Science.gov

Sample records for adult life results

  1. Literacy for Life: Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…

  2. Learning a Living: First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) is a large-scale co-operative effort undertaken by governments, national statistics agencies, research institutions and multi-lateral agencies. The development and management of the study were co-ordinated by Statistics Canada and the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in collaboration with the…

  3. Low-level subchronic arsenic exposure from prenatal developmental stages to adult life results in an impaired glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Esqueda, M E; Morales, J M V; Jiménez-Capdeville, M E; De la Cruz, E; Falcón-Escobedo, R; Chi-Ahumada, E; Martin-Pérez, S

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated how low-level (3 ppm) subchronic inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure from prenatal developmental stages until adult life affects glucose homeostasis. Biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, pancreatic insulin and glycosylated haemoglobin were determined in 4-month-old female offspring of adult Wistar rats. Pancreatic histology was also performed. Statistical comparisons between control and iAs-treated groups were performed by unpaired two-tailed Student's t-test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. We found that iAs treatment resulted in an impaired glucose tolerance test, suggestive of impaired glucose metabolism. This group was found to have hyperglycaemia and high levels of HOMA-IR, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol and pancreatic insulin compared to control rats. However, plasma insulin, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not different from control rats. Moreover, β-cell damage found in iAs-treated rats consisted of cells with a nucleus with dense chromatin and predominance of eosinophilic cytoplasm, as well as changes in the pancreatic vasculature. The current study provided evidence that subchronic iAs exposure at 3 ppm from prenatal developmental stages to adult life resulted in damage to pancreatic β cells, affected insulin secretion and demonstrated altered glucose homeostasis, thus supporting a causal association between iAs exposure and diabetes.

  4. Exploring the Adult Life of Men and Women with Fragile X Syndrome: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartleyand, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Raspa, Melissa; Olmstead, Murrey; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a national family survey, the authors describe the adult lives (i.e., residence, employment, level of assistance needed with everyday life, friendships, and leisure activities) of 328 adults with the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and identify characteristics related to independence in these domains. Level of functional skills was…

  5. The impact of emotional stress early in life on adult voluntary ethanol intake-results of maternal separation in rats.

    PubMed

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2005-09-01

    The combination of genetic and environmental factors determines the individual vulnerability for excessive ethanol intake, possibly leading to dependence. The environmental influences early in life represent examples of determinant factors for adult behaviour and can be protective as well as risk factors. Maternal separation is one model to examine the long-term consequences of early environmental experiences on neurochemistry and behaviour, including drug-taking behaviour in experimental animals. In the present review, findings from studies using repeated short and prolonged periods of maternal separation, with emphasis on effects on voluntary ethanol intake in rats with or without a genetic predisposition for high voluntary ethanol intake, are summarized. Despite some contradictory results, the general picture emerging shows that short periods of maternal separation during the postnatal period result in a lower adult voluntary ethanol intake in male rats. Prolonged periods of maternal separation were found to induce a high voluntary ethanol intake in male rats, including rats with a genetic predisposition for high ethanol intake. Results from the literature also show that changes were not just related to time of separation but were also related to the degree of handling. Interestingly, in terms of voluntary ethanol intake, female rats were generally not affected by postnatal maternal separation. The reasons for these sex differences need further investigation. In terms of neurobiological consequences of maternal separation, conclusive data are sparse and one of the future challenges will, therefore, be to identify and characterize underlying neurobiological mechanisms, especially in the individual animal.

  6. Being breastfed in infancy and breast cancer incidence in adult life: results from the two nurses' health studies.

    PubMed

    Michels, K B; Trichopoulos, D; Rosner, B A; Hunter, D J; Colditz, G A; Hankinson, S E; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    2001-02-01

    Events during perinatal and early life may influence the incidence of breast cancer in adult life, and some case-control studies suggest that having been breastfed may reduce breast cancer risk. The authors studied this association among premenopausal and postmenopausal women by using data from the two Nurses' Health Studies, the Nurses' Health Study (using data from 1992 to 1996) and the Nurses' Health Study II (using data from 1991 to 1997). A history of being breastfed was self-reported by the study participants. During a total of 695,655 person-years, 1,073 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. The authors did not observe any important overall association between having been breastfed and the development of breast cancer later in life among premenopausal women (covariate-adjusted relative risk = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 1.20) or postmenopausal women (covariate-adjusted relative risk = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.37). No significant trend was observed with increasing duration of breastfeeding. The authors also used data on breastfeeding retrospectively collected from 2,103 mothers of participants of the two Nurses' Health Studies. With the mothers' reports, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.39) for women who were breastfed compared with those who were not. Data from these two large cohorts do not support the hypothesis that being breastfed confers protection against subsequent breast cancer. PMID:11157415

  7. Literacy in Everyday Life: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2007-490

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Mark; Greenberg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Boyle, Bridget; Hsu, Yung-chen; Dunleavy, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy skills of a nationally representative sample of more than 19,000 U.S. adults (age 16 and older) residing in households and prisons. NAAL is the first national assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. Three types of literacy were…

  8. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  9. Quality of Life, Cortisol Blood Levels and Exercise in Older Adults: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Cossu, Giulia; Migliaccio, Gian M; Atzori, Claudio; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cortisol plays a central role in the stress response; while high stress can determine physical and psychological impairment, moderate stress, with a mild increase in cortisol level, may have a positive effect on coping and physical performance. This trial attempted to determine whether cortisol levels were associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in a sample of elderly subjects undertaking an exercise program. Methods:42 subjects aged ≥65 years were randomlyassigned in a 1:1 fashion either to a vigorous physical activity (VAG: N=21) or to a postural gimnastic group (PGG: N=21). Differences between the two groups in QoL (on SF-12), and blood cortisol levels were assessed by ANOVA at different times. Results:In both the VAG and PGG, cortisol levels rose at the end of the trial, with statistically significant differences as compared to the baseline. QoL at the end of the trial was higher than in the national normative sample. Cortisol and QoL in both groups decreased slightly 12 weeks after the end of the trial (T2); however, only in the VAG did the difference from the initial level remain statistically significant. At T1 and T2, subjects with higher SF-12 scores were found in subsamples in both groups with cortisol levels moderately increased (between 200 and 300 mg/ml). Conclusion:In a sample of elderly subjects undergoing two different kinds of exercise, a better perception of Quality of Life was associated with a moderate, non-pathological increase in cortisol. The results need to be confirmed by trials on larger samples. PMID:25006344

  10. Adult education and the quality of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijnman, Albert

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complementary role of adult education in influencing people's objective and subjective quality of life. The analytical strategy used to achieve this end is to estimate parameters in a path model which includes both objective indicators such as occupational status and earned income, and subjective indicators such as job satisfaction and perceived personal wellbeing. The investigation builds on Swedish data and employs the LISREL method in the fitting of the model to the data. The results indicate that adult education positively influences objective indicators of the quality of life. Even though adult education is found to relate to measures of perceived personal wellbeing, the hypothesis that it also influences the way men assess their life situation and evaluate their subjective quality of life cannot be confirmed.

  11. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  12. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  13. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  14. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Mark D.; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S. K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function. PMID:26831418

  15. Pain at multiple body sites and health-related quality of life in older adults: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John; Rathod, Trishna; Wilkie, Ross; Thomas, Elaine; McBeth, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Number of pain sites (NPS) is a potentially important marker of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but remains unexplored in older people. This cross-sectional study investigated whether, in older people including the oldest old, NPS was independently associated with poorer mental and physical HRQoL and if the association was moderated by age. Methods. A postal questionnaire sent to a population sample of adults aged ≥50 years in North Staffordshire, UK, included the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS), a blank body pain manikin, socio-demographic, health behaviour and morbidity questions. Participants shaded sites of pain lasting ≥1 day in the past 4 weeks on the manikin. OA consultation data were obtained for participants consenting to medical records review. Results. A total of 13 986 individuals (adjusted response 70.6%) completed a questionnaire, of which 12 408 provided complete pain data. The median NPS reported was 4 [interquartile range (IQR) 0–8]. General linear models showed that an increasing NPS was significantly associated with poorer MCS (β = −0.43, 95% CI −0.46, −0.40) and PCS (β = −0.87, 95% CI −0.90, −0.84). Adjustment for covariates attenuated the associations but they remained significant (MCS: β = −0.28, 95% CI −0.31, −0.24; PCS: β = −0.63, 95% CI −0.66, −0.59). The association between NPS and MCS or PCS was moderated by age, but the strongest associations were not in the oldest old. Conclusion. NPS appears to be a potentially modifiable target for improving physical and mental HRQoL in older people. Future analyses should investigate the influence of NPS on HRQoL over time in older people. PMID:24925881

  16. The Balancing Act of Adult Life. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Life is more complex than ever for adults in the 21st century as a result of technological advances; the changing nature of work, workplaces, and working relationships; international economic competition; the changing demographics of workers, families, and communities; and longer life spans. Learning to cope with all these changing…

  17. Mammary gland: From embryogenesis to adult life.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano; Imbesi, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on the molecular factors that ensure the optimal development and maintenance of the mammary gland thanks to their integration and coordination. The development of the mammary gland is supported, not only by endocrine signals, but also by regulatory molecules, which are able to integrate signals from the surrounding microenvironment. A major role is certainly played by homeotic genes, but their incorrect expression during the spatiotemporal regulation of proliferative, functional and differentiation cycles of the mammary gland, may result in the onset of neoplastic processes. Attention is directed also to the endocrine aspects and sexual dimorphism of mammary gland development, as well as the role played by ovarian steroids and their receptors in adult life.

  18. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  19. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  20. Quality of Life in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedoot, Caroline; Bouwmans, Clazien; Franken, Marie-Christine; Stolk, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to explore to what extent QoL is impaired in adults who stutter (AWS). In…

  1. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population.

  2. Life satisfaction of older Chinese adults living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Chi, Iris; Xu, Ling

    2013-06-01

    Guided by the socio-environmental theoretical framework, this study examined factors associated with life satisfaction experienced by older Chinese adults living in rural communities. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted by the China Research Center on Aging in 2000. This study included 10,084 rural older adults in mainland China. In this study 60.2 % of rural older adults were satisfied with their lives. Results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that life satisfaction reported by rural older Chinese adults was significantly related to education, financial resources, self-rated health, financial support from children, satisfaction with children's support, house sitting for their children, visiting neighbors, and being invited to dinner by neighbors. Research and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.

  3. My life is a longing: child abuse and its adult sequelae. Results of the Brody longitudinal study from birth to age 30.

    PubMed

    Massie, Henry; Szajnberg, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    The psychoanalytically oriented Brody longitudinal study has followed the psychological development of 76 individuals from birth to age 30. Ten suffered severe maltreatment in childhood in the form of rejection and/or physical abuse at the hands of one or both parents. This report describes the effects of child abuse on the emerging personalities of the children, as well as on their adult personalities and mental health. Specifically, as adults the maltreated children had significantly more psychiatric illness (typically depressions and anxiety disorders), less mature psychological defense mechanisms, more insecure mental representations of attachment to their parents as indicated by the adult attachment interview, and a lower Global Assessment of Functioning than their well-treated counterparts. Additionally, their prevailing moods were joyless. Case examples show the emergence of symptoms, personality disorders, and defenses over time, as well as the workings of ameliorating influences. Several of the maltreated children made relatively successful adaptations as adults, indicating children's potential for resilience. Resilience, however, may be a superficial concept, for, in this series of cases, seemingly adequate coping in formerly mistreated children always came at the price of emotional vulnerability and compromised potential.

  4. Exploring Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Dakar.

    PubMed

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Montepare, Joann M; Gueye, Lamine

    2015-12-01

    Studies on correlates of subjective well-being of older adults are virtually non-existent in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, understanding and improving the well-being of older adults should be a focal point of research and policy directed at this fast growing population. The aim of this study was to assess the links between socio-demographic factors, economic conditions, health, social relations, and the life satisfaction of older adults in Dakar. To this end, a survey was conducted on a sample of 500 dwellers of the Senegalese capital, aged 50 to 100, using the quota method for greater representativeness. Results revealed that with advancing age older adults expressed greater life satisfaction, and that older women were more satisfied than older men. As well, economic conditions were a main predictor of life satisfaction, along with good social relations. In contrast to findings with Western populations, neither self-rated health nor physical disabilities were associated with aging adults' life satisfaction. Findings suggest a number of avenues for future research.

  5. The Family Life Education Needs of Midlife and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Morris Michael Lane

    2003-01-01

    Using a life course perspective, reports the findings from a needs assessment for midlife and older adults regarding family life education. A sample of 264 adults aged 50 and older indicated interest in 29 family life education topics. The highest rated topics were nutrition and health, fitness and exercise, and positive aspects of aging.…

  6. BARRIERS TO LIFE JACKET USE AMONG ADULT RECREATIONAL BOATERS

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.; Bennett, Elizabeth E.; Mueller, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify barriers to life jacket use. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Nine public boat ramps in western Washington State, USA, August-November, 2008. Participants 675 adult boaters (>18 years) on motor boats <26 feet long. Main outcome Low or no life jacket use (0–50% of time) versus high life jacket use (51–100% of time). Results Low/no life jacket use (0%–50% of time) was associated with longer boat length (per foot, risk ratio [RR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.05), alcohol use (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.20), perception of life jackets as “uncomfortable” (RR 1.29, 95%CI 1.09–1.52), perceived greater level of swimming ability (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.53 for “expert swimmer”), and possibly with lack of confidence that a life jacket may save one from drowning (RR 1.13, 95%CI 0.96–1.32). Low life jacket use was less likely when a child was onboard (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.99), or if the respondent had taken a boating safety class (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87–1.01). Conclusions Life jacket use may increase with more comfortable devices, such as inflatable life jackets, and with increased awareness of their efficacy in preventing drowning. Boater education classes may be associated with increased life jacket use among adults. PMID:24686261

  7. Life expectancy without depression increases among Brazilian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond; Wu, Fan; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate life expectancy with and without depressive symptoms in older adults for the years 2000 and 2010. METHODS We evaluated individuals aged 60 years or older (n = 1,862 in 2000 and n = 1,280 in 2010), participants of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Aging) study in in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Depression was measured using the shorter version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15); respondents scoring ≥ 6 were classified as having depression. Estimates of life expectancy with and without depression were obtained using the Sullivan method. RESULTS Data from 2000 indicate that 60-year-old men could expect to live, on average, 14.7 years without depression and 60-year-old women could expect to live 16.5 years without depression. By 2010, life expectancy without depression had increased to 16.7 years for men and 17.8 years for women. Expected length of life with depression differed by sex, with women expected to live more years with depression than men. CONCLUSIONS Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy without depression in Sao Paulo increased. However, older adults in Brazil, especially older women, still face a serious burden of mental illness. PMID:27143612

  8. Life in varying environments: experimental evidence for delayed effects of juvenile environment on adult life history.

    PubMed

    Helle, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

    2012-05-01

    1. The effects of environment experienced during early development on phenotype as an adult has started to gain vast amounts of interest in various taxa. Some evidence on long-term effects of juvenile environment is available, but replicated experimental studies in wild animals are still lacking. 2. Here we report the first replicated experiment in wild mammals which examines the long-term effects of juvenile and adult environments on individual fitness (reproduction, survival and health). The early development of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) individuals took place in either food-supplemented or un-supplemented outdoor enclosures. After the summer, adult individuals were reciprocally changed to either a similar or opposite resource environment to overwinter. 3. Adult environment had an overriding effect on reproductive success of females so that females overwintering in food-supplemented enclosures had a higher probability of breeding and advanced the initiation of breeding. However, the characteristics of their litters were determined by juvenile environment: females initially grown in food-supplemented conditions subsequently produced larger litters with bigger pups and a male-biased sex ratio. 4. In males, individuals growing in un-supplemented conditions had the highest survival irrespective of adult environment during winter, whereas in females, neither the juvenile nor adult environments affected their survival significantly. The physiological condition of voles in spring, as determined by haematological parameters, was also differentially affected by juvenile (plasma proteins and male testosterone) and adult (haematocrit) environments. 5. Our results suggest that (i) life-history trajectories of voles are not strictly specialized to a certain environment and (ii) the plastic life-history responses to present conditions can actually be caused by delayed effects of the juvenile environment. More generally, the results are important for understanding

  9. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  10. Intimate Adult Relationships, Quality of Life and Psychological Adjusment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…

  11. Life Satisfaction among Young Adults from Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…

  12. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Loneliness Among LGB Adults and Heterosexual Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults.

  13. Disentangling environmental effects on adult life span in a butterfly across the metamorphic boundary.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Perlick, Jana E C; Fischer, Klaus

    2009-12-01

    Life span is a central life history trait often showing tremendous variation within populations. Much of this variation can be attributed to environmental factors. In holometabolous insects life stages differ strikingly in physiology and energetic demands, and environmental variation before and after metamorphosis may not necessarily yield identical responses. In this study, we adopted a full-factorial experimental design with two larval and two adult temperatures as well as two larval and three adult feeding treatments (n(total)=1151). Identical temperatures yielded qualitatively different results depending on the developmental stage. While the lower compared to the higher developmental temperature slightly reduced adult life span, a lower adult temperature substantially increased life span. Food stress in the larval stage slightly reduced life span, as did food stress during the adult stage. Females lived generally longer than males. All factors investigated were involved in interactions with other factors, both within and across life stages. For instance, the qualitative impact of larval food stress depended on adult feeding treatment and adult temperature. Our results suggest that much insight into the causes of variation in life span is to be gained by explicitly considering environmental impacts across developmental stages and potential interactions among different environmental factors.

  14. Obesity and Life Expectancy Among Long-Lived Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In samples of African Americans and the elderly adults, obesity is often not found to be a risk factor for mortality. These data contradict the evidence linking obesity to chronic disease in these groups. Our objective was to determine whether obesity remains a risk factor for mortality among long-lived black adults. Methods. The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large prospective cohort study of Seventh-day Adventist church members who are encouraged by faith-based principles to avoid tobacco, alcohol, and meat consumption. We conducted an attained age survival analysis of 22,884 U.S. blacks of the cohort—half of whom attained an age of 58–108 years during the follow-up (adult life expectancy of 84 years in men, 89 years in women). Results. Women in the highest body mass index quintile (>33.8) experienced a significant 61% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.62 [1.23, 2.11] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and a 6.2-year (95% CI = 2.8–10.2 years) decrease in life expectancy. Men in the highest body mass index quintile (>30.8) experienced a significant 87% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.87 [1.28, 2.73] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and 5.9-year (95% CI = 2.1– 9.5 years) decrease in life expectancy. Obesity (>30) was a significant risk factor relative to normal weight (18.5–24.9) in never-smokers. Instantaneous hazards indicated excess risk from obesity was evident through at least age 85 years. The nonobese tended to follow plant-based diets and exercise vigorously. Conclusions. Avoiding obesity promotes gains in life expectancy through at least the eighth decade of life in black adults. Evidence for weight control through plant-based diets and active living was found in long-lived nonobese blacks. PMID:23682156

  15. Associations among aspects of meaning in life and death anxiety in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explored the relationship between two aspects of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life, and the fear of death and dying in young adults. A community sample of participants (N = 168) completed measures of meaning in life and death anxiety. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed using the search for meaning and presence of meaning as independent variables and fear of death and dying as dependent variables. Results indicated that only the search for meaning in life was significantly associated with fear of dying and death in young adults.

  16. Transition Planning Guide: From School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra Jespersen

    The guide is intended to assist disabled students, their families, and professionals working with them to become familiar with the variety of adult services available and to create a systematic plan for transition from school to adult life. The first section considers the logistics of transition planning and includes a description of the planning…

  17. Coaching "Callings" throughout the Adult Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Frederic M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of "callings" continues throughout life. Coaching can connect the present to the future in a meaningful way. Callings represent a value shift requiring revision of the nature and scope of one's central purpose in life and meaningful activities. (JOW)

  18. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life. PMID:19960543

  19. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  20. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  1. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  2. Life Course Changes and Parent-Adult Child Contact

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Russell; Deane, Glenn; Spitze, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased interest in parent-adult child relations, there has been little attention to how these are influenced by changes in their lives, reflecting transitions and linked lives within a life course perspective. Hybrid multi-level models are used to analyze change in parent-adult child contact over two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. Changes in parent-child proximity, parent and child marital status, and child parental status are associated with change in contact; continued coresidence with another adult child is related to contact with noncoresidential children; but change in parent health does not affect contact. Some patterns are stronger for daughters and biological children, who tend to have stronger relationships with parents. These analyses demonstrate how life course transitions of parents and adult children can be examined in family context to understand how changes in the life of one family member may influence relations with another. PMID:25651511

  3. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  4. Catapulting through life stages. When younger adults are diagnosed with life-threatening illnesses.

    PubMed

    Rancour, Patrice

    2002-02-01

    Knowledge of developmental stages through the life cycle has always been a hallmark of quality nursing care. The knowledge base gleaned from the older adult literature, such as Schachter-Shalomi and Miller's construct of sage-ing (1995), can help nurses understand that many of the completion tasks usually associated with aging suddenly are thrust to the forefront for younger adult patients diagnosed with a life-threatening illness. Using this knowledge base, nurses can facilitate developmental stage work facing younger adult patients whose illness catapults them into more mature stages for which they may have been unprepared. When younger adult patients are so diagnosed, nurses need to recognize the signs of catapulting life stage work and support it. It is no small task to complete the gestalt of one's life tapestry, but it is especially difficult when one is young. PMID:11852713

  5. Catapulting through life stages. When younger adults are diagnosed with life-threatening illnesses.

    PubMed

    Rancour, Patrice

    2002-02-01

    Knowledge of developmental stages through the life cycle has always been a hallmark of quality nursing care. The knowledge base gleaned from the older adult literature, such as Schachter-Shalomi and Miller's construct of sage-ing (1995), can help nurses understand that many of the completion tasks usually associated with aging suddenly are thrust to the forefront for younger adult patients diagnosed with a life-threatening illness. Using this knowledge base, nurses can facilitate developmental stage work facing younger adult patients whose illness catapults them into more mature stages for which they may have been unprepared. When younger adult patients are so diagnosed, nurses need to recognize the signs of catapulting life stage work and support it. It is no small task to complete the gestalt of one's life tapestry, but it is especially difficult when one is young.

  6. Developmental Communication Impairments in Adults: Outcomes and Life Experiences of Adults and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judy; Ansorge, Lydia; Stackhouse, Joy; Donlan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study identifies the outcomes and documents the longitudinal life experiences of adults who attended a specialist residential school for children with pervasive and complex developmental communication impairments. Method: Semistructured interviews were carried out with 26 adult ex-pupils who had attended the school and the parents of…

  7. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    were children, without diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality, as such a diagnosis is not appropriate at early childhood or adolescence. Psychopathic or/and antisocial tendencies sometimes are recognized in children and early adolescent age. Such behaviors lead usually to the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in early years of life and increase the possibility to have a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality as an adult. There are many studies on the underlying risk factors for Psychopathic Personality, focusing in genetic, neurobiological, developmental, environmental, social and other factors. There is no effective treatment for Psychopathic Personality in adult life. Children with a specific neurobiological profile or behavioral disturbances that increase the risk of developing a Psychopathic Personality in adult life, have better chances to respond in exceptionally individualized interventions, depending on the character of the child. The parents are educated to supervise their children, to overlook annoying behaviors and to encourage the positive ones. It appears that the punishment does not attribute, on the contrary it strengthens undesirable behaviors. Use of reward appears to have better results. Programs of early highly focused therapeutic interventions in vulnerable members of the population are our best hope for the reduction of fully blown psychopaths in the general adult population. PMID:22796980

  8. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    were children, without diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality, as such a diagnosis is not appropriate at early childhood or adolescence. Psychopathic or/and antisocial tendencies sometimes are recognized in children and early adolescent age. Such behaviors lead usually to the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in early years of life and increase the possibility to have a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality as an adult. There are many studies on the underlying risk factors for Psychopathic Personality, focusing in genetic, neurobiological, developmental, environmental, social and other factors. There is no effective treatment for Psychopathic Personality in adult life. Children with a specific neurobiological profile or behavioral disturbances that increase the risk of developing a Psychopathic Personality in adult life, have better chances to respond in exceptionally individualized interventions, depending on the character of the child. The parents are educated to supervise their children, to overlook annoying behaviors and to encourage the positive ones. It appears that the punishment does not attribute, on the contrary it strengthens undesirable behaviors. Use of reward appears to have better results. Programs of early highly focused therapeutic interventions in vulnerable members of the population are our best hope for the reduction of fully blown psychopaths in the general adult population.

  9. The Good Life: Empowering Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities through Everyday Life Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Although "the good life" is a concept not easily defined or agreed upon, without a doubt it is something people want and strive to achieve. For young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), efforts toward the good life are often hindered by harsh realities and numerous challenges encountered on the road to adulthood. School librarians can play…

  10. Life-Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…

  11. The Impact of Arthritis on Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckhardt, Carol S.

    Poor health has been implicated as a suppressor of the life satisfaction of older adults. To clarify the contribution of arthritis to this process, functional disability, negative affect, pain, current severity of the disease, self-esteem, perception of general health, and internal health locus of control, were placed within a causal model as…

  12. Life Impairments in Adults with Medication-Treated ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Sprich, Susan E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Knouse, Laura E.; Lerner, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In developing psychosocial approaches to augment outcomes for medication-treated adults with ADHD, it is important to understand what types of life-impairments are most affected by continued ADHD symptoms that occur despite medication treatment. This may assist in delineating targets for interventions, as well as assessments of…

  13. Lifetime Trauma, Emotional Support, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among lifetime exposure to traumatic events, emotional support, and life satisfaction in three cohorts of older adults. Design and Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of 1,518 older people in 2003. Approximately 500 elders were interviewed in…

  14. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  15. Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Results of the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    The National Adult Literacy Survey profiled the literacy of U.S. adults based on their performance on tasks reflecting materials and demands of daily life. Data were gathered through interviews with a random sample of 13,600 people over 16, a survey of 1,000 adults in each of 12 states, and interviews with 1,100 prison inmates, making a total of…

  16. Life Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful sub-groups within the total sample. The six groups are: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying sub-groups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual’s life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554

  17. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  18. Later-life planning for older adults with mental retardation: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Mahon, M J; Goatcher, S

    1999-10-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to assess the efficacy of a leisure education-based later-life planning model for 10 older adults with mental retardation. Prior to the initiation of the planning process, they were interviewed and completed three standardized scales designed to assess life and leisure satisfaction and leisure constraints. A comparison group completed these scales but did not participate in the planning process. At the completion of the study, both groups completed the same scales. Results demonstrated that the planning-process group had significantly higher life and leisure satisfaction at the end of the study. Many participants also made changes to their lifestyles consistent with plans made during the study. Results suggest that a later-life planning process may contribute to the quality of life of older adults with mental retardation.

  19. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  20. Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

  1. Quality of life (QOL) of older adult community choral singers in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Julene K; Louhivuori, Jukka; Stewart, Anita L; Tolvanen, Asko; Ross, Leslie; Era, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Background Enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults is an international area of focus. Identifying factors and experiences that contribute to QOL of older adults helps promote optimal levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between perceived benefits associated with choral singing and quality of life (QOL) among community-dwelling older adults. Methods One hundred and seventeen older adults who sing in community choirs in Jyväskylä, Finland completed self-report measures of QOL (WHOQOL-Bref), depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire about the benefits of singing in choir. Correlational analyses and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the benefits of singing in choir and QOL. Results Both correlation and regression analyses found significant relationships between the benefits of choral singing and three QOL domains: psychological, social relationships, and environment but not physical. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, older choral singers who reported greater benefits of choir singing had higher QOL in multiple domains. The older choral singers in the study also reported few symptoms of depression and high overall QOL and satisfaction with health. Conclusion Results suggest that singing in a community choir as an older adult may positively influence several aspects of QOL. These results suggest that community choral singing may one potential avenue for promoting quality of life in older adults. PMID:23574947

  2. [The projection of autism spectrum disorders in adult life].

    PubMed

    Francis, K

    2012-06-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) consist a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are usually diagnosed in early childhood but they persist throughout life, although significant changes can happen. The prevalence of the ASDs is estimated to be 1-1.2%. Subjects with the more severe form of the disorder that are usually characterised by the absence of a communicative language and learning difficulties of various severity, are often referred as persons with lower functioning. In the other end of the spectrum we can find subjects with less severe symptomatology, communicative language and at least of normal intelligence that are referred as high functioning autistic people or -in case of an absence of a language delay- as suffering from Asperger syndrome. The lower functioning adults can be referred to an adult psychiatrist mainly due to their behavioral problems and disruptive behaviors. Their inability to express their difficulties, due to their language restrictions and empathy deficits, can lead these people to behavioural deviances (often self- or hetero-destructive) that challenge their personal environment ending up in the pursuit of psychiatric help. In most cases, although not always justified, psychotropic medications will be prescribed in an attempt to control their maladaptive behaviors. Special attention should be paid to the catatonic exacerbation of ASD, which can be exhibited after adolescence. The catatonic features presented shouldn't be perceived as a possible comorbidity with another disorder, such as schizophrenia, but rather as an extreme form anxiety within the context of an ASD. High Functioning adults with ASDs are more difficult to be detected, but they may also need psychiatric consultation. These subjects may have never been diagnosed with an ASD, but they could have in their history a variety of diagnostic categorizations. Their accurate diagnosis could be further hampered in cases where they are exhibiting remarkable abilities

  3. Acculturation and Life Satisfaction Among Immigrant Mexican Adults.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Booth, Jaime M; Baldwin, Adrienne; Ayers, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The numbers of Mexican Americans living in the United States, many of whom are first generation immigrants, are increasing. The process of immigration and acculturation can be accompanied by stress, as an individual attempts to reconcile two potentially competing sets of norms and values and to navigate a new social terrain. However, the outcomes of studies investigating the relationship between levels of acculturation and well-being are mixed. To further investigate the dynamic of acculturation, this article will address the impact of acculturation and familismo, on reported life satisfaction and resilience among Mexican American adults living in the Southwest (N=307), the majority (89%) of which are immigrants. The findings indicate that bilingual individuals report significantly higher levels of life satisfaction and resilience than their Spanish-speaking counterparts do. Speaking primarily English only predicted higher levels of resilience but not life satisfaction. Implications for social work practice with Mexican American immigrants are discussed.

  4. "Recurrent Socialization." A New View of "Adult" and "Education" in the Life-Long Education Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    The concept of recurrent re-socialization throughout a lifetime is discussed in relation to life-long education. The need for re-socialization, and thus renewal education through adult education, arises not only as a result of a change of physical environment but also at times of cultural shifts, critical periods, and commitment reductions. In a…

  5. Laminotomy in adults: technique and results.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Andrea; Pichierri, Angelo; Marotta, Nicola; Tarantino, Roberto; Delfini, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe step by step our surgical technique of laminotomy and analyze our series with regard to spinal deformities (risk and predisposing factors), postoperative pain and rate of postoperative contusions. Data regarding patients who underwent our technique of laminotomy (N = 40, mean follow-up: 52 ms) (N = 40) between 2002 and 2006 were retrospectively evaluated. The technique used is illustrated in depth. Chronic pain was present in 30% with a mean score of 3/10 cm (Graphic Rating Scale). Postoperative kyphoses occurred in three patients, all below 35 years of age and with laminotomies which involved C2 and/or C7. None of these deformities required further surgical treatment because they were self-limiting or asymptomatic at a mean follow-up of 52 months. Based on the results, our technique proved to be safe and effective in terms of late deformities, blood loss, early and chronic postoperative pain and protection from postoperative accidents over the surgical site.

  6. Accumulation of Major Life Events in Childhood and Adult Life and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Masters Pedersen, Jolene; Hulvej Rod, Naja; Andersen, Ingelise; Lange, Theis; Poulsen, Gry; Prescott, Eva; Lund, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of the accumulation of major life events (MLE) in childhood and adulthood, in both the private and working domains, on risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, we aimed to test the possible interaction between childhood and adult MLE and to investigate modification of these associations by educational attainment. Methods The study was based on 4,761 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study free of diabetes at baseline and followed for 10 years. MLE were categorized as 0, 1, 2, 3 or more events. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education and family history of diabetes were used to estimate the association between MLE and T2DM. Results In childhood, experiencing 3 or more MLE was associated with a 69% higher risk of developing T2DM (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.60, 3.27). The accumulation of MLE in adult private (p-trend = 0.016) and work life (p-trend = 0.049) was associated with risk of T2DM in a dose response manner. There was no evidence that experiencing MLE in both childhood and adult life was more strongly associated with T2DM than experiencing events at only one time point. There was some evidence that being simultaneously exposed to childhood MLE and short education (OR 2.28; 95% C.I. 1.45, 3.59) and work MLE and short education (OR 2.86; 95% C.I. 1.62, 5.03) was associated with higher risk of T2DM, as the joint effects were greater than the sum of their individual effects. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that the accumulation of MLE in childhood, private adult life and work life, respectively, are risk factors for developing T2DM. PMID:26394040

  7. Embryonic oxidative stress results in reproductive impairment for adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Trent A.C.; Carleton, Catherine R.; Leeke, Bryony; Hampton, Mark B.; Horsfield, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors during embryo development can have long-term effects on the adult organism. This study used the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin to investigate the consequences of oxidative stress during zebrafish development. Auranofin at low doses triggered upregulation of the antioxidant genes gstp1 and prdx1. As the dose was increased, acute developmental abnormalities, including cerebral hemorrhaging and jaw malformation, were observed. To determine whether transient disruption of redox homeostasis during development could have long-term consequences, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a low dose of auranofin from 6–24 hours post fertilization, and then raised to adulthood. The adult fish were outwardly normal in their appearance with no gross physical differences compared to the control group. However, these adult fish had reduced odds of breeding and a lower incidence of egg fertilization. This study shows that a suboptimal early life environment can reduce the chances of reproductive success in adulthood. PMID:26584358

  8. Personal growth in adults' stories of life transitions.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2004-06-01

    Abstract This study identified four themes of personal growth (integrative, intrinsic, agentic, and communal) in adults' stories of life transitions in careers and religions. Specific themes were expected to relate differentially to two forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being) and to transition satisfaction. Integrative themes correlated primarily with social-cognitive maturity (ego development; Loevinger, 1976), whereas intrinsic themes correlated primarily with social-emotional well-being. Agentic-growth themes correlated primarily with transition satisfaction, whereas communal-growth themes correlated primarily with global well-being. Themes of agentic and communal growth also differentiated the two types of transitions studied-changes in careers and changes in religions-in ways that both supported and contradicted traditional notions of those transitions. We discuss these findings in terms of narrative meaning making, the mature and happy person, and intentional self-development via life transitions. PMID:15102039

  9. Associations of quality of life, pain, and self-reported arthritis with age, employment, bleed rate, and utilization of hemophilia treatment center and health care provider services: results in adults with hemophilia in the HERO study

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Angela L; Witkop, Michelle; Lambing, Angela; Garrido, Cesar; Dunn, Spencer; Cooper, David L; Nugent, Diane J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Severe hemophilia and subsequent hemophilic arthropathy result in joint pain and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Assessment of HRQoL in persons with hemophilia (PWH), including underlying factors that drive HRQoL differences, is important in determining health care resource allocation and in making individualized clinical decisions. Aim To examine potential associations between HRQoL, pain interference, and self-reported arthritis and age, employment, activity, bleed frequency, and hemophilia treatment center and health care professional utilization. Methods PWH (age ≥18 years) from ten countries completed a 5-point Likert scale on pain interference over the previous 4 weeks, the EQ-5D-3L scale (mobility, usual activities, self-care, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) including a health-related visual analog scale (0–100, coded as an 11-point categorical response). Results Pain interference (extreme/a lot) was higher in PWH aged >40 years (31%) compared to those aged 31–40 years (27%) or ≤30 years (21%). In an analysis of eight countries with home treatment, PWH who reported EQ-5D mobility issues were less likely to be employed (53% vs 79%, with no mobility issues). Median annual bleed frequency increased with worsening EQ-5D pain or discomfort. The percentage of PWH with inhibitors reporting visual analog scale scores of 80–90–100 was lower (20%) than those without inhibitors (34%). Median bleed frequency increased with pain. Globally, nurse and social worker involvement increased with disability and pain; physiotherapist utilization was moderate regardless of the extent of disability or pain. Conclusion Increased disability and pain were associated with increased age, lower employment, higher reported bleed frequency, and lower HRQoL. PMID:26604708

  10. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  11. Effectiveness of a life story work program on older adults with intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Ho, Daniel WH; Fung, Karen; Tang, Lily; He, Moon; Young, Kim Wan; Ho, Florence; Kwok, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines the effectiveness of a life story work program (LSWp) in older adults with mild-to-moderate levels of intellectual disability (ID). Methods Using a quasiexperimental design, this study assigned 60 older adults who were between 50–90 years old with mild-to-moderate levels of ID to receive either the LSWp (intervention group, N=32) or usual activities (control group, N=28) during a period of 6 months. Evaluation was made based on the outcomes assessed by the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Personal Wellbeing Index – ID. Results and conclusion LSWp shows potential for improving the quality of life and preventing the loss of interest and pleasure in older adults with ID. It also shows promise in enhancing their socialization skills. Patients with better communication abilities seemed to benefit more from the LSWp. PMID:25382974

  12. SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN FOUR ARAB COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; El Nayal, Mayssah A

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to explore the sex and cultural differences in satisfaction with life between undergraduate men and women recruited from four Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Qatar (N = 1,322); ages ranged from 18 to 27 years. The participants responded to the Arabic version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Egyptian and Lebanese women obtained significantly higher mean scores on satisfaction with life than did their male counterparts, whereas there were no significant sex differences in the Kuwaiti and Qatari samples. For men, the Qatari and Kuwaiti samples obtained the high mean scores on satisfaction with life, whereas the Egyptian and Lebanese samples obtained the low mean scores. For women, the Qatari sample had the higher mean score, whereas the Egyptian sample obtained the lowest mean score. The results were explained in light of the positive association between gross domestic product and satisfaction with life.

  13. SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN FOUR ARAB COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; El Nayal, Mayssah A

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to explore the sex and cultural differences in satisfaction with life between undergraduate men and women recruited from four Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Qatar (N = 1,322); ages ranged from 18 to 27 years. The participants responded to the Arabic version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Egyptian and Lebanese women obtained significantly higher mean scores on satisfaction with life than did their male counterparts, whereas there were no significant sex differences in the Kuwaiti and Qatari samples. For men, the Qatari and Kuwaiti samples obtained the high mean scores on satisfaction with life, whereas the Egyptian and Lebanese samples obtained the low mean scores. For women, the Qatari sample had the higher mean score, whereas the Egyptian sample obtained the lowest mean score. The results were explained in light of the positive association between gross domestic product and satisfaction with life. PMID:26595298

  14. The Impact of Caring for Adults with Intellectual Disability on the Quality of Life of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoong, A.; Koritsas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of an increase in life expectancy and de-institutionalisation, many adults with intellectual disability (ID) live with and are cared for by their parents throughout their adult lives. Because of caring demands, the quality of life (QOL) of parents may be affected. The study explored the impact of caring for an adult with ID on…

  15. Low Life Jacket Use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. Methods We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Results Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Conclusions Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use. PMID:24211559

  16. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  17. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  18. Early life trauma predicts self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults: relative contributions of early life stressor types and adult trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Chu, Denise A; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony W F; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life trauma is a known risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the relative contributions of early life versus adult trauma in predicting levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults. 1209 nonclinical community adults (18-70 years; 45% male) were assessed for mental health status, early life stressors, lifetime trauma exposure, and self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. A subset of the full sample subjected to group comparisons (n = 1088) indicated that early life stressor exposure primarily accounted for significantly higher depressive and anxiety symptom scores when compared against adults reporting to be free of childhood stressor or adult trauma exposure. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses of this subset using five distinct early life stressor types, namely 'Interpersonal violation', 'Family breakup', 'Disasters/war', 'Familial health trauma/death' and 'Personal health trauma' derived from principal component analysis of a wide range of self-reported early stressor events in the full sample, showed childhood 'Interpersonal violation' differentially predicted higher self-reported depressive and anxiety symptom scores in both males and females. Adult trauma exposure did not significantly predict these symptom scores. These findings underline the relative importance of exposure to 'interpersonal violation' relative to other types of early life stressors and adult trauma in the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults.

  19. Early-life conditions and older adult health in low- and middle-income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    McEniry, M

    2013-02-01

    Population aging and subsequent projected large increases in chronic conditions will be important health concerns in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is accumulating, little is known regarding the impact of poor early-life conditions on older adult (50 years and older) health in these settings. A systematic review of 1141 empirical studies was conducted to identify population-based and community studies in low- and middle-income countries, which examined associations between early-life conditions and older adult health. The resulting review of 20 studies revealed strong associations between (1) in utero/early infancy exposures (independent of other early life and adult conditions) and adult heart disease and diabetes; (2) poor nutrition during childhood and difficulties in adult cognition and diabetes; (3) specific childhood illnesses such as rheumatic fever and malaria and adult heart disease and mortality; (4) poor childhood health and adult functionality/disability and chronic diseases; (5) poor childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult mortality, functionality/disability and cognition; and (6) parental survival during childhood and adult functionality/disability and cognition. In several instances, associations remained strong even after controlling for adult SES and lifestyle. Although exact mechanisms cannot be identified, these studies reinforce to some extent the importance of early-life environment on health at older ages. Given the paucity of cohort data from the developing world to examine hypotheses of early-life conditions and older adult health, population-based studies are relevant in providing a broad perspective on the origins of adult health.

  20. Understanding the relationship transitions and associated end of life clinical needs of young adults with life-limiting illnesses: A triangulated longitudinal qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bridget; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Pringle, Jan; Gold, Libby; Grant, Jayne; Dempsey, Raymond; Scott, Ros; Carragher, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Care of young adults with life-limiting illnesses can often be complex due to the fact that they are growing and developing within the continuing presence of their illness. There is little research conducted nationally and internationally, which has examined the life issues of young adults or taken a longitudinal approach to understand such issues over a period of time. Aim: To gain clear understanding of one particular and pertinent life issue—relationship transition—occurring in the context of being a young adult with a life-limiting illness and the clinical needs arising from this. Design: This was a triangulated, longitudinal, qualitative study involving young adults with life-limiting illnesses and their significant others, namely, family members and healthcare professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and analysed using thematic analysis. Clinical case note reviews were also carried out. Setting/participants: A total of 12 young adults (aged between 17 and 23 years) from 2 hospices and 22 nominated significant others participated in a total of 58 interviews. Results: Thematic analysis revealed 4 main themes and 11 subthemes. The main themes were ‘Dependence dichotomy’, ‘In it together’, ‘Biographical uncertainty’, and ‘Conserving integrity’. These themes helped to establish the nature of relationship transitions that the young adult participants from the study experienced and additionally allowed insight into their possible needs at their end of life. Conclusion: This study has identified the nature of relationship transitions pertinent to young adults and has highlighted associated end of life clinical needs. This study can influence further research into the transitions and end of life needs of this particular patient group receiving palliative care, while informing the lacking evidence base which exists internationally. PMID:27781097

  1. Longitudinal changes in dietary patterns during adult life.

    PubMed

    Mishra, G D; McNaughton, S A; Bramwell, G D; Wadsworth, M E J

    2006-10-01

    Despite the growing interest in dietary patterns, there have been few longitudinal investigations. The objective of the present study was to extend an earlier method of dietary pattern assessment to longitudinal binary data and to assess changes in patterns over time and in relation to socio-demographic covariates. A prospective national cohort of 1265 participants completed a 5 d food diary at three time-points during their adult life (at age 36 years in 1982, 43 years in 1989 and 53 years in 1999). Factor analysis identified three dietary patterns for women (fruit, vegetables and dairy; ethnic foods and alcohol; meat, potatoes and sweet foods) and two patterns in men (ethnic foods and alcohol; mixed). Trends in dietary pattern scores were calculated using random effects models. Marked changes were found in scores for all patterns between 1989 and 1999, with only the meat, potatoes and sweet foods pattern in women recording a decline. In a multiple variable model that included the three time-points, socio-demographic variables and BMI time-dependent covariates, both non-manual social class and higher education level were also strongly associated with the consumption of more items from the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern and the mixed pattern for men (P < 0.0001) and the fruit, vegetables and dairy pattern and the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern for women (P < 0.01). In conclusion, longitudinal changes in dietary patterns and across socio-economic groups can assist with targeting public health initiatives by identifying stages during adult life when interventions to improve diet would be most beneficial to health.

  2. Family Life Program Accountability Norms: How Do Your Results Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Participants in cooperative extension family life programs (N=916) identified family strains, coping, quality of life, self-esteem, stress, and willingness to support extension services with tax dollars. The resulting normative data can be used to measure the impact of cooperative extension programs. (SK)

  3. Correlation of a set of gene variants, life events and personality features on adult ADHD severity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel J; Chiesa, Alberto; Mandelli, Laura; De Luca, Vincenzo; De Ronchi, Diana; Jain, Umesh; Serretti, Alessandro; Kennedy, James L

    2010-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could persist into adult life in a substantial proportion of cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of (1) adverse events, (2) personality traits and (3) genetic variants chosen on the basis of previous findings and (4) their possible interactions on adult ADHD severity. One hundred and ten individuals diagnosed with adult ADHD were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events in childhood and adulthood, and personality traits by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Common polymorphisms within a set of nine important candidate genes (SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, DRD5, HTR2A, CHRNA7, BDNF, PRKG1 and TAAR9) were genotyped for each subject. Life events, personality traits and genetic variations were analyzed in relationship to severity of current symptoms, according to the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS). Genetic variations were not significantly associated with severity of ADHD symptoms. Life stressors displayed only a minor effect as compared to personality traits. Indeed, symptoms' severity was significantly correlated with the temperamental trait of Harm avoidance and the character trait of Self directedness. The results of the present work are in line with previous evidence of a significant correlation between some personality traits and adult ADHD. However, several limitations such as the small sample size and the exclusion of patients with other severe comorbid psychiatric disorders could have influenced the significance of present findings.

  4. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

    PubMed

    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  5. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  6. Early-Life Conditions, Rapid Demographic Changes, and Older Adult Health in the Developing World.

    PubMed

    McEniry, Mary; McDermott, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The demographic transition of the 1930s-1960s dramatically improved life expectancy in some developing countries. Cohorts born during this time are increasingly characterized by their survivorship of poor early-life conditions, such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases. As a result, they are potentially more susceptible to the effects of these conditions at older ages. This study examines this conjecture by comparing obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in older adults born in the beginning portion of the 1930s-1960s across different mortality regimes using a subset of harmonized cross-national data from seven low- and middle-income countries (RELATE, n = 16,836). Using birthplace and height as indicators of early-life conditions, the results show (1) higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes and higher likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in middle-income countries, but (2) no convincing evidence to indicate stronger effects of early-life conditions on health in these countries. However, shorter adults living in urban areas were more likely to be obese, indicating the overall importance of early-life conditions and the potential negative impact of urban exposures during adulthood. Obesity results may foreshadow the health of future cohorts born in the later portion of the 1930s-1960s as they reach older ages (60+).

  7. Early life conditions, rapid demographic changes and older adult health in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    McEniry, Mary; McDermott, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The demographic transition of the 1930s–1960s dramatically improved life expectancy in some developing countries. Cohorts born during this time are increasingly characterized by their survivorship of poor early life conditions, such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases. As a result, they are potentially more susceptible to the effects of these conditions at older ages. This study examines this conjecture by comparing obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in older adults born in the beginning portion of the 1930s–1960s across different mortality regimes using a subset of harmonized cross national data from seven low and middle income countries (RELATE, n=16,836). Using birthplace and height as indicators of early life conditions, results show (1) higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes and higher likelihood of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in middle income countries but, (2) no convincing evidence to indicate stronger effects of early life conditions on health in these countries. However, shorter adults living in urban areas were more likely to be obese indicating the overall importance of early life conditions and the potential negative impact of urban exposures during adulthood. Obesity results may foreshadow the health of future cohorts born in the later portion of the 1930s–1960s as they reach older ages (60+). PMID:26266970

  8. Influence of Occupational Status on the Quality of Life of Chinese Adult Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiang-Min; Ding, Cheng-Yun; Wang, Ning; Xu, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Ze-Jie; Wang, Qin; Yao, Qin; Wang, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of occupational status on the quality of life of Chinese adult patients with epilepsy. Methods: This study surveyed 819 subjects clinically diagnosed with epilepsy for more than 1 year in 11 hospitals in Beijing; 586 were employed (71.55%). All subjects completed the case report form with inquiries on demographic data, social factors, and illness. The patients’ quality of life was assessed using the quality of life in patients with epilepsy-31 items (QOLIE-31) questionnaire. Results: The QOLIE-31 score in the employed group was significantly higher than that in the unemployed group. Furthermore, the scores in all the sections (overall quality of life, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, seizure worry, cognition, social function, and medication effects) of the employed group were higher than those of the unemployed group. Both the employed and unemployed groups achieved the highest difference in social function. The QOLIE-31 score of students was higher than those of farmers and workers. Both the students and workers scored higher in the quality of life compared with the adult peasants living with epilepsy. The students and farmers showed significant differences in QOLIE-31 score, cognition, emotional well-being, overall quality of life, energy/fatigue, and social function. In contrast, no significant difference was noted in seizure worry and medication effects across the three different kinds of occupation. Conclusion: Occupational status might affect the quality of life of Chinese adult patients with epilepsy, and social function is the most important contributing factor. PMID:27231164

  9. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p < 0.01) and mental (β = 1.663, p < 0.01) components. For men, intrinsic religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults. PMID:26274870

  10. Spouses of Older Adults With Late-Life Drinking Problems: Health, Family, and Social Functioning*

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Method: Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. Results: At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Conclusions: Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits. PMID:20553658

  11. Assessing quality of life among adults with mental retardation living in various settings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, C; Ben-Menachem, Y

    1999-06-01

    Fifty-eight Israeli adults with mild to moderate mental retardation, living in Jerusalem, either in a residential institution, various sheltered apartments or in their parents' home, were studied with respect to their quality of life. Quality of life was evaluated through the assessment of individual's satisfaction with different elements of life. The results are presented in this article. Overall, significant differences were found in satisfaction with: current residence, friends and free time, and total lifestyle satisfaction. Residents of sheltered apartments expressed the most satisfaction in these three domains. Persons living in the residential institution expressed the least satisfaction with current residence, and people living in their parents' home expressed the least satisfaction with friends and free time and with total lifestyle satisfaction. The three groups differ significantly on the three domains of life satisfaction even after controlling for background and environmental characteristics such as: age, health limitations, adaptive behaviour, participation in leisure activities, and opportunity to choose and decide.

  12. Assessing quality of life among adults with mental retardation living in various settings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, C; Ben-Menachem, Y

    1999-06-01

    Fifty-eight Israeli adults with mild to moderate mental retardation, living in Jerusalem, either in a residential institution, various sheltered apartments or in their parents' home, were studied with respect to their quality of life. Quality of life was evaluated through the assessment of individual's satisfaction with different elements of life. The results are presented in this article. Overall, significant differences were found in satisfaction with: current residence, friends and free time, and total lifestyle satisfaction. Residents of sheltered apartments expressed the most satisfaction in these three domains. Persons living in the residential institution expressed the least satisfaction with current residence, and people living in their parents' home expressed the least satisfaction with friends and free time and with total lifestyle satisfaction. The three groups differ significantly on the three domains of life satisfaction even after controlling for background and environmental characteristics such as: age, health limitations, adaptive behaviour, participation in leisure activities, and opportunity to choose and decide. PMID:10448624

  13. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  14. Loneliness and Quality of Life in Chronically Ill Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Loneliness is a contributing factor to various health problems in older adults, including complex chronic illness, functional decline, and increased risk of mortality. Objectives A pilot study was conducted to learn more about the prevalence of loneliness in rural older adults with chronic illness and how it affects their quality of life. The purposes of the data analysis reported here were twofold: to describe loneliness, chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, prescription medication use, and quality of life in a sample of rural older adults; and to examine the relationships among these elements. Methods A convenience sample of 60 chronically ill older adults who were community dwelling and living in Appalachia was assessed during face-to-face interviews for loneliness and quality of life, using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (version 3) and the CASP-12 quality of life scale. Chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, and medication use data were collected through review of participants’ electronic medical records. Results Overall mean loneliness scores indicated significant loneliness. Participants with a mood disorder such as anxiety or depression had the highest mean loneliness scores, followed by those with lung disease and those with heart disease. Furthermore, participants with mood disorders, lung disease, or heart disease had significantly higher loneliness scores than those without these conditions. Loneliness was significantly related to total number of chronic illnesses and use of benzodiazepines. Use of benzodiazepines, diuretics, nitrates, and bronchodilators were each associated with a lower quality of life. Conclusions Nurses should assess for loneliness as part of their comprehensive assessment of patients with chronic illness. Further research is needed to design and test interventions for loneliness. PMID:23958674

  15. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  16. Associations among Aspects of Meaning in Life and Death Anxiety in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explored the relationship between two aspects of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life, and the fear of death and dying in young adults. A community sample of participants ("N" = 168) completed measures of meaning in life and death anxiety. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed…

  17. Acne-Related Quality of Life Among Female Adults of Different Races/Ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Joe; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Degboe, Arnold; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Douse-Dean, Tracee

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Acne impairs quality of life, but its effect on different races/ethnicities is unclear. This study evaluated racial/ethnic differences in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms among female adults. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted with U.S. female adults (25–45 years old) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, acne-related quality of life (Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire), psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/school productivity. Racial/ethnic differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance/chi-square analyses. Results Three-hundred twelve subjects (Black = 30.8%, Hispanic = 17.6%, Asian/other = 17.3%, White = 34.3%) completed the survey (mean age = 35.3 ± 5.9 years). Acne negatively impacted quality of life for all subjects. Black subjects reported significantly less negative impact on self-perception versus Asian/other (Black = 12.6 ± 9.9, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 8.6; p = .05). Social functioning was less negatively impacted in White and Black subjects versus Asian/other (White = 12.7 ± 7.5, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p < .05; Black = 12.1 ± 9.2, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p = .06). Over one third (total sample = 40.7%, Black = 31.3%, Hispanic = 36.4%, Asian/other = 50.0%, White = 46.7%) reported moderate/severe anxiety/depression symptoms. Acne also impacted ability to concentrate on work/school. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences were observed in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms in female adults; acne negatively impacted self-perceptions and social/emotional functioning. PMID:26097643

  18. The mid-life transition: a period in adult psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Levinson, D J

    1977-05-01

    For the past nine years my colleagues and I have been working on a theory of adult psychosocial development in men (Levinson et al., 1974, 1977; Levinson, 1977). We have started some research on women (Stewart, 1977), but it is too early yet to report definitive theory or findings. Our aim is to encompass the many components of a man's life-all of his relationships with individuals, groups, and institutions that have significance for him. The components of life include his occupation and its evolution over the years, his love relationships, marriage, and family life, his various other roles and careers in numerous social contexts. This psychosocial approach includes the man's personality and the ways in which it influences and is influenced by the evolution of his careers in occupation, family, and other systems. The resulting theory is not a theory of personality development, nor of occupational development, nor of development in any single aspect of living. It deals, rather, with the development of the individual life in the broadest sense, encompassing all of these segments. This theory provides a context within which we can study in more detail the development of personality and of particular careers. I shall briefly describe the developmental periods we discovered in early and middle adulthood, giving major emphasis to one period, the Mid-life Transition. Like childhood and adolescence, these periods are found in the lives of all men. Of ourse, men traverse them in myriad ways, as a result of differences in class, ethnicity, personality, and other factors. My primary aim is to present some of our major concepts, hypotheses, findings, and ways of thinking about adult development. None of them have been fully validated. Together, they comprise a framework for the analysis of adult development. No doubt the theory will be modified an extended as a result of further investigation. PMID:870922

  19. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

  20. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  1. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  2. Learning, Continuity and Change in Adult Life. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom; Brassett-Grundy, Angela; Green, Andy; Hammond, Cathie; Preston, John

    The relationship between learning and continuity and change in adult life was explored in a study involving 140 in-depth biographical interviews of adult learners in 3 different areas of England and case studies of 6 adult learners. The study methodology was based on a triangular conceptualization according to which personal identity, human…

  3. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  4. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed. PMID:27245988

  5. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed.

  6. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  7. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal.

  8. Chest CT abnormalities and quality of life: relationship in adult cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Lavelle, Lisa P.; McCarthy, Colin J.; McEvoy, Sinead H.; Fleming, Hannah; Gallagher, Annika; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm; McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relationship between lung parenchymal abnormalities on chest CT and health-related quality of life in adult cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods The chest CT scans of 101 consecutive CF adults (mean age 27.8±7.9, 64 males) were prospectively scored by two blinded radiologists in consensus using a modified Bhalla score. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the revised Quittner Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ-R). Multiple regressions were performed with each of the CFQ-R domains and all clinical and imaging findings to assess independent correlations. Results There were 18 inpatients and 83 outpatients. For the cohort of inpatients, CT abnormalities were significantly (P<0.005 for all) associated with Respiratory Symptoms (Air Trapping), and also with Social Functioning (Consolidation) and Role Functioning (Consolidation). For outpatients, CT abnormalities were significantly (P<0.005 for all) associated with Respiratory Symptoms (Consolidation) and also with Physical Functioning (Consolidation), Vitality (Consolidation, Severity of Bronchiectasis), Eating Problems (airway wall thickening), Treatment Burden (Total CT Score), Body Image (Severity of Bronchiectasis) and Role Functioning (Tree-in-bud nodules). Consolidation was the commonest independent CT predictor for both inpatients (predictor for 2 domains) and outpatients (predictor in 3 domains). Several chest CT abnormalities excluded traditional measures such as FEV1 and BMI from the majority of CFQ-R domains. Conclusions Chest CT abnormalities are significantly associated with quality of life measures in adult CF, independent of clinical or spirometric measurements. PMID:27047946

  9. Quality of Life Impairments among Adults with Social Phobia: The Impact of Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nina; Sarver, Dustin E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    Social phobia is characterized by extreme fear in social or performance situations in which the individual may be exposed to embarrassment or scrutiny by others, which creates occupational, social and academic impairment. To date, there are few data examining the relationship of social phobia impairments to quality of life. In this investigation, we examined how demographic characteristics, comorbidity, and social competence are related to quality of life among patients with social phobia and normal controls. In addition, we examined the impact of social phobia subtype. Results indicated that individuals with generalized social phobia had significantly impaired quality of life when compared to individuals with no disorder or individuals with nongeneralized social phobia. Comorbid disorders decreased quality of life only for patients with nongeneralized social phobia. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that a diagnosis of social phobia and observer ratings of social effectiveness exerted strong and independent effects on quality of life scores. Results are discussed in terms of the role of social anxiety, social competence, and comorbidity on the quality of life for adults with social phobia. PMID:21964285

  10. Young Adult Reactions to Death in Literature and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMinco, Sandrea

    1995-01-01

    Seeks to understand young adult reactions to death by looking at their literature. Examines typical behaviors, such as resistance to authority, withdrawal, and hiding feelings, as represented in young adult fiction and nonfiction. Suggests healing responses and argues that adults can use books to make bereavement a therapeutic exercise. (RJM)

  11. Improvements in Measuring Life Events in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnaccia, Charles A.

    Life event measurement in the Arizona State University Life Events and Aging project includes monthly assessments of both major and small life events. Major events are measured using a 96-item Psychiatric Epidemiological Research Instrument (PERI) Major Life Events Scale which concentrates on health issues and events in the experiential domain of…

  12. Measuring Adolescent Life Satisfaction: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a Sample of Italian Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…

  13. Empowered diabetes management: life coaching and pharmacist counseling for employed adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nishita, Christy; Cardazone, Gina; Uehara, Denise Lea; Tom, Tammy

    2013-10-01

    The Hawai'i Demonstration to Maintain Independence and Employment was a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of a participant-driven, multicomponent intervention on 190 employed adults with diabetes, 36% of whom were Asian and 35% of whom were Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. A no treatment concurrent control group was used, and the treatment group was provided an intervention that paired each participant with a life coach and a pharmacist counselor with whom they worked to achieve collaboratively chosen goals. Treatment fidelity data suggest that the intervention was largely implemented as planned. Life coaches and pharmacists performed key program functions with high to moderate adherence. The quality of their adherence to the intervention model ranged from basic to above basic and below basic to above basic for life coaches and pharmacists, respectively. Results of repeated-measures analysis of covariance analyses indicate that the intervention had a significant positive effect on participants' diabetes self-efficacy, quality of life, and body mass index but not on hemoglobin A1c levels. Further analyses examining just the treatment group indicate a dosage effect, with body mass index and quality of life outcomes optimized among participants who engaged in a greater number of sessions with life coaches and pharmacists. Implications of the study findings for practice are discussed.

  14. Quality of Life for Young Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Thoughts and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Blacher, Jan; Simmerman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty mothers of transition-aged young adults (18-24 years) with severe intellectual disability were interviewed regarding their son or daughter's quality of life. All mothers completed the standardised Quality of Life Questionnaire and responded to several open-ended questions to further delineate quality of life for their child. Mothers were…

  15. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria; Santos, Joseph Fabiano Guimarães; Silva, Líliam Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a cut-off for the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-bref) as a predictor of quality of life in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 391 older adults registered in the Northwest Health District in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, between October 8, 2010 and May 23, 2011. The older adults’ quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL-bref. The analysis was rationalized by outlining two extreme and simultaneous groups according to perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health (quality of life good/satisfactory – good or very good self-reported quality of life and being satisfied or very satisfied with health – G5; and poor/very poor quality of life – poor or very poor self-reported quality of life and feeling dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with health – G6). A Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) was created to assess the diagnostic ability of different cut-off points of the WHOQOL-bref. RESULTS ROC curve analysis indicated a critical value 60 as the optimal cut-off point for assessing perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health. The area under the curve was 0.758, with a sensitivity of 76.8% and specificity of 63.8% for a cut-off of ≥ 60 for overall quality of life (G5) and sensitivity 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for a cut-off of < 60 for overall quality of life (G6). CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic interpretation of the ROC curve revealed that cut-off < 60 for overall quality of life obtained excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value for tracking older adults with probable worse quality of life and dissatisfied with health. PMID:25119934

  16. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Stephane A; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupts aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1-throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor

  17. Measuring the Impact of Diabetes on Life Expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy Among Older Adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study is to investigate differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), disabled life expectancy (DLE), and personal care assistance between individuals with and without diabetes in Mexico. Methods. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative Mexican Health and Aging Study. Disability was assessed through a basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measure, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and the Nagi physical performance measure. The Interpolation of Markov Chains method was used to estimate the impact of diabetes on TLE and DFLE. Results. Results indicate that diabetes reduces TLE at ages 50 and 80 by about 10 and 4 years, respectively. Diabetes is also associated with fewer years in good health. DFLE (based on ADL measures) at age 50 is 20.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.2–22.3) for those with diabetes, compared with 29.9 years (95% CI: 28.8–30.9) for those without diabetes. Regardless of diabetes status, Mexican women live longer but face a higher disability burden than men. Conclusion. Among older adults in Mexico, diabetes is associated with shorter TLE and DFLE. The negative effect of diabetes on the number of years lived, particularly in good health, creates significant economic, social, and individual costs for elderly Mexicans. PMID:20028950

  18. Assessment of physical health status and quality of life among Saudi older adults.

    PubMed

    Al Senany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated physical health status and quality of life among older Saudi adults. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included older adults (N = 55) aged 60-90 years (mean = 67.9± 7.71) from a major hospital in Jeddah. Subjects completed surveys and evaluations including assessments of personal and socio-demographic characteristics, caregiver presence, personal habits, perceived health, primary physical and psychological complaints, physician-diagnosed chronic diseases, and functional capacity (i.e., activities of daily living). [Results] Results showed a significant positive correlation between age and ADL; age and memory problems, anxiety, and loneliness; and sleep disturbance and falls. Main factors contributing to quality of life decline were chronic disease, falls, sedentary lifestyle, sleep disturbances, and financial concerns. Participants with diabetes mellitus (58.18%) and hypertension (29.0%) had a very high fall rate. Participants engaged in minimal physical activity (63%), often due to bone and joint pain (90.0%), and led sedentary lives (69%). Single sensory impairments were significantly and independently linked to high depression risk and decreased self-sufficiency. [Conclusion] Healthy lifestyle and behavioral changes should be promoted through community-based health education programs for older Saudi adults. Chronic disease screening programs for the elderly population (especially diabetes and hypertension) are recommended. PMID:26180299

  19. Assessment of physical health status and quality of life among Saudi older adults.

    PubMed

    Al Senany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated physical health status and quality of life among older Saudi adults. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included older adults (N = 55) aged 60-90 years (mean = 67.9± 7.71) from a major hospital in Jeddah. Subjects completed surveys and evaluations including assessments of personal and socio-demographic characteristics, caregiver presence, personal habits, perceived health, primary physical and psychological complaints, physician-diagnosed chronic diseases, and functional capacity (i.e., activities of daily living). [Results] Results showed a significant positive correlation between age and ADL; age and memory problems, anxiety, and loneliness; and sleep disturbance and falls. Main factors contributing to quality of life decline were chronic disease, falls, sedentary lifestyle, sleep disturbances, and financial concerns. Participants with diabetes mellitus (58.18%) and hypertension (29.0%) had a very high fall rate. Participants engaged in minimal physical activity (63%), often due to bone and joint pain (90.0%), and led sedentary lives (69%). Single sensory impairments were significantly and independently linked to high depression risk and decreased self-sufficiency. [Conclusion] Healthy lifestyle and behavioral changes should be promoted through community-based health education programs for older Saudi adults. Chronic disease screening programs for the elderly population (especially diabetes and hypertension) are recommended.

  20. Sources of Life Strengths Appraisal Scale: A Multidimensional Approach to Assessing Older Adults' Perceived Sources of Life Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Prem S.; Debats, Dominique L.

    2014-01-01

    Both cognitive and psychosocial theories of adult development stress the fundamental role of older adults' appraisals of the diverse sources of cognitive and social-emotional strengths. This study reports the development of a new self-appraisal measure that incorporates key theoretical dimensions of internal and external sources of life strengths, as identified in the gerontological literature. Using a pilot study sample and three other independent samples to examine older adults' appraisals of their sources of life strengths which helped them in their daily functioning and to combat life challenges, adversity, and losses, a psychometric instrument having appropriate reliability and validity properties was developed. A 24-month followup of a randomly selected sample confirmed that the nine-scale appraisal measure (SLSAS) is a promising instrument for appraising older adults' sources of life strengths in dealing with stresses of daily life's functioning and also a robust measure for predicting outcomes of resilience, autonomy, and well-being for this age group. A unique strength of the appraisal instrument is its critically relevant features of brevity, simplicity of language, and ease of administration to frail older adults. Dedicated to the memory of Shanta Khurana whose assistance in the pilot work for the study was invaluable PMID:24772352

  1. Adult Sickle Cell Quality-of-Life Measurement Information System (ASCQ-Me)

    PubMed Central

    Treadwell, Marsha J.; Hassell, Kathryn; Levine, Roger; Keller, San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research-derived evidence about the impact of sickle cell disease (SCD) on the lives of affected adults is lacking. We conducted formative research to provide the basis for a comprehensive description of how SCD affects the lives of adults, with the goal of developing a SCD-specific quality-of-life measurement system. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review of patient-reported outcomes, followed by a series of focus groups and structured individual interviews with adults with SCD (n = 122) and their health care providers (n = 15). Results We reviewed 473 abstracts and included 86 articles in the final review. The literature revealed broad categories of the impact of SCD and its treatment on the lives of adults—pain; emotional distress; social-role functioning; overall quality-of-life; and quality of care. We classified 1213 incidents from the focus groups and interviews into a taxonomy (16 domains) that met the criterion for saturation and was demonstrated to be reliable for the classification of incidents. The final conceptual model was built upon the taxonomy. Discussion Our conceptual model was similar to previous models with the effects of pain predominating, interwoven with emotional distress, quality of care, and stigmatization. We found a broad range of emotions reflected, including positive effects of SCD. Items for the quality-of-life measure were derived from the taxonomy and the conceptual model may be of use in generating hypotheses for clinical research and improving understanding for clinicians of the lived experience of adults with SCD. PMID:24300219

  2. Persistence of "past-life" memories in adults who, in their childhood, claimed memories of a past life.

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Erlendur; Abu-Izzedin, Majd

    2012-11-01

    This article tests the consistency and the continuation of alleged "past-life" memories from childhood into adulthood and the possible detrimental effects of such childhood memories on the development into adult life. Twenty-eight adults aged 28 to 56 years who had claimed to have memories of a past life when they were children were interviewed in Lebanon. Their memories had been recorded when they were children, at the mean age of 6 years. Of the 28 participants, 24 still reported some past-life memories, whereas 4 had forgotten everything. Twenty-one were sure that their memories were a continuation of their past-life memories in childhood, whereas three were unsure about it. For those who were sure of still having genuine past-life memories, the mean number of statements about the past life fell from 30, as children, to 4, as adults. Only half of the currently reported statements were reported when the participants were interviewed as children, raising the question of false and distorted memories. There were no indications that the past-life memories had a detrimental effect on the participants' development into adulthood. They were all leading normal active lives.

  3. Health Values and Treatment Goals of Older, Multimorbid Adults Facing Life-Threatening Illness

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand D.; Martin, Lindsey A.; Moye, Jennifer; Karel, Michele J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify a taxonomy of health-related values that frame goals of care of older, multimorbid adults who recently faced cancer diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort study of multimorbid cancer survivors. SETTING Cancer registries from regional Department of Veterans Affairs networks in New England and southeast Texas. PARTICIPANTS Multimorbid adults who completed interviews 12 months after diagnosis of head and neck, colorectal, gastric, or esophageal cancer and after cancer treatment (N = 146). MEASUREMENTS An interdisciplinary team conducted thematic analyses of participants’ intuitive responses to two questions: Now that you have had cancer and may face ongoing decisions about medical care in the future, what would you want your family, friends, and doctors to know about you, in terms of what is most important to you in your life? If your cancer were to recur, is there anything you’d want to be sure your loved ones knew about you and your goals of care? RESULTS Analysis revealed five distinct health-related values that guide how multimorbid cancer survivors conceptualize specific health care goals and medical decisions: self-sufficiency, life enjoyment, connectedness and legacy, balancing quality and length of life, and engagement in care. Participants typically endorsed more than one value as important. CONCLUSION Older multimorbid adults who recently faced life-threatening cancer endorsed a multidimensional taxonomy of health-related values. These health-related values guide how they frame their goals for care and treatment preferences. Eliciting individuals’ sense of their values during clinical encounters may improve their experiences with health care and more effectively align treatments with goals of care. PMID:27000335

  4. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed.

  5. Meaning in Life and Volunteerism in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Nancy E.; Michel, Rebecca; Rybak, Christopher; Randall, G. Kevin; Davidson, Jeannette

    2011-01-01

    A meaningful life is one of relatedness, significance, and fulfillment. Meaning provides context for life events so that people may develop connections between their experiences. A consistent, meaningful existence helps humans feel connected and focused. Meaning in life has been investigated with individuals across the lifespan. As the population…

  6. Future Time, Death Anxiety, and Life Purpose among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Herbert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Retirement community residents (n=58) completed Rappaport Time Line, Death Anxiety Scale, and Purpose-in-Life Test. Life purpose and death anxiety were found to be negatively correlated, life purpose was found to correlate positively with projection of future time, and death anxiety was positively correlated with temporal density in the present.…

  7. Life Insurance: A Suggested Adult Business Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This course is aimed at the buyer or potential buyer of life insurance for the purpose of helping him to a better understanding of life insurance and of aiding him in making decisions about his own life insurance coverage. It is structured to be taught one evening a week for six to eight weeks. Each session would last about two hours. The course…

  8. Off-Time Events and Life Quality of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Darlene; Zautra, Alex

    Many previous studies have found that daily life events influence community residents' perceived quality of life, which refers to the relative goodness of life as evaluated subjectively. A subsample population of 539 older residents, aged 55 and over, were interviewed in their homes. A 60-item scale was devised to measure the effects of "off-time"…

  9. The Life and Death of the Canadian Adult Education Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Gordon; Selman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Adult education in the Western tradition goes back at least to the craft guilds of the Middle Ages; however, the adult education movement, that is, organized attempts to promote and gain support for the practice, had its origins in Canada, at least, in the late 1920s and petered out in the 1990s. Part I of this article traces the development of…

  10. Outcomes in Adult Life among Siblings of Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As…

  11. Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population.

  12. Psychological needs, purpose in life, and problem video game playing among Chinese young adults.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lei, Lamis L M; Ku, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The negative impacts of excessive and problematic video game playing on both children and adults are attracting increasing concern. Based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study hypothesized that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with purpose in life, which in turn acts as a protective factor against problem video game playing among Chinese young adult players. Through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 165 Chinese adults aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age = 22.7 years), we found that perceived autonomy, competence, relatedness, and purpose in life were all negatively correlated with problem game playing. The demographic and psychological factors explained 38% of the variances of problem game playing. Specifically, gender, perceived relatedness, and purpose in life emerged as the three most salient predictors of problem game playing among the Chinese young adults. The mediating role of purpose in life was evidenced and it was found that purpose in life mediated the influences of the psychological needs proposed by SDT on problem game playing. Moreover, young men were significantly more susceptible to problem game playing than their female counterparts. To conclude, psychological needs and purpose in life influenced Chinese young adults' vulnerability to problem game playing directly or indirectly. Intervention programs that encourage social involvement and voluntary work, as well as counseling service that helps clients to search for life purpose, are suggested for intervening in problem game playing among Chinese young adults. PMID:22506646

  13. Early life exposure to air pollution induces adult cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gorr, Matthew W; Velten, Markus; Nelin, Timothy D; Youtz, Dane J; Sun, Qinghua; Wold, Loren E

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the progression of cardiovascular disease, particularly in susceptible populations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether early life exposure to air pollution causes persistent cardiovascular consequences measured at adulthood. Pregnant FVB mice were exposed to filtered (FA) or concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) during gestation and nursing. Mice were exposed to PM2.5 at an average concentration of 51.69 μg/m(3) from the Columbus, OH region for 6 h/day, 7 days/wk in utero until weaning at 3 wk of age. Birth weight was reduced in PM2.5 pups compared with FA (1.36 ± 0.12 g FA, n = 42 mice; 1.30 ± 0.15 g PM2.5, n = 67 P = 0.012). At adulthood, mice exposed to perinatal PM2.5 had reduced left ventricular fractional shortening compared with FA-exposed mice (43.6 ± 2.1% FA, 33.2 ± 1.6% PM2.5, P = 0.001) with greater left ventricular end systolic diameter. Pressure-volume loops showed reduced ejection fraction (79.1 ± 3.5% FA, 35.5 ± 9.5% PM2.5, P = 0.005), increased end-systolic volume (10.4 ± 2.5 μl FA, 39.5 ± 3.8 μl PM2.5, P = 0.001), and reduced dP/dt maximum (11,605 ± 200 μl/s FA, 9,569 ± 800 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.05) and minimum (-9,203 ± 235 μl/s FA, -7,045 ± 189 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.0005) in PM2.5-exposed mice. Isolated cardiomyocytes from the hearts of PM2.5-exposed mice had reduced peak shortening (%PS, 8.53 ± 2.82% FA, 6.82 ± 2.04% PM2.5, P = 0.003), slower calcium reuptake (τ, 0.22 ± 0.09 s FA, 0.26 ± 0.07 s PM2.5, P = 0.048), and reduced response to β-adrenergic stimulation compared with cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to FA. Histological analyses revealed greater picro-sirius red-positive-stained areas in the PM2.5 vs. FA group, indicative of increased collagen deposition. We concluded that these data demonstrate the detrimental role of early life exposure to ambient particulate air pollution in programming of adult cardiovascular

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on adult life outcomes: evidence from the Texas Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Loehlin, John C; Horn, Joseph M; Ernst, Jody L

    2007-05-01

    A short mail questionnaire was sent to individuals, now adults, who had been studied over 30 years ago as children in the Texas Adoption Project. Their parents and (in many cases) siblings also described them using the same questionnaire, and the parents described themselves as well. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information about educational, occupational, and marital outcomes, as well as adult problems and personality. Results were obtained for 324 adopted and 142 biological children from the original 300 families, and for 266 parents. Although both the adopted and biological offsprings' outcomes were generally positive, those for the adopted offspring were somewhat less so. Biologically related family members tended to be more similar in their life outcomes than biologically unrelated family members, suggesting that genes were playing an important role.

  15. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history strategies compensates for a poor start in life in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K

    2010-12-01

    Low food availability during early growth and development can have long-term negative consequences for reproductive success. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history decisions may help to mitigate these potential costs, yet adult life-history responses to juvenile food conditions remain largely unexplored. I used a food-manipulation experiment with female Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to examine age-related changes in adult life-history responses to early food conditions, whether these responses varied across different adult food conditions, and how these responses affected overall reproductive success. Guppy females reared on low food as juveniles matured at a later age, at a smaller size, and with less energy reserves than females reared on high food as juveniles. In response to this setback, they changed their investment in growth, reproduction, and fat storage throughout the adult stage such that they were able to catch up in body size, increase their reproductive output, and restore their energy reserves to levels comparable to those of females reared on high food as juveniles. The net effect was that adult female guppies did not merely mitigate but surprisingly were able to fully compensate for the potential long-term negative effects of poor juvenile food conditions on reproductive success.

  16. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2015-01-01

    Foetal development and infancy are life stages that are characterised by rapid growth, development and maturation of organs and systems. Variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed by mothers during pregnancy, or infants during the first year of life, can exert permanent and powerful effects upon developing tissues. These effects are termed 'programming' and represent an important risk factor for noncommunicable diseases of adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. This narrative review provides an overview of the evidence-base showing that indicators of nutritional deficit in pregnancy are associated with a greater risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. There is also a limited evidence-base that suggests some relationship between breastfeeding and the timing and type of foods used in weaning, and disease in later life. Many of the associations reported between indicators of early growth and adult disease appear to interact with specific genotypes. This supports the idea that programming is one of several cumulative influences upon health and disease acting across the lifespan. Experimental studies have provided important clues to the mechanisms that link nutritional challenges in early life to disease in adulthood. It is suggested that nutritional programming is a product of the altered expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle, resulting in effective remodelling of tissue structure and functionality. The observation that traits programmed by nutritional exposures in foetal life can be transmitted to further generations adds weight the argument that heritable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming.

  17. Past and present: conditions of life during childhood and mortality of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marília Miranda Forte; Turra, Cássio Maldonado; Fígoli, Moema Gonçalves Bueno; Duarte, Yeda A O; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze whether socioeconomic and health conditions during childhood are associated with mortality during old age. METHODS Data were extracted from the SABE Study (Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento – Health, Welfare and Aging), which were performed in 2000 and 2006. The sample consisted of 2004 (1,355 living and 649 dead) older adults. The statistical analysis was performed based on Poisson regression models, taking into account the time variation of risk observed. Older adults’ demographic characteristics and life conditions were evaluated, as were the socioeconomic and lifestyle conditions they acquired during their adult life. RESULTS Only the area of residence during childhood (rural or urban) remained as a factor associated with mortality at advanced ages. However, this association lost significance when the variables acquired during adulthood were added to the model. CONCLUSIONS Despite the information regarding the conditions during childhood being limited and perhaps not accurately measure the socioeconomic status and health in the first years of life, the findings of this study suggest that improving the environmental conditions of children and creating opportunities during early adulthood may contribute to greater survival rates for those of more advanced years. PMID:26786474

  18. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  19. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts.

  20. Understanding everyday life of morbidly obese adults-habits and body image

    PubMed Central

    Borge, Lisbet; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Background Morbid obesity is a progressive, chronic condition associated with failed attempts at change and repeated relapses. Aim There seems to be little previous research into the understanding of the everyday life of morbidly obese adults. We wanted to gain more knowledge about characteristics of eating habits and body image as well as motivational forces for change. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen in order to gain insight into how morbidly obese adults experience everyday life. Qualitative interviews are well suited to provide insight into themes from the interviewee's life story from the subjects’ own perspectives. To gain insight into such processes, a narrative approach that allowed the informants to give voice to their ways of doing, thinking and feeling in daily life, was adopted. The informants comprised seven women and four men aged of 26–56 years, recruited from a population of obese individuals who had participated in a weight reduction course. A hermeneutic approach was used where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. Results The following meaning-units were identified: to be perceived as overweight; and to see oneself as overweight. Ingrained habits: the struggle between knowing and doing; acting without knowing; and eating is soothing. Conclusions Seeing oneself as an obese person is a gradual process that implied experiencing oneself as different from significant others, such as (slim) siblings and friends. To experience a gap between knowing and doing concerning food habits in everyday life indicates that informants value they have a choice. This is an important insight to consider when framing interventions to support this vulnerable group. PMID:22866062

  1. Mortality Salience Effects on the Life Expectancy Estimates of Older Adults as a Function of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Molly; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death. PMID:21151516

  2. Adult experiences of science and technology in everyday life: Some educational implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Tim

    1992-12-01

    This paper outlines a project that is focussed on examining the complex ways in which adults experience science and technology in different areas of their everyday life including paid work, the home, health and leisure. The research has involved interviews with individual adults situated in a diverse range of life situations in New Zealand. A case study is presented to indicate the type of data being analysed and the implications emerging for education from the project.

  3. Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Terry Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of spiritual coping in adult survivors' responses to current life stressors. Although there has been research on general coping and adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), there has been no work done on spiritual coping behaviour and survivors' current adjustment. Method: One…

  4. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  5. Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on 2 dimensions: subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these 2 processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (ages 18-22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified…

  6. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

  7. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  8. Effects of Increased Mobility Skills on Meaningful Life Participation for an Adult with Severe Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a case study of an adult with severe, multiple disabilities and discusses issues affecting meaningful life participation. Emphasis is placed on the role of functional mobility skills to increase active engagement in age-appropriate activities and opportunities to make informed choices. MOVE for Adults (Mobility Opportunities…

  9. Perception of Quality of Life for Adults with Hearing Impairment in the LGBT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the this study was to examine the perception of both generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) in adults with hearing impairment who are members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Eighty-three adults who self-identified as having hearing impairment and as being members of the LGBT community and…

  10. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  11. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  12. Emotion recognition in music changes across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cesar F; Castro, Sao Luis

    2011-06-01

    In comparison with other modalities, the recognition of emotion in music has received little attention. An unexplored question is whether and how emotion recognition in music changes as a function of ageing. In the present study, healthy adults aged between 17 and 84 years (N=114) judged the magnitude to which a set of musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) expressed happiness, peacefulness, sadness and fear/threat. The results revealed emotion-specific age-related changes: advancing age was associated with a gradual decrease in responsiveness to sad and scary music from middle age onwards, whereas the recognition of happiness and peacefulness, both positive emotional qualities, remained stable from young adulthood to older age. Additionally, the number of years of music training was associated with more accurate categorisation of the musical emotions examined here. We argue that these findings are consistent with two accounts on how ageing might influence the recognition of emotions: motivational changes towards positivity and, to a lesser extent, selective neuropsychological decline.

  13. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  14. Quality of life and competitive work among adults with severe mental illness: moderating effects of family contact.

    PubMed

    Gold, Paul B

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Competitive employment may improve life quality for adults with severe mental illness, but it is not known for whom or under what circumstances. On the basis of previous research demonstrating benefits of family contact for African-American adults with severe mental illness, it was hypothesized that frequent family contact would moderate (enhance) a positive association between competitive employment and global quality of life for a rural sample of predominantly African-American adults. METHODS In a secondary analysis of data collected from a randomized trial of supported employment, a series of nested random regression analyses was conducted to test the hypothesized moderating effect of face-to-face family contact on the association between competitive employment and global quality of life, controlling for severity of psychiatric symptoms and satisfaction with family relations. RESULTS Most of the 143 study participants spent time with a family member at least once a month (80%)-and most at least weekly (60%). Participants who held a competitive job and had face-to-face contact with family members at least weekly reported higher global quality of life than all other study participants. CONCLUSIONS In this rural sample of African-American adults with severe mental illness, competitive work was associated with higher global quality of life only for those who frequently spent time with family members. Research is needed to test the generalizability of this finding to other geographic settings and cultures, as well as the feasibility and effectiveness of formal inclusion of family members in psychosocial rehabilitation interventions.

  15. Sex Role Orientation Across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaks, Peggy M.; And Others

    It was hypothesized that four different "life lines" would affect sex role orientations, specifically intimacy, parenting, grandparenting, and work. Subjects were 74 men and 43 women, white, upper middle class with a mean education level of 14 years. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, a Life Events…

  16. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersky, Jan Buchalter

    2009-01-01

    Life Satisfaction is considered a key component of psychological well-being as well as a psychological construct that gives an individual the ability to cognitively appraise his or her life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the successful resolution of Erikson's fifth (adolescence), seventh (adulthood), and eighth…

  17. Racial inequality in active life among adult Americans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, M D; Heron, M

    1999-02-01

    Is a shorter life with more years lived in poor health a defining attribute of the life cycle of disadvantaged groups? Based on the 1990 5% Public Use Microdata Survey, we develop life table models of healthy (or active) life for the major racial groups, by sex, in the United States. The analysis underscores the complexity of the relationship between morbidity and mortality in the population. For Asians, longer life is associated with fewer years lived in poor health. In contrast, Native Americans' relatively longer lives are accompanied by extended periods of chronic health problems. Of all racial groups, blacks live the fewest years, and they live a high proportion of those years with a chronic health problems. Hispanics also live substantially fewer years, yet the period of life they spend with a health problem is relatively compressed. Racial differences in the link between morbidity and mortality point to the importance of investigating how chronic diseases and disease prevention and treatment are related to active life across the population subgroups.

  18. Young adults as users of adult healthcare: experiences of young adults with complex or life-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Beresford, B; Stuttard, L

    2014-08-01

    Awareness is growing that young adults may have distinctive experiences of adult healthcare and that their needs may differ from those of other adult users. In addition, the role of adult health teams in supporting positive transitions from paediatrics is increasingly under discussion. This paper contributes to these debates. It reports a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults - all with complex chronic health conditions - as users of adult health services. Key findings from the study are reported, including an exploration of factors that help to explain interviewees' experiences. Study findings are discussed in the context of existing evidence from young adults in adult healthcare settings and theories of 'young adulthood'. Implications for training and practice are considered, and priorities for future research are identified.

  19. Outcomes in adult life among siblings of individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As adults, all scored within the average range on tests of intelligence, numeracy and literacy. "Unaffected" siblings were functioning well in terms of jobs, independence and social relationships. Levels of social relationships and employment were significantly lower in the BAP group; autism traits and mental health problems were significantly higher. The data suggest that the "broader autism phenotype" is a meaningful concept but more sensitive diagnostic measures are required.

  20. The Role of Teachers and Schooling Experiences in Learners' Adult Life Quality: A Senegalese Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun, Holger; Sane, Abdoulaye

    2008-01-01

    School attended, Qur'anic education attendance, fathers' occupation, and some aspects of teachers' classroom actions make a difference for the adult life of the former learners. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study of the career and life situations of Senegalese individuals who were of school age in the beginning of the 1980s.…

  1. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  2. Life Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on life science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Life Process, Cells, Levels of Organization, Organ Systems, Food and Oxygen-Photosynthesis, Cycles, Energy, Resources, Cell…

  3. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  4. Health, Quality of Care and Quality of Life: A Case of Frail Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…

  5. Family Quality of Life: Adult School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svraka, E.; Loga, S.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study endeavours to provide initial data on quality of life for families with adult children who have intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Canton of Sarajevo. Methods: The principal measure used was the "Family Quality of life Survey 2006-main caregivers of people with intellectual or developmental disabilities." The sample consisted…

  6. The Relationship between Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Ralph G.

    1985-01-01

    Readiness for self-directed learning and perceived life satisfaction were explored among a sample of 64 adults over 60 years of age. A significant positive relationship was found between learning readiness and life satisfaction. Though not related to chronological age, learning readiness is connected to previous formal schooling. Self-directedness…

  7. Development of a Japanese Quality of Life Instrument for Older Adults Experiencing Dementia (QLDJ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Abe, Toshiko; Okita, Yuko; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Sugishita, Chieko; Kamata, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    This study develops a quality of life instrument for older Japanese people experiencing dementia (QLDJ). Quality of life (QL) for these older adults is defined as a three dimensional construct including 1) interacting with surroundings, 2) expressing self, and 3) experiencing minimum negative behaviors. From 53 items in the initial item pool, 24…

  8. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18–30 years. Methods A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch population aged 18–30 years, stratified by age, sex, marital status and education, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA online. Internal consistency of the PedsQL_YA scales was determined with Cronbach’s alphas. Norm scores were obtained by calculating the mean PedsQL scale scores by gender, age and health status. Differences in scale scores were analyzed for gender, age and health status (construct validity) using two-sample t-tests and effect sizes were calculated. Construct validity was determined by testing differences in PedsQL scores between healthy young adults and young adults with chronic health conditions. Results All scales of the PedsQL_YA showed satisfactory to excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alphas between .77 and .94. Men reported higher scores (indicating better HRQOL) than women on all scales (p < .01), except for school/work functioning. No age differences were found. Young adults with chronic health conditions scored lower on all scales (p < .001) than healthy young adults, indicating good construct validity. Effect sizes varied from medium to large. Conclusions The Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA has adequate psychometric properties. With the availability of reliable norm data, the PedsQL_YA can be used as a tool in the evaluation of health related quality of life in healthy young adults and those with a chronic health condition. PMID:24438218

  9. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate. PMID:25372164

  10. Profiles of reminiscence among older adults: perceived stress, life attitudes, and personality variables.

    PubMed

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life Attitude Profile-Revised, the Reminiscence Functions Scale, and the Psychological State of Stress Measure. Cluster membership was determined on the basis of intra-personal functions of reminiscence (Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Identity, Bitterness Revival). These groups were subsequently compared on personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience), life attitudes (Existential Vacuum, Goal Seeking), and perceived stress. Three distinct groupings emerged. A greater tendency to ruminate about negative memories and lower extraversion characterized the negative reminiscers. Higher frequency of reminiscence related to issues of identity, life meaning and death, together with a tendency toward openness to experience, typified the meaning seekers. Lower reminiscence frequency for each of the four functions, combined with lower perceived stress and neuroticism, characterized the infrequent reminiscers. These results are interpreted in terms of differential patterns of coping and adaptation. PMID:12243446

  11. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile) and 74 control subjects completed the Adult Self-Report (ASR) of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, the Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Revised, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale III assessment. Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term. PMID:23216805

  12. Fetal development and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2 in adult life.

    PubMed

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Szamotulska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The fetal origin hypothesis of adult cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in persons born with low birthweight, independently of their extrauterine risk factors, has been well established in the last decade of the twentieth century. However, mechanisms responsible for this relationship are still under investigation. Insulin resistance resulting from the restriction of intrauterine development of skeletal muscles and other organs is considered as the most important cause of metabolic disturbances and their cardiovascular complications in adult subjects born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Decline of insulin secretion, overactivation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, reduced glucose uptake in the liver and raised lipid oxidation in the muscles may also explain this association. On the other hand, abnormal vascular development , increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, defective endothelial function and/or impaired renal function in growth restricted newborns may contribute to hypertension in their later life. With respect to maternal conditions and life-style factors that may increase cardiovascular risk in adult offspring born with IUGR, the most consistent results concern pregnancy induced hypertension, preeclampsia, undernutrition, smoking during pregnancy, hypercholesterolemia, inflammation and/or enhanced glucocorticoid secretion. Macrosomia of the newborn, a frequent sequel to maternal diabetes and/or obesity, also increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Maternal overnutrition, and particularly high fat and sugar intake, seem to play a key role in fetal programming of cardiovascular risk in subjects born with macrosomia. Epigenetic imprinting underlies the described pathomechanisms. The presented associations are illustrated, among others, with the results of studies performed by the authors of this review.

  13. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434

  14. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls. PMID:26137496

  15. Quality of life in adolescents and adults with CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Nancy; Hudson, Alexandra; MacCuspie, Jillian; Kennert, Benjamin; Nacarato, Tasha; Hartshorne, Timothy; Blake, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Health-related Quality of Life and the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale were collected for 53 patients with CHARGE syndrome aged 13-39 years with a mean academic level of 4th grade. The most prevalent new and ongoing issues included bone health issues, sleep apnea, retinal detachment, anxiety, and aggression. Sleep issues were significantly correlated with anxiety, self-abuse, conduct problems, and autistic-like behaviors. Problems with overall health, behavior, and balance most affected the number of social activities in the individual's life. Sensory impairment most affected relationships with friends. Two contrasting case studies are presented and demonstrate that the quality of life exists on a broad spectrum in CHARGE syndrome, just as its physical features range from mild to very severe. A multitude of factors, including those beyond the physical manifestations, such as anxiety and sleep problems, influence quality of life and are important areas for intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quality of life in adolescents and adults with CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Nancy; Hudson, Alexandra; MacCuspie, Jillian; Kennert, Benjamin; Nacarato, Tasha; Hartshorne, Timothy; Blake, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Health-related Quality of Life and the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale were collected for 53 patients with CHARGE syndrome aged 13-39 years with a mean academic level of 4th grade. The most prevalent new and ongoing issues included bone health issues, sleep apnea, retinal detachment, anxiety, and aggression. Sleep issues were significantly correlated with anxiety, self-abuse, conduct problems, and autistic-like behaviors. Problems with overall health, behavior, and balance most affected the number of social activities in the individual's life. Sensory impairment most affected relationships with friends. Two contrasting case studies are presented and demonstrate that the quality of life exists on a broad spectrum in CHARGE syndrome, just as its physical features range from mild to very severe. A multitude of factors, including those beyond the physical manifestations, such as anxiety and sleep problems, influence quality of life and are important areas for intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27273681

  17. Legacy Making Through Illness Blogs: Online Spaces for Young Adults Approaching the End-of-Life.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Adelstein, Katharine; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about young adults with cancer at the end-of-life, but life review and legacy making may be important modalities to process the emotions associated with anticipatory grief. The study analyzed the illness blogs of five young women (aged 25-39 years) at the end-of-life using a narrative approach. Key elements of legacy making and grief processing were explored. The women had varying experiences before their death, but uniform posthumous occurrences with the use of the blog for a space of grief for loved ones. The use of online blogs among adolescents and young adults with advanced cancer is an area of needed further study.

  18. Five Lives Well Lived: Life Histories of Jamaican Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on one of the riches of the country: its people. She interviewed five adult educators who have made significant contributions in Jamaica. The author's interest in this research began from the opportunities that she had to meet some of the participants through their programme's connections with JAMAL (the…

  19. Adult People with Language Impairment and Their Life Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrnqvist, Maria Carlson; Thulin, Sofia; Segnestam, Ylva; Horowitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome of language impairment (LI) was explored in interviews with three adults with LI (as children attended specialized boarding school) and four of their parents. The informants with LI expressed acceptance of LI and described themselves as independent. With driving education with adjusted pedagogy and initial governmental…

  20. Quality of Life and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults: The Role of Living Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    This study asks (a) What are the relationships between types of living arrangements and psychological well-being for older adults? and (b) How do these relationships differ by gender? Data come from the 2010 wave of the National Health Interview Survey and include non-institutionalized adults aged 65 and older (N = 4,862). Dependent variables include self-rated quality of life and psychological distress. The study finds that older adults living alone or with others fare worse than those living with a spouse only. Yet, the outcomes of different types of living arrangements for older adults vary by gender. Women living with others are at greater risk of worse quality of life and serious psychological distress than men. Programs and policies must be responsive to the diverse needs of this population, rather than attempting a "one-size-fits-all" approach to housing and community-based services designed to promote older adults' psychological well-being and independence.

  1. Cortisol in hair measured in young adults - a biomarker of major life stressors?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress as a cause of illness has been firmly established. In public health and stress research a retrospective biomarker of extended stress would be an indispensible aid. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether concentrations of cortisol in hair correlate with perceived stress, experiences of serious life events, and perceived health in young adults. Methods Hair samples were cut from the posterior vertex area of (n = 99) university students who also answered a questionnaire covering experiences of serious life events, perceived Stress Scale and perceived health during the last three months. Cortisol was measured using a competitive radioimmunoassay in methanol extracts of hair samples frozen in liquid nitrogen and mechanically pulverised. Results Mean cortisol levels were significantly related to serious life events (p = 0.045), weakly negatively correlated to perceived stress (p = 0.025, r = -0.061) but nor affected by sex, coloured/permed hair, intake of pharmaceuticals or self-reported health. In a multiple regression model, only the indicator of serious life events had an independent (p = 0.041) explanation of increased levels of cortisol in hair. Out of four outliers with extremely high cortisol levels two could be contacted, both reported serious psychological problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that measurement of cortisol in hair could serve as a retrospective biomarker of increased cortisol production reflecting exposure to major life stressors and possibly extended psychological illness with important implications for research, clinical practice and public health. Experience of serious life events seems to be more important in raising cortisol levels in hair than perceived stress. PMID:22026917

  2. Health Condition and Quality of Life in Older Adults: Adaptation of QOLIE-89

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia; Varsami, Maria; Mitadi, Ioanna; Economidis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at adapting the Questionnaire Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-89 version 1.0: Vickrey et al., 1993), Quality of Life in Epilepsy QoLIE-89 RAND (Santa Monica, CA)] so that it may be used to measure quality of life (QoL) of older adults, healthy or suffering from various chronic illnesses. The participants were 202 older adults…

  3. Beliefs about the "hot hand" in basketball across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Rossi, Aimee Drolet; McGillivray, Shannon

    2012-09-01

    Many people believe in streaks. In basketball, belief in the "hot hand" occurs when people think a player is more likely to make a shot if they have made previous shots. However, research has shown that players' successive shots are independent events. To determine how age would impact belief in the hot hand, we examined this effect across the adult life span. Older adults were more likely to believe in the hot hand, relative to younger and middle-aged adults, suggesting that older adults use heuristics and potentially adaptive processing based on highly accessible information to predict future events.

  4. Induced overexpression of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase extends the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingtao; Folk, Donna; Bradley, Timothy J; Tower, John

    2002-01-01

    A transgenic system ("FLP-out") based on yeast FLP recombinase allowed induced overexpression of MnSOD enzyme in adult Drosophila melanogaster. With FLP-out a brief heat pulse (HP) of young, adult flies triggered the rearrangement and subsequent expression of a MnSOD transgene throughout the adult life span. Control (no HP) and overexpressing (HP) flies had identical genetic backgrounds. The amount of MnSOD enzyme overexpression achieved varied among six independent transgenic lines, with increases up to 75%. Life span was increased in proportion to the increase in enzyme. Mean life span was increased by an average of 16%, with some lines showing 30-33% increases. Maximum life span was increased by an average of 15%, with one line showing as much as 37% increase. Simultaneous overexpression of catalase with MnSOD had no added benefit, consistent with previous observations that catalase is present in excess in the adult fly with regard to life span. Cu/ZnSOD overexpression also increases mean and maximum life span. For both MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD lines, increased life span was not associated with decreased metabolic activity, as measured by O2 consumption. PMID:12072463

  5. Changes in Quality of Life in 7 Older Adult Patients Receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434

  6. Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gonçalves, Vânia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: “adolescent and young adult or AYA” AND “health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology” AND “neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology”. A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions. Results AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have “worse” or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience. Conclusion The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs. PMID

  7. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  8. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18-25), and middle adulthood (ages 26-49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  9. Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Maja; Komidar, Luka; Levpušček, Melita Puklek

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated associations of Slovene emerging adults' age, gender, living situation, romantic relationship, and employment status with aspects of individuation in relation to mother and father. Controlling for demographic variables and transitional markers of adulthood, we further explored the contribution of individuation measures to individuals' perceptions of achieved criteria for adulthood and life satisfaction. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the list of Achieved Criteria for Adulthood. Age and living out of parental home were positively associated with self-reliance in relation to both parents, whereas female gender was related to higher levels of connectedness and seeking parental support. Along with age and involvement in a romantic relationship, connectedness and self-reliance predicted adulthood criteria attainment and life satisfaction. The results support the models of individuation that emphasize growing autonomy and retaining connectedness to parents as pathways towards personal adjustments.

  10. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual's general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals' life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual's life satisfaction.

  11. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual’s general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals’ life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual’s life satisfaction. PMID:25406366

  12. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  13. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  14. Social determinants and health-related dimensions of quality of life in adult patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Dolatkhah, R; Fakhari, A; Pezeshki, M Z; Shabanlouei, R; Tavassoli, N; Gholchin, M

    2014-05-01

    The availability of safe and effective factor replacement therapies, in persons with haemophilia (PWH), has in some countries answered the basic need for treatment of these patients. The findings suggest that adult patients who have always been on prophylaxis reported significantly better physical functioning, and thus better quality of life. This study is designed to evaluate the QoL in adult PWH, by focusing on social determinants of QoL and their relationship with health-related dimensions, in Tabriz, Iran. The survey instrument was a self-report 36 items questionnaire, 'A36 Hemofilia - QoL', which is a disease-specific questionnaire for the assessment of the health-related QoL in adults living with haemophilia. A total of 100 haemophilia A and B patients, aged over 17 years participated in this study within 1 year. QoL total score was 71.88 (±26.89 SD). Patients who treat in our Hemophilia Treatment Center, had better QoL score (P = 0.000), and education has a significant impact on the social aspects of QoL (P = 0.18). The QoL was very poor in urban area in contrast to patients who lived in the city (54.45 vs. 74.21 respectively). Single patients have a better QoL than married patients (76.56 vs. 68.50 respectively). Our results showed that low education and lack of awareness of the diseases among PWH lead to reduce of QoL and more disease complications. More and wider treatment and psychological care for improving quality of life of these patients are seriously recommended.

  15. Developmental Models of Adult Life: Myth or Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, William B.; Hendricks, Jon

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the existence of age-related life stages and the presumed evolution of attitudes and perceptions in accordance with passages through these successive developmental plateaus. Age is minimally related to attitudes in these areas while social class, race and sex emerge as predictors. (Author)

  16. Associations between adult attachment characteristics, medical burden, and life satisfaction among older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, Helmut; Nolte, Tobias; Runkewitz, Kristin; Bayerle, Lisa; Becker, Simone; Blasczyk, Verena; Lindloh, Julia; Strauss, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether attachment security, measured by the Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR), was correlated with life satisfaction, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, medical burden, and age-related coping strategies in a sample of 81 patients (69-73 years) recruited from the register of a general primary care practice. Furthermore, we examined whether patients classified as AAPR-secure reported better adjustment to medical burden in terms of higher life satisfaction than did insecure patients. Attachment security was independently related to life satisfaction. Moreover, the association between medical burden and lower life satisfaction was significantly stronger for insecure than for secure participants. Our findings indicate that interventions to improve attachment security or coping processes related to attachment could help older adults retain life satisfaction.

  17. Adult attachment as mediator between recollections of childhood and satisfaction with life.

    PubMed

    Hinnen, Chris; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of childhood memories, working models of attachment and life satisfaction. After controlling for demographics, relational status and living condition, Baron and Kenny's mediation criteria were met for the association between memories about childhood, adult attachment and life satisfaction. That is, family warmth and harmony and parental support were associated with attachment security while parental rejection and adverse childhood events (e.g., abuse, parental psychopathology) were associated with an insecure attachment style. More securely attached individuals were in turn more satisfied about their current life than insecurely attached individuals. Sobel test confirmed these findings. These finding are in accordance with attachment theory and highlight the importance of this theory for understanding how early childhood experiences may impact adult life.

  18. Adult attachment as mediator between recollections of childhood and satisfaction with life.

    PubMed

    Hinnen, Chris; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of childhood memories, working models of attachment and life satisfaction. After controlling for demographics, relational status and living condition, Baron and Kenny's mediation criteria were met for the association between memories about childhood, adult attachment and life satisfaction. That is, family warmth and harmony and parental support were associated with attachment security while parental rejection and adverse childhood events (e.g., abuse, parental psychopathology) were associated with an insecure attachment style. More securely attached individuals were in turn more satisfied about their current life than insecurely attached individuals. Sobel test confirmed these findings. These finding are in accordance with attachment theory and highlight the importance of this theory for understanding how early childhood experiences may impact adult life. PMID:19165809

  19. Performance and Safety of an Integrated Portable Extracorporeal Life Support System for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Alwardt, Cory M.; Wilson, Donald S.; Alore, Michelle L.; Lanza, Louis A.; DeValeria, Patrick A.; Pajaro, Octavio E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is indicated when conventional measures fail to support a patient during cardiac or respiratory failure. Due to the complicated nature of ECMO, patients often require transport to a tertiary care center. This study retrospectively compared the performance of the Cardiohelp™ (Maquet) life support system with a previously used ECMO circuit when transporting adult patients on venoarterial ECMO between facilities. Two ECMO circuits were compared for performance: 1) the Cardiohelp™ (Maquet) life support system and 2) the “standard” circuit consisting of a Thoratec CentriMag centrifugal pump, Maquet Quadrox-D oxygenator, and a Terumo CDI-500 in-line blood gas analyzer. After analyzing data from 16 patients (eight patients supported with each ECMO system), no differences in patient demographics, percentage of patients successfully weaned from ECMO, percentage of patients surviving to discharge, duration supported on the initial ECMO system, or total duration of ECMO were noted. No patient deaths were related to circuit failure or circuit disruptions in either group. Analysis of the performance of the ECMO circuits and the resulting patient status showed few significant differences between ECMO groups (Cardiohelp™ vs. standard circuit) and time points (the first 8 hours vs. a 24-hour time point). The statistically significant differences were not concerning in terms of appropriate medical support or patient safety. Of interest, the transmembrane pressure was significantly lower for the Cardiohelp™ module vs. the standard oxygenator during the first 8 hours (20.1 [5.3] vs. 37.1 [7.1] mmHg; p < .001) and at 24 hours (21.3 [3.8] vs. 34.8 [7.9] mmHg; p = .001). The Cardiohelp™ portable life support system provides safe and reliable support for adult patients on ECMO during interhospital patient transport as compared to the standard circuit. PMID:26390678

  20. Self-Reported Hearing in the Last Two Years of Life Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexander K.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Wallhagen, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic data on the prevalence of hearing loss near death is lacking. Objectives To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported hearing loss during the last two years of life. Design Observational cohort study. Setting The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a longitudinal nationally representative cohort of adults age >50 (2000 to 2013). Participants Older adults Measurements The HRS interview closest to death was used (mean 12.2 months prior to death). Participants rated their hearing (excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor), and if they used hearing aids. We describe the prevalence and correlates of fair/poor ratings adjusted for age and gender. Results Of 5,895 participants (mean age at death 78 years, 53% women, 20% non-white), overall, 32% rated their hearing as fair/poor (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 31–34%), but 60% (95% CI 57–64%) of the 7% of participants that used hearing aids rated hearing as fair/poor. The prevalence of fair/poor hearing was highest among participants interviewed closest to death (29% 19–24 months prior to death, 36% 1–6 months prior to death, p for trend = 0.01). Correlates of fair/poor hearing during the last two years of life included: age at death (age 50–59 22%, 60–69 21%, 70–79 26%, 80–89 38%, ≥90 50%), gender (men 35%, women 30%), ethnicity (Latino 42%, white 33%), wealth (lowest quartile 38%, highest quartile 27%), history of heart disease (yes 38%, no 27%), dependence in activities of daily living (yes 42%, no 26%), difficulty taking medications (yes 46%, no 29%), and probable dementia (yes 44%, no cognitive impairment 24%). Conclusion Self-reported hearing loss increases during the last two years of life and is associated with physical and social vulnerability. PMID:27341383

  1. Construction and validation of a quality of life instrument for young adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Gordan, Kathy; Dufur, Rebecca; Smailes, Elizabeth

    2004-05-01

    Assessment of quality of life (QOL) in young adults has become an increasingly important field of research as information on the QOL of children and adults accumulates. The purpose of this study is to report on the development of the Young Adult Quality Of Life (YAQOL) instrument, a measure of QOL for young adults aged 18-25. The YAQOL, which is comprised of 14 multi-item scales that assess physical health and aspects of psychological well-being, social relationships, role function, and environmental context, was administered to a general population sample of 751 young adults. Scale structure was confirmed by item-internal consistency, item discriminant validity, and inter-scale correlations. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.88 to 0.63 across scales (mean = 0.73). Eight YAQOL scales discriminated clearly between young adults with and without chronic physical conditions, 12 scales discriminated between young adults with and without personality disorder, and negative associations were demonstrated between YAQOL scale scores and psychiatric disorder symptoms. Demographic differences in the YAQOL scales were consistent with theoretical expectations and previous empirical work. Overall, findings support the reliability and utility of the YAQOL as a measure of QOL in young adults in the general population. Additional psychometric properties will continue to be evaluated as more data become available.

  2. Population sinks resulting from degraded habitats of an obligate life-history pathway.

    PubMed

    Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

    2011-05-01

    Many species traverse multiple habitats across ecosystems to complete their life histories. Degradation of critical, life stage-specific habitats can therefore lead to population bottlenecks and demographic deficits in sub-populations. The riparian zone of waterways is one of the most impacted areas of the coastal zone because of urbanisation, deforestation, farming and livestock grazing. We hypothesised that sink populations can result from alterations of habitats critical to the early life stages of diadromous fish that use this zone, and tested this with field-based sampling and experiments. We found that for Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, obligate riparian spawning habitat was very limited and highly vulnerable to disturbance across 14 rivers in New Zealand. Eggs were laid only during spring tides, in the highest tidally influenced vegetation of waterways. Egg survival increased to >90% when laid in three riparian plant species and where stem densities were great enough to prevent desiccation, compared to no survival where vegetation was comprised of other species or was less dense. Experimental exclusion of livestock, one of the major sources of riparian degradation in rural waterways, resulted in quick regeneration, a tenfold increase in egg laying by fish and a threefold increase in survival, compared to adjacent controls. Overall, there was an inverse relationship between river size and egg production. Some of the largest rivers had little or no spawning habitat and very little egg production, effectively becoming sink populations despite supporting large adult populations, whereas some of the smallest pristine streams produced millions of eggs. We demonstrate that even a wide-ranging species with many robust adult populations can be compromised if a stage-specific habitat required to complete a life history is degraded by localised or more diffuse impacts.

  3. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam D; Rigby, Francesca L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-08-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual's first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span. PMID:27457937

  4. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam D; Rigby, Francesca L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-08-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual's first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span.

  5. The future is now: early life events preset adult behaviour.

    PubMed

    Patchev, A V; Rodrigues, A J; Sousa, N; Spengler, D; Almeida, O F X

    2014-01-01

    To consider the evidence that human and animal behaviours are epigenetically programmed by lifetime experiences. Extensive PubMed searches were carried out to gain a broad view of the topic, in particular from the perspective of human psychopathologies such as mood and anxiety disorders. The selected literature cited is complemented by previously unpublished data from the authors' laboratories. Evidence that physiological and behavioural functions are particularly sensitive to the programming effects of environmental factors such as stress and nutrition during early life, and perhaps at later stages of life, is reviewed and extended. Definition of stimulus- and function-specific critical periods of programmability together with deeper understanding of the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation will deliver greater appreciation of the full potential of the brain's plasticity while providing evidence-based social, psychological and pharmacological interventions to promote lifetime well-being.

  6. GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe Life Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was built as a life test unit for the loop heat pipes on the GOES N-Q series satellites. This propylene LHP was built by Dynatherm Corporation in 2000 and tested continuously for approximately 14 months. It was then put into storage for 3 years. Following the storage period, the LHP was tested at Swales Aerospace to verify that the loop performance hadn t changed. Most test results were consistent with earlier results. At the conclusion of testing at Swales, the LHP was transferred to NASA/GSFC for continued periodic testing. The LHP has been set up for testing in the Thermal Lab at GSFC since 2006. A group of tests consisting of start-ups, power cycles, and a heat transport limit test have been performed every six to nine months since March 2006. Tests results have shown no change in the loop performance over the five years of testing. This presentation will discuss the test hardware, test set-up, and tests performed. Test results to be presented include sample plots from individual tests, along with conductance measurements for all tests performed.

  7. Self-reported Exhaustion is Associated with Small Life Space in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Uemura, Kazuki; Ando, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] Older adults experience exhaustion-induced health problems, such as poor physical function and low physical activity levels. The associations between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity are not clear in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. [Subjects] A total of 356 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (mean age = 71.6 ± 0.3 years, 50.8% women) were included in this study. [Methods] Self-reported exhaustion was identified by one item from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index. Gait speed, gait endurance, and life space were also assessed. [Results] Sixty-two participants reported having exhaustion, giving a 17.4% prevalence of self-reported exhaustion among these individuals. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Life-Space Assessment score was the only parameter significantly independently associated with exhaustion status (adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95-0.99). [Conclusion] These results suggest that self-reported exhaustion is associated with life space. Future research is needed to identify ways for older people with MCI to improve their exhaustion status.

  8. Self-reported Exhaustion is Associated with Small Life Space in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Uemura, Kazuki; Ando, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Older adults experience exhaustion-induced health problems, such as poor physical function and low physical activity levels. The associations between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity are not clear in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. [Subjects] A total of 356 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (mean age = 71.6 ± 0.3 years, 50.8% women) were included in this study. [Methods] Self-reported exhaustion was identified by one item from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index. Gait speed, gait endurance, and life space were also assessed. [Results] Sixty-two participants reported having exhaustion, giving a 17.4% prevalence of self-reported exhaustion among these individuals. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Life-Space Assessment score was the only parameter significantly independently associated with exhaustion status (adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95–0.99). [Conclusion] These results suggest that self-reported exhaustion is associated with life space. Future research is needed to identify ways for older people with MCI to improve their exhaustion status. PMID:25540512

  9. Life-history traits and effective population size in species with overlapping generations revisited: the importance of adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Waples, R S

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between life-history traits and the key eco-evolutionary parameters effective population size (Ne) and Ne/N is revisited for iteroparous species with overlapping generations, with a focus on the annual rate of adult mortality (d). Analytical methods based on populations with arbitrarily long adult lifespans are used to evaluate the influence of d on Ne, Ne/N and the factors that determine these parameters: adult abundance (N), generation length (T), age at maturity (α), the ratio of variance to mean reproductive success in one season by individuals of the same age (φ) and lifetime variance in reproductive success of individuals in a cohort (Vk•). Although the resulting estimators of N, T and Vk• are upwardly biased for species with short adult lifespans, the estimate of Ne/N is largely unbiased because biases in T are compensated for by biases in Vk• and N. For the first time, the contrasting effects of T and Vk• on Ne and Ne/N are jointly considered with respect to d and φ. A simple function of d and α based on the assumption of constant vital rates is shown to be a robust predictor (R(2)=0.78) of Ne/N in an empirical data set of life tables for 63 animal and plant species with diverse life histories. Results presented here should provide important context for interpreting the surge of genetically based estimates of Ne that has been fueled by the genomics revolution. PMID:27273324

  10. Variability modifies life satisfaction's association with mortality risk in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Julia K.; Winning, Ashley; Segerstrom, Suzanne; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction is associated with greater longevity, but its variability across time has not been examined relative to longevity. We investigated whether mean levels of life satisfaction across time, variability in life satisfaction across time, and their interaction were associated with mortality over 9 years of follow-up. Participants were 4,458 Australians initially ≥50 years old. During the follow-up, 546 people died. Adjusting for age, greater mean life satisfaction was associated with reduced risk and greater variability in life satisfaction was associated with increased risk of mortality. These findings were qualified by a significant interaction such that individuals with low mean satisfaction and high variability in satisfaction had the greatest risk of mortality over the follow-up period. In combination with mean levels of life satisfaction, variability in life satisfaction is relevant for mortality risk among older adults. Considering intraindividual variability provides additional insight into associations between psychological characteristics and health. PMID:26048888

  11. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  12. Aggression, Recognition and Qualification: On the Social Psychology of Adult Education in Everyday Life. [Publications from the Adult Education Research Group].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Kirsten

    This paper discusses the impact of life history and everyday life in the context of training unskilled adults for social work in Denmark. It describes origins of these two texts used as empirical material: a discussion by a group of long-term unemployed skilled adult male workers who went through a 2-year training program to obtain permanent…

  13. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  14. Life science payloads planning study integration facility survey results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Brown, N. E.; Nelson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The integration facility survey effort described is structured to examine the facility resources needed to conduct life science payload (LSP) integration checkout activities at NASA-JSC. The LSP integration facility operations and functions are defined along with the LSP requirements for facility design. A description of available JSC life science facilities is presented and a comparison of accommodations versus requirements is reported.

  15. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 links early-life stress with impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christine; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Grosse, Jocelyn; Fournier, Céline; Harbich, Daniela; Westerholz, Sören; Li, Ji-Tao; Bacq, Alexandre; Sippel, Claudia; Hausch, Felix; Sandi, Carmen; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2015-05-01

    Early-life stress is a key risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules have been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in modulating social behaviors associated with these diseases. Neuroligin-2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule, located at the postsynaptic membrane of inhibitory GABAergic synapses, and is involved in synaptic stabilization and maturation. Alterations in neuroligin-2 expression have previously been associated with changes in social behavior linked to psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. In this study, we show that early-life stress, induced by limited nesting and bedding material, leads to impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice, accompanied by increased expression levels of hippocampal neuroligin-2. Viral overexpression of hippocampal neuroligin-2 in adulthood mimics early-life stress-induced alterations in social behavior and social cognition. Moreover, viral knockdown of neuroligin-2 in the adult hippocampus attenuates the early-life stress-induced behavioral changes. Our results highlight the importance of neuroligin-2 in mediating early-life stress effects on social behavior and social cognition and its promising role as a novel therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Combined early and adult life risk factor associations for mid-life obesity in a prospective birth cohort: assessing potential public health impact

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; van Veldhoven, Karin; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective The combined effect of life-course influences on obesity development and thus their potential public health impact is unclear. We evaluated combined associations and predicted probabilities for early and adult life risk factors with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. Setting 1958 British birth cohort. Participants 4629 males and 4670 females with data on waist circumference. Outcome measures 45 year obesity measured via waist circumference, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. Results At 45 years, approximately a third of the population were centrally obese and a quarter were generally obese. Three factors (parental overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult inactivity) were consistently associated with central and general obesity. Predicted probabilities for waist obesity increased from those with none to all three risk factors (0.15–0.33 in men; 0.19–0.39 in women (ptrend<0.001)), with a similar trend for general obesity. Additional factors (adult smoking, low fibre and heavy alcohol consumption) were associated with WHR obesity, although varying by gender. Prevalence of risk factors was higher in manual than non-manual groups: for example, in men 38% versus 25%, respectively, had ≥2 risk factors for waist and general obesity. Conclusions Early-life and adult factors that are amenable to change are highly prevalent and accumulate in association with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. The increase in probabilities for mid-adult obesity associated with cumulative levels of risk factors suggests the potential for public health impact. PMID:27072572

  17. Childhood Predictors and Adult Life Success of Adolescent Delinquency Abstainers.

    PubMed

    Mercer, N; Farrington, D P; Ttofi, M M; Keijsers, L; Branje, S; Meeus, W

    2016-04-01

    While much is known about adolescent delinquency, considerably less attention has been given to adolescent delinquency abstention. Understanding how or why some adolescents manage to abstain from delinquency during adolescence is informative for understanding and preventing adolescent (minor) delinquency. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (N = 411 males) to compare abstainers, self-report delinquents and convicted delinquents we found five childhood factors (ages 8-10) that predicted adolescent abstention (ages 10-18). First, we find that adolescent abstainers possess characteristics opposite to those of convicted delinquents (namely, abstainers are high on honesty, conformity and family income). However, we also found that abstainers also share some childhood characteristics with convicted delinquents (namely, low popularity and low school achievement). A latent class analysis indicated that the mixed factors predicting abstention can be accounted for by two groups of abstainers: an adaptive group characterized by high honesty, and a maladaptive group characterized by low popularity and low school achievement. Further, validation of these two types of abstainers using data collected at age 48 suggested that adaptive abstainers outperform all other adolescents in general life success, whereas maladaptive abstainers only fare better than delinquent adolescents in terms of lower substance use and delinquency later in life. PMID:26267237

  18. Life satisfaction and happiness among young adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-30

    People with schizophrenia often experience persistent symptoms and impairments in community functioning; however, despite this, many individuals with the illness report high levels of well-being. We explored the level of subjective well-being in a sample of relatively young outpatients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Seventy-five outpatients with schizophrenia and 72 demographically matched healthy controls, aged 18-35 years, participated in the present study. Subjective well-being was defined as a combination of happiness and satisfaction with life, each of which were measured using validated instruments. Symptom severity, insight, and cognition were also evaluated. People with schizophrenia endorsed significantly lower levels of subjective well-being than healthy controls although, there was substantial overlap in scores, and many participants with schizophrenia endorsed a high level of well-being. Both depressive symptoms and motivational deficits demonstrated significant independent predictive value for determining level of well-being. At a group level, the mean level of happiness and life satisfaction was lower among people with schizophrenia than healthy comparison participants. However, despite this mean difference, there exists marked overlap in individual scores between those with and without schizophrenia, demonstrating that many young people with schizophrenia do, in fact, endorse high levels of subjective well-being.

  19. [Everyday competencies and learning processes in old age. Results and perspectives of the PIAAC extension study "Competencies in later life"].

    PubMed

    Friebe, J; Knauber, C; Weiß, C; Setzer, B

    2014-11-01

    This article deals with the study "Competencies in later life" (CiLL), a parallel study to the German program for the international assessment of adult competencies (PIAAC) survey which assesses the level and distribution of skills of the adult population in a representative study. Assuming the growing importance of learning and education in a society challenged by demographic changes, the first section of the paper outlines the qualitative research of learning activities of focus groups in the daily life of elderly people. The second section of the paper presents the survey design and exemplary findings of the quantitative CiLL study. Initial results show that basic skills of the elderly are highly influenced by personal and sociodemographic variables, particularly by educational background. The data available indicate that the participation of the elderly in adult education and the options available for competence development have to be increased.

  20. Emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in institutionalised Spanish older adults.

    PubMed

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Spanish older adults who are institutionalised in long-term care (LTC) facilities. One hundred fifteen institutionalised individuals (47.82% women; 88.3 ± 7.9 years) from southern Spain completed a set of questionnaires that included measures of EI, health and personality. Data were analysed via hierarchical regression. After controlling for personality and sociodemographic variables, the EI dimensions, emotional comprehension and emotional facilitation, accounted for part of the variance in several HRQoL facets. These dimensions could have an important role in the HRQoL of residents in LTC. Moreover, the use of a performance measure addresses the limitations of previous studies that have relied on self-report measures. These aspects underscore the importance of the results of this study.

  1. Sensory-processing sensitivity moderates the association between childhood experiences and adult life satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Charlotte; Standage, Helen; Fox, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH: hypothesizing that some individuals are more responsive to both positive and negative experiences) with adult personality traits. The current study examined the DSH by investigating the moderating effect of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) on childhood experiences and life satisfaction. A total of 185 adults completed measures of SPS, positive/negative childhood experiences and life satisfaction. SPS did moderate the association between childhood experiences and life satisfaction. Simple slopes analysis compared those reporting high and low SPS (+/− 1 SD) and revealed that the difference was observed only for those who reported negative childhood experiences; with the high SPS group reporting lower life satisfaction. There was no difference observed in those reporting positive childhood experiences, which supported a diathesis-stress model rather than the DSH. PMID:26688599

  2. A quantitative dynamic systems model of health-related quality of life among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Roppolo, Mattia; Kunnen, E Saskia; van Geert, Paul L; Mulasso, Anna; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a person-centered concept. The analysis of HRQOL is highly relevant in the aged population, which is generally suffering from health decline. Starting from a conceptual dynamic systems model that describes the development of HRQOL in individuals over time, this study aims to develop and test a quantitative dynamic systems model, in order to reveal the possible dynamic trends of HRQOL among older adults. The model is tested in different ways: first, with a calibration procedure to test whether the model produces theoretically plausible results, and second, with a preliminary validation procedure using empirical data of 194 older adults. This first validation tested the prediction that given a particular starting point (first empirical data point), the model will generate dynamic trajectories that lead to the observed endpoint (second empirical data point). The analyses reveal that the quantitative model produces theoretically plausible trajectories, thus providing support for the calibration procedure. Furthermore, the analyses of validation show a good fit between empirical and simulated data. In fact, no differences were found in the comparison between empirical and simulated final data for the same subgroup of participants, whereas the comparison between different subgroups of people resulted in significant differences. These data provide an initial basis of evidence for the dynamic nature of HRQOL during the aging process. Therefore, these data may give new theoretical and applied insights into the study of HRQOL and its development with time in the aging population. PMID:26604722

  3. A quantitative dynamic systems model of health-related quality of life among older adults.

    PubMed

    Roppolo, Mattia; Kunnen, E Saskia; van Geert, Paul L; Mulasso, Anna; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a person-centered concept. The analysis of HRQOL is highly relevant in the aged population, which is generally suffering from health decline. Starting from a conceptual dynamic systems model that describes the development of HRQOL in individuals over time, this study aims to develop and test a quantitative dynamic systems model, in order to reveal the possible dynamic trends of HRQOL among older adults. The model is tested in different ways: first, with a calibration procedure to test whether the model produces theoretically plausible results, and second, with a preliminary validation procedure using empirical data of 194 older adults. This first validation tested the prediction that given a particular starting point (first empirical data point), the model will generate dynamic trajectories that lead to the observed endpoint (second empirical data point). The analyses reveal that the quantitative model produces theoretically plausible trajectories, thus providing support for the calibration procedure. Furthermore, the analyses of validation show a good fit between empirical and simulated data. In fact, no differences were found in the comparison between empirical and simulated final data for the same subgroup of participants, whereas the comparison between different subgroups of people resulted in significant differences. These data provide an initial basis of evidence for the dynamic nature of HRQOL during the aging process. Therefore, these data may give new theoretical and applied insights into the study of HRQOL and its development with time in the aging population. PMID:26604722

  4. Speech Recognition Across the Life Span: Longitudinal Changes From Middle-Age to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of evidence of age-related declines in speech recognition in middle age to older adulthood; to review contributions of pure-tone thresholds, age, and gender; and to report preliminary results from a longitudinal study. Method Pure-tone thresholds and word recognition in quiet and babble are being measured in a large sample of adults yearly or every 2 to 3 years. Analyses included >16,000 audiograms and speech recognition scores from >1,200 adults whose ages ranged from the 40s to the 90s. A multivariable generalized linear repeated mixed model assessed changes in thresholds and speech recognition over time. Results Word recognition in quiet declined significantly while controlling for threshold increases, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 65 to 70 years. Scores for men were poorer than those for women even after controlling for gender differences in thresholds, but rates of decline did not differ by gender. Smaller declines in key word recognition in babble were observed, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 75 to 80 years. Conclusions Additional evidence is needed from large-scale longitudinal cohort studies to determine rates of change of auditory function across the life span. These studies can identify associations with modifiable risk factors and potential mechanisms to reduce, to prevent, or to delay the onset of age-related hearing loss. PMID:25767998

  5. Health Disparities Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults: Results From a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Barkan, Susan E.; Muraco, Anna; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 50 years and older. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2003–2010 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n = 96 992) on health outcomes, chronic conditions, access to care, behaviors, and screening by gender and sexual orientation with adjusted logistic regressions. Results. LGB older adults had higher risk of disability, poor mental health, smoking, and excessive drinking than did heterosexuals. Lesbians and bisexual women had higher risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity, and gay and bisexual men had higher risk of poor physical health and living alone than did heterosexuals. Lesbians reported a higher rate of excessive drinking than did bisexual women; bisexual men reported a higher rate of diabetes and a lower rate of being tested for HIV than did gay men. Conclusions. Tailored interventions are needed to address the health disparities and unique health needs of LGB older adults. Research across the life course is needed to better understand health disparities by sexual orientation and age, and to assess subgroup differences within these communities. PMID:23763391

  6. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  7. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  8. Extracorporeal life support for adults with severe acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Cypel, Marcelo; Fan, Eddy

    2014-02-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is an artificial means of maintaining adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination to enable injured lungs to recover from underlying disease. Technological advances have made ECLS devices smaller, less invasive, and easier to use. ECLS might, therefore, represent an important step towards improved management and outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nevertheless, rigorous evidence of the ability of ECLS to improve short-term and long-term outcomes is needed before it can be widely implemented. Moreover, how to select patients and the timing and indications for ECLS in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome remain unclear. We describe the physiological principles, the putative risks and benefits, and the clinical evidence supporting the use of ECLS in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, we discuss controversies and future directions, such as novel technologies and indications, mechanical ventilation of the native lung during ECLS, and ethics considerations. PMID:24503270

  9. Effect of Intensive Exercise in Early Adult Life on Telomere Length in Later Life in Men

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Merja K.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kujala, Urho M.; Raj, Rahul; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bäckmand, Heli M.; Peltonen, Markku; Sarna, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    A career as an elite-class male athlete seems to improve metabolic heath in later life and is also associated with longer life expectancy. Telomere length is a biomarker of biological cellular ageing and could thus predict morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between vigorous elite-class physical activity during young adulthood on later life leukocyte telomere length (LTL). The study participants consist of former male Finnish elite athletes (n = 392) and their age-matched controls (n = 207). Relative telomere length was determined from peripheral blood leukocytes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Volume of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was self-reported and expressed in metabolic equivalent hours. No significant difference in mean age-adjusted LTL in late life (p = 0.845) was observed when comparing former male elite athletes and their age-matched controls. Current volume of LTPA had no marked influence on mean age-adjusted LTL (p for trend 0.788). LTL was inversely associated with age (p = 0.004).Our study findings suggest that a former elite athlete career is not associated with LTL later in life. Key points A career as an elite-class athlete is associated with improved metabolic health in late life and is associated with longer life expectancy. A career as an elite-class athlete during young adulthood was not associated with leukocyte telomere length in later life. Current volume of leisure-time physical activity did not influence telomere length in later life. PMID:25983570

  10. Ceramic material life prediction: A program to translate ANSYS results to CARES/LIFE reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonhermann, Pieter; Pintz, Adam

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes the use of the ANSCARES program to prepare a neutral file of FEM stress results taken from ANSYS Release 5.0, in the format needed by CARES/LIFE ceramics reliability program. It is intended for use by experienced users of ANSYS and CARES. Knowledge of compiling and linking FORTRAN programs is also required. Maximum use is made of existing routines (from other CARES interface programs and ANSYS routines) to extract the finite element results and prepare the neutral file for input to the reliability analysis. FORTRAN and machine language routines as described are used to read the ANSYS results file. Sub-element stresses are computed and written to a neutral file using FORTRAN subroutines which are nearly identical to those used in the NASCARES (MSC/NASTRAN to CARES) interface.

  11. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  12. The relationship between obesity and quality of life in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Fernanda B C; Bertrand, Elodie; Mograbi, Daniel C; Shinohara, Helene; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, affecting 30% of the adult population globally. During the last decade, the rising rates of obesity in developing countries has been particularly striking. One potential consequence of obesity is a decline in quality of life (QoL). Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), and QoL, evaluated using the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scale in a Brazilian population. The sample consisted of 30 men and 30 women, divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight, obese, and morbidly obese. All of the subjects responded to the WHOQOL inventories. The results indicated that the groups with lower BMIs had better QoL than the groups with higher BMIs. Being overweight interfered with QoL equally in both sexes, with no difference found between men and women. The results indicate the necessity of multidisciplinary care of obese individuals.

  13. The relationship between obesity and quality of life in Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Fernanda B. C.; Bertrand, Elodie; Mograbi, Daniel C.; Shinohara, Helene; Landeira-Fernandez, J.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, affecting 30% of the adult population globally. During the last decade, the rising rates of obesity in developing countries has been particularly striking. One potential consequence of obesity is a decline in quality of life (QoL). Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), and QoL, evaluated using the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scale in a Brazilian population. The sample consisted of 30 men and 30 women, divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight, obese, and morbidly obese. All of the subjects responded to the WHOQOL inventories. The results indicated that the groups with lower BMIs had better QoL than the groups with higher BMIs. Being overweight interfered with QoL equally in both sexes, with no difference found between men and women. The results indicate the necessity of multidisciplinary care of obese individuals. PMID:26236255

  14. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population.

  15. Objective and subjective quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorders in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, David; Alvarez, Rosa M; Lobatón, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-05-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective QoL measures. Outcome on objective QoL was extremely poor. Social networks were most frequently composed of family members. Community-oriented resources were absent in most cases. For two-thirds of the families, the ability to act as proxies for subjective QoL was seriously limited by the participants' poor social and communicative abilities. The results are indicative of the need for additional support to families of adults with ASD and increased community-based resources. Further conceptualization of indicators and measurement of subjective QoL in individuals with severe disabilities and ASD is also needed in order to include their own perspective in the evaluation of service provision.

  16. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Three-Year Quality of Life Outcomes in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Smith, Sharon M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine 3-year quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes among United States adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder (CD) before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis), or no antisocial behavioral syndrome at baseline. Method Face-to-face interviews (n= 34,653). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV Version. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey, version 2 (SF-12v2). Other outcomes included past-year Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) scores, employment, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), welfare, and food stamps, and participation in social relationships. Results ASPD and AABS predicted poorer employment, financial dependency, social relationship, and physical health outcomes. Relationships of antisociality to SSI and food stamp receipt and physical health scales were modified by baseline age. Both antisocial syndromes predicted higher PSS-4, AABS predicted lower SF-12v2 Vitality, and ASPD predicted lower SF-12v2 Social Functioning scores in women. Conclusion Similar prediction of QOL by ASPD and AABS suggests limited utility of requiring CD before age 15 to diagnose ASPD. Findings underscore the need to improve prevention and treatment of antisocial syndromes. PMID:22375904

  17. Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Boudreau, Matthew; Hecht, Erin; Winslow, James T; Nemeroff, Charles B; Sánchez, Mar M

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for anxiety, mood disorders and alterations in stress responses. Less is known about the long-term neurobiological impact of ELS. We used [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) to assess neural responses to a moderate stress test in adult monkeys that experienced ELS as infants. Both groups of monkeys showed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-induced activations and cardiac arousal in response to the stressor. A whole brain analysis detected significantly greater regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in superior temporal sulcus, putamen, thalamus, and inferotemporal cortex of ELS animals compared to controls. Region of interest (ROI) analyses performed in areas identified as vulnerable to ELS showed greater activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of ELS compared to control monkeys, but greater hippocampal activity in the control compared to ELS monkeys. Together, these results suggest hyperactivity in emotional and sensory processing regions of adult monkeys with ELS, and greater activity in stress-regulatory areas in the controls. Despite these neural responses, no group differences were detected in neuroendocrine, autonomic or behavioral responses, except for a trend towards increased stillness in the ELS monkeys. Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger. PMID:22682736

  18. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population. PMID:27125066

  19. A low α-linolenic intake during early life increases adiposity in the adult guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) during early life may impact adult adipose tissue (AT) development. We investigated the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake during the suckling/weaning period on AT development and metabolic markers in the guinea pig (GP). Methods Newborn GP were fed a 27%-fat diet (w/w %) with high (10%-ALA group), moderate (2.4%-ALA group) or low (0.8%-ALA group) ALA content (w/w % as total FA) until they were 21 days old (d21). Then all animals were switched to a 15%-fat diet containing 2% ALA (as total FA) until 136 days of age (d136). Results ALA and docosapentaenoic acid measured in plasma triglycerides (TG) at d21 decreased with decreasing ALA intake. Total body fat mass was not different between groups at d21. Adipose tissue TG synthesis rates and proliferation rate of total adipose cells, as assessed by 2H2O labelling, were unchanged between groups at d21, while hepatic de novo lipogenesis was significantly 2-fold increased in the 0.8%-ALA group. In older GP, the 0.8%-ALA group showed a significant 15-%-increased total fat mass (d79 and d107, p < 0.01) and epididymal AT weight (d136) and tended to show higher insulinemia compared to the 10%-ALA group. In addition, proliferation rate of cells in the subcutaneous AT was higher in the 0.8%-ALA (15.2 ± 1.3% new cells/5d) than in the 10%-ALA group (8.6 ± 1.7% new cells/5d, p = 0.021) at d136. AT eicosanoid profiles were not associated with the increase of AT cell proliferation. Conclusion A low ALA intake during early postnatal life promotes an increased adiposity in the adult GP. PMID:20205840

  20. Assessing quality of life in adult cancer survivors (QLACS).

    PubMed

    Avis, Nancy E; Smith, Kevin W; McGraw, Sarah; Smith, Roselyn G; Petronis, Vida M; Carver, Charles S

    2005-05-01

    This article describes development of a quality of life measure designed to assess issues relevant to long-term cancer survivors. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 58 long-term cancer survivors to identify domains most relevant to long-term survivors (> or = 5 years post-diagnosis). Self-report items were developed from these interviews and administered to a second sample of 242 long-term survivors. Domains and items were selected from the item pool by a combination of factor analysis and criterion-based item selection. Five cancer-specific domains were identified (appearance concerns, financial problems, distress over recurrence, family-related distress, and benefits of cancer) along with seven generic QOL domains (negative feelings, positive feelings, cognitive problems, sexual problems, physical pain, fatigue, and social avoidance). Cronbach's alpha was 0.72 or greater for each domain. Correlations between domain scores and criterion measures were 0.72 or higher in all but one generic domain (social avoidance), but somewhat lower on cancer-specific domains. The new multidimensional measure has good internal consistency and validity and is appropriate for comparisons between cancer and non-cancer populations, as well as long-term follow-up of cancer patients.

  1. Quality of life among adults with confirmed dengue in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Nascimento, Nazareth Elias; Suaya, Jose A; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Turchi, Marilia Dalva; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira; Peres, Joao Borges; Shepard, Donald S

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to measure the quality of life (QoL) during a dengue episode. We conducted a facility-based survey in central Brazil in 2005 and recruited 372 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients greater than 12 years of age in hospital and ambulatory settings. We administered the World Health Organization QoL instrument approximately 15 days after the onset of symptoms. We used principal component analysis with varimax rotation to identify domains related to QoL. The median age of interviewees was 36 years. Most (85%) reported their general health status as very good or good before the dengue episode. Although ambulatory patients were mainly classified as having dengue fever, 44.8% of hospitalized patients had dengue hemorrhagic fever or intermediate dengue. Principal component analysis identified five principal components related to cognition, sleep and energy, mobility, self-care, pain, and discomfort, which explained 73% of the variability of the data matrix. Hospitalized patients had significantly lower mean scores for dimensions cognition, self-care, and pain than ambulatory patients. This investigation documented the generally poor QoL during a dengue episode caused by the large number of domains affected and significant differences between health care settings.

  2. How It Matters when It Happens: Life Changes Related to Functional Loss in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Kathrin; Wang, Shu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of loss of vision on important life domains depending on life context. The sample included two groups dealing with vision impairment: middle-aged (n = 44) and older adults (n = 107). Findings showed important group differences in extent, type, and facet of life changes across and within four life domains:…

  3. Are Global and Regional Improvements in Life Expectancy and in Child, Adult and Senior Survival Slowing?

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Ryan J.; Verguet, Stéphane; Cheng, Yu-Ling; McGahan, Anita M.; Jha, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health–primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest. PMID:25992949

  4. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  5. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  6. The Use of Digital Technologies across the Adult Life Span in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelfs, Anne; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2010, a survey was carried out to explore access to digital technology, attitudes to digital technology and approaches to studying across the adult life span in students taking courses with the UK Open University. In total, 7000 people were surveyed, of whom more than 4000 responded. Nearly all these students had access to a computer and…

  7. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  8. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  9. Profiles of Reminiscence among Older Adults: Perceived Stress, Life Attitudes, and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…

  10. The Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dayna S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wiley, Terry L.; Nondahl, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigate the impact of hearing loss on quality of life in a large population of older adults. Design and Methods: Data are from the 5-year follow-up Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based longitudinal study of age-related hearing impairment conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. Participants (N = 2,688) were 53-97…

  11. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  12. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  13. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  14. Gains and Losses in Creative Personality as Perceived by Adults across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Yeung, Dannii Y.; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C. K.; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age…

  15. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Hong Kong: The Role of Social Support from Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Vivian W. Q.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…

  16. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  17. CASAS Competencies: Essential Life and Work Skills for Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The CASAS Competencies identify more than 360 essential life skills that youth and adults need to be functionally competent members of their community, their family, and the workforce. Competencies are relevant across the full range of instructional levels, from beginning literacy through high school completion including transition to…

  18. Building a Successful Adult Life: Findings from Youth-Directed Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky

    2007-01-01

    Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…

  19. Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

  20. In New York, Adult Students Say Real-Life Struggles Define Their Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    For adult students at Lehman College, in the Bronx, and LaGuardia Community College, in Queens, the separation between politics and daily life seems practically invisible. Both colleges are part of the 23-campus CUNY system, where more than two in five of the nearly 197,000 students are 23 and older. For most of these students, it is nearly…

  1. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  2. Approaches to Teaching Adult Development within a Life Span Development Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Bertrand, Rosanna

    1999-01-01

    Describes two exercises that convey the ways in which social biases influence adult development and aging: (1) involves sorting pictures of people by age illustrating the diversity of opinions about how to divide the life span; and (2) demonstrates how physical and social factors shape individual well-being in old age. (DSK)

  3. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Gunvi; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up. PMID:26066517

  4. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations.

  5. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. PMID:22845631

  6. Life events, coping, and antihypertensive medication adherence among older adults: the cohort study of medication adherence among older adults.

    PubMed

    Holt, Elizabeth W; Muntner, Paul; Joyce, C; Morisky, Donald E; Webber, Larry S; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2012-10-01

    The authors examined the association between life events and antihypertensive medication adherence in older adults and the moderating role of coping. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted by using data (n = 1,817) from the Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults (recruitment conducted from August 2006 through September 2007). Life events occurring in the 12 months preceding the study interview were assessed via the Holmes Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), and coping levels were assessed via an adapted version of the John Henry Active Coping Scale. Low adherence to antihypertensive medication was defined as scores less than 6 on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (known as "MMAS-8"). Of study participants, 13.2% had low adherence, and 27.2% and 5.0% had medium (150-299) and high (≥300) SRRS scores, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios for low adherence associated with medium and high, versus low, SRRS were 1.50 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.02) and 2.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.24, 3.58), respectively. When multivariable models were stratified by coping level, the association between life events and adherence was evident only among participants with low coping levels. PMID:23035146

  7. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful. PMID:26890179

  8. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful.

  9. Mixed emotions across the adult life span in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-06-01

    Mixed emotions involve the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect, such that people feel happy and sad at the same time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in the experience of mixed emotions across the adult life span in 2 nationally representative samples of U.S. residents. Data collected by the Princeton Affect and Time Survey (PATS, n = 3,948) and by the 2010 Wellbeing Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS, n = 12,828) were analyzed. In both surveys, respondents (aged 15 years or older) provided a detailed time diary about the preceding day and rated their happiness and sadness for 3 of the day's episodes. From these reports, 3 different indices of mixed emotions were derived. Results indicated small, but robust, increases in mixed emotions with age. Linear age increases were consistently evident in both PATS and ATUS, and replicated across the different indices of mixed emotions. There was no significant evidence for curvilinear age trends in either study. Several sociodemographic factors that could plausibly explain age-differences in mixed emotions (e.g., retirement, disability) did not alter the age-effects. The present study adds to the growing literature documenting vital changes in the complexity of emotional experience over the life span.

  10. Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokzijl, Francis; de Ligt, Joep; Jager, Myrthe; Sasselli, Valentina; Roerink, Sophie; Sasaki, Nobuo; Huch, Meritxell; Boymans, Sander; Kuijk, Ewart; Prins, Pjotr; Nijman, Isaac J.; Martincorena, Inigo; Mokry, Michal; Wiegerinck, Caroline L.; Middendorp, Sabine; Sato, Toshiro; Schwank, Gerald; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Vries, Robert G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Stratton, Michael R.; Clevers, Hans; Cuppen, Edwin; van Boxtel, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The gradual accumulation of genetic mutations in human adult stem cells (ASCs) during life is associated with various age-related diseases, including cancer. Extreme variation in cancer risk across tissues was recently proposed to depend on the lifetime number of ASC divisions, owing to unavoidable random mutations that arise during DNA replication. However, the rates and patterns of mutations in normal ASCs remain unknown. Here we determine genome-wide mutation patterns in ASCs of the small intestine, colon and liver of human donors with ages ranging from 3 to 87 years by sequencing clonal organoid cultures derived from primary multipotent cells. Our results show that mutations accumulate steadily over time in all of the assessed tissue types, at a rate of approximately 40 novel mutations per year, despite the large variation in cancer incidence among these tissues. Liver ASCs, however, have different mutation spectra compared to those of the colon and small intestine. Mutational signature analysis reveals that this difference can be attributed to spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosine residues in the colon and small intestine, probably reflecting their high ASC division rate. In liver, a signature with an as-yet-unknown underlying mechanism is predominant. Mutation spectra of driver genes in cancer show high similarity to the tissue-specific ASC mutation spectra, suggesting that intrinsic mutational processes in ASCs can initiate tumorigenesis. Notably, the inter-individual variation in mutation rate and spectra are low, suggesting tissue-specific activity of common mutational processes throughout life.

  11. The contribution of estuary-resident life histories to the return of adult Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Jones, K K; Cornwell, T J; Bottom, D L; Campbell, L A; Stein, S

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated estuarine habitat use, life-history composition, growth and survival of four successive broods of coho salmon Oncoryhnchus kisutch in Salmon River, Oregon, U.S.A. Subyearling and yearling O. kisutch used restored and natural estuarine wetlands, particularly in the spring and winter. Stream-reared yearling smolts spent an average of 2 weeks in the estuary growing rapidly before entering the ocean. Emergent fry also entered the estuary in the spring, and some resided in a tidal marsh throughout the summer, even as salinities increased to >20. A significant portion of the summer stream-resident population of juvenile O. kisutch migrated out of the catchment in the autumn and winter and used estuary wetlands and adjacent streams as alternative winter-rearing habitats until the spring when they entered the ocean as yearling smolts. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag returns and juvenile life-history reconstructions from otoliths of returning adults revealed that four juvenile life-history types contributed to the adult population. Estuarine-associated life-history strategies accounted for 20-35% of the adults returning to spawn in the four brood years, indicating that a sizable proportion of the total O. kisutch production is ignored by conventional estimates based on stream habitat capacity. Juvenile O. kisutch responses to the reconnection of previously unavailable estuarine habitats have led to greater life-history diversity in the population and reflect greater phenotypic plasticity of the species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest than previously recognized.

  12. Thermal evolution of pre-adult life history traits, geometric size and shape, and developmental stability in Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed

    Santos, M; Brites, D; Laayouni, H

    2006-11-01

    Replicated lines of Drosophila subobscura originating from a large outbred stock collected at the estimated Chilean epicentre (Puerto Montt) of the original New World invasion were allowed to evolve under controlled conditions of larval crowding for 3.5 years at three temperature levels (13, 18 and 22 degrees C). Several pre-adult life history traits (development time, survival and competitive ability), adult life history related traits (wing size, wing shape and wing-aspect ratio), and wing size and shape asymmetries were measured at the three temperatures. Cold-adapted (13 degrees C) populations evolved longer development times and showed lower survival at the highest developmental temperature. No divergence for wing size was detected following adaptation to temperature extremes (13 and 22 degrees C), in agreement with earlier observations, but wing shape changes were obvious as a result of both thermal adaptation and development at different temperatures. However, the evolutionary trends observed for the wing-aspect ratio were inconsistent with an adaptive hypothesis. There was some indication that wing shape asymmetry has evolutionarily increased in warm-adapted populations, which suggests that there is additive genetic variation for fluctuating asymmetry and that it can evolve under rapid environmental changes caused by thermal stress. Overall, our results cast strong doubts on the hypothesis that body size itself is the target of selection, and suggest that pre-adult life history traits are more closely related to thermal adaptation.

  13. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  14. Type and Intensity of Negative Life Events Are Associated With Depression in Adults With Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hove, Oddbjørn; Assmus, Jörg; Havik, Odd E

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the associations between types and intensity of life events and symptoms of depression among adults with intellectual disabilities. A community sample (N = 593) was screened for current depression and exposure to life events (i.e., loss, illness, change, and bullying) during the previous 12 months. Symptoms of depression were measured using the Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disabilities. Exposure to three of the four types of life events studied (loss, illness, and bullying) and the intensity of the events were associated with depression, particularly in the cases of loss of relatives and bullying. Quality of care moderated the association between bullying and depression and may buffer the adverse consequences of bullying. PMID:27611352

  15. Legacy Making Through Illness Blogs: Online Spaces for Young Adults Approaching the End-of-Life.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Adelstein, Katharine; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about young adults with cancer at the end-of-life, but life review and legacy making may be important modalities to process the emotions associated with anticipatory grief. The study analyzed the illness blogs of five young women (aged 25-39 years) at the end-of-life using a narrative approach. Key elements of legacy making and grief processing were explored. The women had varying experiences before their death, but uniform posthumous occurrences with the use of the blog for a space of grief for loved ones. The use of online blogs among adolescents and young adults with advanced cancer is an area of needed further study. PMID:26697270

  16. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  17. Quality of Life in Adults with an Intellectual Disability: The Evaluation of Quality of Life Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nota, L.; Soresi, S.; Perry, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The construct of quality of life (QoL) has been the focus of a great deal of recent research and has been operationalized in the assessment of the effectiveness of biomedical and rehabilitative interventions. Consequently, the effective measurement of QoL has become a relevant issue. QoL assessment should take account of both objective…

  18. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Yoshiaki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Jun; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect) and ill-being (negative affect). We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI); Life Experiences Survey (LES); Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A); and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus). Results Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated that childhood abuse, particularly neglect, indirectly worsened the well-being of individuals through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable affective temperaments. An important “mediator” role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on well-being was suggested. PMID:27110116

  19. Life-course origins of social inequalities in adult immune cell markers of inflammation in a developing southern Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic position (SEP) throughout life is associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms linking these two are unclear. It is also unclear whether there are critical periods in the life course when exposure to better socioeconomic conditions confers advantages or whether SEP exposures accumulate across the whole life course. Inflammation may be a mechanism linking socioeconomic position (SEP) with cardiovascular disease. In a large sample of older residents of Guangzhou, in southern China, we examined the association of life course SEP with inflammation. Methods In baseline data on 9,981 adults (≥ 50 years old) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2006-08), we used multivariable linear regression and model fit to assess the associations of life course SEP at four stages (childhood, early adult, late adult and current) with white blood, granulocyte and lymphocyte cell counts. Results A model including SEP at all four life stages best explained the association of life course SEP with white blood and granulocyte cell count for men and women, with early adult SEP (education) making the largest contribution. A critical period model best explained the association of life course SEP with lymphocyte count, with sex-specific associations. Early adult SEP was negatively associated with lymphocytes for women. Conclusions Low SEP throughout life may negatively impact late adult immune-inflammatory status. However, some aspects of immune-inflammatory status may be sensitive to earlier exposures, with sex-specific associations. The findings were compatible with the hypothesis that in a developing population, upregulation of the gonadotropic axis with economic development may obscure the normally protective effects of social advantage for men. PMID:22472036

  20. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  1. The Association between Vitamin D and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Baek, Jin Kyung; Cho, Ho Jin; Kim, Ye Seul

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life, and explored other related factors in the general Korean population. Methods We used data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 14,104 adults, aged 20–49 years, who had consented to serum vitamin D measurement and answered health-related quality of life questions. EuroQol-5 was used for measurement. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at intervals of 0–9.99, 10–19.99, 20–29.99, and ≥30 ng/mL. Results Participants with higher serum vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels were significantly less likely to report problems with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for age, gender, income level, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and the existence of depressive disorders, the odds ratio for reporting a problem with depression and anxiety was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.91). The odds ratio for the prevalence of any problem was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53–0.89) before adjustment, but was not statistically significant after adjustment. No significant associations were observed for problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, or pain and discomfort. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the associations between vitamin D and health-related quality of life for the general Korean population. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with the dimensions of EuroQol-5 except for depression and anxiety problems. PMID:27468340

  2. The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W Murray; Lawrence, Herenia P; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand) birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question) and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Results Of the 923 participants (48.9% female), one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains) which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality). Conclusion Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives. PMID:17090332

  3. Correlated changes in life history traits in response to selection for faster pre-adult development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankaj; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2014-02-15

    Insects including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are under intense pressure to develop rapidly because they inhabit ephemeral habitats. We have previously shown that when selection for faster development was artificially imposed on D. melanogaster in the laboratory, reduction of pre-adult development time and shortening of the clock period occurs, suggesting a role for circadian clocks in the regulation of life history traits. Circadian clocks in D. melanogaster have also been implicated in the control of metabolic pathways, ageing processes, oxidative stress and defense responses to exogenous stressors. In order to rigorously examine correlations between pre-adult development time and other life history traits, we assayed pre-adult survivorship, starvation and desiccation resistance, body size and body weight, fecundity and adult lifespan in faster developing populations of D. melanogaster. The results revealed that selection for faster pre-adult development significantly reduced several adult fitness traits in the faster developing flies without affecting pre-adult survivorship. Although overall fecundity of faster developing flies was reduced, their egg output per unit body weight was significantly higher than that of controls, indicating that reduction in adult lifespan might be due to disproportionate investment in reproduction. Thus our results suggest that selection for faster pre-adult development in D. melanogaster yields flies with higher reproductive fitness. Because these flies also have shorter clock periods, our results can be taken to suggest that pre-adult development time and circadian clock period are correlated with various adult life history traits in D. melanogaster, implying that circadian clocks may have adaptive significance.

  4. Everyday life of young adults with intellectual disabilities: inclusionary and exclusionary processes among young adults of parents with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-06-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending. PMID:23834213

  5. Polypharmacy and Health-Related Quality of Life Among US Adults With Arthritis, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Dwibedi, Nilanjana; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Our objective was to determine the relationship between polypharmacy (treatment with prescription drugs from 6 or more drug classes concurrently) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among US adults with arthritis. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study that used 2-year longitudinal data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to analyze a cohort of 6,132 adults aged over 21 years with arthritis. Measures of HRQoL were the summary scores from the mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS) of the 12-item short-form health survey. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were used to evaluate the association between polypharmacy and HRQoL measures. We used SAS, version 9.4, (SAS Institute Inc) to conduct all analyses. Results In unadjusted analyses, adults with arthritis taking prescription drugs from 6 or more drug classes concurrently had significantly lower MCS and PCS scores (β, −3.11, P < .001 and β, −10.26, P < .001, respectively) than adults taking prescription drugs from fewer than 6. After controlling for the demographic characteristics, number of mental and physical chronic conditions, and baseline MCS and PCS scores, adults taking prescription drugs from 6 or more drug classes concurrently had significantly lower PCS scores (β, −1.68, P < .001), than those taking prescription drugs from fewer than 6. However, no significant difference in MCS scores was found between adults taking prescription drugs from 6 or more drug classes concurrently and those taking prescription drugs from fewer than 6 (β, −0.27, P = .46). Conclusion Polypharmacy is significantly associated with lower PCS scores among adults with arthritis. Because polypharmacy can lead to drug–drug and drug–disease interactions, health care providers need to consider the risk and adopt a cautious approach in prescribing multiple drugs to manage chronic conditions and in choosing therapies to improve HRQoL among adults with

  6. Life Course Pathways of Adverse Childhood Experiences Toward Adult Psychological Well-Being: A Stress Process Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N = 13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. PMID:25846195

  7. Hypertension among Tunisian adults: results of the TAHINA project.

    PubMed

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Ben Ali, Samir; Skhiri, Hajer; Traissac, Pierre; Bougatef, Souha; Maire, Bernard; Delpeuch, Francis; Achour, Noureddine

    2012-03-01

    We performed a national survey to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, one of the main cardiovascular risk factors, among the adult population in Tunisia. A total of 8007 adults aged 35-70 years were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken by physicians with a mercury sphygmomanometer, and standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg or current treatment with antihypertensive drugs. The prevalence of hypertension was 30.6%, higher in women (33.5%) than in men (27.3%). Multiple logistic regression analyses identified a higher age, urban area, higher body mass index, type 2 diabetes and family history of CVD as important correlates to the prevalence of hypertension. Only 38.8% of those with hypertension were aware of their diagnosis, of which 84.8% were receiving treatment. BP control was achieved in only 24.1% of treated hypertensive persons. Women were more aware than men (44.8 vs. 28.8%), but the rates of treatment and control of hypertension did not differ between the two genders. Higher age, being female, lower education level and urban area emerged as important correlates of hypertension awareness. The study highlights the hypertension problem in a middle-income developing country. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention program to ameliorate the growing problem of hypertension in Tunisians.

  8. Older Adults Benefit from Music Training Early in Life: Biological Evidence for Long-Term Training-Driven Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Anderson, Samira; Strait, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Aging results in pervasive declines in nervous system function. In the auditory system, these declines include neural timing delays in response to fast-changing speech elements; this causes older adults to experience difficulty understanding speech, especially in challenging listening environments. These age-related declines are not inevitable, however: older adults with a lifetime of music training do not exhibit neural timing delays. Yet many people play an instrument for a few years without making a lifelong commitment. Here, we examined neural timing in a group of human older adults who had nominal amounts of music training early in life, but who had not played an instrument for decades. We found that a moderate amount (4–14 years) of music training early in life is associated with faster neural timing in response to speech later in life, long after training stopped (>40 years). We suggest that early music training sets the stage for subsequent interactions with sound. These experiences may interact over time to sustain sharpened neural processing in central auditory nuclei well into older age. PMID:24198359

  9. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested.

  10. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. PMID:26921056

  11. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation.

  12. Life histories have a history: effects of past and present conditions on adult somatic growth rates in wild Trinidadian guppies.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Lopez-Sepulcre, Andrés; Heatherly, Thomas; Kohler, Tyler J; Bassar, Ronald D; Thomas, Steven A; Reznick, David N

    2012-07-01

    1. Environmental conditions in the present, more recent past and during the juvenile stage can have significant effects on adult performance and population dynamics, but their relative importance and potential interactions remain unexplored. 2. We examined the influence of food availability at the time of sampling, 2 months prior and during the juvenile stage on adult somatic growth rates in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). 3. We found that food availability during both the early and later parts of an individual's ontogeny had important consequences for adult growth strategies, but the direction of these effects differed among life stages and their magnitude, in some cases, depended on food levels experienced during other life stages. Current food levels and those 2 months prior to growth measurements had positive effects on adult growth rate; though, food levels 2 months prior had a greater effect on growth than current food levels. In contrast, the effects of food availability during the juvenile stage were higher in magnitude but opposite in direction to current food levels and those 2 months prior to growth rate measurements. Individuals recruiting under low food levels grew faster as adults than individuals recruiting during periods of high food availability. There was also a positive interaction between food levels experienced during the juvenile stage and 2 months prior such that the effects of juvenile food level diminished as the food level experienced 2 months prior increased. 4. These results suggest that the similar conditions occurring at different life stages can have different effects on short- and long-term growth strategies of individuals within a population. They also demonstrate that, while juvenile conditions can have lasting effects on adult performance, the strength of that effect can be dampened by environmental conditions experienced as an adult. 5. A simultaneous consideration of past events in both the

  13. Association between children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry J.; Thomson, W Murray; Taylor, Alan; Sears, Malcolm R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Research into social inequalities in health has tended to focus on low socioeconomic status in adulthood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with a wide range of health risk factors and outcomes in adult life. Methods We studied an unselected cohort of 1000 children (born in New Zealand during 1972–73) who had been assessed at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. At age 26 years, we assessed these individuals for health outcomes including body-mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, dental caries, plaque scores, gingival bleeding, periodontal disease, major depression, and tobacco and alcohol dependence, and tested for associations between these variables and childhood and adult socioeconomic status. Findings Compared with those from high socioeconomic status backgrounds, children who grew up in low socioeconomic status families had poorer cardiovascular health. Significant differences were also found on all dental health measures, with a threefold increase in adult periodontal disease (31·1% vs 11·9%) and caries level (32·2% vs 9·9%) in low versus high childhood socioeconomic status groups. Substance abuse resulting in clinical dependence was related in a similar way to childhood socioeconomic status (eg, 21·5% vs 12·1% for adult alcohol dependence). The longitudinal associations could not be attributed to life-course continuity of low socioeconomic status, and upward mobility did not mitigate or reverse the adverse effects of low childhood socioeconomic status on adult health. Interpretation Protecting children against the effects of socioeconomic adversity could reduce the burden of disease experienced by adults. These findings provide strong impetus for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to direct energy and resources towards childhood as a way of improving population health. PMID:12457787

  14. Abdominal muscle strength is related to the quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Suenimeire; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Ferreira, Vânia Tie Koga; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between abdominal muscle strength and quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis. A blind, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 older adults: 20 with lumbar osteoarthritis (12 women and 8 men, mean age of 65.90 ± 4.80 years) and 20 controls (14 women and 6 men, mean age of 67.90 ± 4.60 years). The volunteers were submitted to an abdominal muscle strength test. Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Both abdominal muscle strength and quality of life scores were significantly lower in the group with lumbar osteoarthritis in comparison to the controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant and positive associations were found between abdominal muscle strength and the subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire (p < 0.05, 0.421 ≥ rs ≤ 0.694). Based on the present findings, older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis with greater abdominal muscle strength have a better quality of life.

  15. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  16. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood.

  17. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood. PMID:26619194

  18. The Validity of Disease-specific Quality of Life Attributions Among Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ware, John E.; Gandek, Barbara; Allison, Jeroan

    2016-01-01

    Background A crucial assumption underlying all disease-specific quality of life (QOL) measures, that patients can validly differentiate a specific disease in the presence of multiple chronic conditions, has not been tested using multiple methods. Our objective was to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of QOL attributions to specific diseases among adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Methods Adults age 18 and older (N=4,480) sampled from eight pre-identified condition groups (asthma, COPD, angina/MI with angina, congestive heart failure, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis) completed an Internet survey. Comorbid conditions were determined using a 35-condition checklist. Product-moment correlations were analyzed separately by pre-identified condition group using the multitrait-multimethod of construct validation, where traits were defined by 9–26 conditions and each condition was measured by two methods: disease severity rating and Disease-specific Quality of Life Impact Scale (QDIS) global rating. A third method (symptom or clinical marker) was available for the eight pre-identified conditions. Convergent validity was supported when correlations among different methods of measuring the same condition (trait) were substantial (r≥0.40). Discriminant validity was supported when correlations between the same and different methods of measuring different conditions were significantly lower than corresponding convergent correlations. Results In support of convergent validity, 22 of 24 convergent correlations were substantial (r=0.38–0.84, median=0.53). In support of discriminant validity, 833 of 924 tests (90.2%) yielded significantly higher convergent than discriminant correlations across the eight pre-identified conditions. Exceptions to this pattern of results were most often observed for comorbid conditions within the same clinical area. Conclusions Collectively, convergent and discriminant test results

  19. Speech Recognition in Real-Life Background Noise by Young and Middle-Aged Adults with Normal Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Tae; Heo, Hye Jeong; Choi, Chul-Hee; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Kyungjae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives People usually converse in real-life background noise. They experience more difficulty understanding speech in noise than in a quiet environment. The present study investigated how speech recognition in real-life background noise is affected by the type of noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and age. Subjects and Methods Eighteen young adults and fifteen middle-aged adults with normal hearing participated in the present study. Three types of noise [subway noise, vacuum noise, and multi-talker babble (MTB)] were presented via a loudspeaker at three SNRs of 5 dB, 0 dB, and -5 dB. Speech recognition was analyzed using the word recognition score. Results 1) Speech recognition in subway noise was the greatest in comparison to vacuum noise and MTB, 2) at the SNR of -5 dB, speech recognition was greater in subway noise than vacuum noise and in vacuum noise than MTB while at the SNRs of 0 and 5 dB, it was greater in subway noise than both vacuum noise and MTB and there was no difference between vacuum noise and MTB, 3) speech recognition decreased as the SNR decreased, and 4) young adults showed better speech recognition performance in all types of noises at all SNRs than middle-aged adults. Conclusions Speech recognition in real-life background noise was affected by the type of noise, SNR, and age. The results suggest that the frequency distribution, amplitude fluctuation, informational masking, and cognition may be important underlying factors determining speech recognition performance in noise. PMID:26185790

  20. Characterizing the daily life, needs, and priorities of adults with ASD from Interactive Autism Network data

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Katherine; Marvin, Alison R.; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary; Anderson, Connie M.; Law, Paul A.; Law, Jessica K.; Lipkin, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    Using online survey data from a large sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and legal guardians, we first report outcomes across a variety of contexts for participants with a wide range of functioning, and second, summarize these stakeholders' priorities for future research. The sample included n=255 self-reporting adults with ASD aged 18-71 years (M=38.5, SD=13.1), and n=143 adults with ASD aged 18-58 years (M=25.0, SD=8.2) whose information was provided by legal guardians. Although the self-reporting subsample had much higher rates of employment, marriage/partnership, and independent living than are typically seen in ASD outcome studies, they remained underemployed and had strikingly high rates of comorbid disorders. Data on both descriptive outcomes and rated priorities converged across subsamples to indicate the need for more adult research on life skills, treatments, co-occurring conditions, and vocational and educational opportunities. Stakeholders also placed priority on improving public services, health care access, and above all, public acceptance of adults with ASD. Findings must be interpreted in light of the self-reporting subsample's significant proportion of females and of later-diagnosed individuals. This study underscores the need for lifespan research; initiatives will benefit from incorporating information from the unique perspectives of adults with ASD and their families. PMID:25964655

  1. How Older Rural Adults Utilize Self-Directed Learning in Late Life Adjustments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing numbers and influence of older adults is causing many segments of western society to re-evaluate the concept of old age. Medical advances and personal lifestyles have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. As one ages, adjustments in work, family, and health must be made. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way…

  2. The 50Ah NiH2 cell life test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamin, Thierry; Puig, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form for the 50 AhNiH2 cell life test results. Information is given on pressure vessel design, electrochemical/stack design, cell electrical characteristics, and cell life test results.

  3. From Angela's ashes to the Celtic tiger: early life conditions and adult health in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Liam; McGovern, Mark; Smith, James P

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Irish census and exploit regional and temporal variation in infant mortality rates over the 20th century to examine effects of early life conditions on later life health. The urban mortality penalty collapsed in Ireland in the years right after World War II. Our main identification is public health interventions centered on improved sanitation and food safety, which we believed played a leading role in eliminating the Irish urban infant mortality penalty. Our estimates suggest that a unit decrease in mortality rates at time of birth reduces the probability of being disabled as an adult by about 12-18%.

  4. Mid-Life and Career Transitions. The Career Life Assessment Skills Series, Booklet Six. A Program to Meet Adult Developmental Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Bernadette M.; Hecklinger, Fred J.

    Information and accompanying exercises in this four-part booklet are designed to assist adults make changes in their career and personal lives. After introductory material describing career and life planning as a continual assessment process, Part I of the booklet reviews the common characteristics and problems of adults in each of five life…

  5. Economic hardship in childhood and adult health trajectories: An alternative approach to investigating life-course processes.

    PubMed

    Shuey, Kim M; Willson, Andrea E

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we advance existing research on health as a life course process by conceptualizing and measuring both childhood disadvantage and health as dynamic processes in order to investigate the relationship between trajectories of early life socioeconomic conditions and trajectories of health in midlife. We utilize a trajectory-based analysis that takes a disaggregated, person-centered approach to understand dynamic trajectories of health as latent variables that reflect the timing, duration and change in health conditions experienced by respondents over a period of 10 years in midlife as a function of stability and change in exposure to economic hardship in early life. Results from repeated-measures latent class analysis of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics indicate that economic hardship in childhood has long-term, negative consequences for health both among individuals beginning life and remaining in poverty as well as those moving into poverty. In contrast, adults with more advantaged early life experiences, or who moved out of poverty during the period of observation, were at a lower risk of experiencing health trajectories characterized by the early onset or increasing risk of disease. We argue that a person-centered, disaggregated approach to the study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health across the life course holds potential for the study of health inequality and that a greater focus on trajectory-based analysis is needed.

  6. Quality of life after housing first for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced chronic homelessness.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Matejkowski, Jason; Stefancic, Ana; Lukens, Jonathan M

    2014-12-15

    This 1-year longitudinal study of adults who have recently transitioned from homelessness to Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) focuses on quality of life as a primary outcome of interest. Eighty of 103 new tenants participated in structured interviews at the time of entry into their new home and at 12-months post-housing. t-tests assessed differences in community participation and quality of life measures at the 2 time points. Mixed effects models examined the impact of community participation on quality of life. Results show that time in independent housing was significantly associated with several domains of quality of life. Symptom severity was also significantly and negatively related to quality of life domains. Community participation was significantly related to frequency of social contacts only. These findings suggest that community participation is not critical to improving quality of life, and that despite concerns that individuals may feel isolated and lonely when living independently, satisfaction with one׳s living situation and family relationships nevertheless improves with housing tenure.

  7. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older US Adults, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Olano, Henry A.; LeBlanc, William G.; McClure, Laura A.; Lee, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality; however, its geographical variation in older adults in the United States has not been characterized. We compared HRQOL among older adults in the 50 US states and the District of Columbia using the Health and Activities Limitation Index (HALex). We also compared the HRQOL of 4 regions: South, West, Midwest, and Northeast. Methods We analyzed pooled data from 1997 through 2010 from the National Health Interview Survey for participants aged 65 or older. HALex scores (which range from 0 to 1.00, with higher values indicating better health) were calculated by combining data on participants’ perceived health and activity limitations. We ranked states by mean HALex score and performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to compare low scores (defined as scores in the lowest quintile) among US regions after adjustment for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and survey design. Results Older residents of Alaska, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and West Virginia had the lowest mean HALex scores (range, 0.62–0.68); residents of Arizona, Delaware, Nevada, New Hampshire, and Vermont had the highest mean scores (range, 0.78–0.79). Residents in the Northeast (odds ratio [OR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.76) and the Midwest (OR, 64; 95% CI, 0.56–0.73) were less likely than residents in the South to have scores in the lowest quintile after adjustment for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and survey design. Conclusion Significant regional differences exist in HRQOL of older Americans. Future research could provide policy makers with information on improving HRQOL of older Americans. PMID:24995652

  8. Does end-of-life decision making matter? Perspectives of older homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjeong; Nelson-Becker, Holly

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative pilot study explored perspectives, needs, and concerns relating to advance care planning among older homeless adults. Twenty-one older adults residing at a transitional housing facility in an urban area of the West coast were interviewed in person. Key emergent themes included discomfort with the topic, trust in God's decisions, physicians preferred as decision makers, and planning is important but not an immediate concern. Further, people who are homeless want to be approached with sensitivity. Instead of simply eliciting life-sustaining treatment preferences of homeless people, health care professionals should assess their unique concerns and needs regarding death and dying, prepare them to consider their possible end-of-life situation, and assist them to plan in accordance with their needs.

  9. Research participation by older adults at end of life: barriers and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Herr, Keela; Bergen-Jackson, Kimberly; Fine, Perry; Forcucci, Chris; Sanders, Sara

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to elaborate on barriers to research participation by older adults at end of life. We focus on the hospice setting and classify barriers to research participation into six domains: societal attitudes toward death, research procedures, health care organizations, agency staff, patients' families and caregivers, and patient characteristics. We characterize particular participation issues, uncertainties in participation for individuals with advanced illness, and infringements on patient self-determination, as well as potential solutions to these research challenges. Our observation of the complex palliative context includes the realization that a singular change will not have large enough impact on participation. We conclude that, along with the responsibility to expand the research base addressing the needs of dying individuals, there is also a need to understand the challenges of implementing research projects with older adults at end of life. PMID:20078006

  10. Life experiences and coping strategies in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Callus, E; Quadri, E; Compare, A; Tovo, A; Giamberti, A; Chessa, M

    2013-01-01

    Many adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) have to face considerable psychosocial difficulties. The aim of this study was to explore the life experiences of ACHD patients, from when they become aware of having a condition, till after the open heart surgery they underwent. The study was conducted with the use of unstructured, in-depth interviews, performed on 11 patients (age ranging: 20 - 56 y) after they recovered from open heart surgery and a focus group, which included 16 participants (age ranging: 22 - 46 y). Both the interviews and the focus group were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to Grounded Theory procedures. Our findings show that the condition of diversity is the core of the emotional experiences connected to ACHD. Feeling different and being perceived as being different are clearly interlinked and coping strategies adopted resulted as being influenced by this perception. This study also clearly outlines the importance of having an adequate perception of one's condition and the link between maladaptive coping strategies and an incorrect perception of one's heart condition. Results are discussed in order to promote psychosocial interventions within and outside of the hospital setting in order to improve the patients' emotional wellbeing. PMID:24516946

  11. Therapeutic landscapes and wellbeing in later life: Impacts of blue and green spaces for older adults.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Jessica; Franke, Thea; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2015-07-01

    This paper extends the concept of therapeutic landscapes by investigating how green and blue spaces affect older adult health and wellbeing. We draw on interview data from participants aged 65-86 years old who described their everyday experiences with green and especially blue spaces across Metro Vancouver, Canada. Landscapes embedded with therapeutic qualities included parks, gardens, street greenery, lakes, and the ocean. Interactions with these spaces influenced participants' perceived physical, mental, and social health. Issues of safety, accessibility, and personal perception complicated this relationship. Overall, the findings indicate that nature plays a nuanced and influential role in the everyday lives of older adults. Better understanding how older adults experience health and landscape is critical towards developing everyday contact with nature that can improve quality of life for ageing populations.

  12. Who Does Well in Life? Conscientious Adults Excel in Both Objective and Subjective Success

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Weir, David; Tsukayama, Eli; Kwok, David

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth) and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect) in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of) negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude. PMID:23162483

  13. Geographical variations in adult body size and reproductive life history traits in an invasive anuran, Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Pujol-Buxó, Eudald; San Sebastián, Olatz; Llorente, Gustavo A; Hammou, Mohamed Aït; Sanuy, Delfi

    2016-06-01

    Variability in life history traits positively affects the establishment and expansive potential of invasive species. In the present study, we analysed the variation of body size in seven populations - two native and five invasive - of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus, Anura: Discoglossidae), native to North Africa and introduced in southern France and the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Other life history traits (age at maturity, size at maturity, longevity, median age and potential reproductive lifespan) were analysed in a native and an invasive population. We observed geographic variations in adult body size, related mainly to mean annual precipitation. Thus, populations had greater body size as mean annual precipitation increased, resulting in bigger specimens in the invasive populations. Adult body size and growth rates also varied between sexes in all studied populations, with males significantly larger than females. Age distribution varied between native (1-5 years) and invasive populations (2-4 years) and also between sexes. Our results suggest that higher precipitation promotes faster growth rates and larger adult body size that could facilitate the successful establishment of invasive populations.

  14. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  15. Acne Vulgaris and Quality of Life Among Young Adults in South India

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Priya Cinna T; Nair, Dhanya G

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic condition affecting more than 85% of adolescents and young adults. It is one of the most common diseases affecting humanity and its impact on quality of life (QoL) is important. The impact of acne on QoL in Indian patients remains undocumented. The study was undertaken to detect the impact of acne vulgaris and related factors that may influence the QoL. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional, prestructured, questionnaire-based study done on 140 consenting individuals, who attended the Dermatology outpatient department. Acne vulgaris was graded using simple grading system. QoL was measured using a combination of skin disease-specific (Dermatological Life Quality Index (DLQI)) and acne-specific (Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI)) questionnaires. Results: Majority of our study population were students (103, 73.6%). Face (139, 99.3%) was the commonest site of acne and comedones 133, 95% were the commonest type of lesion. Most of the individuals 66, 47.1% were observed to have grade 1 acne. The mean DLQI score was 6.91 and the mean CADI score was 5.2. Association between the scores was statistically significant. Age, occupation, marital status, family, and treatment history played a role in affecting the QoL. Diet, smoking, and alcohol did not influence the QoL. Conclusion: Though acne had impact on patient's QoL, it was less severe in our study. It is important for health professionals to incorporate QoL measurements when managing acne patients to provide better and appropriate care. PMID:25657394

  16. An Australian survey of cognitive health beliefs, intentions, and behaviours through the adult life course

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Diane E.; Sargent-Cox, Kerry A.; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Information is required regarding cognitive health beliefs and behaviours from across the life in order to inform the design of interventions to optimise cognitive health and reduce the risk of cognitive impairment. Methods A survey of Australian adults aged 20–89 was administered via Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) software to respondents recruited by random digit dialling (N = 900). Socio-demographic and self-reported health information was collected to investigate associations with cognitive health responses. Results Alcohol abuse was nominated by the highest proportion of respondents (34.3%) as detrimental for brain health. Fewer than 5% nominated elevated cholesterol, blood pressure, obesity, poor education, or ageing. The most frequently endorsed protective activity was socialising (70%). Socio-demographic factors predicted responses. Age-group differences were apparent in the proportions nominating alcohol (X2 = 24.2; p < .001), drugs (X2 = 56.8; p < .001), smoking (X2 = 13.1; p = .001), nutrition (X2 = 20.4; p < .001), and mental activity (X2 = 12.8; p = .002) as relevant to brain health. Activities undertaken for cognitive benefit also differed by age. Across all ages the perceived benefit of activities was not supported by intentions to undertake activities. Conclusions Interventions are needed to inform and motivate people across the life-course to undertake behaviours specifically to optimise their cognitive health. PMID:26844109

  17. The contribution of estuary-resident life histories to the return of adult Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Jones, K K; Cornwell, T J; Bottom, D L; Campbell, L A; Stein, S

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated estuarine habitat use, life-history composition, growth and survival of four successive broods of coho salmon Oncoryhnchus kisutch in Salmon River, Oregon, U.S.A. Subyearling and yearling O. kisutch used restored and natural estuarine wetlands, particularly in the spring and winter. Stream-reared yearling smolts spent an average of 2 weeks in the estuary growing rapidly before entering the ocean. Emergent fry also entered the estuary in the spring, and some resided in a tidal marsh throughout the summer, even as salinities increased to >20. A significant portion of the summer stream-resident population of juvenile O. kisutch migrated out of the catchment in the autumn and winter and used estuary wetlands and adjacent streams as alternative winter-rearing habitats until the spring when they entered the ocean as yearling smolts. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag returns and juvenile life-history reconstructions from otoliths of returning adults revealed that four juvenile life-history types contributed to the adult population. Estuarine-associated life-history strategies accounted for 20-35% of the adults returning to spawn in the four brood years, indicating that a sizable proportion of the total O. kisutch production is ignored by conventional estimates based on stream habitat capacity. Juvenile O. kisutch responses to the reconnection of previously unavailable estuarine habitats have led to greater life-history diversity in the population and reflect greater phenotypic plasticity of the species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest than previously recognized. PMID:24766645

  18. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  19. The impacts of oral health on quality of life in working adults.

    PubMed

    Batista, Marilia Jesus; Perianes, Lílian Berta Rihs; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impacts of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on daily activities and work productivity in adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a supermarket chain in the state of São Paulo, which included 386 workers, age-range 20 - 64 years. Participants were examined for oral disease following WHO recommendations, and the oral health impact profile (OHIP) assessment was used to determine OHRQoL. Demographic, socio-economic, use of dental services, and OHRQoL data were obtained. Answers to the OHIP were dichotomized into no impact and some impact, and the relationship to OHRQoL was determined. Poisson regression with robust variance was performed using SPSS version 17.0. Dimensions with highest OHIP scores were physical pain and psychological discomfort. Sex (male: PR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.80), lower family income (PR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.04 - 2.12), visiting a dentist due to pain (PR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.57 - 3.43), tooth loss (PR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09 - 2.32), and needing treatment for caries (PR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09 - 2.32) were most likely to impact OHRQoL. Therefore, socioeconomic and demographic status and use of dental services impacted OHRQoL. These results indicate that oral health promotion strategies should be included in work environments.

  20. Regional variations in and correlates of disability-free life expectancy among older adults in China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Considerable socioeconomic and health inequalities have been reported in China. However, because of a lack of appropriate data, limited research has been conducted on variations in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) among older adults. This study aimed to use the most up-to-date disability survey data to explore geographical variations in DFLE at age 60 in China and to identify the socioeconomic and health care factors that partially account for these variations. Methods This study used 2006 mortality data extrapolated from the 1990 and 2000 Census and disability data from a national disability survey conducted in 2006. Disability was performance based and was diagnosed by trained physicians. DFLE was calculated by region using the Sullivan method. Multiple linear regression models by gender were conducted to explore correlates of DFLE. Results DFLE at age 60 varied widely by region, from 11.2 to 20.8 years in 2006. Per capita gross domestic product, proportion of urban residents, and access to health care were the primary factors associated with geographical variations in DFLE. Conclusion The pattern of differences in DFLE by region mirrors the pattern of regional economic development in China. Countermeasures to decrease regional differences in DFLE include accelerating regional economic development and improving health care distribution. PMID:20670431

  1. Maternal Differential Treatment in Later Life Families and Within-Family Variations in Adult Sibling Closeness

    PubMed Central

    Suitor, J. Jill; Nam, Sangbo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In this article, we explore within-family differences in the closeness of sibling ties in adulthood. Specifically, we consider the sibship as a network and investigate the ways in which perceptions of mothers’ differential treatment play a role in within-family variations in sibling closeness in midlife. Method. Data were analyzed from 2,067 adult sibling dyads nested within 216 later life families, collected as part of the Within-Family Differences Study-II. Results. Respondents reported the greatest closeness to siblings whom they perceived as favored by their mothers when they were not favored themselves, whereas respondents were less likely to choose siblings whom they perceived as disfavored by their mothers when they did not perceive themselves as disfavored. Discussion. Variability in the strength of sibling ties within families suggests that some individuals receive greater benefits from this relationship than do their brothers and sisters. These findings shed new light on such within-family variations in sibling closeness by identifying how specific patterns of maternal differential treatment draw offspring toward some siblings and away from others. PMID:25324293

  2. Life-history correlates of evolution under high and low adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Gasser, M; Kaiser, M; Berrigan, D; Stearns, S C

    2000-08-01

    Life-history theory predicts evolutionary changes in reproductive traits and intrinsic mortality rates in response to differences in extrinsic mortality rates. Trade-offs between life- history traits play a pivotal role in these predictions, and such trade-offs are mediated, at least in part, by physiological allocations. To gain insight into these trade-offs, we have been performing a long-term experiment in which we allow fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, to evolve in response to high (HAM) and low (LAM) adult mortality rates. Here we analyze the physiological correlates of the life-history trade-offs. In addition to changing development time and early fecundity in the direction predicted, high adult mortality affected three traits expressed early in life-body size, growth rate, and ovariole number-but had little or no effect on body composition (relative fat content), viability, metabolic rate, activity, starvation resistance, or desiccation resistance. Correlations among lines revealed trade-offs between early fecundity, late fecundity, and starvation resistance, which appear to be mediated by differential allocation of lipids.

  3. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Anthony D; Knutson, Brian

    2011-04-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span.

  4. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anthony D.; Knutson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span. PMID:20501485

  5. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Campos de Oliveira, Laís; Gonçalves de Oliveira, Raphael; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Pilates on lower leg strength, postural balance and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older adults were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (EG, n = 16; mean age, 63.62 ± 1.02 years), which performed two sessions of Pilates per week for 12 weeks, or to the control group (CG, n = 16; mean age, 64.21 ± 0.80), which performed two sessions of static stretching per week for 12 weeks. The following evaluations were performed before and after the interventions: isokinetic torque of knee extensors and flexors at 300°/s, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Health Survey assessment (SF-36). [Results] In the intra-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in all variables. In the inter-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in most variables. [Conclusion] Pilates exercises led to significant improvement in isokinetic torque of the knee extensors and flexors, postural balance and aspects of the health-related quality of life of older adults. PMID:25931749

  6. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Campos de Oliveira, Laís; Gonçalves de Oliveira, Raphael; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Pilates on lower leg strength, postural balance and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older adults were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (EG, n = 16; mean age, 63.62 ± 1.02 years), which performed two sessions of Pilates per week for 12 weeks, or to the control group (CG, n = 16; mean age, 64.21 ± 0.80), which performed two sessions of static stretching per week for 12 weeks. The following evaluations were performed before and after the interventions: isokinetic torque of knee extensors and flexors at 300°/s, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Health Survey assessment (SF-36). [Results] In the intra-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in all variables. In the inter-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in most variables. [Conclusion] Pilates exercises led to significant improvement in isokinetic torque of the knee extensors and flexors, postural balance and aspects of the health-related quality of life of older adults. PMID:25931749

  7. Partner preferences across the life span: online dating by older adults.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Sheyna Sears-Roberts; Mendelsohn, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Stereotypes of older adults as withdrawn or asexual fail to recognize that romantic relationships in later life are increasingly common. The authors analyzed 600 Internet personal ads from 4 age groups: 20-34, 40-54, 60-74, and 75+ years. Predictions from evolutionary theory held true in later life, when reproduction is no longer a concern. Across the life span, men sought physical attractiveness and offered status-related information more than women; women were more selective than men and sought status more than men. With age, men desired women increasingly younger than themselves, whereas women desired older men until ages 75 and over, when they sought men younger than themselves.

  8. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  9. Cancer-related information needs and cancer’s impact on control over life influence health-related quality of life among adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    DeRouen, Mindy C.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Tao, Li; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Parsons, Helen M.; Kent, Erin E.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age often report need for greater amounts of cancer-related information and perceive that cancer has had a negative impact on control over their life. We examined whether unmet information need and perceived control over life are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods We examined data from 484 AYA cancer survivors recruited from population-based cancer registries in 2007–2008. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months after diagnosis. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated associations of unmet cancer-related information needs and impact of cancer on control over life on HRQOL (SF-12). Results Two-thirds of AYAs reported an intermediate or high level of unmet information need, and half (47%) reported a negative impact of cancer on control. Greater unmet information need was associated with lower overall mental and physical HRQOL and lower levels of all HRQOL subscales except vitality. A negative impact on control over life was associated with lower overall mental HRQOL as well as lower HRQOL across all subscales (all p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, perceived control and unmet information need were independently associated with HRQOL (p-values for interaction >0.1). Conclusions AYA patients with cancer have high levels of unmet cancer-related information needs and perceived negative impact of cancer on control over life; both were independently associated with lower HRQOL. Addressing unmet information needs among AYA cancer survivors and finding ways to increase their sense of control may help improve HRQOL in this understudied population. PMID:25611943

  10. Mothers' marital history and the physical and mental health of young adults: an investigation over the early life course.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2013-12-01

    Using survey data from 12,424 adolescents and their mothers over 13 years in the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the purpose of this study was to examine a life course model exploring the pathways linking mothers' marital history (identified as latent classes) and young adult health outcomes. During young adulthood (Wave 4), respondents ranged in age from 19 to 32. The results demonstrated unique long-term influences of stressful marital history typologies of mothers (prior to 1995) on the physical and mental health of young adults (2008) with reference to consistently married mothers after controlling for health status in 2001. These influences operated through family processes (economic pressure and parental rejection) and adolescent psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem, academic performance, and delinquent behavior). Our findings show that vulnerable groups of youth, in terms of mothers' marital history, can be identified early for appropriate intervention efforts. PMID:24215951

  11. Mothers' marital history and the physical and mental health of young adults: an investigation over the early life course.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2013-12-01

    Using survey data from 12,424 adolescents and their mothers over 13 years in the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the purpose of this study was to examine a life course model exploring the pathways linking mothers' marital history (identified as latent classes) and young adult health outcomes. During young adulthood (Wave 4), respondents ranged in age from 19 to 32. The results demonstrated unique long-term influences of stressful marital history typologies of mothers (prior to 1995) on the physical and mental health of young adults (2008) with reference to consistently married mothers after controlling for health status in 2001. These influences operated through family processes (economic pressure and parental rejection) and adolescent psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem, academic performance, and delinquent behavior). Our findings show that vulnerable groups of youth, in terms of mothers' marital history, can be identified early for appropriate intervention efforts.

  12. Late Results After Splenectomy in Adult Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Rosario; La Corte, Francesco; Marchese, Salvatore; Cacciola, Rossella R.; Cacciola, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Background: We performed a retrospective study on patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) to evaluate the response to splenectomy in relation to preoperative platelet count. Materials and Methods: Two groups of patients operated on with laparoscopic or open splenectomy for ITP, with a platelet count ≤30,000/μL (study group: 22 patients) and >30,000/μL (control group: 18 patients), respectively, were compared. The two groups were homogeneous in relation to age, sex, length of preoperative steroid therapy, and time interval between diagnosis and surgery (Student t test with P > .1). The results of surgery were evaluated at one year after splenectomy. Positive response to surgery, according to the American Society of Hematologic Guidelines, was considered in patients with a postoperative platelet count ≥100,000/μL or in patients with a postoperative platelet count ≥30,000/μL and a twofold increase in platelet count from baseline, in the absence of bleeding. The postoperative platelet count increase rate was statistically related to preoperative platelet count in both the study and control groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test for independent sample and the Pearson correlation in a 2-tailed test. Results: No relationship between preoperative platelet count and postoperative platelet percent increase was observed in the control group (r = –0.41; P = .089), whereas a significant negative correlation (r = –0.68; P = .0004) was found in the study group. Conclusions: A higher increase of postoperative percent platelet count may be predicted in patients with a low preoperative platelet count. PMID:25848175

  13. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. PMID:25957171

  14. Neonatal Exposure to Pneumococcal Phosphorylcholine Modulates the Development of House Dust Mite Allergy during Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. PMID:25957171

  15. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  16. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood.

  17. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  18. Are clinical trial results transferable in the real life?

    PubMed

    Natale, Enrico; Marsocci, Alfiera

    2016-06-22

    Generally in the clinical practice patients are more complex in comparison with those included in the clinical trials. In this article, we discuss three relevant items, which may implement the transferability of the clinical trial results in the real world. The observational studies have fewer restrictions on the number of patients included, due to more relaxed inclusion and exlusion criteria than in randomized clinical trials. The absence of randomization however may lead to potential for bias. The recurrent event analysis may extend the positive results of clinical trials regarding the reductions of the first primary endpoint event to total events, including those beyond the first event. This analysis is of great interest in the clinical practice, where recurrent events are common. Finally the reliability of subgroup analysis is discussed. Pre-specified subgroup analyses are more credible and valuable than post-hoc analyses.

  19. Childhood poverty and depressive symptoms for older adults in Mexico: a life-course analysis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-09-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n = 8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71% had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b = 0.27, p < 0.001). This effect is partially mediated by four adult socio-economic status measures, although decomposition analysis reveals the mediation effect to be primarily driven by educational achievement. These findings have important implications for Mexico's rapidly aging population as well as efforts for childhood poverty reduction and gains in education.

  20. Childhood Poverty and Depressive Symptoms for Older Adults in Mexico: A Life-Course Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n=8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71 % had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b=0.27, p<0.001). This effect is partially mediated by four adult socio-economic status measures, although decomposition analysis reveals the mediation effect to be primarily driven by educational achievement. These findings have important implications for Mexico’s rapidly aging population as well as efforts for childhood poverty reduction and gains in education. PMID:23783887

  1. When meaning matters more: Media preferences across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Mares, Marie-Louise; Bartsch, Anne; Bonus, James Alex

    2016-08-01

    Two studies considered age differences in the roles of emotion and meaningfulness in adults' media preferences. Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST) suggests that with increasing age, positive emotions become more meaningful, and emotional meaningfulness matters more for situation selection. Other developmental descriptions suggest that negative affect may be meaningful and interesting in youth. In Study 1, United States 18-86 year olds read descriptions of TV programs that varied in levels of warmth, funniness, sadness, and fright; in Study 2, United States and German 18-82 year olds watched film trailers that varied in levels of gore and meaningfulness. Participants rated their anticipated emotions, anticipated meaningfulness of the content, and their viewing interest. Consistent with SST, in both studies, anticipated meaningfulness was a stronger predictor of viewing interest for older adults relative to younger adults, and the indirect path (Emotion → Meaning → Interest) was stronger for older relative to younger adults. In Study 1, warmth (but not funniness) was more predictive of meaningfulness for older relative to younger adults; sadness and fear were not more predictive of meaningfulness for younger adults. In Study 2, there were age differences in the effects of fright on interest, in part via effects on anticipated fun and suspense (but not arousal). Overall, the results provide limited evidence that positive or negative emotions are more meaningful or interesting at different ages. However, they support the argument that emotional meaningfulness matters more to older than to younger adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27213487

  2. Reducing depression among community-dwelling older adults using life-story review: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Leong, Katherine S P; Heng, Boon Ling; Mathew, Blessy Koottappal; Khan, Sher Banu A L; Lourdusamy, Sumathi Sagayamary; Nagapan, Mina; Woo, Sook Fan; Chee, Wai Yan; Ho, Roger C M; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    2014-01-01

    A life-story review can serve as an effective intervention to express one's inner feelings and provide emotional catharsis. The research aim was to examine the effects of life-story review on depression levels in community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. This pilot experimental pre-post-follow-up study was conducted from July 2012 to February 2013. Twenty-nine older Malays aged 60 and above, with mild to moderate depression, were randomly allocated to the life-story review (intervention) group (n = 15) or the non life-story review (control) group (n = 14). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and collected five times over eight weeks. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of the intervention on the elders' depression levels, controlled for age, gender, medication use, existence of chronic disease, and diary writing experience. Reductions in depression scores were found in the intervention group from week 1 (Mean ± SD 5.9 ± 2.3) to week 8 (1.9 ± 1.6) compared with the control group (week 1: 5.0 ± 1.3; week 8: 3.5 ± 1.5). At week 8, the intervention group showed a significantly lower level of depression than the control group (χ(2) = 14.61, p < 0.001). This study adds to prior research supporting the use of life story review in improving depression levels in cognitively intact community dwelling older adults.

  3. The Shift in Existential Life Situations of Adult Children to Parents with Dementia Relocated to Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Høgsnes, Linda; Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf; Danielson, Ella; Melin-Johansson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research describes spouses and adult children of people with dementia as a homogeneous group using one term: family caregivers. Recent research shows that the needs and experiences of spouses and adult children differ, therefore they cannot be studied as a homogeneous group. Aims: The aim of the study was to describe the shift in existential life situations of adult children of a parent with dementia relocated to nursing homes. Design: This is a qualitative study with an interpretive approach. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were held with 11 adult children aged 48-65 years. The interviews lasted 30–60 minutes and data were analysed using interpretive content analysis. Findings: The adult children described how they experienced their life situation before and after their parents’ relocation. Before relocation they described feelings of powerlessness, loneliness in their responsibilities, loss and guilt. After relocation they had feelings of freedom, ongoing responsibility, living with loss and having a new relationship with death. Conclusion: The most important finding in our study was that adult children developed a different relationship with death than before the parent became affected by dementia. It is essential that healthcare staff understand and address the adult children’s existential life situations and the suffering they are experiencing. Healthcare staff need to be conscious about adult children’s needs for support to address their existential life situations before and after their parents relocate to nursing homes.

  4. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  5. Caring, Employment, and Quality of Life: Comparison of Employed and Nonemployed Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Kroger, Teppo; Fu, Li-yeh

    2010-01-01

    The effects of caregiving on mothers of adults with intellectual disability was examined by determining whether there are differences in quality of life and related factors between mothers with different employment status. Study participants were 302 working-age mothers who had adult children with intellectual disability based on the 2008 census…

  6. The Shift in Existential Life Situations of Adult Children to Parents with Dementia Relocated to Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Høgsnes, Linda; Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf; Danielson, Ella; Melin-Johansson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research describes spouses and adult children of people with dementia as a homogeneous group using one term: family caregivers. Recent research shows that the needs and experiences of spouses and adult children differ, therefore they cannot be studied as a homogeneous group. Aims: The aim of the study was to describe the shift in existential life situations of adult children of a parent with dementia relocated to nursing homes. Design: This is a qualitative study with an interpretive approach. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were held with 11 adult children aged 48-65 years. The interviews lasted 30–60 minutes and data were analysed using interpretive content analysis. Findings: The adult children described how they experienced their life situation before and after their parents’ relocation. Before relocation they described feelings of powerlessness, loneliness in their responsibilities, loss and guilt. After relocation they had feelings of freedom, ongoing responsibility, living with loss and having a new relationship with death. Conclusion: The most important finding in our study was that adult children developed a different relationship with death than before the parent became affected by dementia. It is essential that healthcare staff understand and address the adult children’s existential life situations and the suffering they are experiencing. Healthcare staff need to be conscious about adult children’s needs for support to address their existential life situations before and after their parents relocate to nursing homes. PMID:27651850

  7. Academic Survival Skills. The Career Life Assessment Skills Series, Booklet Five. A Program to Meet Adult Developmental Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Bernadette M.; Hecklinger, Fred J.

    As part of a series on career and life planning for adults, this booklet examines strategies and academic skills that can help reentry adult students. Part I discusses factors to be considered in planning a return to school: determining the motivation for returning, choosing an appropriate educational program, investigating nontraditional methods…

  8. Placement, Relocation and End of Life Issues in Aging Adults with and without Down's Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, P.; Amble, K.; Flory, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aging adults with Down's syndrome (DS) experience more relocations and other life events than adults with intellectual disabilities aged 50 and older without DS. Age-related functional decline and the higher incidence of dementia were implicated as the contributing factors that led to relocation and nursing home placement. Method: A…

  9. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008).

  10. Effect of Illness Representations and Catastrophizing on Quality of Life in Adults With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, LeeAnne B; Leary, Emily; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    There is limited understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which contributes to management difficulties and ineffective long-term treatment. The goal of the current study was to assess the effect illness representations and coping had on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with IBS. Self-report data were collected from 101 adults with IBS. Illness representations were measured with the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire; catastrophizing was measured with the catastrophizing subscale of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire; and HRQOL was measured using the IBS-Quality of Life Measure. Participants perceived their IBS to be a chronic, cyclical condition with negative consequences, moderate symptomatology, and strong negative emotional impact. Their quality of life was poor and catastrophic thinking was noted to be used. Therefore, integrating illness beliefs and coping style into the management of IBS may improve well-being and minimize suffering. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 44-53.]. PMID:27576228

  11. Effects of copper on adult and early life stages of the freshwater clam, Corbicula manilensis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult and larval stages of the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis was evaluated. In addition, copper concentrations in adult clams exposed for 4 to 10 wks to copper in a high-volume, flow-through bioassay are determined. The response of these clams to copper depended on life stage. Copper sensitivity of larvae decreased markedly in successive developmental stages. The LC50/sub 24/s of veliger and juvenile larve were 28 and 600 ..mu..g Cu/L, respectively. The mortality of trochophore larvae exposed to 10 ..mu..g Cu/L for 1 h was 91.5%. The sensitivity to copper decreased with the amount of larval shell deposition. Adult clams were resistant to copper; the LC50/sub 96/ was greater than 2600 ..mu..g Cu/L. By comparison the incipient concentration (ILC) was low - less than 10 ..mu..g Cu/L. Adult clams accumulated more copper as copper concentrations in the water increased. Evidence for copper loss near or at death was obtained.

  12. Early-life temperature modifies adult encapsulation response in an invasive ectoparasite.

    PubMed

    Kaunisto, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Rantala, Markus J; Kortet, Raine

    2015-09-01

    Immunity of parasites has been studied amazingly little, in spite of the fact that parasitic organisms, especially the arthropod parasites, need immunity to survive their own infections to successfully complete life cycles. Long-term effects of challenging environmental temperatures on immunity have remained unstudied in insects and parasites. Our study species, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi; Linnaeus 1758), is an invasive, blood-feeding parasitic fly of cervids. Here, it was studied whether thermal stress during the pupal diapause stage could modify adult immunity (encapsulation capacity) in L. cervi. The effect of either a low temperature or high temperature peak, experienced during winter dormancy, on encapsulation response of active adult was tested. It was found that low temperature exposure during diapause, as long as the temperature is not too harsh, had a favourable effect on adult immunity. An abnormal, high temperature peak during pupal winter diapause significantly deteriorated the encapsulation capacity of emerged adults. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as high temperature fluctuations are likely to increase with climate change. Thus, the climate change might have previously unknown influence on host-ectoparasite interactions, by affecting ectoparasite's immune defence and survival. PMID:26040308

  13. Early-life temperature modifies adult encapsulation response in an invasive ectoparasite.

    PubMed

    Kaunisto, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Rantala, Markus J; Kortet, Raine

    2015-09-01

    Immunity of parasites has been studied amazingly little, in spite of the fact that parasitic organisms, especially the arthropod parasites, need immunity to survive their own infections to successfully complete life cycles. Long-term effects of challenging environmental temperatures on immunity have remained unstudied in insects and parasites. Our study species, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi; Linnaeus 1758), is an invasive, blood-feeding parasitic fly of cervids. Here, it was studied whether thermal stress during the pupal diapause stage could modify adult immunity (encapsulation capacity) in L. cervi. The effect of either a low temperature or high temperature peak, experienced during winter dormancy, on encapsulation response of active adult was tested. It was found that low temperature exposure during diapause, as long as the temperature is not too harsh, had a favourable effect on adult immunity. An abnormal, high temperature peak during pupal winter diapause significantly deteriorated the encapsulation capacity of emerged adults. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as high temperature fluctuations are likely to increase with climate change. Thus, the climate change might have previously unknown influence on host-ectoparasite interactions, by affecting ectoparasite's immune defence and survival.

  14. Dopamine D4 receptor exon III polymorphism, adverse life events and personality traits in a nonclinical German adult sample.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Personality and temperament embrace a wide area of both psychological and behavioral processes which are also based on disposition. A functional polymorphism in exon III of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been a highly suspect genetic marker for personality in spite of ambiguous results. The present study aimed to further elucidate the relationship between DRD4, negative life events and personality in a representative nonclinical sample. Hundred sixty-seven Germans completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and the California Adult Q-Sort. A factor analysis revealed 3 factors: emotional stability, social orientation and impulsivity. DNA from buccal cells was genotyped for the DRD4 variable-number tandem-repeat exon III polymorphism with respect to presence versus absence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele. Adverse life events were assessed by means of the Adverse Life Events Scale. Men carrying the DRD4 7-repeat allele were more impulsive than those without. Male 7-repeat carriers were more emotionally instable than others, but only when they experienced a large amount of negative life events. No genotype-personality relationships were found for women. The results indicate gender-specific influences of the DRD4 gene on human behavior and invite researchers to further investigate gene-environment correlations on personality traits.

  15. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life of Adults With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graves, Rebecca Jermyn; Graff, J Carolyn; Esbensen, Anna J; Hathaway, Donna K; Wan, Jim Y; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2016-07-01

    This study examined self- and caregiver-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 60 adults with Down syndrome (DS) using the QualityMetric Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2). All HRQOL scores exceeded means and fell within one standard deviation of the SF-12v2 normative sample. Similarities between eight self- and caregiver-reported HRQOL scales were found with the exception of role physical scores (impact of health problems on typical accomplishments), which were lower when obtained by caregiver-report. A positive association was found between self- and caregiver-reported physical functioning scores (impact of health problems on physical activity). The SF-12v2 had high construct validity in this study. These findings support the feasibility of measuring HRQOL of adults with DS using self-report rather than reliance on caregiver-report. PMID:27351699

  16. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life of Adults With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graves, Rebecca Jermyn; Graff, J Carolyn; Esbensen, Anna J; Hathaway, Donna K; Wan, Jim Y; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2016-07-01

    This study examined self- and caregiver-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 60 adults with Down syndrome (DS) using the QualityMetric Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2). All HRQOL scores exceeded means and fell within one standard deviation of the SF-12v2 normative sample. Similarities between eight self- and caregiver-reported HRQOL scales were found with the exception of role physical scores (impact of health problems on typical accomplishments), which were lower when obtained by caregiver-report. A positive association was found between self- and caregiver-reported physical functioning scores (impact of health problems on physical activity). The SF-12v2 had high construct validity in this study. These findings support the feasibility of measuring HRQOL of adults with DS using self-report rather than reliance on caregiver-report.

  17. The Bulk of Autotaxin Activity Is Dispensable for Adult Mouse Life.

    PubMed

    Katsifa, Aggeliki; Kaffe, Eleanna; Nikolaidou-Katsaridou, Nefeli; Economides, Aris N; Newbigging, Susan; McKerlie, Colin; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalysing the production of lysophosphatidic acid, a pleiotropic growth factor-like lysophospholipid. Increased ATX expression has been detected in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases and different types of cancer, while genetic interventions have proven a role for ATX in disease pathogenesis. Therefore, ATX has emerged as a potential drug target and a large number of ATX inhibitors have been developed exhibiting promising therapeutic potential. However, the embryonic lethality of ATX null mice and the ubiquitous expression of ATX and LPA receptors in adult life question the suitability of ATX as a drug target. Here we show that inducible, ubiquitous genetic deletion of ATX in adult mice, as well as long-term potent pharmacologic inhibition, are well tolerated, alleviating potential toxicity concerns of ATX therapeutic targeting. PMID:26569406

  18. The Bulk of Autotaxin Activity Is Dispensable for Adult Mouse Life

    PubMed Central

    Katsifa, Aggeliki; Kaffe, Eleanna; Nikolaidou-Katsaridou, Nefeli; Economides, Aris N.; Newbigging, Susan; McKerlie, Colin; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalysing the production of lysophosphatidic acid, a pleiotropic growth factor-like lysophospholipid. Increased ATX expression has been detected in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases and different types of cancer, while genetic interventions have proven a role for ATX in disease pathogenesis. Therefore, ATX has emerged as a potential drug target and a large number of ATX inhibitors have been developed exhibiting promising therapeutic potential. However, the embryonic lethality of ATX null mice and the ubiquitous expression of ATX and LPA receptors in adult life question the suitability of ATX as a drug target. Here we show that inducible, ubiquitous genetic deletion of ATX in adult mice, as well as long-term potent pharmacologic inhibition, are well tolerated, alleviating potential toxicity concerns of ATX therapeutic targeting. PMID:26569406

  19. Transitioning the young adult with congenital heart disease for life-long medical care.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J

    2004-12-01

    Guidelines for the successful orchestration of transitioning of the adolescent and young and older adult patient with congenital heart disease to a health care system appropriate for their long-term congenital heart disease care and counseling appear necessary to improve patient and family confidence, education, therapy, life quality, and survival outcomes. Schema for care organization and delivery for adult patients with congenital heart disease remain primitive and largely unimplemented. The presence of a strong central care oversight organization and the establishment of a multi-institutional database to assist in assessment of care outcomes and guidelines appears requisite to these needs and for the establishment of transitioning guidelines for these patients as they assume a greater and deeper shared control of their futures with their caregivers.

  20. Tracking through Life Stages: Adult, Immature and Juvenile Autumn Migration in a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli’s shearwater (formerly named Cory’s shearwater, Calonectrisdiomedea) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d-1 vs 170 km.d-1). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  1. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  2. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  3. Validity of the Neurology Quality of Life (Neuro-QoL) Measurement System in Adult Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Cavazos, Jose E.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Reder, Anthony T.; Wojna, Valerie; Nowinski, Cindy; Miller, Deborah; Buono, Sarah; Mueller, Allison; Moy, Claudia; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that results in recurring seizures and can have a significant adverse effect on health related quality of life (HRQL). Neuro-QoL is an NINDS-funded system of patient reported outcome measures for neurology clinical research, which was designed to provide a precise and standardized way to measure HRQL in epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Using mixed-methods and item response theory-based approaches, we developed generic item banks and targeted scales for adults and children with major neurological disorders. This paper provides empirical results from a clinical validation study with a sample of adults diagnosed with epilepsy. One hundred twenty one people diagnosed with epilepsy participated, of which the majority were male (62%), Caucasian (95%), with a mean age of 47.3 (SD=16.9). Baseline assessments included Neuro-QoL short forms and general and external validity measures. Neuro-QoL short forms that are not typically found in other epilepsy-specific HRQL instruments include Stigma, Sleep Disturbance, Emotional and Behavioral Dyscontrol and Positive Affect & Well-being. Neuro-QoL short forms demonstrated adequate reliability (internal consistency range = .86–.96; test-retest range = .57–.89). Pearson correlations (p<.01) between Neuro-QoL forms of emotional distress (Anxiety, Depression, Stigma) and the QOLIE-31 Emotional Well-being Subscale were in the moderate to strong range (r’s = .66, .71 & .53, respectively), as were relations with the PROMIS Global Mental Health subscale (r’s = .59, .74 & .52, respectively). Moderate correlations were observed between Neuro-QoL Social Role Performance and Satisfaction and the QOLIE-31 Social Function (r’s = .58 & .52, respectively). In measuring aspects of physical function, the Neuro-QoL Mobility and Upper Extremity forms demonstrated moderate associations with the PROMIS Global Physical Function Subscale (r’s = .60 & .61, respectively). Neuro-QoL measures of

  4. Oestradiol Exposure Early in Life Programs Daily and Circadian Activity Rhythms in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Royston, S E; Bunick, D; Mahoney, M M

    2016-01-01

    Hormone signalling during critical periods organises the adult circadian timekeeping system by altering adult hormone sensitivity and shaping fundamental properties of circadian rhythmicity. However, the timing of when developmental oestrogens modify the timekeeping system is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations in postnatal oestrogenic signalling organise adult daily activity rhythms, we utilised aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), which lack the enzyme required for oestradiol synthesis. ArKO and wild-type (WT) males and females were administered either oestradiol (E) or oil (OIL) daily for the first 5 postnatal days (p1-5E and p1-5OIL , respectively) because this time encompasses the emergence of clock gene rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a bilateral hypothalamic structure regarded as the 'master oscillator'. After sexual maturation, gonadectomy and exogenous oestradiol supplementation, locomotor parameters were assessed. We determined that altered oestrogenic signalling in early life exerts organisational control over the expression of daily and circadian activity rhythms in adult mice. Specifically, p1-5E reduced total wheel running activity in male and female ArKO and female WT mice but had no effect on WT male activity levels. In females, wheel running was consolidated by p1-5E to the early versus late evening, a phenomenon characteristic of male mice. The time of peak activity was advanced by p1-5E in WT and ArKO females but not males. P1-5E shortened the length of the active phase (alpha) in WT males but had no effect on ArKO males or females of either genotypes. Finally, p1-5E altered the magnitude of photic-induced shifts, suggesting that developmental oestrogenic signalling impacts adult circadian functions. In the present study, we further define both a critical period of development of the adult timekeeping system and the role that oestrogenic signalling plays in the expression of daily and

  5. Research Participation by Older Adults at the End-of-Life: Barriers and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Herr, Keela; Bergen-Jackson, Kimberly; Fine, Perry; Forcucci, Chris; Sanders, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate upon barriers to research participation by older adults at end-of-life. We focus on the hospice setting and classify barriers to research participation into six domains:1) societal attitudes towards death; 2) research procedures; 3) health care organizations; 4) agency staff; 5) patients’ families and caregivers; and 6) patient characteristics. We characterize particular participation issues, uncertainties in participation for individuals with advanced illness, infringements upon patient self-determination, as well as, potential solutions to these research challenges. Our observation of the complex palliative context included the realization that a singular change would not have large enough impact. We concluded that simultaneous with the need to expand the research base addressing the needs of dying persons is a need to understand the challenges of implementing research projects with older persons at end-of-life. PMID:20078006

  6. Implications of maternal conditions and pregnancy course on offspring's medical problems in adult life.

    PubMed

    von Ehr, Julia; von Versen-Höynck, Frauke

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, numerous epidemiological, clinical and experimental data show that periconceptional, perinatal and postnatal environment determines the offspring's risk for later-life chronic disease. For this phenomenon, the term "fetal" or "perinatal programming" is used. In exposed offspring already in childhood and early adulthood, metabolic and cardiovascular changes can be observed, leading to obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Nowadays, the mode of conception (e.g., in vitro fertilization), maternal metabolic conditions (e.g., undernutrition, overnutrition, diabetes) and complications during pregnancy (e.g., preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction) are suspected to be negative predictors for offspring's long-term health. Mechanisms responsible for these effects still remain mainly unclear, but include epigenetic, transcriptional, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and reactive oxygen species. This review presents a piece of the puzzle with regards to periconceptional and early perinatal conditions determining later-life risk for chronic adult disease. PMID:27522600

  7. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  8. The life and health challenges of young Malaysian couples: results from a stakeholder consensus and engagement study to support non-communicable disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaysia faces burgeoning obesity and diabetes epidemics with a 250% and 88% increase respectively between 1996 and 2006. Identifying the health challenges of young adults in Malaysia, who constitute 27.5 % of the population, is critical for NCD prevention. The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to achieve consensus amongst stakeholders on the most important challenge impacting the health of young adults, and (2) to engage with stakeholders to formulate a NCD prevention framework. Methods The Delphi Technique was utilised to achieve group consensus around the most important life and health challenges that young adults face in Malaysia. Subsequently, the results of the consensus component were shared with the stakeholders in an engagement workshop to obtain input on a NCD prevention framework. Results We found that life stress was a significant concern. It would seem that the apathy towards pursuing or maintaining a healthy lifestyle among young adults may be significantly influenced by the broader distal determinant of life stress. The high cost of living is suggested to be the main push factor for young working adults towards attaining better financial security to improve their livelihood. In turn, this leads to a more stressful lifestyle with less time to focus on healthier lifestyle choices. Conclusions The findings highlight a pivotal barrier to healthier lifestyles. By assisting young adults to cope with daily living coupled with realistic opportunities to make healthier dietary choices, be more active, and less sedentary could assist in the development of NCD health promotion strategies. PMID:25080995

  9. Health behaviors, quality of life, and psychosocial health among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Gina E.; Zhang, Yingying; McFadden, Molly; Wright, Jennifer; Spraker-Perlman, Holly; Kinney, Anita Y.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer may engage in unhealthy lifestyles (e.g., smoking), potentially heightening their risk for long-term health problems. We assessed health behaviors and constructs including quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial well-being among survivors of AYA cancer compared to the general population. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to evaluate health behaviors for survivors of AYA cancer compared to AYAs without cancer. Multivariable regressions assessed health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking, physical inactivity, and low fruit/vegetable intake) by sex and age between AYA survivors and controls, and among survivors to determine the effects of demographic, QOL, psychosocial, and cancer factors on behaviors. Results A greater proportion of female survivors of AYA cancer smoked than controls (currently aged 20–39: 27 vs. 14.3%, respectively; currently aged 40–64: 29.3 vs. 18.4%, respectively). Generally, survivors and controls were non-adherent to national health behavior guidelines. Uninsured survivors were at greater risk of smoking vs. insured (females, Relative Risk (RR)=1.64, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.43–1.90; males, RR=2.62, 95 % CI 1.71–4.02). Poor social/emotional support was associated with smoking (RR= 1.26, 95 % CI 1.07–1.48) among female survivors and was associated with low fruit/vegetable intake among male (RR= 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01–1.23) and female (RR=1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19) survivors. Female survivors >10 years from diagnosis had higher risk of smoking (RR=1.26–1.91, all p<0.01) than survivors 5–10 years from diagnosis. Conclusions Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are common in survivors of AYA cancer. Implications for Cancer Survivors AYA survivors require health behavior support. PMID:26248766

  10. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  11. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  12. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  13. End-of-Life Care Intensity among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients in Kaiser Permanente Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer W.; Chen, Lie H.; Cannavale, Kimberley; Sattayapiwat, Olivia; Cooper, Robert M.; Chao, Chun R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs), but little is known about the care that AYA patients with cancer receive at the end of life (EOL). Objective To evaluate the intensity of EOL care among AYA cancer patients. Design Cross-sectional study using cancer registry and electronic health record data. Setting Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KSPC), an integrated health care delivery system. Participants 663 AYA patients with either (1) stage I-III cancer and evidence of cancer recurrence or (2) stage IV cancer at diagnosis who received care in KPSC and died in the years 2001–2010. Patients were eligible if they were aged 15–39 at death. Main Outcome Measures Chemotherapy use in the last 14 days of life, intensive care unit (ICU) care in the last 30 days of life, more than one emergency room (ER) visit in the last 30 days of life, hospitalization in the last 30 days of life, and a composite measure of medically intensive EOL care comprising any of the aforementioned measures. Results 11% of patients (72/663) received chemotherapy within 14 days of death. In the last 30 days of life, 22% of patients (144/663) were admitted to the ICU; 22% (147/663) had >1 ER visit; and 62% (413/663) were hospitalized. Overall, 68% (449/663) of subjects received at least one medically intensive EOL care measure. Conclusions and Relevance Most AYA patients receive at least one form of medically intensive EOL care. These findings suggest the need to better understand EOL care preferences and decision-making in this young population. PMID:26181778

  14. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea.

  15. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use.

  16. Millions of Americans may be eligible for Marketplace coverage outside open enrollment as a result of qualifying life events.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Lacey; Espinoza, Giovann Alarcon; Fried, Brett; Sonier, Julie

    2015-05-01

    Federal regulations establish special enrollment periods--times outside of open enrollment periods--during which people may enroll in or change their health insurance plans offered through the federal and state-based exchanges, or Marketplaces. To be eligible, a person must experience a shift in income or another "qualifying life event," such as a change in marital status or the number of dependents, or the loss of minimum essential health coverage. We produced an upper-bound estimate that 3.7 million nonelderly adults with coverage through a federal or state Marketplace could have experienced a qualifying life event and become eligible for a special enrollment period because of income shifts. In addition, more than 8.4 million nonelderly adults who did not have Marketplace coverage--three-quarters of whom had no insurance--became eligible for a special enrollment period as a result of other qualifying life events. Many if not most of these people may be unaware of their eligibility. In states that did not expand Medicaid eligibility, we estimated that 1.9 million people experienced income shifts outside of the open enrollment period that would make them eligible for Marketplace subsidies. However, because they were uninsured or had nongroup coverage (instead of Medicaid) during the most recent open enrollment period, they had to wait until the next period to enroll in a Marketplace plan. PMID:25926592

  17. Health-related quality of life in hemophilia: results of the Hemophilia-Specific Quality of Life Index (Haem-a-Qol) at a Brazilian blood center

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Adriana Aparecida; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa; Corrêa, Camila Soares Lima; da Cruz, Danielle Teles; Rodrigues, Daniela de Oliveira Werneck; Ferreira, Monica Calil Borges

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on health-related quality of life are based on the increasingly evident need for medical care not to be limited to preventing death, but to focus instead on the value of health. Objective This study aimed to measure the health-related quality of life in hemophilia, using the Hemophilia- Specific Quality of Life (Haem-A-QoL) questionnaire and describe the socioeconomic characteristics and health conditions of these patients. Methods The Brazilian version of the Hemophilia-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire was administered to hemophiliac adults, treated in an on-demand regime at the Juiz de Fora Regional Blood Center - HEMOMINAS Foundation. The patients were interviewed about demographic and socioeconomic data and their understanding of the questionnaire. Clinical data were collected from medical records. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set for p-values < 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 15.0). Results Thirty-nine patients were evaluated. The mean age was 36.8 years. 84.6% had hemophilia A; 20.5% of the patients had hemophilia classified as mild, 41% as moderate and 38.5% as severe. The records of 10.5% of the patients registered seropositivity for anti-HIV and 57.9% for anti-HCV. Target joints were detected in 69.2%. The mean total Hemophilia-Specific Quality of Life score was 35.55. 'Sports and leisure'and 'Physical health'were the most impaired dimensions and the dimension 'Relationship and partners'was the least impaired. The Hemophilia-Specific Quality of Life scores showed good discriminant validity for hemophilia severity (p-value = 0.001), HIV-infection (p-value = 0.02), HCV-infection (p-value = 0.01) and the presence of target joints (p-value < 0.001). Conclusion Health-related quality of life in hemophilia, measured by the Hemophilia-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire, was influenced by the

  18. Increased Lung and Bladder Cancer Incidence In Adults After In Utero and Early-Life Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, Craig; Ferreccio, Catterina; Acevedo, Johanna; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Durán, Viviana; Cuevas, Susana; García, José; Meza, Rodrigo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Valdés, Gustavo; Benítez, Hugo; VanderLinde, Vania; Villagra, Vania; Cantor, Kenneth P; Moore, Lee E; Perez, Saida G; Steinmaus, Scott; Smith, Allan H

    2014-01-01

    Background From 1958–70, >100,000 people in northern Chile were exposed to a well-documented, distinct period of high drinking water arsenic concentrations. We previously reported ecological evidence suggesting that early-life exposure in this population resulted in increased mortality in adults from several outcomes including lung and bladder cancer. Methods We have now completed the first study ever assessing incident cancer cases after early-life arsenic exposure, and the first study on this topic with individual participant exposure and confounding factor data. Subjects included 221 lung and 160 bladder cancer cases diagnosed in northern Chile from 2007–2010, and 508 age and gender-matched controls. Results Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, and smoking in those only exposed in early-life to arsenic water concentrations of ≤110, 110–800, and >800 μg/L were 1.00, 1.88 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–3.71), and 5.24 (3.05–9.00) (p-trend<0.001) for lung cancer, and 1.00, 2.94 (1.29–6.70), and 8.11 (4.31–15.25) (p-trend<0.001) for bladder cancer. ORs were lower in those not exposed until adulthood. The highest category (>800 μg/L) involved exposures which started 49–52 years before, and ended 37–40 years before the cancer cases were diagnosed. Conclusion Lung and bladder cancer incidence in adults was markedly increased following exposure to arsenic in early-life, even up to 40 years after high exposures ceased. Findings like these have not been identified before for any environmental exposure, and suggest that humans are extraordinarily susceptible to early-life arsenic exposure. Impact Policies aimed at reducing early-life exposure may help reduce the long-term risks of arsenic-related disease. PMID:24859871

  19. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910-0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879-0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944-0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression.

  20. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910-0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879-0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944-0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression. PMID:27409627

  1. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910–0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879–0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944–0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression. PMID:27409627

  2. Harmed? Harmful? Experiencing Abusive Adult Children With Mental Disorder Over the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Band-Winterstein, Tova; Avieli, Hila; Smeloy, Yael

    2016-09-01

    Older parents of an adult child coping with a mental disorder that is expressed by violent deviant behavior face significant parenting challenges. The purpose of this article is to explore the ways older parents exposed to abuse by their adult children with mental disorder (ACMD) perceived their child's violent deviant behavior along the life course. In a qualitative-phenomenological study, 16 parents aged 58 to 90 were interviewed in depth. Three major themes emerged: (a) ongoing total care for the child's needs along the life course, (b) constructions and perceptions of the child through the years-Parents perceived their children over two continua, reflecting their experience of the child's deviant behavior: the child as more harmed versus more harmful, the child as normative versus pathological-and (c) the parent's emotional world toward the harmed-harmful child. The findings enable a deeper understanding of the various ways in which parents cope with living with deviant behaviors of their ACMD. Hence, this study can serve as a framework for developing tailored and differential intervention methods. PMID:25854589

  3. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.

    PubMed

    Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-09-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent age. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. Exposure to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-exposures, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult age, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-exposure, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249

  4. Stigma and health-related quality of life in Asian adults with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yi-Jing; Chan, Sui-Yung; Ko, Yu

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to (1) review the impact of epilepsy on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Asian adult persons with epilepsy (PWE), and (2) identify the extent of stigma they experience and the associated factors. The electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using a combination of keywords to identify relevant journal articles published before October 2007, and supplemental manual searches of article bibliographies and the journal Neurology Asia were conducted. Thirty-six articles that met the predetermined inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. The HRQoL of Asian adult PWE was lower than that of the general population. These PWE had difficulties in both physical and psychosocial functioning. Psychosocial factors appeared to have a more significant impact on PWE's HRQoL than physical factors. Stigma and negative attitudes towards marriage and employment of PWE was prevalent in many Asian countries, and the stigma's associated factors were multifaceted. Given the prevalent negative attitudes towards epilepsy, public education campaigns targeting misconceptions and associated factors may help reduce stigma and, together with psychosocial support, the HRQoL of Asian adult PWE can be improved. PMID:19782536

  5. "Why Are We an Ignored Group?" Mainstream Educational Experiences and Current Life Satisfaction of Adults on the Autism Spectrum from an Online Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adults on the autism spectrum are significantly under-represented in research on educational interventions and support, such that little is known about their views and experiences of schooling and how this prepared them for adult life. In addition, "good outcomes" in adult life are often judged according to normative assumptions and tend…

  6. Oakland Readers. A Book of Life Stories Told by Students in the Second Start Adult Literacy Program. Levels One-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Jessica, Ed.

    This set of Oakland Readers consists of four books of oral histories edited on four reading levels. Each book contains life stories told by students in the Second Start Adult Literacy Program. The books are intended for use by tutors and adult students/new readers in adult literacy programs. Life stories of eight students appear in each book. In…

  7. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested. PMID:25575844

  8. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested.

  9. The interaction between child maltreatment, adult stressful life events and the 5-HTTLPR in major depression.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert A; Lecky-Thompson, Lucy; Fisher, Helen L; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Hosang, Georgina M; Uher, Rudolf; Powell-Smith, Georgia; Keers, Robert; Tropeano, Maria; Korszun, Ania; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nick; Craig, Ian W; Farmer, Anne E; McGuffin, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Both childhood maltreatment and adult stressful life events are established risk factors for the onset of depression in adulthood. However, the interaction between them can be viewed through two conflicting frameworks. Under a mismatch hypothesis stressful childhoods allow 'adaptive programming' for a stressful adulthood and so can be protective. Only when childhood and adulthood do not match is there a risk of behavioural problems. Alternatively, under the cumulative stress hypothesis we expect increased risk with each additional stressor. It has also been suggested that an individual's genetic background may determine the extent they undergo adaptive programming, and so which of these two hypotheses is relevant. In this study we test for an interaction between exposure to childhood maltreatment and adult stressful life events in a retrospective sample of 455 individuals, using major depression as the outcome. We also test whether this interaction differs by genotype at the 5-HTTLPR, a candidate for an individual's plasticity to adaptive programming. Early maltreatment and stressful life events in adulthood interacted to produce increased risk for depression over each individually (p = 0.055). This supports the cumulative stress hypothesis over the mismatch hypothesis, at least with respect to severe environmental risk factors. This effect was not altered by 5-HTTLPR allele, suggesting there was no difference by genotype in adaptive programming to these events. We suggest that the apparent additional vulnerability to stressful events of those who have experienced maltreatment has clinical relevance, highlighting the importance of providing support beyond the immediate aftermath of maltreatment into adulthood.

  10. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults.

    PubMed

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E A

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person's rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  11. The effects of early-life predator stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  12. Built environment attributes related to GPS measured active trips in mid-life and older adults with mobility disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Carlson, Jordan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Belza, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding factors which may promote walking in mid-life and older adults with mobility impairments is key given the association between physical activity and positive health outcomes. Objective To examine the relationship between active trips and objective measures of the home neighborhood built environment. Methods Global positioning systems (GPS) data collected on 28 adults age 50+ with mobility disabilities were analyzed for active trips from home. Objective and geographic information systems (GIS) derived measures included Walk Score, population density, street connectivity, crime rates, and slope within the home neighborhood. For this cross-sectional observational study, we conducted mean comparisons between participants who took active trips from home and those who did not for the objective measures. Effect sizes were calculated to assess the magnitude of group differences. Results Nine participants (32%) took active trips from home. Walking in the home neighborhood was significantly associated with GIS derived measures (Walk Score, population density, and street density; effect sizes .9-1.2). Participants who used the home neighborhood for active trips had less slope within 1 km of home but the difference was not significant (73.5 meters±22 vs. 100.8 meters ±38.1, p=.06, d=0.8). There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for crime rates between those with active trips from home and those without. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary evidence that more walkable environments promote active mobility among mid-life and older adults with mobility disabilities. The data suggest that this population can and does use active transportation modes when the built environment is supportive. PMID:25637503

  13. “It just consumes your life”: Quality of Life for Informal Caregivers of Diverse Older Adults with Late-Life Disability

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Julie N.; Barnhart, Caroline E.; Cagle, John; Smith, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective for the study Our objective was to generate hypotheses about factors affecting QoL assessments for informal caregivers of diverse older adults 65+ with late-life disability. Results Overall, 52% of caregivers experienced a decline in QoL. Factors affecting caregivers’ QoL were grouped into 4 domains: social, emotional, physical and financial. Factors associated with decreased QoL were less time for self, competing financial demands, and the physical and emotional impact of the patient’s illness. Factors associated with no change in QoL were minimal caregiving responsibilities, a sense of filial duty, and QoL being consistently poor over time. Factors associated with improved QoL were perceived rewards in caregiving, receiving institutional help, and increased experience. Chinese caregivers were more likely to cite filial duty as their motivator for continued caregiving than were Caucasian caregivers. Conclusion Informal caregivers take on a huge burden in enabling older adults to age in the community. These caregivers need more support in maintaining their QoL. PMID:25948041

  14. Neural recruitment and connectivity during emotional memory retrieval across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Morris, John A; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Although research has identified age-related changes in neural recruitment during emotional memory encoding, it is unclear whether these differences extend to retrieval. In this study, participants engaged in a recognition task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. They viewed neutral titles and indicated whether each title had been presented with an image during the study phase. Neural activity and connectivity during retrieval of titles associated with positive and negative images were compared with age (treated as a continuous variable) included as a regressor of interest. Aging was associated with increased prefrontal activation for retrieval of positive and negative memories, but this pattern was more widespread for negative memories. Aging also was associated with greater negative connectivity between a left hippocampal seed region and multiple regions of prefrontal cortex, but this effect of age occurred during negative retrieval only. These findings demonstrate that age-related changes in prefrontal recruitment and connectivity during retrieval depend on memory valence. The use of a life span approach also emphasized both continuities and discontinuities in recruitment and connectivity across the adult life span, highlighting the insights to be gained from using a full life span sample.

  15. The Presence of Chronic Mucus Hypersecretion across Adult Life in Relation to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Development

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Seif O.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is common among smokers and is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development and progression. Objectives: To understand how the relationships between smoking, CMH, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease develop during adult life, and facilitate earlier disease detection and intervention. Methods: We analyzed data on CMH, smoking, and lung function prospectively collected by the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative British cohort followed since birth in 1946. We analyzed the longitudinal relationships between smoking and CMH, how symptoms during life related to airflow limitation at 60–64 years, and how CMH duration between ages 43 and 60–64 years related to concurrent FEV1 decline. Measurements and Main Results: From 5,362 individuals enrolled at birth, 4,427 contributed data between ages 20 and 64 years (52% male; 63% ever-smoker). Among smokers CMH prevalence escalated between ages 36 and 43 from 7.6 ± 2.0% to 13.0 ± 2.6%. At these ages, symptoms were associated with a higher risk of subsequent airflow limitation (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.70 [1.62–8.45] and 4.11 [1.85–9.13], respectively). Across adult life, CMH followed a dynamic remitting–relapsing course. Symptom prevalence following smoking cessation returned to levels seen among never-smokers. The longer CMH was present across three occasions (ages 43, 53, and 60–64 yr), the greater the concurrent FEV1 decline, corresponding to an additional decrement of 3.6 ± 2.5 ml/yr per occasion that CMH was present (P = 0.005). Conclusions: CMH among middle-aged smokers represents an early developmental phase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking-related CMH usually resolves following smoking cessation but the longer its duration the greater the FEV1 lost, suggesting the course of CMH across adult life may reflect the underlying course

  16. Extending the Life-Course Interdependence Model: Life Transitions and the Enduring Consequences of Early Self-Derogation for Young Adult Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, David; Taylor, John; Pih, Kay Kei-ho

    2010-01-01

    Few studies exploring the association between adolescent self-esteem and crime have considered whether the early adolescent self-esteem has any enduring consequences for young adult crime. Inspired by the life course and developmental criminology approaches, Arnett's notion of emerging adulthood, and Kaplan's self-derogation theory, this article…

  17. The Impact of Dyspepsia on Symptom Severity and Quality of Life in Adults with Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Norhatta, Norbelinda; Goh, Khean Jin; Moy, Foong Ming; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Asraff, Azman Ahmad; Lee, Qin Zhi; Ng, Jiun Hoong; Tan, Eugene Choon Li; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Dyspepsia and headache frequently co-exist, but the clinical implication of this association is uncertain. We planned to examine the prevalence and impact of dyspepsia in adults with headache. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary care setting. Clinical, psychological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data were compared between subjects with headache and controls (non-headache subjects). The impact of dyspepsia was analysed further in subjects with headache alone. Results 280 subjects (93 cases with headache and 187 matched controls) were recruited. The following baseline characteristics of subjects were as follows: mean age 45.0±17.3 years, 57.0% females and ethnic distribution—Malaysian = 45 (48.4%), Chinese n = 24 (25.8%) and Indians n = 24 (25.8%). Headache sub-types among cases with headache were as follows: tension-type headache (TTH) n = 53 (57.0%) and migraine n = 40 (43.0%). Dyspepsia was more prevalent in cases with headache compared to controls (25.8% vs 12.8%, p = 0.011), and headache was independently associated with dyspepsia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.39–5.43). Among cases with headache, there was a trend towards a higher prevalence of dyspepsia in those with migraine (27.5%) compared to TTH (24.5%). Subjects with headache and dyspepsia, compared to those with headache alone, had a greater severity of headache symptoms (63.67±22.85 mm vs 51.20 ±24.0 mm VAS, p = 0.029). Overall HRQOL scores were lower in headache subjects with dyspepsia (EQ-5D summary score 0.82±0.18 vs 0.90 ±0.16, p = 0.037 and EQ-5D VAS 62.08±17.50 mm vs 72.62 ±18.85 mm, p = 0.018), compared to those without dyspepsia. Conclusion Dyspepsia is associated with more severe headache symptoms and results in a lower HRQOL in patients with headache. PMID:25629323

  18. Measuring health-related quality of life in adults with chronic conditions in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe health-related quality of life (HRQOL) conceptual frameworks, critically review 3 commonly used HRQOL scales relevant to adults with chronic conditions in primary care settings, and make recommendations for using HRQOL scales in primary care practice. Data sources Information was accessed regarding HRQOL conceptual and theoretical approaches. A comprehensive search strategy identified 3 commonly used scales that met the review criteria and evidence regarding use of the scales in adults with chronic conditions in community settings. Scale selection Scales were selected if they were designed for clinical use; were easy to administer; were generic and broad in content areas; and contained some individualized items. Scales were critiqued according to content development, theoretical basis, psychometric properties, scoring, feasibility, the concepts being measured, and the number of items that measured an individualized concept. Synthesis Early HRQOL approaches focused on health and functional status while recent approaches incorporate individualized concepts such as the person’s own values and the environment. The abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Duke Health Profile were critiqued. All address physical, mental, and social domains, while the WHOQOL-BREF also addresses environment. Psychometric evidence supports use of the SF-36 and WHOQOL-BREF with this population. The SF-36 has the most evidence of responsiveness but has some floor and ceiling effects, while the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to have floor or ceiling effects but has limited evidence of responsiveness. The WHOQOL-BREF has the highest proportion of individualized items. Conclusion Measurement of HRQOL in adults with chronic conditions can support patient management and contribute to primary care service evaluation. Scales that are based on a broad definition of health and that

  19. What doesn't kill you makes you poorer: Adult wages and early-life mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nicholas; Spears, Dean

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature indicates that effects of early-life health on adult economic outcomes could be substantial in developing countries, but the magnitude of this effect is debated. We document a robust gradient between the early-life mortality environment to which men in India were locally exposed in their district and year of birth and the wages that they earn as adults. A 1 percentage point reduction in infant mortality (or 10 point reduction in IMR) in an infant's district and year of birth is associated with an approximately 2 percent increase in his subsequent adult wages. Consistent with theories and evidence in the literature, we find that the level of schooling chosen for a child does not mediate this association. Because of its consequences for subsequent wages, early-life health could also have considerable fiscal externalities; if so, public health investments could come at very low net present cost. PMID:26706689

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyeon-Young; Shin, Jin-Young; Jo, Euni

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered an important outcome measure in chronic diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is known to be associated with impaired HRQoL. However, few studies have examined HRQoL in individuals at high risk of CVD. Methods Using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, we analyzed data from 10,307 adults aged ≥30 years. The study subjects were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of their Framingham risk score-a 10-year estimate of CVD risk: <10.0% (low risk), 10.0%-19.9% (moderate risk), and ≥20.0% (high risk). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HRQoL. Results A significantly higher proportion of high-risk subjects than low-risk participants had impaired HRQoL (defined as the lowest quartile of the EQ-5D index); this held true even after adjustment for confounding factors in multivariable logistic regression analysis (men: odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.11; women: OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.08). In terms of the 5 EQ-5D dimensions, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% was significantly associated with self-reported problems of mobility in men (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.02-4.90), and of mobility (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24), self-care (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.09-4.22), and usual activity problems (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.78) in women. Conclusion A high CVD risk is associated with impaired HRQoL. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% is an independent predictor of impaired HRQoL in the general population; in particular, of mobility problems in men, and of mobility, self-care, and usual activity problems in women. PMID:26634104

  1. Effects of resource variation during early life and adult social environment on contest outcomes in burying beetles: a context-dependent silver spoon strategy?

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Paul E; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2014-06-22

    Good early nutritional conditions may confer a lasting fitness advantage over individuals suffering poor early conditions (a 'silver spoon' effect). Alternatively, if early conditions predict the likely adult environment, adaptive plastic responses might maximize individual performance when developmental and adult conditions match (environmental-matching effect). Here, we test for silver spoon and environmental-matching effects by manipulating the early nutritional environment of Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles. We manipulated nutrition during two specific early developmental windows: the larval environment and the post-eclosion environment. We then tested contest success in relation to variation in adult social environmental quality experienced (defined according to whether contest opponents were smaller (good environment) or larger (poor environment) than the focal individual). Variation in the larval environment influenced adult body size but not contest success per se for a given adult social environment experienced (an 'indirect' silver spoon effect). Variation in post-eclosion environment affected contest success dependent on the quality of the adult environment experienced (a context-dependent 'direct' silver spoon effect). By contrast, there was no evidence for environmental-matching. The results demonstrate the importance of social environmental context in determining how variation in nutrition in early life affects success as an adult.

  2. A quality-of-life measure for adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia: QOL–PCD

    PubMed Central

    Behan, Laura; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Alpern, Adrianne; Morris, Anjana M.; Carroll, Mary P.; Knowles, Michael R.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Quittner, Alexandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterised by chronic suppurative lung disease, rhino-sinusitis, hearing impairment and sub-fertility. We have developed the first multidimensional measure to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with PCD (QOL–PCD). Following a literature review and expert panel meeting, open-ended interviews with patients investigated the impact of PCD on HRQoL in the UK and North America (n=21). Transcripts were content analysed to derive saturation matrices. Items were rated for relevance by patients (n=49). Saturation matrices, relevance scores, literature review, evaluation of existing measures, and expert opinion contributed to development of a preliminary questionnaire. The questionnaire was refined following cognitive interviews (n=18). Open-ended interviews identified a spectrum of issues unique to adults with PCD. Saturation matrices confirmed comprehensive coverage of content. QOL–PCD includes 48 items covering the following seven domains: Physical Functioning, Emotional Functioning, Treatment Burden, Respiratory and Sinus Symptoms, Ears and Hearing, Social Functioning, and Vitality and Health Perceptions. Cognitive testing confirmed that content was comprehensive and the items were well-understood by respondents. Content validity and cognitive testing supported the items and structure. QOL–PCD has been translated into other languages and is awaiting psychometric testing. PMID:25976687

  3. Carers' quality of life and experiences of adult social care support in England

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services ‘for’ the carer or ‘for’ care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved. PMID:24330095

  4. A quality-of-life measure for adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia: QOL-PCD.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jane S; Behan, Laura; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Alpern, Adrianne; Morris, Anjana M; Carroll, Mary P; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2015-08-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterised by chronic suppurative lung disease, rhino-sinusitis, hearing impairment and sub-fertility. We have developed the first multidimensional measure to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with PCD (QOL-PCD).Following a literature review and expert panel meeting, open-ended interviews with patients investigated the impact of PCD on HRQoL in the UK and North America (n=21). Transcripts were content analysed to derive saturation matrices. Items were rated for relevance by patients (n=49). Saturation matrices, relevance scores, literature review, evaluation of existing measures, and expert opinion contributed to development of a preliminary questionnaire. The questionnaire was refined following cognitive interviews (n=18).Open-ended interviews identified a spectrum of issues unique to adults with PCD. Saturation matrices confirmed comprehensive coverage of content. QOL-PCD includes 48 items covering the following seven domains: Physical Functioning, Emotional Functioning, Treatment Burden, Respiratory and Sinus Symptoms, Ears and Hearing, Social Functioning, and Vitality and Health Perceptions. Cognitive testing confirmed that content was comprehensive and the items were well-understood by respondents.Content validity and cognitive testing supported the items and structure. QOL-PCD has been translated into other languages and is awaiting psychometric testing.

  5. Social needs in daily life in adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hintzen, Anouk; Delespaul, Philippe; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2010-08-30

    Although social deficits remain a persistent component of the behavioural phenotype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adulthood, it remains unclear whether these represent diminished social needs, as is seen in social anhedonia, or rather thwarted social needs, as is seen in social anxiety. This study used the Experience Sampling Method (ESM)--a structured diary technique--to examine social interaction in daily life of 8 adults with PDD, compared to 14 healthy controls. Multilevel linear regression analyses showed that PDD subjects a) did not spend more time alone, b) had no increased preference to be alone when in company, and c) spent more time with familiar people, compared to control subjects. Patients experienced more negative affect and anxiety when in the company of less familiar people compared to when they are alone, whereas no difference in affect could be found between being alone or being with familiar people. All these lines of evidence suggest that PDD subjects do have a desire to interact. However, this may be thwarted as is seen in social anxiety. Therapeutic interventions should aim at decreasing negative affect and anxiety in social interactions possibly by improving social skills to fulfil the existing social needs in adults with PDD.

  6. The burden of falling on the quality of life of adults with Medicare supplement insurance.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kevin; Musich, Shirley; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Bai, Ming; Migliori, Richard J; Yeh, Charlotte S

    2011-08-01

    To study the impact of falling or risk of falling on quality of life (QOL) outcomes, a survey was mailed to a random sample of 15,000 adults with an AARP® Medicare Supplement plan insured by UnitedHealthcare from 10 states in 2008. Approximately 21% had fallen in the past year; 17% did not fall but reported balance or walking problems (i.e., at high risk of falling); and 62% were in the low-risk, no-falls comparison group. Multiple regression analyses showed the strongest predictors of falling or being at high risk of falling were advancing age, female gender, heart conditions, stroke, digestive disorders, arthritis, sciatica, diabetes, and hearing problems. Average physical and mental component scores were significantly lower for both those who fell and those at risk of falling than the comparison group, indicating that falling or being at risk of falling had a stronger negative influence on QOL than most of the comorbidities measured. Clinicians, patients, and families should be aware of the potential negative impact of falling and fear of falling on the QOL of older adults.

  7. Carers' quality of life and experiences of adult social care support in England.

    PubMed

    Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services 'for' the carer or 'for' care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved.

  8. The effects of nocturnal life on endocrine circadian patterns in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li-Qiang; Li, Jue; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jia-Ying; Kaneko, Takashi

    2003-09-26

    We observed the 24-hour patterns of endocrine in medical students who lived either a diurnal life or nocturnal life. Nocturnal life was designed by skipping their breakfast but consuming much (>50% of their daily food intake) in the evening and at night with the sleep from 0130 h to 0830 h the next morning. After 3 weeks in the experimental life, the 24-hour plasma concentrations of melatonin, leptin, glucose and insulin were measured every three hours. Both plasma melatonin and leptin showed peaks at 0300 h in the diurnal lifestyle group, and the night peaks decreased in the nocturnal lifestyle group. The changes in the patterns of melatonin and leptin were highly consistent with that of night-eating syndrome (NES). Plasma glucose increased after all meals in both groups. Its concentration maintained a high level in the nocturnal lifestyle group between midnight and early morning while insulin secretion decreased markedly during this period. Furthermore, the strong association between glucose and insulin in the diurnal lifestyle group after meals was damaged in the nocturnal lifestyle group. It was suggested that nocturnal life leads to the impairment of insulin response to glucose. Taking these results together, nocturnal life is likely to be one of the risk factors to health of modern people, including NES, obesity and diabetes.

  9. Maternal investment, life-history strategy of the offspring and adult chronic disease risk in South Asian women in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathan C.K.; Yao, Pallas; Williams, Jane E; Gayner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Patterns of development predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and ethnic differences therein, but it remains unclear why apparently ‘adaptive plasticity’ in early life should generate health costs in later life. We hypothesized that offspring receiving low maternal investment during fetal life, the primary period of organogenesis, should predict a shorter reproductive career and develop a fast life-history strategy, prioritizing reproduction over growth and homeostatic maintenance. Methodology: We studied 58 young adult South Asian women living in the UK, a group with high susceptibility to CVD. We obtained gestational age, birth weight (BW) and menarcheal age by recall and measured anthropometry, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP). Results: BW and gestational age were inversely associated with menarcheal age, indicating that lower maternal investment is associated with faster maturation. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height but inversely with adiposity, indicating that rapid maturation prioritizes lipid stores over somatic growth. BW was inversely associated with BP, whereas adiposity was positively associated, indicating that lower maternal investment reduces BP homeostasis. BW was positively associated with RMR, whereas menarche was inversely associated, indicating that maternal investment influences adult metabolism. Conclusions and implications: Supporting our hypothesis, low maternal investment promoted faster life histories, demonstrated by earlier menarche, reduced growth and elevated adiposity. These traits were associated with poorer BP regulation. This is the first study demonstrating strategic adjustment of the balance between reproduction and metabolic health in response to the level of maternal investment during fetal life. PMID:26988862

  10. Social capital, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life among older adults in Bogotá (Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Lucumi, Diana; Gomez, Luiz Fernando; Brownson, Ross C.; Parra, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between levels of cognitive social capital and health related quality of life (HRQOL). A multilevel, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Bogotá Colombia. A total of 1,907 older adults completed the Spanish version of the SF-8 in order to assess HRQOL. Cognitive dimension of social capital was assessed. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the associations between social capital variables and HRQOL. Only 20% to 25% of the population reported trust in others and shared values. Ninety three percent reported that people in their neighborhood would try to take advantage of them if given a chance. Higher social capital indicators were positively associated with the mental and physical dimension of HRQOL. Results from this study support evidence on the disintegration of the Colombian society, which may be influenced by high levels of social inequality. PMID:25370712

  11. The role of demographic and life style variables in utilizing cognitive support for episodic remembering among very old adults.

    PubMed

    Hill, R D; Wahlin, A; Winblad, B; Bäckman, L

    1995-07-01

    This research investigated the influence of individual difference variables within demographic and life-style domains on episodic recall tasks in which the level of cognitive support increased incrementally. The community-based sample consisted of 253 healthy older adults taken from the Kungsholmen parish in Stockholm, Sweden. Utilizing hierarchical regression procedures, two questions were addressed with regard to the selected individual difference variables: (a) the degree to which they could predict episodic recall and (b) whether they differentially influenced the magnitude of performance gains from the provision of cognitive support in the form of study time, item organizability, and retrieval cues. The results showed that age was negatively related to performance, whereas education and participation in social activities exerted a positive influence on performance. Exercise was also positively related to performance, but only in the least supported tasks. With regard to utilization of cognitive support, education was positively related to performance benefits from more study time and item organizability, age was negatively related to the effect of item organizability, and social activity was positively associated with the ability to benefit from retrieval cues. These results highlight the role of individual difference measures in episodic memory functioning in late adulthood and indicate that these variables are important in predicting the extent to which older adults are able to utilize cognitive support to enhance episodic recall.

  12. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  13. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, M P; Fitzgerald, R

    2014-05-01

    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties.

  14. What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

    2014-09-01

    Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services.

  15. Use of instruments to measure quality of life among healthy and ill adults in community settings.

    PubMed

    Kalfoss, Mary

    2016-05-01

    International interest in quality of life (QoL) has been affected by patients' prolonged survival, the increasingly aging population, the increase in chronic conditions and the increasing costs of health care. This has also led to the development of QoL instruments that meet the psychometric criteria necessary for reliable and valid outcome measures in research, health policy decision-making and, increasingly, in clinical practice. Despite the proliferation of QoL instruments available to inform best practice, clinicians seldom routinely apply them. One of the barriers to using QoL instruments is the unfamiliarity nurses have with existing instruments. In order to increase community health nurses' familiarity with existing QoL assessments, the aim of this paper is to describe five instruments and modules that have been developed by the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment Group for the assessment of QoL among healthy and ill adults and to describe how their applicability could enhance evidence-based practice in community nursing. PMID:27170407

  16. Sex differences in the physical inactivity and health-related quality of life relationship among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical inactivity (PIA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rural adults and examine the extent to which sex differences exist in this relationship. Methods: A total of 5617 adults 18 years of age and older who indicated residing in a rural county was included in this analysis. PIA status was assessed by questions regarding recreational physical activity during the previous month. Five HRQOL measures (physical health, mental health, inactivity health, general health, & unhealthy days) were used as primary outcome variables. PIA and HRQOL prevalence estimates were computed with 95% CIs. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for age, ethnicity, and income. Results: Physically inactive rural adults were significantly more likely to report poor HRQOL in all overall crude models with ORs ranging from 1.59 to 2.16. Additionally, sex-by-PIA interactions were significant across all crude HRQOL models with ORs ranging from 2.27 to 3.08 and 1.56 to 2.42 for women and men, respectively. Sex differences were maintained in fully adjusted models, except for mental health and inactivity health with ORs ranging from 1.80 to 2.58 and 1.41 to 1.79 for women and men, respectively. Conclusion: Results from this study show that PIA is a strong predictor of poor HRQOL even after controlling for confounding variables. Furthermore, physically inactive rural women appear more likely to report poor levels of HRQOL than physically inactive rural men. PMID:27766235

  17. How much, and by what mechanisms, does growth hormone replacement improve the quality of life in GH-deficient adults?

    PubMed

    Chrisoulidou, A; Kousta, E; Beshyah, S A; Robinson, S; Johnston, D G

    1998-07-01

    The majority of studies (but not all) have demonstrated that adults with hypopituitarism of both childhood and adult onset have a diminished quality of life (QOL) in comparison with the normal population. Reductions in physical and mental energy, dissatisfaction with body image and poor memory have been reported most consistently. A specific role for growth hormone (GH) deficiency, as opposed to multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, has been observed for the memory deficit, which extends to both short- and long-term memory. Comparisons with normal siblings have confirmed the reduced QOL, although differences have been small. There is less consensus for a reduction in QOL when hypopituitary subjects are compared with patients with other chronic diseases, with studies supporting (in comparison with diabetics) and refuting (in comparison with patients following mastoid surgery) the reduction in QOL. GH replacement in adults has improved QOL, particularly in the domains of energy level and self-esteem, and memory has improved. The social impact of these changes may be considerable, with patients requiring fewer days' sick leave. A major placebo effect is present, however, and neutral results as well as positive have been reported in placebo-controlled trials. Where a positive effect has been observed, it has been more likely to occur in patients with a low QOL at the outset. It is otherwise impossible to predict at the outset those who will benefit from GH replacement. GH treatment has effects on body composition, exercise capacity, muscle strength, total body water and intermediary metabolism which would be expected to improve QOL. Replacement therapy also has side-effects, and it is the variable balance of the positive and negative effects, coupled with the difficulties of measuring QOL, which have led to the disparate results in the literature. There is probably also a true inter-individual variation, although the mechanisms of this are currently unknown.

  18. Obesity in young Dutch adults: II, daily life-style and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Baecke, J A; Burema, J; Frijters, J E; Hautvast, J G; van der Wiel-Wetzels, W A

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between aspects of daily life-style and age, level of education, and body mass index (BMI; weight/height) were studied in young adult males (n = 1765) and females (n = 2092) in three age groups (19-21, 24-26 and 29-31 yr) in a Dutch population. By means of principal-components analysis five conceptually meaningful factors could be distinguished within the aspects of daily life-style which were considered. These factors were interpreted as constructs of: (1) slimming behaviour; (2) behaviour characterized by the consumption of coffee and alcohol, smoking habits and the number of hours sleep per night (CASS behaviour); (3) eating sweet and savoury snacks between meals; (4) health-conscious behaviour; and (5) physical activity. After adjustments were made for age and level of education, multiple regression analysis showed that slimming behaviour was positively related to BMI in both sexes, CASS behaviour was positively related to BMI in males, and health-conscious behaviour was inversely related to BMI in both sexes. An observed positive relationship between BMI and occupational physical activity in males could be explained by a confounding effect of socio-economic status. The observed weak positive relationship between number of hours active sport per month and BMI in males is possibly due to a difference in lean body mass. The consumption of sweet and savoury snacks was not related to BMI in either sex. These findings suggest that the daily life-style variables should be interpreted as indicators of more general types of behaviour, some of which may be important determinants of obesity.

  19. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  20. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  1. Young Adult Exposure to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Events Later in Life: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pletcher, Mark J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor exposure during early adulthood contributes to CHD risk later in life. Our objective was to analyze whether extent of early adult exposures to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, HDL) are independent predictors of CHD events later in life. Methods and Findings We used all available measurements of SBP, DBP, LDL, and HDL collected over 40 years in the Framingham Offspring Study to estimate risk factor trajectories, starting at age 20 years, for all participants. Average early adult (age 20–39) exposure to each risk factor was then estimated, and used to predict CHD events (myocardial infarction or CHD death) after age 40, with adjustment for risk factor exposures later in life (age 40+). 4860 participants contributed an average of 6.3 risk factor measurements from in-person examinations and 24.5 years of follow-up after age 40, and 510 had a first CHD event. Early adult exposures to high SBP, DBP, LDL or low HDL were associated with 8- to 30-fold increases in later life CHD event rates, but were also strongly correlated with risk factor levels later in life. After adjustment for later life levels and other risk factors, early adult DBP and LDL remained strongly associated with later life risk. Compared with DBP≤70 mmHg, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–5.7) for DBP = 71–80, 2.6 (0.9–7.2) for DBP = 81–90, and 3.6 (1.2–11) for DBP>90 (p-trend = 0.019). Compared with LDL≤100 mg/dl, adjusted HRs were 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for LDL = 101–130, 2.2 (1.2–4.0) for LDL = 131–160, and 2.4 (1.2–4.7) for LDL>160 (p-trend = 0.009). While current levels of SBP and HDL were also associated with CHD events, we did not detect an independent association with early adult exposure to either of these risk factors. Conclusions Using a mixed modeling approach to estimation of young adult exposures

  2. Increasing Writing Self-Efficacy of Adult Learners: Different Approaches, Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2016-01-01

    To help graduate students with academic writing, a college of education at a large university implemented a new service, Writing Support Circles. Based on the results of the first series of this service, we changed its design. The purpose of this article is to share how changes in the design affected these adult learners' writing self-efficacy and…

  3. Digital Inequalities of Family Life Information Seeking and Family Well-Being Among Chinese Adults in Hong Kong: A Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inequalities in Internet use and health information seeking are well documented, but less is known about information for family life activities. Objective We investigated the social determinants of online family life information seeking behaviors and its associations with family well-being among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods A probability-based telephone survey was conducted in 2012 to record family life information seeking behaviors, including frequency of seeking and paying attention to family life information, levels of trust, and perceived usefulness of family life information. Family well-being was assessed using 3 single items on perceived family harmony, happiness, and health, with higher scores indicating greater well-being. Adjusted odds ratios for family life information seeking behaviors by socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors, and adjusted beta coefficients for family well-being by family life information seeking behaviors were calculated. Results Of 1537 respondents, 57.57% (855/1537) had ever and 26.45% (407/1537) sought monthly family life information through the Internet. Lower educational attainment and household income, smoking, and physical inactivity were associated with less frequent seeking and paying attention (all P<.05). Greater perceived family health was associated with more frequent attention (adjusted β=.32, 95% CI.11-.52), greater levels of trust (adjusted β=.28, 95% CI .07-.48), and perceived usefulness (adjusted β=.23, 95% CI .01-.45) of family life information. Frequent attention and higher level of trust were also associated with greater family harmony (adjusted β=.22, 95% CI .002-.41) and happiness (adjusted β=.23, 95% CI .003-.42), respectively. Conclusions This is the first study investigating family life information seeking behaviors and suggested inequalities of online family life information seeking behaviors. The association between family life information seeking behavior and family

  4. Are Adolescent Substance Users Less Satisfied with Life as Young Adults and if so, Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Laura M.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether adolescent cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use predicts life satisfaction in young adulthood. Survey data were used from a longitudinal cohort of 2376 adolescents at ages 18 and 29, originally recruited from California and Oregon middle schools at age 13. Results of multivariate models indicated…

  5. End-of-Life Treatment Preferences Among Older Adults: An Assessment of Psychosocial Influences1

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Deborah; Moorman, Sara M.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the content and correlates of older adults’ end-of-life treatment preferences in two hypothetical terminal illness scenarios: severe physical pain with no cognitive impairment, and severe cognitive impairment with no physical pain. For each scenario, we assess whether participants would reject life-prolonging treatment, accept treatment, or do not know their preferences. Using data from the 2004 wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 5,106), we estimate multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate whether treatment preferences are associated with direct experience with end-of-life issues, personal beliefs, health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Persons who have made formal end-of-life preparations, persons with no religious affiliation, mainline Protestants, and persons who are pessimistic about their own life expectancy are more likely to reject treatment in both scenarios. Women and persons who witnessed the painful death of a loved one are more likely to reject treatment in the cognitive impairment scenario only. Consistent with rational choice perspectives, our results suggest that individuals prefer treatments that they perceive to have highly probable desirable consequences for both self and family. PMID:21057589

  6. Satisfaction with life scale in a representative sample of Spanish adults: validation and normative data.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Duque, Almudena; Hervás, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is a measure widely used to assess life satisfaction. This paper aims to test its psychometric properties, factor structure, and distribution scores across age, gender, education, and employment status. For this purpose, a representative sample of the Spanish population (N = 2,964) was used. Although analyses showed no significant differences across age or gender, participants with higher education level and those who held an occupation were more satisfied with their lives. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a unifactorial structure with significant correlations between the SWLS, and subjective happiness and social support. The internal consistency of the scale was .88. Thus, our results indicate that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction within the Spanish context.

  7. Comparative study of quality of life of adult survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia and Wilms’ tumor

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Clélia Marta Casellato; Cristofani, Lilian Maria; Cornacchioni, Ana Lucia Beltrati; Odone, Vicente; Kuczynski, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyze and compare the health-related quality of life of adult survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia and Wilms’ tumor amongst themselves and in relation to healthy participants. Methods Ninety participants aged above 18 years were selected and divided into three groups, each comprising 30 individuals. The Control Group was composed of physically healthy subjects, with no cancer history; and there were two experimental groups: those diagnosed as acute lymphocytic leukemia, and those as Wilms’ Tumor. Quality of life was assessed over the telephone, using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Results Male survivors presented with better results as compared to female survivors and controls in the Vitality domain, for acute lymphocytic leukemia (p=0.042) and Wilms’ tumor (p=0.013). For acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors, in Social aspects (p=0.031), Mental health (p=0.041), and Emotional aspects (p=0.040), the latter also for survivors of Wilms’ tumor (p=0.040). The best results related to the Functional capacity domain were recorded for the experimental group that had a late diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. There were significant differences between groups except for the Social and Emotional domains for self-perceived health, with positive responses that characterized their health as good, very good, and excellent. Conclusion Survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia showed no evidence of relevant impairment of health-related quality of life. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (via telephone) can be a resource to access and evaluate survivors. PMID:26537509

  8. The Impact of Post-Acne Scars on the Quality of Life Among Young Adults in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Sai Yee; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Post-acne scarring is a common and well-known sequelae of acne vulgaris. We aim to study the impact of post-acne scarring on the quality of life (QOL) among young adults in Singapore. Settings and Design: This was a non-interventional prospective study. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 21-40 years with atrophic and hypertrophic acne scars who attended the National Skin Centre, Singapore were recruited in the study. They answered a simple questionnaire and the clinical severity of their acne scars were assessed by the doctor. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analyses using absolute and percentage frequencies were performed on all data. The test of significance was two-sided and was set at 5% (P ≤ 0.05). Differential analyses were conducted using the parametric, independent two-sample t-test and non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test. The statistical assessments were performed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: A total of 100 patients were studied. The mean patients’ subjective self-scoring on the severity of their post-acne scars was 5.78/10 and the mean Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) for post-acne scars was 5.61. Many (36%, n = 36) were self-conscious of their acne scars and 24%, (n = 24) felt that their acne scars was affecting their social activities. Conclusions: Our study showed that post-acne scars have a significant negative effect on the QOL of young adults. It highlights the need to increase public awareness of acne vulgaris and its sequelae through education programs and advocating early treatment to reduce the risk of scarring. PMID:26644739

  9. Development and Change in Swedish Municipal Adult Education: Occupational Life History Studies and Four Genealogies of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Ingrid Henning

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on the author's dissertation work on development and change in Swedish municipal adult education (MAE), investigated through occupational life history studies of four teachers in different municipalities who have worked in MAE since the mid 1970s. Three periods of development--three "eras"--in MAE have been identified in…

  10. Does Numeracy Matter? Evidence from the National Child Development Study on the Impact of Poor Numeracy on Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynner, John; Parsons, Samantha

    Data were obtained from the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a large-scale longitudinal study in the United Kingdom following up a sample of people born in a single week in 1958 through to adult life, to demonstrate that poor numeracy skills have a major impact. At age 37, a 10 percent sample of 1,714 cohort members were interviewed and…

  11. How Adult Children Influence Older Parents' Mental Health: Integrating Stress-Process and Life-Course Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Bierman, Alex; Schieman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we integrate insights from the life-course and stress-process perspectives to argue that adult children's negative treatment of parents, as well as negative events that children experience, detrimentally affect elderly parents' mental health over time. We argue that these strains may affect mothers more than fathers, and blacks more…

  12. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Makuch, Renee A.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and…

  13. Interim Report 1985. Working Document. European Community Action Programme. Transition of Young People from Education to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IFAPLAN, Brussels (Belgium). Programme Information Office.

    This document provides an interim report on 30 pilot projects that make up the European Community's second Programme on the Transition from Education to Adult and Working Life. The main part of the report consists of 10 sections reviewing activities in the 10 thematic or policy areas adopted, in consultation with national authorities, to…

  14. Adult and offspring size in the ocean over 17 orders of magnitude follows two life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Neuheimer, A B; Hartvig, M; Heuschele, J; Hylander, S; Kiørboe, T; Olsson, K H; Sainmont, J; Andersen, K H

    2015-12-01

    Explaining variability in offspring vs. adult size among groups is a necessary step to determine the evolutionary and environmental constraints shaping variability in life history strategies. This is of particular interest for life in the ocean where a diversity of offspring development strategies is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia, Sagittoidea, and Teleost. We find marine life following one of two distinct strategies, with offspring size being either proportional to adult size (e.g., Crustaceans, Elasmobranchii, and Mammalia) or invariant with adult size (e.g., Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Sagittoidea, Teleosts, and possibly Ctenophora). We discuss where these two strategies occur and how these patterns (along with the relative size of the offspring) may be shaped by physical and biological constraints in the organism's environment. This adaptive environment along with the evolutionary history of the different groups shape observed life history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g., production and distribution). PMID:26909435

  15. Job-Keeping and Revitalization. The Career Life Assessment Skills Series, Booklet Seven. A Program to Meet Adult Developmental Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Bernadette M.; Hecklinger, Fred J.

    As part of a series on career and life planning for adults, this four-part booklet examines factors that affect job satisfaction and success. After introductory material noting today's tight job market, Part I lists the qualities employers want employees to have and then discusses: (1) job survival tactics, such as remaining knowledgeable of the…

  16. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  17. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  18. Students with Reading and Writing Challenges: Using Informal Assessment to Assist in Planning for the Transition to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to adult life for students with reading and writing challenges is an area that is not often addressed. The purpose of this article is to relate the informal assessment process to the broader context of high stakes assessment, high school exit exams, diploma options, and transition planning; identify the competencies needed for a…

  19. Using a Multidimensional Measure of Resilience to Explain Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement of Adults with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to…

  20. Quality of Life as a Mediator between Behavioral Challenges and Autistic Traits for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of challenging behaviors with autistic traits to increase understanding of their relationship to quality of life (QoL). It was hypothesized that QoL is a possible mediator between the severity of challenging behaviors and autistic traits in adults with intellectual disability.…

  1. Predictors of Adult Quality of Life for Foster Care Alumni with Physical and/or Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anctil, Tina M.; McCubbin, Laurie D.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study used quality of life and resilience as theoretical frameworks for evaluating predictors of outcomes for adults who received foster care services alumni of foster care and were diagnosed with a physical or psychiatric disability while in foster care. Method: First, outcomes for foster care alumni with and without physical…

  2. Longitudinal Study of Parents' Impact on Quality of Life of Children and Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Jane M.; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Earlier research has distinguished five domains of Quality of life (QoL) for people with ID: material well-being, development and activity, physical well-being, social well-being, and emotional well-being. We investigated parents' perspectives on these domains and QoL for children and young adults with ID and hypothesized that parents'…

  3. Your Unique Self. The Career Life Assessment Skills Series, Booklet One. A Program to Meet Adult Developmental Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Bernadette M.; Hecklinger, Fred J.

    Information and accompanying exercises in this six-part booklet are designed to provide adults with opportunities to explore interests, skills, and values as part of a program in career and life planning. Part I focuses on identifying interests, categorizing them under headings developed by John Holland (i.e., realistic, investigative, artistic,…

  4. Laboratory alcohol self-administration experiments do not increase subsequent real-life drinking in young adult social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H.; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well-established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Methods Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing one of two similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, eighteen social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a non-exposed age- matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. Results In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to pre-study levels (p<.05 respectively).. In study 2, alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non- alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at post-study measurement (p<.001), while percent heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ. Conclusion These data suggest that participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. PMID:25903217

  5. Childhood to Early-Midlife Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectories: Early-Life Predictors, Effect Modifiers, and Adult Cardiovascular Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Reremoana F; Broadbent, Jonathan; Nagin, Daniel; Ambler, Antony; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Cutfield, Wayne; Williams, Michael J A; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry; Poulton, Richie

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies examining blood pressure change over time have modeled an average population trajectory. Recent research among older adults suggests there may be subgroups with different blood pressure trajectories. Identifying subgroups at risk of developing adult hypertension early in life can inform effective risk reduction efforts. We sought to identify different systolic blood pressure trajectories from childhood, their correlated risk factors, and early-midlife cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure data at ages 7, 11, 18, 26, 32, and 38 years from a longitudinal, representative birth cohort study (n=975) were used to identify 4 distinct trajectory groups via group-based trajectory modeling: normal (21.8%), high-normal (43.3%), prehypertensive (31.6%), and hypertensive (4.2%). The categories refer to blood pressure beginning at the age of 7 years and most recently measured at the age of 38 years. Family history of high blood pressure (odds ratio [OR], 43.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-354.65), male sex (OR, 109.48; 95% CI, 26.82-446.96), being first born (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.00-8.69) and low birth weight (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.49-3.09) were associated with hypertensive group membership (compared with the normal group). Higher body mass index and cigarette smoking resulted in increasing blood pressure across trajectories, particularly for the higher blood pressure groups. Prehypertensive and hypertensive trajectory groups had worse cardiovascular outcomes by early midlife. Harmful blood pressure trajectories are identifiable in childhood, associated with both antecedent and modifiable risk factors over time, and predict adult cardiovascular disease risk. Early detection and subsequent targeted prevention and intervention may reduce the lifecourse burden associated with higher blood pressure. PMID:26558818

  6. Childhood to Early-Midlife Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectories: Early-Life Predictors, Effect Modifiers, and Adult Cardiovascular Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Reremoana F; Broadbent, Jonathan; Nagin, Daniel; Ambler, Antony; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Cutfield, Wayne; Williams, Michael J A; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry; Poulton, Richie

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies examining blood pressure change over time have modeled an average population trajectory. Recent research among older adults suggests there may be subgroups with different blood pressure trajectories. Identifying subgroups at risk of developing adult hypertension early in life can inform effective risk reduction efforts. We sought to identify different systolic blood pressure trajectories from childhood, their correlated risk factors, and early-midlife cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure data at ages 7, 11, 18, 26, 32, and 38 years from a longitudinal, representative birth cohort study (n=975) were used to identify 4 distinct trajectory groups via group-based trajectory modeling: normal (21.8%), high-normal (43.3%), prehypertensive (31.6%), and hypertensive (4.2%). The categories refer to blood pressure beginning at the age of 7 years and most recently measured at the age of 38 years. Family history of high blood pressure (odds ratio [OR], 43.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-354.65), male sex (OR, 109.48; 95% CI, 26.82-446.96), being first born (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.00-8.69) and low birth weight (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.49-3.09) were associated with hypertensive group membership (compared with the normal group). Higher body mass index and cigarette smoking resulted in increasing blood pressure across trajectories, particularly for the higher blood pressure groups. Prehypertensive and hypertensive trajectory groups had worse cardiovascular outcomes by early midlife. Harmful blood pressure trajectories are identifiable in childhood, associated with both antecedent and modifiable risk factors over time, and predict adult cardiovascular disease risk. Early detection and subsequent targeted prevention and intervention may reduce the lifecourse burden associated with higher blood pressure.

  7. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  8. Young adults' perceptions on life prospects and gender roles as important factors to influence health behaviour: a qualitative study from Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Syed Farid-ul; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2012-04-28

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and expectations of young males and females, in Karachi, Pakistan, regarding their life prospects and gender roles, with resulting implications for health behaviour. The main theme emerging was "Young adults' prospects in life are hampered by psychosocial and gender equality constraints". Gender inequality and the low status of women in society were described as major obstacles to the overall development. Persistent withholding of information to the younger generation on sexual and reproductive health issues was perceived to increase exposure to health risks, particularly sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study reveals new discourses on equality among young adults, pointing towards an increasing, sound interaction between the sexes and aspirations for more gender equal relationships. Such views and awareness among the younger generation constitutes a strong force towards change of traditional norms, including reproductive health behaviour, and calls for policy change.

  9. Screening for Tuberculosis at an Adult Education Center: Results of a Community-Based Participatory Process

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jennifer A.; Olney, Marilynn W.; Alemán, Marty; Sullivan, Susan; Millington, Kendra; O'Hara, Connie; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to plan and implement free TB skin testing at an adult education center to determine the efficacy of CBPR with voluntary tuberculosis (TB) screening and the prevalence of TB infection among immigrant and refugee populations. Methods. We formed a CBPR partnership to address TB screening at an adult education center that serves a large immigrant and refugee population in Rochester, Minnesota. We conducted focus groups involving educators, health providers, and students of the education center, and used this input to implement TB education and TB skin testing among the center's students. Results. A total of 259 adult learners volunteered to be skin-tested in April 2009; 48 (18.5%) had positive TB skin tests. Conclusions. Our results imply that TB skin testing at adult education centers that serve large foreign-born populations may be effective. Our findings also show that a participatory process may enhance the willingness of foreign-born persons to participate in TB skin-testing efforts. PMID:21653249

  10. Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Christidi, Foteini; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Anagnostouli, Maria; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We examined the contribution of demographics and cognitive background variables (processing speed, visuospatial skill, working memory, and interference control) on derived Trail Making Test (TMT) scores in a large sample of Greek healthy participants. We included 775 participants and administered the TMT (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Wechsler Intelligence Adult Scale (WAIS). Direct (TMT-A & TMT-B time-to-completion) and derived [difference TMT-(B - A) & ratio TMT-(B/A)] scores were calculated. Demographics (age, age(2), education, and gender) and WAIS Full Intelligence Quotient significantly predicted the direct TMT-A (R(2) = 0.426) and TMT-B (R(2) = 0.593) scores and to a lesser extent, the derived TMT-(B - A) (R(2) = 0.343) and TMT-(B/A) (R(2) = 0.088) scores. In a subsample of 537 healthy participants who also completed the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST), demographics (age and education), WAIS Digit Symbol, Block Design, Arithmetic, and SNST accounted for 44.8% and 59.7% of the variance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and 32.5% and 9.6% of the variance on TMT-(B - A) and TMT-(B/A), respectively. We found minimal influence of Block Design and Arithmetic on TMT-(B - A) and an absence of significant influence of any cognitive variable on TMT-(B/A) score. Concluding, derived TMT scores are suggested as indices to detect impairment in cognitive flexibility across the adult life span, since they minimize the effect of demographics and other cognitive background variables.

  11. Quality of life in young adults with very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Dinesen, S; Greisen, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess quality of life (QoL) in a group of young adults born in 1980-1982 with very low birth weight (VLBW) and to compare this with a reference group and a similar cohort born eight years earlier.
DESIGN—Telephone interview using a fully structured questionnaire.
SETTING—Level 3 neonatal intensive care unit.
PATIENTS—VLBW group (n = 92, 90% participation rate), LBW group (n = 119, 86%), normal birth weight/reference group (n = 69, 75%).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective and subjective QoL.
RESULTS—Objective QoL in the VLBW subgroup who did not report a handicap or chronic health problem was lower than in the reference group (median 0.79 v 0.84, p = 0.02). Objective QoL was 0.81 in the similar LBW subgroup whereas it was only 0.72 in the group of 13 VLBW and nine LBW subjects who reported a handicap or chronic health problem. Interestingly, subjective QoL did not differ between the VLBW subgroup and the reference group (median 0.87 v 0.88,p = 0.5). On comparing the VLBW subgroup in the 1980-1982 cohort with the similar VLBW subgroup in the 1971-1974 cohort, objective QoL had apparently increased.
CONCLUSION—The VLBW young adults had a lower objective QoL than the reference group, whereas the subjective QoL was similar. Objective QoL in Danish youngsters has apparently increased over the past eight years.

 PMID:11668156

  12. Yoga for Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Marcy; McDonald, Melanie; Thorne, Sally; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2015-01-01

    An increase in patient-led uptake of complementary therapies in adult cancer has led to a need for more rigorous study of such interventions and their outcomes. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a yoga intervention in men and women receiving conventional treatment for a cancer diagnosis. Prospective, mixed methods feasibility trial allocated participants to receive one of three yoga interventions over a four-week study period. Data collection was completed through online survey of QOL-CA/CS and customized surveys. Fifteen participants were included (11 female) undergoing treatment for breast, prostate, colorectal, brain, and blood and lung cancer. Two participants dropped out and complete qualitative and quantitative data sets were collected from 12 participants and four yoga instructors. Other outcome measures included implementation costs patient-reported preferences for yoga intervention and changes in QOL-CA/CS. Three types of yoga intervention were safely administered in adult cancer. Mixed methods, cost-efficiency, QOL-CA/CS, and evidence-based design of yoga intervention have been used to establish feasibility and patient-preferences for yoga delivery in adult caner. Results suggest that, with some methodological improvements, a large-scale randomized controlled trial is warranted to test the efficacy of yoga for male and female cancer patients. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02309112. PMID:26170884

  13. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with social participation of older adults: association with quality of life and best correlates

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Johanne; Whiteneck, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to (1) explore whether quality of life (QOL) is more associated with satisfaction with social participation (SP) than with level of accomplishment in SP and (2) examine respective correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 155 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 60% women) having various levels of activity limitations. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP (dependent variables) were estimated with the social roles items of the assessment of life habits. Potential correlates were human functioning components. Results Correlations between QOL and accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP did not differ (P = 0.71). However, best correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP were different. Higher accomplishment level of SP was best explained by younger age, activity level perceived as stable, no recent stressing event, better well-being, higher activity level, and fewer obstacles in “Physical environment and accessibility” (R2 = 0.79). Greater satisfaction with SP was best explained by activity level perceived as stable, better self-perceived health, better well-being, higher activity level, and more facilitators in “Social support and attitudes” (R2 = 0.51). Conclusion With some exceptions, these best correlates may be positively modified and thus warrant special attention in rehabilitation interventions. PMID:20237957

  14. Life-long music practice and executive control in older adults: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Moussard, Aline; Bermudez, Patrick; Alain, Claude; Tays, William; Moreno, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has indicated that music practice can influence cognitive processing across the lifespan. Although extensive musical experience may have a mitigating effect on cognitive decline in older adults, the nature of changes to brain functions underlying performance benefits remains underexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms that may support apparent beneficial effects of life-long musical practice on cognition. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in older musicians (N=17; average age=69.2) and non-musicians (N=17; average age=69.9), matched for age and education, while they completed an executive control task (visual go/no-go). Whereas both groups showed similar response speed and accuracy on go trials, older musicians showed fewer no-go errors. ERP recordings revealed the typical N2/P3 complex, but the nature of these responses differed between groups in that (1) older musicians showed larger N2 and P3 effects ('no-go minus go' amplitude), with the N2 amplitude being correlated with behavioral accuracy for no-go trials and (2) the topography of the P3 response was more anterior in musicians. Moreover, P3 amplitude was correlated with measures of musical experience in musicians. In our discussion of these results, we propose that music practice may have conferred an executive control advantage for musicians in later life. PMID:27021953

  15. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.54-3.00, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.68-3.19, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 3.68, 95% CI 3.41-3.97, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 2.64, 95% CI 2.45-2.85, P < 0.001). People who reported major problems on noise (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.96-2.45, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.87-2.37, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.14-2.68, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.88-2.41, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.77-2.11, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34-1.68, P < 0.001) were also classified as having depression. Perceived neighborhood conditions were associated with adult mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested.

  16. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.54-3.00, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.68-3.19, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 3.68, 95% CI 3.41-3.97, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 2.64, 95% CI 2.45-2.85, P < 0.001). People who reported major problems on noise (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.96-2.45, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.87-2.37, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.14-2.68, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.88-2.41, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.77-2.11, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34-1.68, P < 0.001) were also classified as having depression. Perceived neighborhood conditions were associated with adult mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested. PMID:25391235

  17. Mental health in adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities: the role of recent life events and traumatic experiences across the life span.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Almudena; Tsakanikos, Elias; Pereda, Amada; Gutiérrez-Recacha, Pedro; Bouras, Nick; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between recent life events and traumatic experiences across the life span and psychiatric disorders in people with ID. One hundred seventy-seven individuals with mild and moderate intellectual disability and their principal carers were assessed. Psychiatric disorders were evaluated with a semistructured psychiatric interview, the Psychiatric Assessment for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. This interview also includes a checklist of life events experienced over the previous 12 months, which was assessed through key informants. Presence of traumas was assessed through Allen's trauma history screen, also administered to key informants. After a descriptive analysis, binary logistic regression was used to see whether traumatic events and life events predicted the presence of ICD-10 disorders. A 75% of the participants had experienced at least 1 traumatic event during their life span, and 50% of the participants had experienced at least 1 life event in the 12 months previous to the study. Binary logistic regression showed that exposure to 1 or more traumatic experiences significantly increased the odds of a mental disorder (OR = 1.8), as did exposure to life events (OR = 1.4). However, when both life events and traumatic experiences were entered together in the model, calculation of odds ratios revealed that traumatic experiences significantly increased the odds of ICD-10 disorders (OR = 1.7) although life events were no longer significant. Though they have been less studied by the literature regarding predictors of mental illness in people with intellectual disability, traumatic experiences seem to play a more important role in psychopathology than life events.

  18. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:25191598

  19. Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life.

    PubMed

    Harrington, R; Clark, A

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to see why both purchasers and providers of mental health services would be interested in prevention, but will preventive interventions work in practice? This paper discusses the possibility of preventing depressive disorder in late adolescence and early adult life by intervening in childhood and early adolescence. The paper begins with a description of the phenomenology of depression and its risk factors. It then goes on to describe a framework of prevention and within this framework explores whether there is an adequate knowledge base. The general perspective that is presented is one of cautious scepticism. It is argued that difficulties in defining depression and identifying risk factors that can easily be remedied make it unlikely that within the foreseeable future primary prevention programmes will prove to be more effective than treatment and rehabilitation of affected individuals. The possibility that preventive programmes could do harm will also be discussed. The paper concludes with some proposals about appropriate targets for prevention. It is suggested that apart from a few policy areas where there are some relatively harmless measures that could protect from later depression, a balanced preventive programme will give higher priority to treatment services than to those concerned with early intervention.

  20. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  1. Impact of participation in a theatre programme on quality of life among older adults with chronic conditions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Hon Keung; Mueller, Kris; Mayor, Ellise; Azuero, Andres

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to evaluate the effect of participation in the "Seasoned Arts At the Samford for You" (SAASY) programme, which included a 6-week acting class and four public performances, on the psychological well-being and health-related quality of life of older adults. Twelve older adults with chronic conditions from a low-income senior apartment and a senior living community participated in the programme. The acting class, led by two professional artists, met for a 2-hour class weekly for six weeks. Participants completed the General Well-being Schedule (GWBS) and the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) both at the beginning of the programme and one month after the programme ended. In addition, participants were individually interviewed to explore the perceived impact of the theatre programme on their well-being. Participants reported a significantly higher score in the GWBS and on the physical but not on the mental component summary of the SF-36 at post-SAASY programme. Content analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that participants attained an improved sense of self-worth and self-advocacy and overcame self-imposed limitations. Results showed improvement in psychological well-being and health-related quality of life, most notably in the physical health component of SF-36 after participating in the programme. Practice implications for occupational therapists using drama as a creative leisure occupation to promote health among older adults with chronic conditions may involve analysis of participants' occupational profile, identification of deficit areas and adaptation of the acting programme content to meet specific needs and goals. The present study used a pretest and post test one group design that has numerous inherent limitations that affect the ability to make valid inferences from study findings. A more rigorous research design with a wait-listed control group and collection of outcome measures immediately after

  2. Health, lifestyle, and quality of life for young adults born very preterm

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, R

    2004-01-01

    Background: Children born very preterm and able to attend mainstream schools have been shown to have a high prevalence of behavioural, minor motor, and learning difficulties. It is not clear whether these problems persist into adulthood, impacting on lifestyle and quality of life. Methods: A previously studied cohort of very low birth weight infants born between 1980 and 1983, together with term classmate controls, were assessed at age 19–22 years using a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire included the SF-36 to assess quality of life, a social activities scale, a lifestyle questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and questions on current height, weight, health, family structure, and education and occupation. Results: Of the 138 preterm and 163 term controls in the cohort, 79 preterm and 71 term returned questionnaires. Quality of life was assessed as similar on six of eight domains of the SF-36. Social activities were also similar. Preterms drank less alcohol, used fewer illicit drugs, but smoked as often. Rates for sexual intercourse were similar, although preterms had more children. Preterms were shorter than controls and were less satisfied with their appearance. They were more likely to use a regular prescription medicine. Fewer were or had been in higher education, and some remained unemployed. Conclusion: The problems experienced by very preterm infants at school appear to influence lifestyle and health, but not perceived quality of life in early adulthood. PMID:14977689

  3. Education and Training for Unemployed Adults in the Mid-Life Years. Report of the Conference (Bonn, West Germany, November 23-27, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wijs, Ruth, Ed.; Keijzer, Jose, Ed.

    Presentations and presenters include "What Are the Effects of Courses with Unemployed Adults in Their Mid-Life Years?" (Weinberg); "Combining Education and Training of Unemployed Adults " (Sellin); "The Changing Role of Adult Education in the Post-Industrial Society" (Jocher); "The REPLAN Programme in England and Wales--Part 1" (Uden); "The REPLAN…

  4. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  5. Childhood Maltreatment and BMI Trajectories to Mid-Adult Life: Follow-Up to Age 50y in a British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Power, Chris; Pinto Pereira, Snehal M.; Li, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7y-50y and to identify possible explanations for associations. Methods Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000). Associations of child maltreatments with BMI at separate ages were tested using linear regression or logistic regression for obesity, and with rate of child-to-adult BMI gain using multilevel models. We adjusted for potential covariates. Results Abuse was reported in ~12% of the population. Abuse was not associated with elevated childhood BMI, but adult associations were observed: i.e. the abused had faster child-adult BMI gain than the non-abused; associations were independent of adult covariates. For physical abuse in both genders there was a positive linear association of ~0.006/y zBMI gain with age after adjustment for all covariates. Similarly, there was a linear association of physical abuse with obesity risk: e.g. among females from a low ORadjusted of 0.34 (0.16,0.71) at 7y to 1.67 (1.25,2.24) at 50y. In females faster zBMI gains with age of ~0.0034/y were observed for sexual abuse and increases in obesity risk were faster: from a low ORadjusted of 0.23 (0.06,0.84) at 7y to 1.34 (0.86,2.10) at 50y. Psychological abuse and neglect associations were less consistent. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment associations with BMI or obesity varied across life: physical and, in females, sexual abuse were associated with faster lifetime BMI gains, which may have detrimental long-term health consequences. PMID:25811782

  6. Health-related quality of life in sporadic adult-onset ataxia.

    PubMed

    Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas

    2007-02-15

    Despite progressive disability in sporadic adult-onset ataxia (SAOA), little is known about patients' assessment of their ataxic disorder and its impact on health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL). This study investigated Hr-QoL by means of the following self-administered scales: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36). Twenty-two unselected ataxia patients were included. Sleep-related complaints were found in 9 (41%) of 22 and symptoms of depression in 6 (38%) of 16 patients. Compared to a large german control group, SAOA patients had lower scores in all SF-36 dimensions except for bodily pain. The greatest impairment was found in the domain physical functioning, followed by the domains social functioning and role limitations (emotional problems). There was a significant negative correlation of all nonmotor SF-36 dimensions with the BDI score. Walking aid dependency was significantly correlated with poorer health status perception in several motor and nonmotor domains. In addition, impaired sleep quality was correlated with an impaired general health perception and with bodily pain. The study demonstrates a great impact of SAOA on Hr-QoL. Adequate treatment of depression, motor disability, and impaired sleep quality is essential to improve Hr-QoL in ataxic patients. PMID:17149704

  7. Variable migratory patterns of different adult rainbow trout life history types in a southwest Alaska watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meka, J.M.; Knudsen, E.E.; Douglas, D.C.; Benter, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to document population structure in adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Alagnak River, southwest Alaska. Rainbow trout (N = 134) longer than 440 mm were implanted with radio transmitters and tracked for varying periods from July 1997 to April 1999. Fifty-eight radio-tagged fish were tracked for sufficient duration (at least 11 months) to allow description of seasonal migratory patterns. Unique seasonal movements of fish suggested discrete, within-basin population structure. Telemetry data documented the existence of multiple migratory and nonmigratory groups of rainbow trout, indicating unique life history patterns. The observed groups consisted of what we defined as a lake-resident ecotype, a lake-river ecotype, and a riverine ecotype; the riverive ecotype demonstrated both highly migratory and nonmigratory movement behavior. Considerable variation in movement patterns was found within both the lake-river group and the river migratory group. Radio-tagged trout did not migrate between the two Alagnak watershed lakes in either year of the study, suggesting lake fidelity in the population structure. Alagnak River rainbow trout may have evolved the observed seasonal movement patterns to optimize winter thermal refugia and summer food availability of salmon eggs and carcasses.

  8. Endurance training in early life results in long-term programming of heart mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Glenn D; Laker, Rhianna C; McConell, Glenn K; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Being born small for gestational age increases the risk of developing adult cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to examine if early-life exercise could increase heart mass in the adult hearts from growth restricted rats. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction in the offspring (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) was performed on day 18 of gestation in WKY rats. A separate group of sham litters had litter size reduced to five pups at birth (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Male offspring remained sedentary or underwent treadmill running from 5 to 9 weeks (early exercise) or 20 to 24 weeks of age (later exercise). Remarkably, in Control, Restricted, and Reduced litter groups, early exercise increased (P < 0.05) absolute and relative (to body mass) heart mass in adulthood. This was despite the animals being sedentary for ~4 months after exercise. Later exercise also increased adult absolute and relative heart mass (P < 0.05). Blood pressure was not significantly altered between groups or by early or later exercise. Phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473) in adulthood was increased in the early exercise groups but not the later exercise groups. Microarray gene analysis and validation by real-time PCR did not reveal any long-term effects of early exercise on the expression of any individual genes. In summary, early exercise programs the heart for increased mass into adulthood, perhaps by an upregulation of protein synthesis based on greater phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473).

  9. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  10. A systematic review of hospitalization resulting from medicine-related problems in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Aljadhey, Hisham; Aslanpour, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Aims Medicine-related problems (MRPs) represent a major issue leading to hospitalization, especially in adult and elderly patients. The aims of this review are to investigate the prevalence, causes and major risk factors for MRPs leading to hospitalization in adult patients and to identify the main medicine classes involved. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Scopus and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between January 2000 and May 2013. A systematic review was conducted of both retrospective and prospective studies. Studies included were those involving hospitalization resulting from MRPs in adults (≥18 years old), whereas studies excluded were those investigating drug misuse and abuse and studies investigating MRPs in hospitalized patients. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results Forty-five studies were identified, including 21 that investigated hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, six studies that investigated hospitalization due to adverse drug events and 18 studies that investigated hospitalization due to MRPs. The median prevalence rates of hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, adverse drug events and MRPs were 7% (interquartile range, 2.4–14.9%), 4.6% (interquartile range, 2.85–16.6%) and 12.1% (interquartile range, 6.43–22.2%), respectively. The major causes contributing to MRPs were adverse drug reactions and noncompliance. In addition, the major risk factors associated with MRPs were old age, polypharmacy and comorbidities. Moreover, the main classes of medicines implicated were medicines used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Conclusions Hospitalization due to MRPs had a high prevalence, in the range of 4.6–12.1%. Most MRPs encountered were prevalent among adult patients taking medicines for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:24283967

  11. Continued life test results for an ensemble of CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochuli, U. E.

    1981-01-01

    The life test results of five 16 low pressure CW CO2 lasers with a nominal output of 1 watt are presented. One laser quickly died while the remaining four lasers reached half power output at 38,000, 40,000, 40,000 and 40,000 hours respectively. These results show the potential for a 50,000 hour laser while the average life of the 16 tested lasers was 22,500 hours. It is further indicated that the cathode sputtering products, which settle on the glass walls of the cathode sleeve, form an increasingly heavy film as the laser ages.

  12. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  13. Enhancement of anticipatory postural adjustments in older adults as a result of a single session of ball throwing exercise.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S; Kanekar, Neeta; Lee, Yun-Ju; Ganesan, Mohan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of short-term training in improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and its effect on subsequent control of posture in older adults. Nine healthy older adults were exposed to self-initiated and predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of throwing a medicine ball. EMG activity of eight trunk and leg muscles and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after the training session. Muscle onsets and center of pressure displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The training involving throwing of a medicine ball resulted in enhancement of the generation of APAs seen as significantly early onsets of leg and trunk muscle activity prior to the bilateral arm flexion task. Significantly early activation of postural muscles observed prior to the predictable external perturbation, the task that was not a part of training, indicates the transfer of the effect of the single training session. The observed training-related improvements of APAs suggest that APA-focused rehabilitation could be effective in improving postural control, functional balance, mobility, and quality of life in the elderly.

  14. Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults With Cancer Experience: The Role of Optimism and Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Junhyoung

    2016-09-01

    Promoting health and well-being among individuals of advancing age is a significant issue due to increased incidence of cancer among older adults. This study demonstrates the benefits of expecting positive outcomes and participating in volunteer activities among older adults with cancer. We used a nationally representative sample of 2,670 individuals who have experienced cancer from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the associations of optimism, volunteerism, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The level of optimism was a significant predictor of volunteerism, which in turn affected life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The level of engagement in volunteer activities was found to have significant path coefficients toward both life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence that older adults who have experienced cancer and maintained a positive outlook on their lives and engaged in personally meaningful activities tended to experience psychological well-being and life satisfaction.

  15. Adult Education and Palliative Care: The Last Journey of Life and Two Main Kinds of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry

    1996-01-01

    As a voluntary learning movement, adult education finds expression through a search for values. Continuing and community education provide support for both hospice and palliative care workers as well as families and friends of terminally ill persons in dealing with death and dying. (SK)

  16. Asperger syndrome in childhood – personality dimensions in adult life: temperament, character and outcome trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Wallinius, Märta; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background Temperament and character have been shown to be important factors in understanding psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder. Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have repeatedly been shown to have a distinct temperament and character, but this has not been evaluated in relation to psychiatric comorbidity and ASD diagnostic stability. Aims To examine temperament and character in males that were diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed prospectively over almost two decades. Method Temperament and character were assessed in 40 adult males with a childhood diagnosis of ASD. Results were analysed by the stability of ASD diagnosis over time and current psychiatric comorbidity. Results Three distinct temperament and character profiles emerged from the data. Those no longer meeting criteria for ASD had high reward dependence while those with a stable ASD diagnosis and psychiatric comorbidity showed elevated harm avoidance and low self-directedness and cooperativeness. Finally, those with a stable ASD and no comorbidity showed low novelty seeking and somewhat elevated harm avoidance. Conclusions Temperament and character are important factors correlated with long-term diagnostic stability and psychiatric comorbidity in males diagnosed with ASD in childhood. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703778

  17. Compelling Evidence of the Need for Corporate Work/Life Balance Initiatives: Results from a National Survey of Stressful Life-Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Charles J.; Delunas, Linda; Kesic, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Considers how failure to balance excessive work and life/family demands can lead to negative consequences for both individuals and organizations, including higher stress levels, increased absenteeism, and lower productivity. Discusses results of a survey on stressful life events that offers an explanation of why work/life balance programs are so…

  18. Skills of U.S. Unemployed, Young, and Older Adults in Sharper Focus: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) 2012/2014. First Look. NCES 2016-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampey, Bobby D.; Finnegan, Robert; Goodman, Madeline; Mohadjer, Leyla; Krenzke, Tom; Hogan, Jacquie; Provasnik, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The "Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies" (PIAAC) is a cyclical, large-scale study of adult skills and life experiences focusing on education and employment. Nationally representative samples of adults between the ages of 16 and 65 are administered an assessment of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in…

  19. Dental pain related to quality of life and mental health in South Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung-Ah; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-12-01

    High levels of stress, anxiety and depression have been reported in patients with orofacial pain. Dental pain has the potential to reduce quality of life (QOL), and pain relief is important aspect of QOL. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships of dental pain with QOL and mental health using a nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 5469). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was evaluated using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS, and mental health was evaluated by questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 5469 adults, 1992 (36.42%) presented self-reported dental pain. Participants with anxiety/depression or pain/discomfort, and participants with stress, melancholy, suicidal thought or depression showed significantly higher prevalence of dental pain. After adjusting for covariates, five aspects of QOL and five aspects of mental health were related with dental pain. The AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.39 (1.06-1.81) for mobility, 1.77 (1.19-2.63) for self-care, 1.38 (1.02-1.85) for usual activities, 1.73 (1.43-2.09) for pain/discomfort and 1.50 (1.13-1.98) for anxiety/depression. For mental health status factors, the AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.29 (1.11-1.51) for stress, 1.37 (1.09-1.74) for melancholy, 1.26 (1.01-1.58) for suicidal thoughts, 1.43 (.93-2.19) for consultation to psychiatrist and 1.53 (1.07-2.19) for depression. This study showed that dental pain has an association with lower HRQOL and worse mental health status in South Korean adults.

  20. Quality of life, social situation, and sexual satisfaction, in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Thorén, Marja

    2014-09-01

    To determine quality of life (QoL) in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 30), 19-67 years old, were compared with controls (n = 32). QoL was assessed using questionnaires on general living conditions and sexual issues, and the psychological well-being index (PGWB) form. Fewer CAH males than controls were students (3 vs. 25 %, P = 0.028) and more had blue-collar work (57 vs. 33 %, P = 0.023). Patients were less interested in sports (47 vs. 72 %, P = 0.034) and art/literature/film (10 vs. 47 %, P = 0.004). PGWB total score was 82.7 ± 13.7 versus 87.0 ± 11.1 (P = NS), but hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate treated scored lower than controls and prednisolone treated. Glucocorticoid over-treated had lower QoL than those with poor control (PGWB total score 77.1 ± 13.5 vs. 92.4 ± 11.1, P = 0.026) and controls (P = 0.025). Total PGWB score was positively correlated with adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. Subscale scores indicated that patients with late diagnosis were more depressive (12.1 ± 2.8 vs. 13.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.011) and had a lower self-control (11.3 ± 3.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.0, P = 0.019) compared with controls. Sexual satisfaction was similar in spite of more patients being sexually inactive (27 vs. 6 %, P = 0.040). Adult CAH males differed from controls with respect to type of occupation and spare time interests but had similar QoL despite being less sexually active. Optimizing glucocorticoid therapy might further improve QoL. Some disadvantages found in patients diagnosed late will hopefully not be seen in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, but this has yet to be studied.

  1. Quality of life, social situation, and sexual satisfaction, in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Thorén, Marja

    2014-09-01

    To determine quality of life (QoL) in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 30), 19-67 years old, were compared with controls (n = 32). QoL was assessed using questionnaires on general living conditions and sexual issues, and the psychological well-being index (PGWB) form. Fewer CAH males than controls were students (3 vs. 25 %, P = 0.028) and more had blue-collar work (57 vs. 33 %, P = 0.023). Patients were less interested in sports (47 vs. 72 %, P = 0.034) and art/literature/film (10 vs. 47 %, P = 0.004). PGWB total score was 82.7 ± 13.7 versus 87.0 ± 11.1 (P = NS), but hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate treated scored lower than controls and prednisolone treated. Glucocorticoid over-treated had lower QoL than those with poor control (PGWB total score 77.1 ± 13.5 vs. 92.4 ± 11.1, P = 0.026) and controls (P = 0.025). Total PGWB score was positively correlated with adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. Subscale scores indicated that patients with late diagnosis were more depressive (12.1 ± 2.8 vs. 13.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.011) and had a lower self-control (11.3 ± 3.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.0, P = 0.019) compared with controls. Sexual satisfaction was similar in spite of more patients being sexually inactive (27 vs. 6 %, P = 0.040). Adult CAH males differed from controls with respect to type of occupation and spare time interests but had similar QoL despite being less sexually active. Optimizing glucocorticoid therapy might further improve QoL. Some disadvantages found in patients diagnosed late will hopefully not be seen in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, but this has yet to be studied. PMID:24408051

  2. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  3. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  4. Changes in Quality of Life Perceptions in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Comparing Survey Results from 2001 and 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allison; Kitchen, Peter; Randall, James; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in quality of life (QoL) as an integrated approach to addressing key social, environmental and economic determinants of health. The University of Saskatchewan's Community-University Institute for Social Research (CUISR) has examined the process and results of a multi-stakeholder approach to the ongoing sustainability of…

  5. Life-space mobility and social support in elderly adults with orthopaedic disorders.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Kitaike, Tadashi; Ikezaki, Sumie

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to explore relationships between life-space mobility and the related factors in elderly Japanese people who attend orthopaedic clinics. The study measures included surveys of life-space mobility (Life-space Assessment (LSA) score), social support (social network diversity and social ties), physical ability (instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, social role), orthopaedic factors (diseases and symptoms) and demographic information. The questionnaire was distributed to 156 subjects; 152 persons responded, yielding 140 valid responses. Mean age of the sample was 76.0 ± 6.4 (range, 65-96 years), with 57.9% women (n = 81). In a multiple regression analysis, the six factors were significantly associated with LSA. Standardized partial regression coefficients (β) were gender (0.342), instrumental self-maintenance (0.297), social network diversity (0.217), age (-0.170), difficulty of motion (-0.156) and intellectual activity (0.150), with an adjusted R(2) = 0.488. These results suggest that outpatient health-care providers need to intervene in not only addressing orthopaedic factors but also promoting social support among elderly Japanese.

  6. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits.

    PubMed

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J; Boyce, W Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2012-10-16

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene-environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience.

  7. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked. PMID:24216221

  8. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked.

  9. Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Anita; Matheson, Flora I.; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Pedersen, Cheryl; Borenstein, Heidi; O’Campo, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:24169410

  10. Identifying the key elements of an education package to up-skill multidisciplinary adult specialist palliative care teams caring for young adults with life-limiting conditions: an online Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Sivell, Stephanie; Lidstone, Victoria; Taubert, Mark; Thompson, Catherine; Nelson, Annmarie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To collect the views of experts to inform the development of an education package for multidisciplinary adult specialist palliative care (SPC) teams caring for young people with life-limiting conditions. Methods A modified online Delphi process collated expert opinion on format, delivery and content of an education package to up-skill adult SPC teams. Round 1 participants (n=44) answered free-text questions, generating items for Round 2. In Round 2, 68 participants rated the extent to which they agreed/disagreed with the items on 5-point Likert-type scales. Median and mean scores assessed the importance of each item. IQR scores assessed level of consensus for each item; items lacking consensus were rerated by 35 participants in Round 3. Results In the Delphi, consensus was reached on a range of suggested formats, on who should deliver the training, and on several clinical, psychosocial and practical topics. Conclusions Development of a continuous/rolling programme of education, tailored for content and mode of delivery and incorporated into working practice is recommended. As a direct outcome of the results of this study, a series of six linked study days has been established, focusing specifically on the issues around caring for young adults with life-limiting conditions and palliative care needs. PMID:24670554

  11. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  12. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging.

  13. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  14. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell-cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors.

  15. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell–cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26195764

  16. "Never Really Had a Good Education You Know, Until I Came in Here": Educational Life Histories of Young Adult Male Prisoner Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrigan, Jane; Maunsell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational life histories of nine prisoner learners aged between 18 and 21 years which were collated as part of doctoral work which sought to access the life histories of adult male prisoners who were attending a prison school while incarcerated in prison. The nine life histories of the young men were collated not only…

  17. Sensitization to early life stress and response to chemical odors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Amend, D; Peterson, J M; Stini, W A

    1994-06-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that older persons who currently report illness from environmental chemical odors (cacosmia) may have experienced higher levels of stress early in life than did noncacosmic controls. The hypothesis derives from a time-dependent sensitization (TDS) model for cacosmia (Bell et al 1992) that predicts a relative interchangeability of stress and chemicals in inducing and eliciting sensitized responses in vulnerable individuals. Subjects were selected from those in the top 24% (cacosmic) and bottom 27% (noncacosmic) of a sample of 192 older adults (mean age 73.8 years) for self-reported frequency of illness form the odors of pesticide, car exhaust, paint, perfume, and new carpet. As in previous investigations, cacosmics were younger, more depressed, and more shy; cacosmics also included a higher proportion of women (83% versus 61%). As predicted, cacosmics rated themselves higher in stress for the first four decades of their lives, but not the recent past or present, even after controlling for depression, anxiety, hostility, shyness, age, and gender. Cacosmics reported increased prevalence of physician-diagnosed nasal allergies, breast cysts, hypothyroidism, sinusitis, food sensitivities, irritable bowel, and migraine headache. Only 4% of the overall sample (including 9% of the cacosmics) acknowledged the controversial physician diagnosis of "chemical sensitivity." The replicated observation of greater shyness in cacosmics is consistent with the ability of hyperreactivity to novelty to predict enhanced susceptibility to TDS from low levels of pharmacological agents in animals. The findings support a TDS model for cacosmia and suggest that cacosmia as a symptom identifies a large subset of the nonindustrial population with significant psychophysiological health problems that merit further objective examination.

  18. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Nicole M.; Tomaszycki, Michelle L.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  19. Effects of music learning and piano practice on cognitive function, mood and quality of life in older adults.

    PubMed

    Seinfeld, Sofia; Figueroa, Heidi; Ortiz-Gil, Jordi; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2013-01-01

    Reading music and playing a musical instrument is a complex activity that comprises motor and multisensory (auditory, visual, and somatosensory) integration in a unique way. Music has also a well-known impact on the emotional state, while it can be a motivating activity. For those reasons, musical training has become a useful framework to study brain plasticity. Our aim was to study the specific effects of musical training vs. the effects of other leisure activities in elderly people. With that purpose we evaluated the impact of piano training on cognitive function, mood and quality of life (QOL) in older adults. A group of participants that received piano lessons and did daily training for 4-month (n = 13) was compared to an age-matched control group (n = 16) that participated in other types of leisure activities (physical exercise, computer lessons, painting lessons, among other). An exhaustive assessment that included neuropsychological tests as well as mood and QOL questionnaires was carried out before starting the piano program and immediately after finishing (4 months later) in the two groups. We found a significant improvement on the piano training group on the Stroop test that measures executive function, inhibitory control and divided attention. Furthermore, a trend indicating an enhancement of visual scanning and motor ability was also found (Trial Making Test part A). Finally, in our study piano lessons decreased depression, induced positive mood states, and improved the psychological and physical QOL of the elderly. Our results suggest that playing piano and learning to read music can be a useful intervention in older adults to promote cognitive reserve (CR) and improve subjective well-being. PMID:24198804

  20. Effects of music learning and piano practice on cognitive function, mood and quality of life in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Seinfeld, Sofia; Figueroa, Heidi; Ortiz-Gil, Jordi; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2013-01-01

    Reading music and playing a musical instrument is a complex activity that comprises motor and multisensory (auditory, visual, and somatosensory) integration in a unique way. Music has also a well-known impact on the emotional state, while it can be a motivating activity. For those reasons, musical training has become a useful framework to study brain plasticity. Our aim was to study the specific effects of musical training vs. the effects of other leisure activities in elderly people. With that purpose we evaluated the impact of piano training on cognitive function, mood and quality of life (QOL) in older adults. A group of participants that received piano lessons and did daily training for 4-month (n = 13) was compared to an age-matched control group (n = 16) that participated in other types of leisure activities (physical exercise, computer lessons, painting lessons, among other). An exhaustive assessment that included neuropsychological tests as well as mood and QOL questionnaires was carried out before starting the piano program and immediately after finishing (4 months later) in the two groups. We found a significant improvement on the piano training group on the Stroop test that measures executive function, inhibitory control and divided attention. Furthermore, a trend indicating an enhancement of visual scanning and motor ability was also found (Trial Making Test part A). Finally, in our study piano lessons decreased depression, induced positive mood states, and improved the psychological and physical QOL of the elderly. Our results suggest that playing piano and learning to read music can be a useful intervention in older adults to promote cognitive reserve (CR) and improve subjective well-being. PMID:24198804