gaps in medication risk knowledge and may allow improved patient education for subgroups of adult IBD patients. PMID:27280748

  3. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal.

  4. Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Baron, Kelly Glazer; Lu, Brandon; Naylor, Erik; Wolfe, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of moderate aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education to improve sleep, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. Methods Seventeen sedentary adults aged ≥55 years with insomnia (mean age 61.6 (SD±4.3) years; 16 female) participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of aerobic physical activity plus sleep hygiene to non-physical activity plus sleep hygiene. Eligibility included primary insomnia for at least 3 months, habitual sleep duration < 6.5 hours and a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score > 5. Outcomes included sleep quality, mood and quality of life questionnaires (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Short-form 36 [SF-36], Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). Results The physical activity group improved in sleep quality on the global PSQI (p<0.0001), sleep latency (p=0.049), sleep duration (p=0.04), daytime dysfunction (p=0.027), and sleep efficiency (p=0.036) PSQI sub-scores compared to the control group. The physical activity group also had reductions in depressive symptoms (p=0.044), daytime sleepiness (p=0.02) and improvements in vitality (p=0.017) compared to baseline scores. Conclusion Aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. PMID:20813580

  5. Neighborhood and Family Environment of Expectant Mothers May Influence Prenatal Programming of Adult Cancer Risk: Discussion and an Illustrative Biomarker Example

    PubMed Central

    King, Katherine E.; Kane, Jennifer B.; Scarbrough, Peter; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Childhood stressors including physical abuse predict adult cancer risk. Prior research portrays this finding as indirect through coping behaviors including adult smoking or through increased toxic exposures during childhood. Little is known about potential direct causal mechanisms between early-life stressors and adult cancer. Because prenatal conditions can affect gene expression by altering DNA methylation with implications for adult health, we hypothesize that maternal stress may program methylation of cancer-linked genes during gametogenesis. Methods To illustrate, we relate maternal social resources to methylation at the imprinted MEG3 differentially methylated regulatory region linked to multiple cancer types. Mothers (n=489) in umbilical cord blood of diverse birth cohort (Durham, North Carolina) provided newborn’s cord blood and completed a questionnaire. Results Newborns of currently-married mothers show lower (−0.321 SD, p<0.05) methylation vs. newborns of never-married mothers, who did not differ from those whose mothers are cohabiting and others (adjusted for demographics). MEG3 DNA methylation levels are also lower when maternal grandmothers co-reside before pregnancy (−0.314 SD, p<0.05). A 1-SD increase in prenatal neighborhood disadvantage also predicts higher methylation (−0.137 SD, p<0.05). Conclusions Maternal social resources may result in differential methylation of MEG3, which demonstrates a potential partial mechanism priming socially disadvantaged newborns for later risk of some cancers. PMID:27050035

  6. Neighborhood and Family Environment of Expectant Mothers May Influence Prenatal Programming of Adult Cancer Risk: Discussion and an Illustrative DNA Methylation Example.

    PubMed

    King, Katherine E; Kane, Jennifer B; Scarbrough, Peter; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Childhood stressors including physical abuse predict adult cancer risk. Prior research portrays this finding as an indirect mechanism that operates through coping behaviors, including adult smoking, or through increased toxic exposures during childhood. Little is known about potential direct causal mechanisms between early-life stressors and adult cancer. Because prenatal conditions can affect gene expression by altering DNA methylation, with implications for adult health, we hypothesize that maternal stress may program methylation of cancer-linked genes during gametogenesis. To illustrate this hypothesis, we related maternal social resources to methylation at the imprinted MEG3 differentially methylated regulatory region, which has been linked to multiple cancer types. Mothers (n = 489) from a diverse birth cohort (Durham, North Carolina) provided newborns' cord blood and completed a questionnaire. Newborns of currently married mothers showed lower (-0.321 SD, p < .05) methylation compared to newborns of never-married mothers, who did not differ from newborns whose mothers were cohabiting and others (adjusted for demographics). MEG3 DNA methylation levels were also lower when maternal grandmothers co-resided before pregnancy (-0.314 SD, p < .05). A 1-SD increase in prenatal neighborhood disadvantage also predicted higher methylation (-0.137 SD, p < .05). In conclusion, we found that maternal social resources may result in differential methylation of MEG3, which demonstrates a potential partial mechanism priming socially disadvantaged newborns for later risk of some cancers.

  7. Did people "buy" what was "sold"? A qualitative evaluation of a contingent valuation survey information set for gains in life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Baker, R; Bartczak, A; Chilton, S; Metcalf, H

    2014-01-15

    A number of stated preferences studies have estimated a monetary value for the gains in life expectancy resulting from pollution control, using a Value of a Life Year (VOLY) approach. However, life expectancy gains are a complex concept and no attempt has been made, to date, to investigate peoples' understanding of what it is they are being asked to value. Past practice has been to focus on the outcome of a policy i.e. a gain to the average person of X months', providing no details on how the individual receives, or experiences this gain, a potentially important attribute to value. This paper sets up and reports the results from a structured debriefing exercise to qualitatively investigate an alternative approach which explicitly emphasises how this gain is delivered (on-going reductions in the risk of death). We find that, for the majority of respondents, the approach is effective in communicating the on-going nature of the gain and reduces or eliminates the use of the (incorrect) heuristic that it is an 'add-on' at the end of life, in poor health. Further refinements are required, however, to communicate the cumulative nature of these risk reductions and the lack of impact on quality of life. The lesson for stated preference studies in general is that structured debriefings can be very useful, highlighting such issues as the persistence of ill-defined attributes and the difficulties that respondents may encounter setting aside their preferences over attributes of the good that should not be included in the valuation.

  8. Understanding the relationship transitions and associated end of life clinical needs of young adults with life-limiting illnesses: A triangulated longitudinal qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bridget; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Pringle, Jan; Gold, Libby; Grant, Jayne; Dempsey, Raymond; Scott, Ros; Carragher, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Care of young adults with life-limiting illnesses can often be complex due to the fact that they are growing and developing within the continuing presence of their illness. There is little research conducted nationally and internationally, which has examined the life issues of young adults or taken a longitudinal approach to understand such issues over a period of time. Aim: To gain clear understanding of one particular and pertinent life issue—relationship transition—occurring in the context of being a young adult with a life-limiting illness and the clinical needs arising from this. Design: This was a triangulated, longitudinal, qualitative study involving young adults with life-limiting illnesses and their significant others, namely, family members and healthcare professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and analysed using thematic analysis. Clinical case note reviews were also carried out. Setting/participants: A total of 12 young adults (aged between 17 and 23 years) from 2 hospices and 22 nominated significant others participated in a total of 58 interviews. Results: Thematic analysis revealed 4 main themes and 11 subthemes. The main themes were ‘Dependence dichotomy’, ‘In it together’, ‘Biographical uncertainty’, and ‘Conserving integrity’. These themes helped to establish the nature of relationship transitions that the young adult participants from the study experienced and additionally allowed insight into their possible needs at their end of life. Conclusion: This study has identified the nature of relationship transitions pertinent to young adults and has highlighted associated end of life clinical needs. This study can influence further research into the transitions and end of life needs of this particular patient group receiving palliative care, while informing the lacking evidence base which exists internationally. PMID:27781097

  9. A genetic-demographic approach reveals a gender-specific association of SLC6A3/DAT1 40 bp-VNTR with life-expectancy.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Fazal; Dato, Serena; Carpi, Francesco M; Prontera, Paolo; Crucianelli, Francesca; Renda, Federica; Passarino, Giuseppe; Napolioni, Valerio

    2015-06-01

    Several recent lines of evidence are proving an important role for dopamine in the aging process and in the determination of life span. Components of the dopaminergic system may represent good candidates for longevity studies. Herein, we tested the possible association of the functional SLC6A3/DAT1 40-bp VNTR with life-expectancy in a healthy population of Central Italy (N = 993) by applying a genetic-demographic approach that takes into account the demographic information and different survival rates between sexes for modeling the survival of specific allele carriers in the population. Male carriers of S*/S* genotype showed a lower survival chance across most of the lifespan respect to the survival of DAT1*L-carriers (P = 0.021). The same analyses gave non-significant results in females. Several studies already reported significant sex differences in dopamine metabolism and its related biological pathways. Thus, we can hypothesize that the SLC6A3/DAT1 40 bp-VNTR may affect life expectancy in a sex-specific way. Moreover, it is conceivable that DAT1 S*/S* carriers, who are prone to assume "risk" type behaviors, may be dropped out of the "healthy" population by a sort of "demographic selection".

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in Young Adults with Strabismus in India

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Surendra P; Chaudhry, Monica; Saikia, Mousumi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Strabismus has negative psycho-social and functional effects in adults. The impact can be minimised with surgery. However, in a low-income setting, it is important to evaluate the level of impact and prioritise the target population for intervention. The Adult Strabismus (AS-20) questionnaire is a reliable tool for assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in strabismic adults. Aim To assess the HRQoL in young adults with manifest strabismus through psychosocial and functional scores according to gender and direction of deviation using the AS-20 questionnaire. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 132 young adults who manifest horizontal strabismus were recruited and the AS-20 questionnaire was administered. Patient’s demographic profile and type of strabismus were noted and compared with the overall mean scores of psycho-social and functional subscales. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21 and p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The participants comprised of 70 (53.03%) males and 62 (46.97%) females with a mean age of 24.5±3.57 years (range 18 to 38 years). The overall mean AS-20 score of young adults with strabismus was 61.62±12.61. The overall mean score for male and female were 65.54±13.53 and 57.68±13.46, respectively. Similarly, the mean scores for esotropes was 57.03±11.66 and 66.19±15.30 for exotropes. The overall mean scores were statistically significantly reduced (decreased QoL) in females as compared to males (CI 95%; p=0.002) and in esotropes as compared to exotropes (CI 95%; p=0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the psychosocial and functional score for all types of strabismus and genders (for all, p>0.05). Conclusion The Quality of Life (QoL) is affected through psychosocial and functional factors in adults with strabismus. Females and adults with esotropia faced greater difficulties in the QoL. We recommend clinicians to consider the impact

  11. A national hypertension treatment program in Germany and its estimated impact on costs, life expectancy, and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Stock, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Almost 15 million Germans may suffer from untreated hypertension. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a national hypertension treatment program compared to no program. A Markov decision model from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) was built. All data were taken from secondary sources. The target population consists of hypertensive male and female patients at high or low risk for cardiovascular events at different age groups (40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years). The analysis shows fairly moderate cost-effectiveness ratios even for low-risk groups (less than 12,000 euros per life year gained). In women at high risk antihypertensive treatment even leads to savings. This suggests that a national hypertension treatment program provides good value for money. Given the considerable costs of the program itself, any savings from avoiding long-term consequences of hypertension are likely to be offset, however.

  12. Low Life Jacket Use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. Methods We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Results Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Conclusions Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use. PMID:24211559

  13. Quality of Life for Diverse Older Adults in Assisted Living: The Centrality of Control.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Sharon D; Mahmood, Atiya N; Stott-Eveneshen, Sarah

    This pilot project asked: How do ethnically diverse older adult residents of assisted living (AL) facilities in British Columbia (BC) experience quality of life? And, what role, if any, do organizational and physical environmental features play in influencing how quality of life is experienced? The study was conducted at three AL sites in BC: two ethnoculturally targeted and one nontargeted. Environmental audits at each site captured descriptive data on policies, fees, rules, staffing, meals, and activities, and the built environment of the AL building and neighborhood. Using a framework that understands the quality of life of older adults to be contingent on their capability to pursue 5 conceptual attributes-attachment, role, enjoyment, security, and control-we conducted 3 focus groups with residents (1 per site) and 6 interviews with staff (2 per site). Attributes were linked to the environmental features captured in the audits. All dimensions of the environment, especially organizational, influence tenants' capability to attain the attributes of quality of life, most importantly control. Although many tenants accept the trade-off between increased safety and diminished control that accompanies a move into AL, more could be done to minimize that loss. Social workers can advocate for the necessary multi-sectoral changes.

  14. Accounting for Life-Course Exposures in Epigenetic Biomarker Association Studies: Early Life Socioeconomic Position, Candidate Gene DNA Methylation, and Adult Cardiometabolic Risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007-2009), we investigated associations between early life socioeconomic position (paternal occupation and parental education) and mean adult DNA methylation at 5 frequently studied cardiometabolic and stress-response genes (ABCA1, INS-IGF2, LEP, HSD11B2, and NR3C1). We used multivariable linear regression and marginal structural models to estimate associations under 2 causal structures for life-course exposures and timing of methylation measurement. We also examined whether methylation was associated with adult cardiometabolic phenotype. Higher maternal education was consistently associated with higher HSD11B2 methylation (e.g., 0.5%-point higher in 9-12 years vs. ≤8 years, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 0.8). Higher HSD11B2 methylation was also associated with lower adult weight and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We found that associations with early life socioeconomic position measures were insensitive to different causal assumption; however, exploratory analysis did not find evidence for a mediating role of methylation in socioeconomic position-cardiometabolic risk associations.

  15. Exploratory time varying lagged regression: modeling association of cognitive and functional trajectories with expected clinic visits in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Ghosh, Samiran; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a longitudinal study on factors affecting the frequency of clinic visits of older adults, an exploratory time varying lagged regression analysis is proposed to relate a longitudinal response to multiple cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors from time varying lags. Regression relations are allowed to vary with time through smooth varying coefficient functions. The main goal of the proposal is to detect deviations from a concurrent varying coefficient model potentially in a subset of the longitudinal predictors with nonzero estimated lags. The proposed methodology is geared towards irregular and infrequent data where different longitudinal variables may be observed at different frequencies, possibly at unsynchronized time points and contaminated with additive measurement error. Furthermore, to cope with the curse of dimensionality which limits related current modeling approaches, a sequential model building procedure is proposed to explore and select the time varying lags of the longitudinal predictors. The estimation procedure is based on estimation of the moments of the predictor and response trajectories by pooling information from all subjects. The finite sample properties of the proposed estimation algorithm are studied under various lag structures and correlation levels among the predictor processes in simulation studies. Application to the clinic visits data show the effect of cognitive and functional impairment scores from varying lags on the frequency of the clinic visits throughout the study. PMID:24436504

  16. When Age and Culture Interact in an Easy and Yet Cognitively Demanding Task: Older Adults, But Not Younger Adults, Showed the Expected Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jinkyung; Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise C.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between age and culture can have various implications for cognition as age represents the effect of biological processes whereas culture represents the effect of sustaining experiences. Nevertheless, their interaction has rarely been examined. Thus, based on the fact that Asians are more intuitive in reasoning than Americans, we examined how this cultural difference might interact with age. Young and old participants from the US and Singapore performed a categorization task (living vs. non-living). To measure their reliance on intuition, we manipulated the typicality of targets (animate vs. inanimate). We showed that (1) RTs for inanimate organisms were slower than RTs for animate organisms (atypicality cost), (2) the cost was particularly large for older adults and (3) an age × culture interaction was observed such that cultural differences in the cost (Singaporeans > Americans) was found only among older participants. Further, we demonstrated that the age effect was associated with cognitive function and the culture effect among older adults was associated with cultural values. Finally, a moderated mediation analysis suggests that cognitive function and cultural values interact with each other in order to jointly influence one’s cognition.

  17. Partner preferences across the life span: online dating by older adults.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Sheyna Sears-Roberts; Mendelsohn, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Stereotypes of older adults as withdrawn or asexual fail to recognize that romantic relationships in later life are increasingly common. The authors analyzed 600 Internet personal ads from 4 age groups: 20-34, 40-54, 60-74, and 75+ years. Predictions from evolutionary theory held true in later life, when reproduction is no longer a concern. Across the life span, men sought physical attractiveness and offered status-related information more than women; women were more selective than men and sought status more than men. With age, men desired women increasingly younger than themselves, whereas women desired older men until ages 75 and over, when they sought men younger than themselves.

  18. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  19. Years of potential life lost for brain and CNS tumors relative to other cancers in adults in the United States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Chaturia; Gittleman, Haley; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Kruchko, Carol; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Years of potential life lost (YPLL) complement incidence and survival rates by measuring how much a patient's life is likely to be shortened by his or her cancer. In this study, we examine the impact of death due to brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors compared to other common cancers in adults by investigating the YPLL of adults in the United States. Methods Mortality and life table data were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics Vital Statistics Data for 2010. The study population included individuals aged 20 years or older at death who died from one of the selected cancers. YPLL was calculated by taking an individual's age at death and finding the corresponding expected remaining years of life using life table data. Results The cancers with the greatest mean YPLL were other malignant CNS tumors (20.65), malignant brain tumors (19.93), and pancreatic cancer (15.13) for males and malignant brain tumors (20.31), breast cancer (18.78), and other malignant CNS tumors (18.36) for females. For both sexes, non-Hispanic whites had the lowest YPLL, followed by non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics. Conclusion Malignant brain and other CNS tumors have the greatest mean YPLL, thereby reflecting their short survival time post diagnosis. These findings will hopefully motivate more research into mitigating the impact of these debilitating tumors. PMID:26459813

  20. Contribution of smoking-attributable mortality to life expectancy differences by marital status among Finnish men and women, 1971–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.; Elo, Irma T.; Martikainen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is known to vary by marital status, but little is known about its contribution to marital status differences in longevity. We examined the changing contribution of smoking to mortality differences between married and never married, divorced or widowed Finnish men and women aged 50 years and above in 1971–2010. DATA AND METHODS The data sets cover all persons permanently living in Finland in the census years 1970, 1975 through 2000 and 2005 with a five-year mortality follow-up. Smoking-attributable mortality was estimated using an indirect method that uses lung cancer mortality as an indicator for the impact of smoking on mortality from all other causes. RESULTS Life expectancy differences between the married and the other marital status groups increased rapidly over the 40-year study period because of the particularly rapid decline in mortality among married individuals. In 1971–1975 37–48% of life expectancy differences between married and divorced or widowed men were attributable to smoking, and this contribution declined to 11–18% by 2006–2010. Among women, in 1971–1975 up to 16% of life expectancy differences by marital status were due to smoking, and the contribution of smoking increased over time to 10–29% in 2006–2010. CONCLUSIONS In recent decades smoking has left large but decreasing imprints on marital status differences in longevity between married and previously married men, and small but increasing imprints on these differences among women. Over time the contribution of other factors, such as increasing material disadvantage or alcohol use, may have increased. PMID:28127255

  1. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients

    PubMed Central

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States’ poor health performance. The United States’ underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica’s lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica’s overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension. PMID:26729886

  2. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H

    2016-02-02

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States' poor health performance. The United States' underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica's lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica's overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension.

  3. Early-life conditions and older adult health in low- and middle-income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    McEniry, M

    2013-02-01

    Population aging and subsequent projected large increases in chronic conditions will be important health concerns in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is accumulating, little is known regarding the impact of poor early-life conditions on older adult (50 years and older) health in these settings. A systematic review of 1141 empirical studies was conducted to identify population-based and community studies in low- and middle-income countries, which examined associations between early-life conditions and older adult health. The resulting review of 20 studies revealed strong associations between (1) in utero/early infancy exposures (independent of other early life and adult conditions) and adult heart disease and diabetes; (2) poor nutrition during childhood and difficulties in adult cognition and diabetes; (3) specific childhood illnesses such as rheumatic fever and malaria and adult heart disease and mortality; (4) poor childhood health and adult functionality/disability and chronic diseases; (5) poor childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult mortality, functionality/disability and cognition; and (6) parental survival during childhood and adult functionality/disability and cognition. In several instances, associations remained strong even after controlling for adult SES and lifestyle. Although exact mechanisms cannot be identified, these studies reinforce to some extent the importance of early-life environment on health at older ages. Given the paucity of cohort data from the developing world to examine hypotheses of early-life conditions and older adult health, population-based studies are relevant in providing a broad perspective on the origins of adult health.

  4. Adult Sickle Cell Quality-of-Life Measurement Information System (ASCQ-Me)

    PubMed Central

    Treadwell, Marsha J.; Hassell, Kathryn; Levine, Roger; Keller, San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research-derived evidence about the impact of sickle cell disease (SCD) on the lives of affected adults is lacking. We conducted formative research to provide the basis for a comprehensive description of how SCD affects the lives of adults, with the goal of developing a SCD-specific quality-of-life measurement system. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review of patient-reported outcomes, followed by a series of focus groups and structured individual interviews with adults with SCD (n = 122) and their health care providers (n = 15). Results We reviewed 473 abstracts and included 86 articles in the final review. The literature revealed broad categories of the impact of SCD and its treatment on the lives of adults—pain; emotional distress; social-role functioning; overall quality-of-life; and quality of care. We classified 1213 incidents from the focus groups and interviews into a taxonomy (16 domains) that met the criterion for saturation and was demonstrated to be reliable for the classification of incidents. The final conceptual model was built upon the taxonomy. Discussion Our conceptual model was similar to previous models with the effects of pain predominating, interwoven with emotional distress, quality of care, and stigmatization. We found a broad range of emotions reflected, including positive effects of SCD. Items for the quality-of-life measure were derived from the taxonomy and the conceptual model may be of use in generating hypotheses for clinical research and improving understanding for clinicians of the lived experience of adults with SCD. PMID:24300219

  5. Implementation challenges in end-of-life research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Savage, Teresa A; Moro, Teresa Thalia; Boyden, Jackelyn Y; Brown, Allison A; Kavanaugh, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    Although the 4 million+people in the U.S. with an intellectual or developmental disability (I/DD) experience the same life expectancy as those in the general population, end-of-life research including these individuals is lacking and can be difficult to implement. As will be described in this paper, it is possible to overcome barriers to successfully include people with I/DD in end-of-life research. In this paper, the implementation challenges, feasibility, and implications for successful end-of-life research with individuals with I/DD using focus groups are described. Individuals with I/DD were able to discuss their experiences and views about end-of-life care. However, while people with I/DD made valuable contributions to the focus groups, there were several modifications needed in order to execute this study. In order to gain a complete picture of end-of-life care for people with I/DD, it is imperative to include them in research to the best of their ability. By anticipating issues related to recruitment, the consent process, setting, and support needs of participants, focus groups can be successfully implemented.

  6. CHILDHOOD TO EARLY MID-LIFE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE TRAJECTORIES: EARLY LIFE PREDICTORS, EFFECT MODIFIERS, AND ADULT CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Reremoana F; Broadbent, Jonathan; Nagin, Daniel; Ambler, Antony; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Cutfield, Wayne; Williams, Michael J A; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies examining blood pressure change over time have modelled an “average” population trajectory. Recent research among older adults suggests there may be subgroups with different blood pressure trajectories. Identifying subgroups at risk of developing adult hypertension early in life can inform effective risk reduction efforts. We sought to identify different systolic blood pressure trajectories from childhood, their correlated risk factors and early midlife cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure data at ages 7, 11, 18, 26, 32 and 38 years from a longitudinal, representative birth cohort study (n=975) were used to identify four distinct trajectory groups via group-based trajectory modeling: ‘normal’ (21.8%), ‘high-normal’ (43.3%), ‘prehypertensive’ (31.6%), and ‘hypertensive’ (4.2%). The categories refer to blood pressure beginning at age 7 and most recently measured at age 38. Family history of high blood pressure (OR=43.23, 95% CI 5.27, 354.65), male gender (OR=109.48, 95% CI=26.82, 446.96), being first born (OR=2.5 95% CI=1.00, 8.69) and low birthweight (OR=2.79, 95% CI 2.49, 3.09) were associated with hypertensive group membership (compared to the normal group). Higher body mass index and cigarette smoking resulted in increasing blood pressure across trajectories, particularly for the higher blood pressure groups. Prehypertensive and hypertensive trajectory groups had worse cardiovascular outcomes by early midlife. Harmful blood pressure trajectories are identifiable in childhood, associated with both antecedent and modifiable risk factors over time, and predict adult cardiovascular disease risk. Early detection, subsequent targeted prevention and/or intervention may reduce the lifecourse burden associated with higher blood pressure. PMID:26558818

  7. Ancestry trumps experience: Transgenerational but not early life stress affects the adult physiological stress response.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Gail L; Robbins, Travis R; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood. Offspring from these high- and low-stress populations were exposed weekly to either sub-lethal attack by fire ants (an ecologically relevant stressor), topical treatment with a physiologically-appropriate dose of the stress-relevant hormone, corticosterone (CORT), or a control treatment from 2 to 43weeks of age. Several months after treatments ended, we quantified plasma CORT concentrations at baseline and following restraint, exposure to fire ants, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. Exposure to fire ants or CORT during early life did not affect lizard stress physiology in adulthood. However, offspring of lizards from populations that had experienced multiple generations of fire ant-invasion exhibited more robust adult CORT responses to restraint and ACTH-injection compared to offspring from uninvaded populations. Together, these results indicate that transgenerational stress history may be at least as important, if not more important, than early life stress in affecting adult physiological stress responses.

  8. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life.

  9. Health Values and Treatment Goals of Older, Multimorbid Adults Facing Life-Threatening Illness

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand D.; Martin, Lindsey A.; Moye, Jennifer; Karel, Michele J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify a taxonomy of health-related values that frame goals of care of older, multimorbid adults who recently faced cancer diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort study of multimorbid cancer survivors. SETTING Cancer registries from regional Department of Veterans Affairs networks in New England and southeast Texas. PARTICIPANTS Multimorbid adults who completed interviews 12 months after diagnosis of head and neck, colorectal, gastric, or esophageal cancer and after cancer treatment (N = 146). MEASUREMENTS An interdisciplinary team conducted thematic analyses of participants’ intuitive responses to two questions: Now that you have had cancer and may face ongoing decisions about medical care in the future, what would you want your family, friends, and doctors to know about you, in terms of what is most important to you in your life? If your cancer were to recur, is there anything you’d want to be sure your loved ones knew about you and your goals of care? RESULTS Analysis revealed five distinct health-related values that guide how multimorbid cancer survivors conceptualize specific health care goals and medical decisions: self-sufficiency, life enjoyment, connectedness and legacy, balancing quality and length of life, and engagement in care. Participants typically endorsed more than one value as important. CONCLUSION Older multimorbid adults who recently faced life-threatening cancer endorsed a multidimensional taxonomy of health-related values. These health-related values guide how they frame their goals for care and treatment preferences. Eliciting individuals’ sense of their values during clinical encounters may improve their experiences with health care and more effectively align treatments with goals of care. PMID:27000335

  10. Glioblastoma: changing expectations?

    PubMed

    Arribas Alpuente, Leoncio; Menéndez López, Antonio; Yayá Tur, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) represents the most aggressive glioma in the adult population. Despite recent research efforts, the prognosis of patients with GB has remained dismal. Lately, the knowledge of genetic information about gliomagenesis has increased; we even have a classification of the genetic expression of the tumour. The main problem is that at the moment we do not have any therapeutical resources to help us better treat these tumours, as we can do, with others tumours like breast, lung and colorectal cancer. We have also improved on diagnostic imaging, especially with the new MRI sequences; we can now better define the characteristics of the tumour area and the surrounding brain structures, allowing us to adjust resections. Thanks to the most advanced surgery techniques, such as neuronavigation, intraoperative control of the nervous function and the tumour volume, the neurosurgeon is able to complete tumour exeresis with less morbidity. These imaging techniques allow the radiation oncologist to better contour the irradiation target volume, the structures and the organs at risk, to diminish the irradiation of apparently healthy tissue. Nowadays, knowledge of brain stem cells provides new expectations for future treatments. Novel targeted agents such as bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, temsirolimus, immunotherapy, cilengitide, talampanel, etc. are helping classical chemotherapeutic agents, like temozolomide, to achieve an increase in overall survival. The main objective is to improve median overall survival, which is currently between 9 and 12 months, with a good quality of life, measured by the ability to carry out daily life activities.

  11. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor

  12. Childhood poverty and depressive symptoms for older adults in Mexico: a life-course analysis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-09-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n = 8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71% had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b = 0.27, p < 0.001). This effect is partially mediated by four adult socio-economic status measures, although decomposition analysis reveals the mediation effect to be primarily driven by educational achievement. These findings have important implications for Mexico's rapidly aging population as well as efforts for childhood poverty reduction and gains in education.

  13. Electroclinical features of idiopathic generalised epilepsy with persisting absences in adult life.

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, R; Rubboli, G; Passarelli, D; Riguzzi, P; Volpi, L; Parmeggiani, L; Rizzi, R; Gardella, E; Tassinari, C A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the electroclinical features of typical absences persisting in adult life. METHODS: Twelve adult patients (aged 21 to 56 years) with idiopathic generalised epilepsy featuring typical absences as the prominent clinical feature were studied. All patients underwent a full clinical and neurophysiological investigation including ictal documentation of seizures. RESULTS: Neurological examination and neuroradiological investigations were normal in all cases. Clinical findings included a median age at onset of absences of 14 (range 4-32) years, almost constant tonic-clonic seizures (in 83% of patients), frequent episodes of absence status (in 33% of patients), and associated cognitive or psychiatric disturbances. Interictal EEG findings showed normal background activity, generalised paroxysms of spike waves or polyspike waves, and inconstant focal spikes (in five patients); runs of polyspikes were seen during non-REM sleep. Ictal EEG findings showed generalised spike waves at 3 Hz, sometimes preceded by multiple spikes, or more complex EEG patterns with sequences of polyspikes intermingled with spike waves or polyspike waves, showing discharge fragmentation or variation of intradischarge frequency. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study show that absences persisting in adult life may show particular clinical and EEG patterns, distinct from those in childhood or adolescence. PMID:8937341

  14. Activities with higher influence on quality of life in older adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Ito, Emi

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of 10 activities on quality of life (QOL) in Japanese older adults and to verify which activities had higher influence on QOL level. The subjects were 465 Japanese community-dwelling older adults. QOL was assessed by the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) and the complementary assessment to measure the QOL of older adults (WHOQOL-OLD) module. Activity and participation were measured through a questionnaire concerning frequency of engagement in several activities. The activity with the highest influence on WHOQOL-BREF was physical activity (β = 0.209, p < 0.01), followed by art activity (β = 0.169, p < 0.01) and reading and writing (β = 0.141, p < 0.01). The activity with the highest influence on WHOQOL-OLD was social activity (β = 0.222, p < 0.01), followed by reading and writing activity (β = 0.118, p < 0.05). The limitations of this study were the proportion of subjects and the place of recruitment. Further studies investigating in deep the relation between QOL and activity and participation, and other subjective and environmental factors that may influence the QOL are still needed among a higher and homogeneous subjects sample.

  15. Childhood Poverty and Depressive Symptoms for Older Adults in Mexico: A Life-Course Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n=8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71 % had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b=0.27, p<0.001). This effect is partially mediated by four adult socio-economic status measures, although decomposition analysis reveals the mediation effect to be primarily driven by educational achievement. These findings have important implications for Mexico’s rapidly aging population as well as efforts for childhood poverty reduction and gains in education. PMID:23783887

  16. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2015-01-01

    Foetal development and infancy are life stages that are characterised by rapid growth, development and maturation of organs and systems. Variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed by mothers during pregnancy, or infants during the first year of life, can exert permanent and powerful effects upon developing tissues. These effects are termed 'programming' and represent an important risk factor for noncommunicable diseases of adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. This narrative review provides an overview of the evidence-base showing that indicators of nutritional deficit in pregnancy are associated with a greater risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. There is also a limited evidence-base that suggests some relationship between breastfeeding and the timing and type of foods used in weaning, and disease in later life. Many of the associations reported between indicators of early growth and adult disease appear to interact with specific genotypes. This supports the idea that programming is one of several cumulative influences upon health and disease acting across the lifespan. Experimental studies have provided important clues to the mechanisms that link nutritional challenges in early life to disease in adulthood. It is suggested that nutritional programming is a product of the altered expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle, resulting in effective remodelling of tissue structure and functionality. The observation that traits programmed by nutritional exposures in foetal life can be transmitted to further generations adds weight the argument that heritable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming.

  17. Effect of Leishmania spp infection on the survival, life expectancy, fecundity and fertility of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. and Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Agrela, Irma Fatima; Feliciangeli, Maria Dora

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of Leishmania spp infection on several population parameters of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato andLutzomyia pseudolongipalpis, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, under experimental conditions during the first post-feeding period. Females of both species were allowed to feed and engorge on a suspension of fresh washed human red blood cells in foetal calf serum. These blood cells were either non-infected or infected with one of the fourLeishmania spp strains and were offered through a chicken skin membrane. The longevity, life expectancy and the fecundity of uninfected flies were similar in both species, but the fertility was significantly lower in uninfected Lu. longipalpis females. In all cases, the infection of Lu. longipalpis and Lu. pseudolongipalpis by the Leishmania strains resulted in significant detrimental effects, which exerted a fitness cost expressed by reduced survival and life expectancy, as well as decreased fertility and fecundity compared with the control groups. Nevertheless, differences in these parameters were observed between these vector species depending on whether they were infected with the autochthonous Venezuelan Leishmania infantum strain (NESA) or the Brazilian reference strain (PP75). The experimental data obtained agree with field data on the natural infection of these vector species and the significance of this scenario is discussed. PMID:26132427

  18. Personalized risk communication for personalized risk assessment: Real world assessment of knowledge and motivation for six mortality risk measures from an online life expectancy calculator.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Douglas G; Abdulaziz, Kasim E; Perez, Richard; Beach, Sarah; Bennett, Carol

    2017-01-09

    In the clinical setting, previous studies have shown personalized risk assessment and communication improves risk perception and motivation. We evaluated an online health calculator that estimated and presented six different measures of life expectancy/mortality based on a person's sociodemographic and health behavior profile. Immediately after receiving calculator results, participants were invited to complete an online survey that asked how informative and motivating they found each risk measure, whether they would share their results and whether the calculator provided information they need to make lifestyle changes. Over 80% of the 317 survey respondents found at least one of six healthy living measures highly informative and motivating, but there was moderate heterogeneity regarding which measures respondents found most informative and motivating. Overall, health age was most informative and life expectancy most motivating. Approximately 40% of respondents would share the results with their clinician (44%) or social networks (38%), although the information they would share was often different from what they found informative or motivational. Online personalized risk assessment allows for a more personalized communication compared to historic paper-based risk assessment to maximize knowledge and motivation, and people should be provided a range of risk communication measures that reflect different risk perspectives.

  19. Incarceration and adult weight gain in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Zinzi D.; Williams, David R.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has the unenviable distinction of having both the highest obesity rate among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the highest incarceration rate in the world. Further, both are socially patterned by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Incarceration involves various health behaviors that could influence adult weight trajectory. We evaluated the associations between history and duration of adult incarceration and weight gain using the National Survey of American Life (N=6,082 adults residing in the 48 contiguous states between February 2001 and March 2003). We propensity score-matched individuals to control for the probability of having a history of incarceration. To examine the relation between prior incarceration and adult weight gain, we fit gender-stratified generalized estimating equations controlling for propensity of incarceration history, age, education, income, race/ethnicity, and marital status. For males (N=563), incarceration was associated with about a 1.77 kg/m2 lower gain in body mass index (BMI) during adulthood, after adjusting for age, education, income, race/ethnicity, and marital status in addition to the propensity of having a history of incarceration (95% CI: −2.63, −0.92). For females (N=286), no significant overall relationship was found between a history of incarceration and adult weight gain. In subgroup analyses among those with an incarceration history, we found no overall association between duration of incarceration and adult weight gain in men or women. In sensitivity analyses, neither tobacco smoking nor parity changed the results. The results of this study indicate that incarceration is associated with a lower transition of weight gain in males, but not females. PMID:26456214

  20. Life-history variation in a seed beetle: adult egg-laying vs. larval competitive ability.

    PubMed

    Messina, Frank J

    1991-01-01

    Populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus differ genetically in several traits that mediate intraspecific competition. This study examined competitive interactions between larvae from two strains that differed in their propensity to oviposit on occupied hosts. In a strain (S) where females avoided laying >1 egg/seed, larvae were highly competitive; if two larvae entered a small host simultaneously, only one adult emerged. In a strain (I) whose females were "sloppier" in their egg-laying decisions, more than half of the seeds bearing two larvae yielded two adults. If seeds contained one larva from each strain, only one adult emerged per seed, and 70% of these adults belonged to the more competitive S strain. A larva's probability of emergence could be increased if it entered the seed before its competitor. A two-day headstart was needed merely for I larvae to compete equally with S larvae. Competition also affected development time and adult weight, but its effect was highly strain- and sex-specific. Adult life-history traits also differed substantially between strains. Compared to I beetles, S beetles exhibited decreased longevity, lower fecundity, a truncated period of oviposition, and larger egg and body size. Fecundity was linearly related to body size in the I strain, but was largely independent of size in the S strain. When faced with a shortage of hosts, S females (whose progeny are highly competitive) "withheld" eggs and died without depositing 40% of their lifetime supply. In contrast, the fecundity of I females was independent of seed availability. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that both highly uniform egg-laying and strong interference among larvae may be a consequence of chronic association with a relatively small host. Results from the larval competition experiments were used as parameter estimates for a simple, game-theoretic model that postulates interference vs. exploitative strategies. Fitness comparisons suggest that a