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Sample records for adult lymphocyte predominant

  1. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Savage, Kerry J; Mottok, Anja; Fanale, Michelle

    2016-07-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma with distinct clinicopathologic features. It is typified by the presence of lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells, which are CD20(+) but CD15(-) and CD30(-) and are found scattered amongst small B lymphocytes arranged in a nodular pattern. Despite frequent and often late or multiple relapses, the prognosis of NLPHL is very favorable. There is an inherent risk of secondary aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and studies support that risk is highest in those with splenic involvement at presentation. Given disease rarity, the optimal management is unclear and opinions differ as to whether treatment paradigms should be similar to or differ from those for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). This review provides an overview of the existing literature describing pathological subtypes, outcome and treatment approaches for NLPHL. PMID:27496311

  2. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320–1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234–0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  3. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320-1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234-0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  4. Nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma: biology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anupama; Fan, Wen; Patel, Amit A; Devabhaktuni, Madhuri; Grossbard, Michael L

    2014-08-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon variant of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized histologically by presence of lymphohistiocytic cells which have B-cell phenotype, are positive for CD19, CD20, CD45, CD79a, BOB.1, Oct.2, and negative for CD15 and CD30. Patients often present with early stage of disease and do not have classical B symptoms. The clinical behavior appears to mimic that of an indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma more than that of classical Hodgkin disease. The purpose of the present report is to define the biology of NLPHL, review its clinical presentation, and summarize the available clinical data regarding treatment. PMID:24650975

  5. Clinical and Laboratory Differences between Lymphocyte- and Neutrophil-Predominant Pleural Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang; Kim, Sukyeon; Oh, Ki-Jong; Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Jung, Woo Jin; Shin, Beomsu; Jhun, Byung Woo; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Pleural tuberculosis (TB), a form of extrapulmonary TB, can be difficult to diagnose. High numbers of lymphocytes in pleural fluid have been considered part of the diagnostic criteria for pleural TB; however, in many cases, neutrophils rather than lymphocytes are the predominant cell type in pleural effusions, making diagnosis more complicated. Additionally, there is limited information on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of neutrophil-predominant pleural effusions caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). To investigate clinical and laboratory differences between lymphocyte- and neutrophil-predominant pleural TB, we retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with the two types of pleural TB. Of these patients, 9.5% had neutrophil-predominant pleural TB. Patients with lymphocyte-predominant and neutrophil-predominant pleural TB showed similar clinical signs and symptoms. However, neutrophil-predominant pleural TB was associated with significantly higher inflammatory serum markers, such as white blood cell count (P = 0.001) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.001). Moreover, MTB was more frequently detected in the pleural fluid from patients in the neutrophil-predominant group than the lymphocyte-predominant group, with the former group exhibiting significantly higher rates of positive results for acid-fast bacilli in sputum (36.8 versus 9.4%, P = 0.003), diagnostic yield of MTB culture (78.9% versus 22.7%, P < 0.001) and MTB detected by polymerase chain reaction (31.6% versus 5.0%, P = 0.001). Four of seven patients with repeated pleural fluid analyses revealed persistent neutrophil-predominant features, which does not support the traditional viewpoint that neutrophil-predominant pleural TB is a temporary form that rapidly develops into lymphocyte-predominant pleural TB. In conclusion, neutrophil-predominant pleural TB showed a more intense inflammatory response and a higher positive rate in microbiological testing compared to lymphocyte-predominant pleural TB

  6. Pediatric Nodular Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma: Treatment Recommendations of the GPOH-HD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Mauz-Körholz, C; Lange, T; Hasenclever, D; Burkhardt, B; Feller, A C; Dörffel, W; Kluge, R; Vordermark, D; Körholz, D

    2015-11-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (nLPHL) is a very rare disease in childhood and adolescence. In Germany, about 15 newly diagnosed patients present with this disease annually; this number comprises less than 10% of all pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma cases. Since the EuroNet-PHL-LP1 trial for early stage nLPHL patients stopped recruiting in Germany in October 2014, the GPOH-HD writing committee reviewed the literature and decided to deliver treatment recommendations for childhood and adolescent nLPHL patients. These guidelines shall be applicable to young nLPHL patients in European countries that will no longer be able to participate in nLPHL trials for young patients. Therefore, the EuroNet-PHL-nLPHL-registry will be installed to provide quality assured central review of staging and response assessment for registered patients by the Central Review Board of EuroNet-PHL in Halle/Leipzig, Germany. PMID:26356319

  7. Selective loss of B-cell phenotype in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, S; Mottok, A; Ying, J; Paterson, J C; Cui, Y; Facchetti, F; van Krieken, J H J M; Ponzoni, M; Ozkal, S; Masir, N; Natkunam, Y; Pileri, Sa; Hansmann, M-L; Mason, Dy; Tao, Q; Marafioti, T

    2007-12-01

    The neoplastic Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) are of B-cell origin but they almost always show striking loss of a range of B-cell-associated molecules. In contrast, the neoplastic cells found in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (LPHL) (L&H cells) are traditionally thought of as possessing the full repertoire of features associated with germinal centre B cells (eg BCL-6 expression, 'ongoing' Ig gene mutation). In the present paper, we report an extensive phenotypic analysis of L&H cells which revealed down-regulation of a number of markers associated with the B-cell lineage (eg CD19, CD37) and with the germinal centre maturation stage (eg PAG, LCK). The promoter methylation status of three of these down-regulated genes (CD10, CD19, and LCK) was further studied in microdissected L&H cells, and this revealed that their promoters were unmethylated. In contrast, these genes showed promoter methylation in cell lines derived from CHL. Further investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the deregulation of these molecules in L&H cells may provide new insights into the genetic abnormalities underlying LPHL. PMID:17935142

  8. Management of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Modern Era

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin T.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Link, Michael P.; Natkunam, Yasodha; Advani, Ranjana H.; Hoppe, Richard T.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment outcomes for nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) at a single institution. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed NLPHL between 1996 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients treated before 1996 were excluded because the majority received extended field radiation therapy (RT) alone. Results: Fifty-five patients (22 ≤ 21 years old) were identified. The median follow-up time was 6.8 years. Among 37 patients with limited-stage (I-II) disease, treatments included involved field RT at a median dose of 36 Gy (n=9), rituximab monotherapy (n=9), observation (n=3), and response-adaptive therapy (n=16), in which the RT dose was reduced from 25.5 Gy to 15 Gy or was eliminated based on interim imaging after chemotherapy. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 76.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.1-92.4). Nine patients experienced progression, including 5 receiving rituximab, 2 undergoing observation, and 2 receiving response-adaptive therapy. Rituximab was associated with an inferior PFS compared with RT alone (P=.02). The difference in PFS between response-adaptive therapy and RT alone was not statistically significant (P=.39). Among 18 patients with advanced-stage (III-IV) disease, treatments included chemotherapy alone (n=3), combined modality therapy (CMT) (n=2), response-adaptive therapy (n=2), rituximab (n=7), and observation (n=4). The 5-year PFS was 29.9% (CI, 13.3-67.4). Twelve patients experienced progression, including 1 receiving chemotherapy, 1 receiving CMT, 6 receiving rituximab, and 4 undergoing observation. There was no significant PFS difference between rituximab and non-rituximab therapies (P=.19) within the caveat of small sample sizes. In the entire cohort, 9 patients (3 with limited disease, 6 with advanced disease) experienced large cell transformation (LCT). Seven patients died; of those, 5 died with LCT. Conclusions: For limited disease, response-adaptive therapy

  9. Agents for refractory/relapsed acute lymphocytic leukemia in adults.

    PubMed

    Qian, L-R; Fu, W; Shen, J-L

    2014-01-01

    Although treatment results for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved considerably in the past decades, treating adult patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is still difficult. Adults with refractory/relapsed acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) processed to death rapidly associated with chemotherapy resistance, high mortality by reinduction, etc. Only 20% to 30% of those patients acquired complete remission (CR). Those patients are always of short duration unless an allogeneic stem cell transplant is feasible. Median survival is only ranging from 2 to 12 months. Therapeutic strategy on relapsed/refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is always a major therapeutic challenge bothering hematological researchers. Novel agents and unique therapeutic strategies have been developed in recent years. This review focuses on major clinical advances in the agents for refractory/relapsed ALL.

  10. Incidence, management, and outcome of high-grade transformation of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term outcomes from a 30-year experience.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Toby A; Gatter, Kevin; Collins, Graham P; Hall, Georgina W; Watson, Caroline; Hatton, Chris S R

    2015-06-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that typically presents as early stage, indolent disease in young adult males. The relationship between NLPHL and DLBCL is incompletely understood, and there remains a paucity of data with regard the incidence and management of high-grade transformation. We report the largest study to date describing the incidence, management and long-term outcome of 26 cases of high-grade transformation of NLPHL over a 30-year period. We report a transformation incidence of 17.0%. Bone marrow, splenic, and liver infiltration with DLBCL was frequent. Patients with an aa-IPI 2-3 have poorer OS and PFS (P = 0.034 and P = 0.009, respectively). Although the approach to treatment was somewhat variable, typically young, otherwise fit patients received anthracycline-based induction, platinum-based consolidation with stem cell harvesting, followed by autologous SCT with BEAM conditioning. Long-term (5 year) PFS was over 60% with this approach, and comparable to our de novo DLBCL historical age and time period-matched cohort largely treated with CHOP-like chemotherapy alone. The transformation rate of 17.0% highlights the importance of accurate initial diagnosis, long-term follow-up, and re-biopsy at relapse. PMID:25715900

  11. Intraparotid classical and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: pattern analysis with emphasis on associated lymphadenoma-like proliferations.

    PubMed

    Agaimy, Abbas; Wild, Vanessa; Märkl, Bruno; Wachter, David L; Hartmann, Arndt; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ihrler, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Most of the lymphoproliferative diseases involving the salivary glands represent indolent non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (marginal zone lymphoma) related to chronic autoimmune sialadenitis (Sjögren disease). Other types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas involve the salivary glands less frequently. On rare occasions, classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) present initially as a primary salivary gland mass. We analyzed a series of CHL (n=3) and NLPHL (n=6) presenting initially as parotid gland tumors concerning their pattern (parenchymal vs. intraparotid lymph node) and the presence of salivary inclusions and epithelial proliferations within the lymphoma infiltrate. The pattern of infiltration was determined on hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides assisted by immunostaining for pancytokeratin to highlight lobular salivary gland parenchyma. Patients included 6 male and 3 female individuals with a mean age of 62 years (range, 36 to 88 y). Lymphoma was localized within intraparotid lymph nodes in 8 cases and was limited to salivary parenchyma in 1 case. Parenchymal involvement in nodal-based cases was scored as absent (3) or minimal (5). Salivary inclusions (acini and ductules) within affected lymph nodes were noted in 6 cases (4/5 NLPHLs and 2/3 CHLs). In 3/6 NLPHL cases, salivary inclusions showed variable proliferative changes ranging from prominent lymphoepithelial lesions to cystic and oncocytic (Warthin-like) epithelial changes. Scanty small lymphoepithelial lesions were seen in 1 of the 3 CHL cases. One NLPHL in the intraparotid lymph node was accompanied by prominent lymphoepithelial sialadenitis in the absence of clinical signs of Sjögren disease. This study highlights that a majority of parotid gland Hodgkin lymphomas arise within intraparotid lymph nodes. Frequent entrapment and proliferation of salivary ducts and acini within the lymphoma infiltrate might mimic a variety of benign lymphoepithelial mass

  12. Intraparotid classical and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: pattern analysis with emphasis on associated lymphadenoma-like proliferations.

    PubMed

    Agaimy, Abbas; Wild, Vanessa; Märkl, Bruno; Wachter, David L; Hartmann, Arndt; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ihrler, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Most of the lymphoproliferative diseases involving the salivary glands represent indolent non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (marginal zone lymphoma) related to chronic autoimmune sialadenitis (Sjögren disease). Other types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas involve the salivary glands less frequently. On rare occasions, classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) present initially as a primary salivary gland mass. We analyzed a series of CHL (n=3) and NLPHL (n=6) presenting initially as parotid gland tumors concerning their pattern (parenchymal vs. intraparotid lymph node) and the presence of salivary inclusions and epithelial proliferations within the lymphoma infiltrate. The pattern of infiltration was determined on hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides assisted by immunostaining for pancytokeratin to highlight lobular salivary gland parenchyma. Patients included 6 male and 3 female individuals with a mean age of 62 years (range, 36 to 88 y). Lymphoma was localized within intraparotid lymph nodes in 8 cases and was limited to salivary parenchyma in 1 case. Parenchymal involvement in nodal-based cases was scored as absent (3) or minimal (5). Salivary inclusions (acini and ductules) within affected lymph nodes were noted in 6 cases (4/5 NLPHLs and 2/3 CHLs). In 3/6 NLPHL cases, salivary inclusions showed variable proliferative changes ranging from prominent lymphoepithelial lesions to cystic and oncocytic (Warthin-like) epithelial changes. Scanty small lymphoepithelial lesions were seen in 1 of the 3 CHL cases. One NLPHL in the intraparotid lymph node was accompanied by prominent lymphoepithelial sialadenitis in the absence of clinical signs of Sjögren disease. This study highlights that a majority of parotid gland Hodgkin lymphomas arise within intraparotid lymph nodes. Frequent entrapment and proliferation of salivary ducts and acini within the lymphoma infiltrate might mimic a variety of benign lymphoepithelial mass

  13. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia in Adults. Pathologic Features and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, Cristina; Vlădăreanu, Ana-Maria; Mihai, Felicia

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant neoplasm of the lymphocyte precursor cells. Among adults it is a relatively rare neoplasm with a curability rate around 30% at 5 years. Currently, the diagnosis and classification of ALL is a multistep procedure that relies on the simultaneous application of multiple techniques that include: cytomorphology, immunophenotype and cytogenetic assays. Some of them have important clinical implications for both diagnosis and predicting response to specific treatment regimens, while the role of others is still to be defined. Over the years, several prognostic factors have been identified and today a risk stratification at diagnosis and during the follow-up is based on the characteristics of the leukemic cells.

  14. B-cell transcription factors Pax-5, Oct-2, BOB.1, Bcl-6, and MUM1 are useful markers for the diagnosis of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Rosemarie; Teodorescu Brînzeu, D; Giubelan, Marioara; Lazăr, Elena; Dema, Alis; Ioniţă, Hortensia

    2011-01-01

    In some instances, the overlap in morphologic features and antigen expression between nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) can cause confusion in the diagnosis. In these cases, the transcription factors (TFs) B-cell specific activator protein (BSAP)/Pax-5, octamer binding protein-2 (Oct-2), B-lymphocyte-specific co-activator BOB.1/OBF.1, Bcl-6 protein and multiple myeloma-1/interferon regulatory factor-4 (MUM1/IRF-4) may aid in clarifying the diagnosis. Twenty-two cases of NLPHL were studied for the immunohistochemical expression of Pax-5, Oct-2, BOB.1, Bcl-6 protein and MUM1/IRF-4. Our results sustain the usefulness of the selected set of TFs to diagnose and distinguish NLPHL from cHL since Pax-5, Oct-2, BOB.1 and Bcl-6 are consistently expressed by lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells and reported by others to be often unexpressed in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. By contrast, MUM1/IRF-4 protein scored negative in the majority of LP cells, but is reported to be expressed in almost all cases of cHL. Thus, although the expression of transcription factors is very heterogeneous, their simultaneous implementation for positive and differential diagnosis may be useful. PMID:21424034

  15. Predominant induction of kinetochore-containing micronuclei by extracts of diesel exhaust particulates in cultured human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Odagiri, Youichi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Ken; Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo ); Jian-Xin Zhang )

    1994-01-01

    The aneuploidy-inducing activity of extracts of diesel exhaust particulates from light duty (LD) and heavy duty (HD) engines was investigated in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of 8 healthy donors using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test with the kinetochore labelling modification. A majority of the subjects tested showed a significant kinetochore-positive micronucleus induction after treatment with the highest dose (150 [mu]g/ml) of LD extract, although some subjects also showed induction of kinetochore-negative micronuclei. Only one subject had significantly increased numbers of kinetochore-positive micronuclei at a dose of 400 [mu]g/ml of HD extract. These results suggest that diesel extract, at least LD extract, possesses the ability to induce whole chromosome loss (aneuploidy) preferentially, although there are also chromosome breaks. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 protein expression in the distinction between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a proto-oncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch de-repression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827

  17. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 Protein Expression in the Distinction of Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a protooncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch derepression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827

  18. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 protein expression in the distinction between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a proto-oncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch de-repression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

  19. What's New in Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) in Adults Research?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for acute lymphocytic leukemia What’s new in acute lymphocytic leukemia research and treatment? Researchers ... have the Philadelphia chromosome. Gene expression profiling This new lab technique is being studied to help identify ...

  20. THE FREQUENCY OF T(14;18) IN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IS STABLE OVER A 2 YEAR PERIOD IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Frequency of t(14;18) in Blood Lymphocytes Is Stable over a 2 Year Period in Adults

    As part of a multi-endpoint molecular epidemiology study on in utero environmental exposures, umbilical cord and adult blood lymphocytes were examined for the frequency of t(14;18) by ...

  1. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma behaves as a distinct clinical entity with good outcome: evidence from 14-year follow-up in the West of Scotland Cancer Network.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Katrina; McKay, Pamela; Leach, Mike

    2011-10-01

    Clinically and biologically, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) has much more in common with germinal-center derived B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) than with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Management of NLPHL remains controversial. In a 14-year multicenter series, 69 cases were analyzed, and the median follow-up was 53 months (range 11-165.) B-symptoms were present in only 4.3% of patients, and 81.1% of patients had stage I/II disease. Treatment was with radiotherapy (53.6%), chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality (17.4%), and observation (7.2%). In all, 10.1% of patients relapsed and 2.9% of patients developed high-grade transformation to DLBCL. All relapses and transformations were salvageable. No patient died of their disease. The 5-year relapse-free survival was 92%, transformation-free survival 98.4%, and overall survival 100%. We conclude that NLPHL behaves as a distinct clinical entity, often presenting at an early stage without risk factors. It has an excellent outcome. It may be possible, in early-stage disease, to reduce the intensity of therapy in NLPHL, to single-modality radiotherapy, without affecting OS. PMID:21663507

  2. Biology and treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Advani, Anjali S

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of young adults (16 to 39 years of age) with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has been a focus of clinical research over the past decade. This review will focus on the biology, optimal treatment, treatment-related toxicities, and psychosocial issues in this patient population.

  3. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma Versus Those With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Population-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Atoria, Coral L.; Elkin, Elena B.; Yahalom, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is rare, comprising approximately 5% of all Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cases. Patients with NLPHL tend to have better prognoses than those with classical HL (CHL). Our goal was to assess differences in survival between NLPHL and CHL patients, controlling for differences in patient and disease characteristics. Methods and Materials: Using data from the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry program, we identified patients diagnosed with pathologically confirmed HL between 1988 and 2010. Results: We identified 1,162 patients with NLPHL and 29,083 patients with CHL. With a median follow-up of 7 years, 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 91% and 83% for NLPHL, respectively, and 81% and 74% for CHL, respectively. After adjusting for all available characteristics, NLPHL (vs CHL) was associated with higher OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62, P<.01) and disease-specific survival (DSS; HR: 0.48, P<.01). The male predominance of NLPHL, compared to CHL, as well as the more favorable prognostic features in NLPHL patients are most pronounced in NLPHL patients <20 years old. Among all NLPHL patients, younger patients were less likely to receive radiation, and radiation use has declined by 40% for all patients from 1988 to 2010. Receipt of radiation was associated with better OS (HR: 0.64, P=.03) and DSS (HR: 0.45, P=.01) in NLPHL patients after controlling for available baseline characteristics. Other factors associated with OS and DSS in NLPHL patients are younger age and early stage. Conclusions: Our results in a large population dataset demonstrated that NLPHL patients have improved prognosis compared to CHL patients, even after accounting for stage and baseline characteristics. Use of radiation is declining among NLPHL patients despite an association in this series between radiation and better DSS and OS. Unique treatment strategies for NLPHL are warranted in both

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 expression and activity in the human adult normal kidney is predominantly localized to the distal nephron.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, P; Haag, J; Câmpean, V; Goldschmeding, R; Atalla, A; Amann, K; Aigner, T

    2006-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP)-7 plays an important role during fetal kidney development. In the adult, BMP-7 is most strongly expressed in the kidney compared to other organs, but the exact expression pattern as well as the function of BMP-7 is unclear. The major aim of the present study was to define which parts of the human kidney do physiologically express BMP-7 and which cells appear to be targets of BMP activity by showing phosphorylated BMP-receptor-associated Smads 1, 5, or 8 and inhibitor of differentiation factor 1 (ID1) expression. BMP-7 expression was localized by immunohistology to the epithelia of the distal tubule as well as the collecting ducts (CDs). Phospho-Smads 1/5/8 and ID1 expression largely colocalized with BMP-7 and was also localized in the epithelia of the distal tubule and the CDs. This was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-based mRNA expression analysis. In vitro, proximal tubular cells (PTCs) expressed BMP receptors and BMP-receptor-associated Smads and were reactive to BMP-7. Our data indicate that BMP-7 expression in the adult human kidney appears to be more restricted than in the fetal situation and predominantly found in the distal nephron. Also, evidence of in vivo BMP signalling (i.e. phospho-Smads and ID1 expression) was found there. These findings suggest that BMP-7 plays a physiological role mostly in this part of the kidney. Still, as reported previously, PTCs are responsive to BMP-7, but presumably not in an autocrine or paracrine mode in normal adult kidneys. PMID:16807538

  5. [Expression and clinical significance of caudal type homeobox transcription factor-2 in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Xia, Hai-Long; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Zhu, Li-Xin; Wang, Qing-Yi; Cheng, Xin

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression and clinical significance of CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 genes in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Expressions of CDX1, CDX2, and CDX4 in 51 adult acute lymphocytic leukemia patients and 14 healthy subjects were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 were not expressed in 14 healthy persons and 15 CR ALL patients, the positive expression rate of CDX2 gene in de novo ALL patients was 60.8%, while it obviously decreased in patients with complete remission (CR) (p < 0.05); the expression of CDX2 was increased again in relapsed patients (81.8%). When the expression of CDX2 was analyzed in different risk groups of ALL patients, the CDX2 expression rate in high risk (HR) patients was 91.7%, and that in the standard risk (SR) group was 45.7%. Furthermore, analyses of CDX1 and CDX4 expression in series of ALL samples did not show the expression of these genes. In patients with adult ALL at diagnosis and relapse, the CR rate of patients with CDX2 positive expression was lower than that of patients with CDX2 negative expression (p < 0.05). The median survival time in CDX2 positive expression patients was shorter than that in negative expression patient. It is concluded that expression of CDX2 may correlated with pathogenesis and relapse of adult ALL, but the expression of CDX1 and CDX4 don' t associated with pathogenesis and relapse of adult ALL; the CR rate and prognosis of patients with CDX2 positive expression is lower and poor. The expression of CDX2 may be used as a marker for occurrence, relapse and poor prognosis of adult ALL patients.

  6. [Reference intervals for peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in healthy adults in Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Cóndor, José M; Álvarez, Marco; Cano, Luis; Matos, Edgar; Leiva, Christian; Paredes, José A

    2013-04-01

    In order to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (PBL) in healthy adults in Lima (Peru), a cross-sectional study was conducted among blood donors taken in between 2011 and 2012. Based on the criteria obtained from the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI C28-A3), 318 samples were processed, 61.9% (197/318) coming from male donors. For PBL count, a flow cytometer with a simple platform was used. The RIs are established for each PBL in adults based on sex with their respective reference limits and 90% confidence intervals. Differences were found in CD3+ percentage counts (p=0.001) and in CD3-CD56+ absolute (p=0.003) and percentage counts (p?0.001). The RIs found are different to those described in studies conducted in other countries due to the characteristics of the population and the study model.

  7. [Reference intervals for peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in healthy adults in Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Cóndor, José M; Álvarez, Marco; Cano, Luis; Matos, Edgar; Leiva, Christian; Paredes, José A

    2013-04-01

    In order to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (PBL) in healthy adults in Lima (Peru), a cross-sectional study was conducted among blood donors taken in between 2011 and 2012. Based on the criteria obtained from the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI C28-A3), 318 samples were processed, 61.9% (197/318) coming from male donors. For PBL count, a flow cytometer with a simple platform was used. The RIs are established for each PBL in adults based on sex with their respective reference limits and 90% confidence intervals. Differences were found in CD3+ percentage counts (p=0.001) and in CD3-CD56+ absolute (p=0.003) and percentage counts (p?0.001). The RIs found are different to those described in studies conducted in other countries due to the characteristics of the population and the study model. PMID:23949508

  8. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    PubMed

    Truskaite, Kotryna; Dlugosz, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17-96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI.

  9. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction

    PubMed Central

    Truskaite, Kotryna

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17–96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  10. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    PubMed

    Truskaite, Kotryna; Dlugosz, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17-96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  11. Case-based discussion: Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia a rare presentation in an immunocompetent adult male

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Ajay; Vyas, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ghatavat, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease usually associated with other systemic diseases; however, idiopathic cases are being reported. As per recent ATS/ERS 2013 guidelines, diagnostic criteria of clinical, radiological and histopathological for LIP is same as 2002 except some cystic changes on HRCT chest. Many cases diagnosed in the past as LIP now turn out to be NSIP; therefore as per new ATS/ERS classification whenever anybody report a case of LIP, NSIP should always be kept in mind as differential diagnosis. Here we present a case of LIP in an immunocompetent adult male presented with history of persistent dry cough and breathlessness on exertion, confirmed on HRCT chest and histopathologically, treated successfully with steroids. PMID:26628770

  12. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in fetal, newborn, and young adult Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed Central

    Parker, J C; Igel, H J; Reynolds, R K; Lewis, A M; Rowe, W P

    1976-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in fetal, newborn, and young adult hamsters was studied. Infected newborn hamsters initially developed a persistent viremia and viruria with titers often in excess of 10(4.0) mean infectious doses/0.03 ml of blood or urine. After week 12 two different patterns of infection became evident. Approximately one-half of the hamsters eventually cleared the infection, whereas the others developed a chronic progressive and ultimalely fatal disease characterized by continuous high-titered viremia and viruria and high titers of virus in their tissues. Complement-fixing antibody and, to a lesser degree, virus-neutralizing antibody coexisted with the viremia. Hamsters with persistently high levels of viremia and viruria developed chronic glomerulonephritis and widespread vasculitis, whereas hamsters that cleared their infections did not develop these lesions. Litters of hamsters born to viremic mothers were invariably infected. Litter sizes were small and breeding effectiveness was reduce; however, vertical, congenital infection was successfully passed through three generations. The course of infection in the congenitally infected hamsters was similar to that in newborn infected hamsters, with all animals producing complement-fixing antibody, some animals being capable of clearing the viremia and remaining healthy, and other animals having persistent viremia and fatal disease. Inoculated young adult hamsters did not become diseased, developed viremia and viruria which persisted up to 3 and 6 months, respectively, and developed complement-fixing antibody by 10 days after infection. The prolonged urinary excretion of large amounts of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by asymptomatic, chronically infected hamsters is an important public health consideration when dealing with potential human infection. Images PMID:1270139

  13. ELT-2 Is the Predominant Transcription Factor Controlling Differentiation and Function of the C. elegans Intestine, from Embryo to Adult

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, James D.; Fukushige, Tetsunari; Krause, Michael W.; Minnema, Stephanie E.; Goszczynski, Barbara; Gaudet, Jeb; Kohara, Yuji; Bossinger, Olaf; Zhao, Yongjun; Khattra, Jaswinder; Hirst, Martin; Jones, Steven J.M.; Marra, Marco A.; Ruzanov, Peter; Warner, Adam; Zapf, Richard; Moerman, Donald G.; Kalb, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with SAGE-libraries prepared from C. elegans FAC-sorted embryonic intestine cells (8E-16E cell stage), from total embryos and from purified oocytes, and taking advantage of the NextDB in situ hybridization data base, we define sets of genes highly expressed from the zygotic genome, and expressed either exclusively or preferentially in the embryonic intestine or in the intestine of newly hatched larvae; we had previously defined a similarly expressed set of genes from the adult intestine. We show that an extended TGATAA-like sequence is essentially the only candidate for a cis-acting regulatory motif common to intestine genes expressed at all stages. This sequence is a strong ELT-2 binding site and matches the sequence of GATA-like sites found to be important for the expression of every intestinal gene so far analyzed experimentally. We show that the majority of these three sets of highly expressed intestinal-specific/intestinal-enriched genes respond strongly to ectopic expression of ELT-2 within the embryo. By flow-sorting elt-2(null) larvae from elt-2(+) larvae and then preparing Solexa/Illumina-SAGE libraries, we show that the majority of these genes also respond strongly to loss-of-function of ELT-2. To test the consequences of loss of other transcription factors identified in the embryonic intestine, we develop a strain of worms that is RNAi-sensitive only in the intestine; however, we are unable (with one possible exception) to identify any other transcription factor whose intestinal loss-of-function causes a phenotype of comparable severity to the phenotype caused by loss of ELT-2. Overall, our results support a model in which ELT-2 is the predominant transcription factor in the post-specification C. elegans intestine and participates directly in the transcriptional regulation of the majority (> 80%) of intestinal genes. We present evidence that ELT-2 plays a central role in most aspects of C. elegans intestinal physiology: establishing the

  14. Predominant expression of circulating CD3+ lymphocytes bearing gamma T cell receptor in a prolonged immunodeficiency after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vilmer, E; Guglielmi, P; David, V; Leca, G; Rabian, C; Degos, L; Boiron, M; Bensussan, A

    1988-09-01

    The cell surface expression of alpha:beta heterodimer was studied using WT31 monoclonal antibody, in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from a patient who developed a prolonged immunodeficiency after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. This patient, grafted for chronic myelogenous leukemia, received T cell depleted bone marrow from her HLA, A, B, D matched sibling. The late occurrence of opportunistic infection, led us to analyze the phenotype of patient PBL. 70% of PBL were CD3+ and 29% WT31+, indicating that the majority of CD3+ PBL did not express the alpha:beta heterodimer. Transcription of the genes encoding the alpha, beta, and gamma chains was assessed in cell lines derived from PBL, by Northern blot analysis. We showed that the CD3+ WT31- subset expressed a truncated, beta mRNA (1.0 kb) and also truncated alpha transcript (1.4 kb). To determine the CD3-associated structure on CD3+ WT31- cell line, immunoprecipitation assays were performed using monoclonal anti-CD3 and an hetero antiserum against gamma peptides. These CD3+ WT31- cells expressed a disulfide linked dimer, composed of products of gamma gene (37 kD, 40 kD) and of undefined delta chain (45 kD). Functional analyses were performed in PBL before and after sorting with WT31 and anti-CD3 antibody. These circulating CD3+ WT31- cells were unable to proliferate when triggered with anti-T3 beads and they seemed to mediate a suppressor activity on CD3+ WT31+ cells.

  15. Predominant expression of circulating CD3+ lymphocytes bearing gamma T cell receptor in a prolonged immunodeficiency after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Vilmer, E; Guglielmi, P; David, V; Leca, G; Rabian, C; Degos, L; Boiron, M; Bensussan, A

    1988-01-01

    The cell surface expression of alpha:beta heterodimer was studied using WT31 monoclonal antibody, in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from a patient who developed a prolonged immunodeficiency after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. This patient, grafted for chronic myelogenous leukemia, received T cell depleted bone marrow from her HLA, A, B, D matched sibling. The late occurrence of opportunistic infection, led us to analyze the phenotype of patient PBL. 70% of PBL were CD3+ and 29% WT31+, indicating that the majority of CD3+ PBL did not express the alpha:beta heterodimer. Transcription of the genes encoding the alpha, beta, and gamma chains was assessed in cell lines derived from PBL, by Northern blot analysis. We showed that the CD3+ WT31- subset expressed a truncated, beta mRNA (1.0 kb) and also truncated alpha transcript (1.4 kb). To determine the CD3-associated structure on CD3+ WT31- cell line, immunoprecipitation assays were performed using monoclonal anti-CD3 and an hetero antiserum against gamma peptides. These CD3+ WT31- cells expressed a disulfide linked dimer, composed of products of gamma gene (37 kD, 40 kD) and of undefined delta chain (45 kD). Functional analyses were performed in PBL before and after sorting with WT31 and anti-CD3 antibody. These circulating CD3+ WT31- cells were unable to proliferate when triggered with anti-T3 beads and they seemed to mediate a suppressor activity on CD3+ WT31+ cells. Images PMID:3047169

  16. [Mutation and expression of LEF1 in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia and their clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Xing; Ge, Zheng; Zhang, Run; Xu, Jing-Yan; Li, Min; Wu, Yu-Jie; Qiao, Chun; Qiu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Jian-Fu; Li, Jian-Yong

    2014-10-01

    Lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) is a key transcription factor in Wingless-type (Wnt) pathway. The present study was aimed to explore the genetic mutation and expression of LEF1, and their clinical significance in adult patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Genomic DNA was amplified and sequenced to detect the mutation of LEF1 in 131 newly diagnosed adult patients with ALL. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of LEF1. Moreover, the correlations between mutations and expression of LEF1 with clinical characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that the frequency of LEF1 mutation in adult ALL was 3.1% (4/131) and all of them were point mutations located in exon 2 and 3; the median white blood cell count and median percentage of blasts at diagnosis were significantly higher in LEF1 high expression group than in low expression group (70.6 × 10⁹/L vs 26.2 × 10⁹/L)(P = 0.010); (81.0% vs 57.0%) (P = 0.014); in addition, the percentage of patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive and patients in high-risk group significantly increased in LEF1 high expression group compared with that in low expression group (66.7% vs 36.5%) (P = 0.038); (79.2% vs 56.2%) (P = 0.044). It is concluded that high expression of LEF1 may play an important role on development of adult ALL.

  17. Radiation Sensitivity of Human CD34(+) Cells Versus Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes of Newborns and Adults: DNA Repair and Mutagenic Effects.

    PubMed

    Vandevoorde, C; Vral, A; Vandekerckhove, B; Philippé, J; Thierens, H

    2016-06-01

    As hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) self-renew throughout life, accumulation of genomic alterations can potentially give rise to radiation carcinogenesis. In this study we examined DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and repair as well as mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation in CD34(+) cells and T lymphocytes from the umbilical cord of newborns. The age dependence of DNA damage repair end points was investigated by comparing newborn T lymphocytes with adult peripheral blood T lymphocytes. As umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains T lymphocytes that are practically all phenotypically immature, we examined the radiation response of separated naive (CD45RA(+)) and memory (CD45RO(+)) T lymphocytes. The number of DNA DSBs was assessed by microscopic scoring of γ-H2AX/53BP1 foci 0.5 h after low-dose radiation exposure, while DNA repair was studied by scoring the number of residual γ-H2AX/53BP1 foci 24 h after exposure. Mutagenic effects were studied by the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. No significant differences in the number of DNA DSBs induced by low-dose (100-200 mGy) radiation were observed among the three different cell types. However, residual γ-H2AX/53BP1 foci levels 24 h postirradiation were significantly lower in CD34(+) cells compared to newborn T lymphocytes, while newborn T lymphocytes showed significantly higher foci yields than adult T lymphocytes. No significant differences in the level of radiation-induced micronuclei at 2 Gy were observed between CD34(+) cells and newborn T lymphocytes. However, newborn T lymphocytes showed a significantly higher number of micronuclei compared to adult T lymphocytes. These results confirm that CD34(+) cell quiescence promotes mutagenesis after exposure. Furthermore, we can conclude that newborn peripheral T lymphocytes are significantly more radiosensitive than adult peripheral T lymphocytes. Using the results from the comparative study of radiation-induced DNA damage repair end

  18. Mitoxantrone and cytosine arabinoside in previously untreated adult patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Osman, I; Akin, U; Ismet, A; Meral, B; Hamdi, A; Haluk, K

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five adult patients with previously untreated acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were treated with mitoxantrone (Mto) 12 mg/m2 daily by 30 minutes intravenous (IV) infusion for 3 days and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) 200 mg/m2 daily by continuous infusion for 7 days, as an induction therapy. After complete remission (CR) was observed, they were given two more courses of consolidation therapy which was as Mto 12 mg/m2 daily by 30 minutes IV infusion for one day, and Ara-C 200 mg/m2 daily by 30 minutes IV infusion for 5 days. CR was obtained in 18 of 25 patients (72%). Median remission duration was 294 days and length of survival was 366 days. 11 patients (44%) are still in remission. Myelosupression developed in all patients following induction therapy, but it was not observed after consolidation therapies. Non-hematological side-effects consisted of nausea, vomiting, alopecia, stomatitis, and transient elevation in liver enzymes. Our therapeutic responses are similar to those obtained by others. PMID:14651226

  19. Comparative study of quality of life of adult survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia and Wilms’ tumor

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Clélia Marta Casellato; Cristofani, Lilian Maria; Cornacchioni, Ana Lucia Beltrati; Odone, Vicente; Kuczynski, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyze and compare the health-related quality of life of adult survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia and Wilms’ tumor amongst themselves and in relation to healthy participants. Methods Ninety participants aged above 18 years were selected and divided into three groups, each comprising 30 individuals. The Control Group was composed of physically healthy subjects, with no cancer history; and there were two experimental groups: those diagnosed as acute lymphocytic leukemia, and those as Wilms’ Tumor. Quality of life was assessed over the telephone, using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Results Male survivors presented with better results as compared to female survivors and controls in the Vitality domain, for acute lymphocytic leukemia (p=0.042) and Wilms’ tumor (p=0.013). For acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors, in Social aspects (p=0.031), Mental health (p=0.041), and Emotional aspects (p=0.040), the latter also for survivors of Wilms’ tumor (p=0.040). The best results related to the Functional capacity domain were recorded for the experimental group that had a late diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. There were significant differences between groups except for the Social and Emotional domains for self-perceived health, with positive responses that characterized their health as good, very good, and excellent. Conclusion Survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia showed no evidence of relevant impairment of health-related quality of life. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (via telephone) can be a resource to access and evaluate survivors. PMID:26537509

  20. Serum immunoglobulins and lymphocyte subset distributions in children and adults living in communities assessed for lead and cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sarasua, S.M.; Vogt, R.F.; Henderson, L.O.; Jones, P.A.; Lybarger, J.A.

    2000-05-12

    This study assessed the impact of environmental cadmium and lead exposure on the immune system of more than 2,000 children and adults. Serum immunoglobulins [immunoglobulins (lg) A, G, and M] and peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotypes (T cells, B cells, NK cells, and CD4/CD8 subsets) were measured in a total of 2041 children and adults who lived either in sites with elevated soil levels of cadmium and lead (n = 1,561) or in comparison communities (n = 480). The blood lead and urine cadmium levels of participants were somewhat higher than national average mean blood lead levels were 7 {micro}g/dl for participants aged 6--35 mo; 6 {micro}g/dl for participants aged 36--71 mo, 4 {micro}g/dl for participants aged 6--15 yr; and 4.3 {micro}g/dl for participants aged 16--75 yr. Multivariate analysis indicated no marked differences in any of the immune marker distributions attributed to lead for adults or children over 3 yr of age. However, in children under age 3, increased blood lead levels, principally those over 15 {micro}g/dl were associated with increases in IgA, IgC, IgM, and circulating B/lymphocytes. Youth adults urine cadmium levels over 1.5 {micro}g/g were associated with higher levels of IgA and circulating B.

  1. The use of simplified verbal autopsy in identifying causes of adult death in a predominantly rural population in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lulu, Kidest; Berhane, Yemane

    2005-01-01

    Background Information on adult mortality is essentially non-existent in Ethiopia particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying causes of adult death in a rural population of Ethiopia using a simplified verbal autopsy instrument. Methods All deaths in the age-group 15–49 years during the period of 1995–99 were taken from computerized demographic surveillance database maintained by the Butajira Rural Health Program. Data on the causes of death were collected from close relatives of the deceased persons by lay interviewers. Causes of death were diagnosed using "expert algorithm" programmed onto a computer. Results The major causes of death were acute febrile illnesses (25.2%), liver diseases (11.3%), diarrheal diseases (11.1%), tuberculosis (9.7%) and HIV/AIDS (7.4%). Overall communicable diseases accounted for 60.8% of the deaths. The high levels of mortality from communicable diseases reflect the poor socioeconomic development of the country, and the general poor coverage of health and education services in rural Ethiopia. The tools used in this study can easily be added-on to the numerous health surveys conducted in the country. Conclusion The simplified approach to verbal autopsy diagnosis can produce useful data that can effectively guide priority health interventions in rural areas where routine information system is either very weak or non-existent. PMID:15935096

  2. Adjunctive lisdexamfetamine dimesylate therapy in adult outpatients with predominant negative symptoms of schizophrenia: open-label and randomized-withdrawal phases.

    PubMed

    Lasser, Robert A; Dirks, Bryan; Nasrallah, Henry; Kirsch, Courtney; Gao, Joseph; Pucci, Michael L; Knesevich, Mary A; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia (NSS), related to hypodopaminergic activity in the mesocortical pathway and prefrontal cortex, are predictive of poor outcomes and have no effective treatment. Use of dopamine-enhancing drugs (eg, psychostimulants) has been limited by potential adverse effects. This multicenter study examined lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a d-amphetamine prodrug, as adjunctive therapy to antipsychotics in adults with clinically stable schizophrenia and predominant NSS. Outpatients with stable schizophrenia, predominant NSS, limited positive symptoms, and maintained on stable atypical antipsychotic therapy underwent a 3-week screening, 10-week open-label adjunctive LDX (20-70 mg/day), and 4-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled withdrawal. Efficacy measures included a modified Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS-18) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscale scores. Ninety-two participants received open-label LDX; 69 received double-blind therapy with placebo (n=35) or LDX (n=34). At week 10 (last observation carried forward; last open-label visit), mean (95% confidence interval) change in SANS-18 scores was -12.9 (-15.0, -10.8; P<0.0001). At week 10, 52.9% of participants demonstrated a minimum of 20% reduction from baseline in SANS-18 score. Open-label LDX was also associated with significant improvement in PANSS total and subscale scores. During the double-blind/randomized-withdrawal phase, no significant differences (change from randomization baseline) were found between placebo and LDX in SANS-18 or PANSS subscale scores. In adults with clinically stable schizophrenia, open-label LDX appeared to be associated with significant improvements in negative symptoms without positive symptom worsening. Abrupt LDX discontinuation was not associated with positive or negative symptom worsening. Confirmation with larger controlled trials is warranted. PMID:23756608

  3. Restricted use of fetal VH3 immunoglobulin genes by unselected B cells in the adult. Predominance of 56p1-like VH genes in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Berberian, L; King, L; Sanz, I; Govan, H L

    1992-05-01

    The large VH3 family of human immunoglobulin genes is commonly used throughout B cell ontogeny. However, B cells of the fetus and certain autoantibody-producing clones are restricted to a recurrent subset of VH3 genes, and VH3 B cells are deficient in certain immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we have sequenced a set of rearranged VH3 genes generated by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from normal adults and those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI). In both groups, all cones were readily identifiable with the fetal VH3 subset, and were further distinguished by limited DH motifs and exclusive use of JH4. In CVI, the residual population of VH3 B cells were notable for predominant use of 56p1-like VH genes. All clones displayed sequence divergence (including somatic mutation) with evidence of strong selection against complementarity-determining region (CDR) coding change. A survey of other V gene families indicates that human V gene diversity may be restricted in general by germline mechanisms. These findings suggest that the expressed antibody repertoire in the human adult may be much smaller than anticipated, and selected by processes in part distinct from the paradigm of maximal antigen-binding diversity.

  4. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... key statistics about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... leukemias). The rest of this document focuses on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults. For information on ALL in ...

  5. Caspase-8 Deficiency Presenting as Late-Onset Multi-Organ Lymphocytic Infiltration with Granulomas in two Adult Siblings.

    PubMed

    Niemela, Julie; Kuehn, Hye Sun; Kelly, Corin; Zhang, Mingchang; Davies, Joie; Melendez, Jose; Dreiling, Jennifer; Kleiner, David; Calvo, Katherine; Oliveira, João B; Rosenzweig, Sergio D

    2015-05-01

    Caspase-8 deficiency (CED) was originally described in 2002 in two pediatric patients presenting with clinical manifestations resembling autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) accompanied by infections, and T, B and NK cell defects. Since then, no new CED patients were published. Here we report two adult siblings (Pt1 and Pt2) presenting in their late thirties with pulmonary hypertension leading to lung transplant (Pt1), and a complex neurological disease leading to multiple cranial nerves palsies (Pt2) as their main manifestations. A thorough clinical and immunological evaluation was performed at the Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic at NIH, followed by whole exome sequencing. The patients had multiorgan lymphocytic infiltration and granulomas, as well as clinical signs of immune deficiency/ immune dysregulation. Both siblings carried homozygous mutations in CASP8, c.1096C > T, p.248R > W. This was the same mutation described on the previously published CED patients, to whom these new patients were likely distantly related. We report two new CED patients presenting during adulthood with life-threatening end-organ lymphocyte infiltrates affecting the lungs, liver, spleen, bone marrow and central nervous system. This phenotype broadens the clinical spectrum of manifestations associated with this disease and warrants the search of CASP8 mutations in other cohorts of patients. PMID:25814141

  6. Caffeic acid treatment alters the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets and lymphocytes of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Javed; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Gutierres, Jessié; Thomé, Gustavo; Cardoso, Andreia; Zanini, Daniela; Martins, Caroline; Palma, Heloisa Einloft; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Schmatz, Roberta; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; da Costa, Pauline; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of caffeic acid on ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase), Ecto-NPP (nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in platelets and lymphocytes of rats, as well as in the profile of platelet aggregation. Animals were divided into five groups: I (control); II (oil); III (caffeic acid 10 mg/kg); IV (caffeic acid 50 mg/kg); and V (caffeic acid 100 mg/kg). Animals were treated with caffeic acid diluted in oil for 30 days. In platelets, caffeic acid decreased the ATP hydrolysis and increased ADP hydrolysis in groups III, IV and V when compared to control (P<0.05). The 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased, while E-NPP and ADA activities were increased in platelets of rats of groups III, IV and V (P<0.05). Caffeic acid reduced significantly the platelet aggregation in the animals of groups III, IV and V in relation to group I (P<0.05). In lymphocytes, the NTPDase and ADA activities were increased in all groups treated with caffeic acid when compared to control (P<0.05). These findings demonstrated that the enzymes were altered in tissues by caffeic acid and this compound decreased the platelet aggregation suggesting that caffeic acid should be considered a potentially therapeutic agent in disorders related to the purinergic system.

  7. Prenatal ontogeny of lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sinkora, M; Sinkora, J; Reháková, Z; Splíchal, I; Yang, H; Parkhouse, R M; Trebichavsk, I

    1998-01-01

    Although porcine lymphocytes have been classified into numerous subpopulations in postnatal animals, little is known about the ontogeny of these complex cell subsets. Using double- and triple-colour flow cytometry (FCM), we investigated the surface phenotype of fetal lymphoid cells in the thymus, cord blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes at different stages of gestation. It was found that the major lymphocyte subpopulations started to appear at the beginning of the second third of the gestation period, with B cells being the earliest lymphocyte subpopulation to appear in the periphery. The T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma delta+ cells were the earliest detectable T-cell subset, developing first in the thymus and subsequently arriving in the periphery. Later in ontogeny, however, the number of TCRalpha beta+ lymphocytes rapidly increased, becoming the predominant T cells both in the thymus and in the periphery. Cells with the phenotype of adult natural killer cells were also identified in pig fetuses, though their nature and functional roles remain to be investigated. In addition, CD2 was expressed on most B cells whilst very few CD4+ TCRalpha beta+ cells or CD2+ TCRgamma delta+ cells expressed CD8, suggesting that the expression of CD2 and CD8 may reflect the functional status of the cells in postnatal animals. Taken together, this study has provided a systematic analysis of fetal porcine lymphocyte subpopulations and may provide the base for studies to establish the physiological roles of these lymphocyte subsets. PMID:9893051

  8. Selective IgM deficiency in adults: phenotypically and functionally altered profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, T; Inaba, M; Kuribayashi, K; Masuda, T; Kanoh, T; Uchino, H

    1987-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from four patients with selective IgM deficiency were examined phenotypically and functionally. Although B cell subpopulations determined by surface immunoglobulins were within normal or nearly normal range, T8+ cells were significantly increased and T4/T8 ratios were inverted in three patients. IgM specific hyporesponsiveness in the PWM-driven immunoglobulin production system was observed in all four patients. Ia-like antigen positive T cells were increased in two patients; both had increased Leu2a+ Leu15+ suppressor-effector cells. In addition, Leu3a+ Leu8+ suppressor-inducer cells were increased in one of these two patients. Excessive (either IgM-specific or isotype non-specific) suppressor activity of T cells and IgM specific hyporesponsiveness of non-T cells were observed in these two patients in the recombination plaque assay. Although these results showed the complexity of the pathogenesis of this syndrome, they suggested that suppressor-associated T cells may play a role in some patients with selective IgM deficiency. PMID:2958191

  9. Monoclonal B lymphocytes with the characteristics of "indolent" chronic lymphocytic leukemia are present in 3.5% of adults with normal blood counts.

    PubMed

    Rawstron, Andy C; Green, Michael J; Kuzmicki, Anita; Kennedy, Ben; Fenton, James A L; Evans, Paul A S; O'Connor, Sheila J M; Richards, Stephen J; Morgan, Gareth J; Jack, Andrew S; Hillmen, Peter

    2002-07-15

    Molecular and cellular markers associated with malignant disease are frequently identified in healthy individuals. The relationship between these markers and clinical disease is not clear, except where a neoplastic cell population can be identified as in myeloma/monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS). We have used the distinctive phenotype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells to determine whether low levels of these cells can be identified in individuals with normal complete blood counts. CLL cells were identified by 4-color flow cytometric analysis of CD19/CD5/CD79b/CD20 expression in 910 outpatients over 40 years old. These outpatients were age- and sex-matched to the general population with normal hematologic parameters and no evident history of malignant disease. CLL phenotype cells were detectable in 3.5% of individuals at low level (median, 0.013; range, 0.002- 1.458 x 10(9) cells/L), and represented a minority of B lymphocytes (median, 11%; range, 3%-95%). Monoclonality was demonstrated by immunoglobulin light-chain restriction in all cases with CLL phenotype cells present and confirmed in a subset of cases by consensus-primer IgH-polymerase chain reaction. As in clinical disease, CLL phenotype cells were detected with a higher frequency in men (male-to-female ratio, 1.9:1) and elderly individuals (2.1% of 40- to 59-year-olds versus 5.0% of 60- to 89-year-olds, P =.01). The neoplastic cells were identical to good-prognosis CLL, being CD5+23+20(wk)79b(wk)11a(-)22(wk)sIg(wk)CD38-, and where assessed had a high degree (4.8%-6.6%) of IgH somatic hypermutation. The monoclonal CLL phenotype cells present in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a very early stage of indolent CLL and should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of leukemogenesis.

  10. Frequencies of Virus-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocytes Secreting Gamma Interferon after Acute Natural Rotavirus Infection in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes, María C.; Rojas, Olga Lucía; González, Ana María; Cajiao, Isabela; Charpilienne, Annie; Pothier, Pierre; Kohli, Evelyne; Greenberg, Harry B.; Franco, Manuel A.; Angel, Juana

    2002-01-01

    Human rotavirus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied using a flow cytometric assay that detects the intracellular accumulation of cytokines after short-term in vitro antigen stimulation. The frequencies of virus-specific T cells that secrete gamma interferon and interleukin-13 (IL-13) were determined in adults and children during the acute or convalescent phase of rotavirus-induced diarrhea, in asymptomatically infected adults and laboratory workers who worked with human stool samples containing rotavirus, and in healthy adults. Significantly higher frequencies of rotavirus-specific interferon gamma-secreting CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, but not IL-13-secreting T cells, were detected in symptomatically infected adults and exposed laboratory workers than in healthy adults and children with acute rotavirus diarrhea. The levels of rotavirus-specific T cells returned to levels found in healthy adults by 32 days after the onset of rotavirus diarrhea in most adult subjects. Children with rotavirus diarrhea had undetectable or very low levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that secrete gamma interferon. Adult cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals had frequencies of cytomegalovirus-specific T cells that secrete gamma interferon that were approximately 20 times the level of rotavirus-specific T cells. This result suggests that rotavirus is a relatively poor inducer of circulating memory T cells that secrete gamma interferon. The frequencies of gamma interferon-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the frequencies of IL-13-secreting CD4+ T cells responding to the T-cell superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were lower in children than in adults. In both adults and children, the frequencies of CD4+ cells secreting gamma interferon in response to SEB were higher than the frequencies of cells secreting IL-13. PMID:11967291

  11. The lymphocyte secretome from young adults enhances skeletal muscle proliferation and migration, but effects are attenuated in the secretome of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Sarah; McPhee, Jamie S; Murgatroyd, Christopher; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Stewart, Claire E; Al-Shanti, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Older people experience skeletal muscle wasting, in part due to impaired proliferative capacity of quiescent skeletal muscle satellite cells which can be reversed by exposure to young blood. To investigate the role of immune cells in muscle regeneration, we isolated lymphocytes from whole blood of young and older healthy volunteers and cultured them with, or without, anti-CD3/CD28 activators to induce release of cytokines, interleukins, and growth factors into the media. The secreted proteins were collected to prepare a conditioned media, which was subsequently used to culture C2C12 myoblasts. The conditioned media from the activated young lymphocytes increased the rate of proliferation of myoblasts by around threefold (P < 0.005) and caused an approximate fourfold (P < 0.005) increase in migration compared with nonactivated lymphocyte control media. These responses were characterized by minimal myotube formation (2%), low fusion index (5%), low myosin heavy chain content, and substantial migration. In contrast, myoblasts treated with conditioned media from activated old lymphocytes exhibited a high degree of differentiation, and multi-nucleated myotube formation that was comparable to control conditions, thus showing no effect on proliferation or migration of myoblasts. These results indicate that secreted proteins from lymphocytes of young people enhance the muscle cell proliferation and migration, whereas secreted proteins from lymphocytes of older people may contribute to the attenuated skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and migration. PMID:26603449

  12. The lymphocyte secretome from young adults enhances skeletal muscle proliferation and migration, but effects are attenuated in the secretome of older adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, Sarah; McPhee, Jamie S; Murgatroyd, Christopher; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Stewart, Claire E; Al-Shanti, Nasser

    2015-11-01

    Older people experience skeletal muscle wasting, in part due to impaired proliferative capacity of quiescent skeletal muscle satellite cells which can be reversed by exposure to young blood. To investigate the role of immune cells in muscle regeneration, we isolated lymphocytes from whole blood of young and older healthy volunteers and cultured them with, or without, anti-CD3/CD28 activators to induce release of cytokines, interleukins, and growth factors into the media. The secreted proteins were collected to prepare a conditioned media, which was subsequently used to culture C2C12 myoblasts. The conditioned media from the activated young lymphocytes increased the rate of proliferation of myoblasts by around threefold (P < 0.005) and caused an approximate fourfold (P < 0.005) increase in migration compared with nonactivated lymphocyte control media. These responses were characterized by minimal myotube formation (2%), low fusion index (5%), low myosin heavy chain content, and substantial migration. In contrast, myoblasts treated with conditioned media from activated old lymphocytes exhibited a high degree of differentiation, and multi-nucleated myotube formation that was comparable to control conditions, thus showing no effect on proliferation or migration of myoblasts. These results indicate that secreted proteins from lymphocytes of young people enhance the muscle cell proliferation and migration, whereas secreted proteins from lymphocytes of older people may contribute to the attenuated skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and migration. PMID:26603449

  13. The biological age of 14-year-old boys and success in adult soccer: do early maturers predominate in the top-level game?

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Castagna, Carlo; Calleja-González, Julio; Jukic, Igor; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Talent identification and development in soccer is often biased by maturation-related differences of young athletes. However, there is no information available about success rates for youth maturing at different tempos to achieve success in elite adult soccer. The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of different maturational groups among boys playing soccer, and to track them for competence in adult performance. A prospective cohort study design was used to follow 55, 14-year-old boys playing in Serbian youth soccer Division I over eight years. At the age of 14, biological age using skeletal age rates was determined, and participants were categorized as early maturers (EaM), normal maturers (NoM), and late maturers (LaM). Game competence for adult soccer at age 22 was described as elite if an individual played for clubs competing in top-five international soccer leagues (La Liga, Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1), and/or has become a member of an adult National team. Among boys in our study group, 43.8% were categorized as EaM, 35.4% as NoM, and 20.8% as LaM (P = 0.11). A significant difference in biological age was found among maturational groups at age 14, with EaM > NoM > LaM (P > 0.0001). When assessed for adult soccer competence, 33.3% of participants (16 out of 48 players) succeed in achieving elite level. Elite soccer competence acquired 60.1% players from the group of LaM, 38.1% from NoM, and 11.8% from EaM (P > 0.0001). Our comparative analysis suggests that soccer excludes early maturing boys and favors late maturing boys as level of performance increases.

  14. The biological age of 14-year-old boys and success in adult soccer: do early maturers predominate in the top-level game?

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Castagna, Carlo; Calleja-González, Julio; Jukic, Igor; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Talent identification and development in soccer is often biased by maturation-related differences of young athletes. However, there is no information available about success rates for youth maturing at different tempos to achieve success in elite adult soccer. The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of different maturational groups among boys playing soccer, and to track them for competence in adult performance. A prospective cohort study design was used to follow 55, 14-year-old boys playing in Serbian youth soccer Division I over eight years. At the age of 14, biological age using skeletal age rates was determined, and participants were categorized as early maturers (EaM), normal maturers (NoM), and late maturers (LaM). Game competence for adult soccer at age 22 was described as elite if an individual played for clubs competing in top-five international soccer leagues (La Liga, Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1), and/or has become a member of an adult National team. Among boys in our study group, 43.8% were categorized as EaM, 35.4% as NoM, and 20.8% as LaM (P = 0.11). A significant difference in biological age was found among maturational groups at age 14, with EaM > NoM > LaM (P > 0.0001). When assessed for adult soccer competence, 33.3% of participants (16 out of 48 players) succeed in achieving elite level. Elite soccer competence acquired 60.1% players from the group of LaM, 38.1% from NoM, and 11.8% from EaM (P > 0.0001). Our comparative analysis suggests that soccer excludes early maturing boys and favors late maturing boys as level of performance increases. PMID:25295477

  15. Clofarabine in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-04

    Solid Tumors; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Adult; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Adult; Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Adult

  16. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4) Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Fu-Sung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Huang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Chiung-Ling; Lin, Wen-Shan; Chang, Tzu-Yang; Yang, Horng-Woei; Chen, Wei-Fang; Lien, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Bi-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Chen, Chia-Ching; Wu, Yi-Lei; Hung, Chen-Mei; Li, Hsin-Jung; Chan, Chon-In; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto disease (HD), is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Although the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with AITD in adults, few studies have focused on children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the CTLA4 polymorphisms, including -318C/T (rs5742909), +49A/G (rs231775), and CT60 (rs3087243), were associated with GD and HD in Han Chinese adults and children. We studied 289 adult GD, 265 pediatric GD, 229 pediatric HD patients, and 1058 healthy controls and then compared genotype, allele, carrier, and haplotype frequencies between patients and controls. We found that CTLA4 SNPs +49A/G and CT60 were associated with GD in adults and children. Allele G of +49A/G was significantly associated with GD in adults (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.84; corrected P value [Pc] < 0.001) and children (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15–1.77; Pc = 0.002). Allele G of CT60 also significantly increased risk of GD in adults (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27–2.09; Pc < 0.001) and GD in children (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22–2.04; Pc < 0.001). Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between +49A/G and CT60 in GD and control subjects (D’ = 0.92). Our results showed that CTLA4 was associated with both GD and HD and played an equivalent role in both adult and pediatric GD in Han Chinese population. PMID:27111218

  17. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA4) Gene Polymorphisms with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Children and Adults: Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ting, Wei-Hsin; Chien, Ming-Nan; Lo, Fu-Sung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Huang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Chiung-Ling; Lin, Wen-Shan; Chang, Tzu-Yang; Yang, Horng-Woei; Chen, Wei-Fang; Lien, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Bi-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Chen, Chia-Ching; Wu, Yi-Lei; Hung, Chen-Mei; Li, Hsin-Jung; Chan, Chon-In; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto disease (HD), is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Although the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with AITD in adults, few studies have focused on children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the CTLA4 polymorphisms, including -318C/T (rs5742909), +49A/G (rs231775), and CT60 (rs3087243), were associated with GD and HD in Han Chinese adults and children. We studied 289 adult GD, 265 pediatric GD, 229 pediatric HD patients, and 1058 healthy controls and then compared genotype, allele, carrier, and haplotype frequencies between patients and controls. We found that CTLA4 SNPs +49A/G and CT60 were associated with GD in adults and children. Allele G of +49A/G was significantly associated with GD in adults (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.84; corrected P value [Pc] < 0.001) and children (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.15-1.77; Pc = 0.002). Allele G of CT60 also significantly increased risk of GD in adults (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27-2.09; Pc < 0.001) and GD in children (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22-2.04; Pc < 0.001). Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between +49A/G and CT60 in GD and control subjects (D' = 0.92). Our results showed that CTLA4 was associated with both GD and HD and played an equivalent role in both adult and pediatric GD in Han Chinese population. PMID:27111218

  18. Cohort Study of Airway Mycobiome in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Differences in Community Structure between Fungi and Bacteria Reveal Predominance of Transient Fungal Elements.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Rolf; Sauer-Heilborn, Annette; Welte, Tobias; Guzman, Carlos A; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Höfle, Manfred G

    2015-09-01

    The respiratory mycobiome is an important but understudied component of the human microbiota. Like bacteria, fungi can cause severe lung diseases, but their infection rates are much lower. This study compared the bacterial and fungal communities of sputum samples from a large cohort of 56 adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) during nonexacerbation periods and under continuous antibiotic treatment. Molecular fingerprinting based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis revealed fundamental differences between bacterial and fungal communities. Both groups of microorganisms were taxonomically classified by identification of gene sequences (16S rRNA and internal transcript spacer), and prevalences of single taxa were determined for the entire cohort. Major bacterial pathogens were frequently observed, whereas fungi of known pathogenicity in CF were detected only in low numbers. Fungal species richness increased without reaching a constant level (saturation), whereas bacterial richness showed saturation after 50 patients were analyzed. In contrast to bacteria, a large number of fungal species were observed together with high fluctuations over time and among patients. These findings demonstrated that the mycobiome was dominated by transient species, which strongly suggested that the main driving force was their presence in inhaled air rather than colonization. Considering the high exposure of human airways to fungal spores, we concluded that fungi have low colonization abilities in CF, and colonization by pathogenic fungal species may be considered a rare event. A comprehensive understanding of the conditions promoting fungal colonization may offer the opportunity to prevent colonization and substantially reduce or even eliminate fungus-related disease progression in CF.

  19. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  20. Real-time interactive two-photon photoconversion of recirculating lymphocytes for discontinuous cell tracking in live adult mice.

    PubMed

    Chtanova, Tatyana; Hampton, Henry R; Waterhouse, Louise A; Wood, Katherine; Tomura, Michio; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Mackay, Charles R; Brink, Robert; Phan, Tri Giang

    2014-06-01

    The potential usefulness of intravital two-photon microscopy for fate mapping is limited by its inability to track cells beyond the confines of the imaging volume. Therefore, we have developed and validated a novel method for in vivo photolabelling of spatially-restricted cells expressing the Kaede optical highlighter by two-photon excitation. This has allowed us to optically mark a cohort of follicular B cells and track their dissemination from the original imaging volume in the lymph node to the spleen and contralateral lymph node. We also present the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of in vivo photoconversion of a freely moving single cell in a live adult animal. This method of `discontinuous' cell tracking therefore significantly extends the fate mapping capabilities of two-photon microscopy to delineate the spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular processes that span multiple anatomical sites at the single cell level.

  1. In vitro synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in response to Staphylococcus aureus, by lymphocytes from healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Karsh, J.

    1986-12-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 healthy adults were tested in vitro for the production of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) or pokeweed mitogen. Fifteen of the 20 normal subjects produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 46 +/- 55 ng/ml) in response to SAC, compared with only 2 of 20 who produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 2 +/- 4 ng/ml) in response to pokeweed mitogen (P = 0.0001). Separation and reconstitution of autologous T and B cell-enriched fractions, with and without prior T cell irradiation, provided evidence for a radiosensitive T helper/inducer cell involved in the IgM-RF response to SAC in 70% of the normal subjects studied. SAC appears to be a potent stimulus of IgM-RF production, with a cellular mechanism distinct from that of other in vitro systems.

  2. Effect of dietary selenium and cancer cell xenograft on peripheral T and B lymphocytes in adult nude mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Holmstrom, Alexandra; Li, Xiangdong; Wu, Ryan T Y; Zeng, Huawei; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2012-05-01

    Selenium (Se) is known to regulate tumorigenesis and immunity at the nutritional and supranutritional levels. Because the immune system provides critical defenses against cancer and the athymic, immune-deficient NU/J nude mice are known to gradually develop CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, we investigated whether B and T cell maturation could be modulated by dietary Se and by tumorigenesis in nude mice. Fifteen homozygous nude mice were fed a Se-deficient, Torula yeast basal diet alone (Se-) or supplemented with 0.15 (Se+) or 1.0 (Se++) mg Se/kg (as Na(2)SeO(4)) for 6 months, followed by a 7-week time course of PC-3 prostate cancer cell xenograft (2 × 10(6) cells/site, 2 sites/mouse). Here, we show that peripheral B cell levels decreased in nude mice fed the Se -  or Se++ diet and the CD4(+) T cell levels increased in mice fed the Se++ diet. During the PC-3 cell tumorigenesis, dietary Se status did not affect peripheral CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in nude mice whereas mice fed with the Se++ diet appeared to exhibit greater peripheral CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells on day 9. Dietary Se status did not affect spleen weight in nude mice 7 weeks after the xenograft. Spleen weight was associated with frequency of peripheral CD4(+), but not CD8(+) T cells. Taken together, dietary Se at the nutritional and supranutritional levels regulates peripheral B and T cells in adult nude mice before and after xenograft with PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

  3. Predominant Corticospinal Tract Involvement in a Late Infant with Krabbe Disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ayumi; Kibe, Tetsuya; Irahara, Kaori; Sakai, Norio; Yokochi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    A case of late-infantile Krabbe disease in a patient who presented with developmental regression and spastic quadriplegia in late infancy is reported. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 11 months of age showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement, which usually appears in adult Krabbe disease. Galactocerebrosidase activity in lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts was very low. Genetic testing revealed compound heterozygous mutations of the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene, c.635_646 delinsCTC and c.1901T>C [p.L618S], both of which are known pathogenic mutations. It has been reported that the c.1901T>C [p.L618S] mutation is associated with the late-onset phenotype and, in a past case, a homozygous mutation at this location showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. Although further analysis is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanism, this combination of mutations is likely to be associated with this unusual MRI finding in late-infantile Krabbe disease. Because these types of mutations are common for Japanese patients, it is possible that there are more undiagnosed and late-diagnosed patients of late-infantile Krabbe disease who display limited lesions on MRI. Pediatricians should be aware that patients with late-infantile Krabbe disease can present with predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. PMID:27679535

  4. Predominant Corticospinal Tract Involvement in a Late Infant with Krabbe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Ayumi; Kibe, Tetsuya; Irahara, Kaori; Sakai, Norio; Yokochi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    A case of late-infantile Krabbe disease in a patient who presented with developmental regression and spastic quadriplegia in late infancy is reported. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 11 months of age showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement, which usually appears in adult Krabbe disease. Galactocerebrosidase activity in lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts was very low. Genetic testing revealed compound heterozygous mutations of the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene, c.635_646 delinsCTC and c.1901T>C [p.L618S], both of which are known pathogenic mutations. It has been reported that the c.1901T>C [p.L618S] mutation is associated with the late-onset phenotype and, in a past case, a homozygous mutation at this location showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. Although further analysis is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanism, this combination of mutations is likely to be associated with this unusual MRI finding in late-infantile Krabbe disease. Because these types of mutations are common for Japanese patients, it is possible that there are more undiagnosed and late-diagnosed patients of late-infantile Krabbe disease who display limited lesions on MRI. Pediatricians should be aware that patients with late-infantile Krabbe disease can present with predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. PMID:27679535

  5. Predominant Corticospinal Tract Involvement in a Late Infant with Krabbe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Ayumi; Kibe, Tetsuya; Irahara, Kaori; Sakai, Norio; Yokochi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    A case of late-infantile Krabbe disease in a patient who presented with developmental regression and spastic quadriplegia in late infancy is reported. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 11 months of age showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement, which usually appears in adult Krabbe disease. Galactocerebrosidase activity in lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts was very low. Genetic testing revealed compound heterozygous mutations of the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene, c.635_646 delinsCTC and c.1901T>C [p.L618S], both of which are known pathogenic mutations. It has been reported that the c.1901T>C [p.L618S] mutation is associated with the late-onset phenotype and, in a past case, a homozygous mutation at this location showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. Although further analysis is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanism, this combination of mutations is likely to be associated with this unusual MRI finding in late-infantile Krabbe disease. Because these types of mutations are common for Japanese patients, it is possible that there are more undiagnosed and late-diagnosed patients of late-infantile Krabbe disease who display limited lesions on MRI. Pediatricians should be aware that patients with late-infantile Krabbe disease can present with predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI.

  6. An association, in adult Japanese, between the occurrence of rogue cells among cultured lymphocytes (JC virus activity) and the frequency of "simple" chromosomal damage among the lymphocytes of persons exhibiting these rogue cells.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V

    1998-01-01

    Data from a previous study of the cytogenetic effects, in cultured lymphocytes, of exposure to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima have been reanalyzed to determine the relationship between the occurrence of "rogue" cells in an individual and the frequency of "simple" chromosomal damage in the nonrogue cells of the same individual. Rogue cells are cells with complex chromosomal damage, currently believed to be a manifestation of the activity of a human polyoma virus termed "JC." Among a total of 1,835 persons examined, there were 45 exhibiting rogue cells. A total of 179,599 cells were scored for simple chromosomal damage. In both the exposed and the control populations, there was an absolute increase of approximately 1.5% in the frequency of simple chromosomal damage in the nonrogue cells of those exhibiting rogue cells, when compared with the frequencies observed in those not exhibiting rogue cells, which is a statistically significant difference. It is argued that this phenomenon, occurring not only in lymphocytes but possibly also in other cells/tissues, may play a contributory role in the origin of malignancies characterized by clonal chromosome abnormalities. Unexpectedly, among those exhibiting rogue cells, there was a disproportionately greater representation of persons who had received relatively high radiation exposures from the bomb. The reason for this is unclear, but it is tempting to relate the finding to some lingering effect of the exposure (or the circumstances surrounding the exposure) on immunocompetence. PMID:9683586

  7. Production of leucocyte migration inhibitory factor by neonatal lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R L; Lomnitzer, R; Rabson, A R

    1976-06-19

    Lymphocytes (mononuclear cells) from cord blood of 10 normal placentas and from 10 normal adults were assessed for production of leucocyte migration inhibiting factor (LIF) after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, as a measure of cell-mediated immunity. Mononuclear cells from both adult and cord blood produced adequate quantities of LIF, indicating that neonatal lymphocytes have the ability to manufacture normal amounts of lymphokines.

  8. T lymphocytes subsets and cytokine pattern induced by vaccination against bovine brucellosis employing S19 calfhood vaccination and adult RB51 revaccination.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S S; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2014-10-21

    The aims of this study were to address the protective immune response induced by S19 vaccination (n=10) and RB51 revaccination, in pregnant (n=9) and non-pregnant (n=10) S19 calfhood-vaccinated cattle as follows: evaluate the in vitro CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes specific proliferation, and in vitro expression of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells and IL-4 by CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD21(+) lymphocytes subset. Upon in vitro stimulation with γ-irradiated Brucella abortus 2308, blood mononuclear cells from S19 vaccinated and RB51 revaccinated cows exhibited significantly higher proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes and CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T-cells compared to non-vaccinated animals. RB51 revaccination, regardless of the pregnancy status, did not enhance the proliferation of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells nor IFN-γ or IL-4 production. Data from the present study suggest that cattle's cellular immune response induced after brucellosis vaccination and revaccination is due to CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, being CD4(+) T-cells the main source of IFN-γ.

  9. Higher Early Monocyte and Total Lymphocyte Counts Are Associated with Better Overall Survival after Standard Total Body Irradiation, Cyclophosphamide, and Fludarabine Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Double Umbilical Cord Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Bourgeois, Amandine; Peterlin, Pierre; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; Duquesne, Alix; Le Gouill, Steven; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Campion, Loïc; Chevallier, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    This single-center retrospective study aimed to report the impact of early hematopoietic and immune recoveries after a standard total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine (TCF) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen for double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in adults. We analyzed 47 consecutive patients older than 17 years who engrafted after a dUCB TCF allo-SCT performed between January 2006 and April 2013 in our department. Median times for neutrophil and platelet recoveries were 17 (range, 6 to 59) and 37 days (range, 0 to 164), respectively. The 3-year overall (OS) and disease-free survivals, relapse incidence, and nonrelapse mortality were 65.7%, 57.2%, 27.1%, and 19%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, higher day +30 monocyte (≥615/mm(3); hazard ratio [HR], .04; 95% confidence interval [CI], .004 to .36; P < .01) and day +42 lymphocyte (≥395/mm(3); HR, .16; 95% CI, .03 to .78; P = .02) counts were independently associated with better OS. These results suggest that early higher hematopoietic and immune recovery is predictive of survival after dUCB TCF RIC allo-SCT in adults. Factors other than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which was used in all cases, favoring expansion of monocytes or lymphocytes, should be tested in the future as part of the UCB transplantation procedure. PMID:27118570

  10. Infection of lymphocytes by a virus that aborts cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and establishes persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    For viruses to establish persistent infections in their hosts, they must possess some mechanism for evading clearance by the immune system. When inoculated into adult immunocompetent mice, wild-type lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV ARM) induces a CD8(+)-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response that clears the infection within 7-14 d (CTL+ [P-]). By contrast, variant viruses isolated from lymphoid tissues of persistently infected mice fail to induce a CTL response and are thus able to establish a persistent infection in adult mice (CTL- [P+]). This report compares the interaction of CTL+ (P-) and CTL- (P+) viruses with cells of the immune system. Both types of virus initially bind to 2-4% of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and replicate within cells of both subsets. The replication of CTL- (P+) and CTL+ (P-) viruses in lymphocytes in vivo is similar for the first 5 d after initiating infection. Thereafter, in mice infected with CTL- (P+) variants, lymphocytes retain viral genetic information, and infectious virus can be recovered throughout the animals' lives. In contrast, when adult mice are infected with wild-type CTL+ (P-) LCMV ARM, virus is not recovered from lymphocytes for greater than 7 d after infection. A CD8(+)-mediated anti-LCMV CTL response is induced in such mice. Clearance of infected lymphocytes is produced by these LCMV-specific CTLs, as shown by their ability to lyse lymphocytes expressing LCMV determinants in vitro and the fact that depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes before infection with CTL+ (P-) viruses results in levels of infected lymphocytes similar to those found in undepleted CTL- (P+)-infected mice. Hence, CTL-mediated lysis of T lymphocytes carrying infectious virus is a critical factor determining whether virus persists or the infection is terminated. PMID:1905339

  11. Cometary coma ions. [water predominance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    For comets whose nuclei are composed of water ice conglomerates it is shown that the ion H3O(+) can predominate to distances of 5000 km in the subsolar direction. Beyond this distance H2O(+) is the most important ion. The crossover point is a sensitive function of the rate of evaporation from the nucleus. The presence of ammonia or metals such as sodium, in concentrations greater than 0.1% H2O, can lead to NH4(+) and Na(+) ions.

  12. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  13. Apolizumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-15

    Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  14. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  15. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  16. Decitabine and Valproic Acid in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Mechanisms of Idelalisib-Associated Diarrhea in Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Indolent Non-hodgkin Lymphoma, or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-06

    Absence of Signs or Symptoms; B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Digestive System Signs and Symptoms; Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  18. In vivo selection of lymphocyte-tropic and macrophage-tropic variants of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus during persistent infection.

    PubMed Central

    King, C C; de Fries, R; Kolhekar, S R; Ahmed, R

    1990-01-01

    This study demonstrates cell-specific selection of viral variants during persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in its natural host. We have analyzed viral isolates obtained from CD4+ T cells and macrophages of congenitally infected carrier mice and found that three types of variants are present in individual carrier mice: (i) macrophage-tropic, (ii) lymphotropic, and (iii) amphotropic. The majority of the isolates were amphotropic and exhibited enhanced growth in both lymphocytes and macrophages. However, some of the lymphocyte-derived isolates grew well in lymphocytes but poorly in macrophages, and a macrophage-derived isolate replicated well in macrophages but not in lymphocytes. In striking contrast, the original wild-type (wt) Armstrong strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus that was used to initiate the chronic infection and from which the variants are derived grew poorly in both lymphocytes and macrophages. These three types of variants also differed from the parental virus in their ability to establish a chronic infection in immunocompetent hosts. Adult mice infected with the wt Armstrong strain cleared the infection within 2 weeks, whereas adult mice infected with the variants harbored virus for several months. These results suggest that the ability of the variants to persist in adult mice is due to enhanced replication in macrophages and/or lymphocytes. This conclusion is further strengthened by the finding that the variants and the parental wt virus grew equally well in mouse fibroblasts and that the observed growth differences were specific for cells of the immune system. Images PMID:1976825

  19. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  20. Lenalidomide and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Asymptomatic Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-07

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  1. Different characteristics of tuberculous pleural effusion according to pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehee; Lim, Jae Kwang; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) exhibits different characteristics according to pleural fluid cellular predominance or whether the pleural fluid is free-flowing or loculated. However, its categorization based on either of these factors alone may be insufficient to properly reflect the heterogeneous manifestation of TPE. We evaluated the characteristics of the four TPE groups classified according to cellular predominance and whether the fluid is free-flowing or loculated. Methods A cohort of 375 patients with TPE was retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings were compared between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE, and between free-flowing and loculated effusion for both neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE. Results Lymphocytic TPE and neutrophilic TPE were observed in 336 (90%) and 39 (10%) patients, respectively. Pleural fluid loculation was present in 36% and 31% of the patients in the lymphocytic and neutrophilic groups, respectively. A few parameters of the laboratory findings between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE patients showed significant differences. However, these significant differences were prominently observed when comparing free-flowing and loculated subgroups of the respective neutrophilic and lymphocytic groups. Pleural fluid pH, lactate dehydrogenase, and adenosine deaminase levels were significantly different among the four subgroups. The neutrophilic loculated subgroup exhibited the most intense pleural inflammation and the highest mycobacterial yields when compared to the other subgroups. However, the percentage of neutrophils in the pleural fluid was not positively associated with the probability of culture-positive effusion. Conclusions The heterogeneous manifestation of TPE would be better characterized by using a classification system based on combined pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation, with the neutrophilic loculated subgroup contributing to most of the clinically significant

  2. Different characteristics of tuberculous pleural effusion according to pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehee; Lim, Jae Kwang; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) exhibits different characteristics according to pleural fluid cellular predominance or whether the pleural fluid is free-flowing or loculated. However, its categorization based on either of these factors alone may be insufficient to properly reflect the heterogeneous manifestation of TPE. We evaluated the characteristics of the four TPE groups classified according to cellular predominance and whether the fluid is free-flowing or loculated. Methods A cohort of 375 patients with TPE was retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings were compared between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE, and between free-flowing and loculated effusion for both neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE. Results Lymphocytic TPE and neutrophilic TPE were observed in 336 (90%) and 39 (10%) patients, respectively. Pleural fluid loculation was present in 36% and 31% of the patients in the lymphocytic and neutrophilic groups, respectively. A few parameters of the laboratory findings between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE patients showed significant differences. However, these significant differences were prominently observed when comparing free-flowing and loculated subgroups of the respective neutrophilic and lymphocytic groups. Pleural fluid pH, lactate dehydrogenase, and adenosine deaminase levels were significantly different among the four subgroups. The neutrophilic loculated subgroup exhibited the most intense pleural inflammation and the highest mycobacterial yields when compared to the other subgroups. However, the percentage of neutrophils in the pleural fluid was not positively associated with the probability of culture-positive effusion. Conclusions The heterogeneous manifestation of TPE would be better characterized by using a classification system based on combined pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation, with the neutrophilic loculated subgroup contributing to most of the clinically significant

  3. Laboratory Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  4. Immunoglobulin determinants on the lymphocytes of normal rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, B.; Janeway, C. A.; Coombs, R. R. A.; Catty, D.; Gell, P. G. H.; Kelus, A. S.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to see if `allelic exclusion' holds with regard to allotypic immunoglobulin determinants on circulating lymphocytes of the rabbit. The b locus allotypes As4 and As6 were investigated and these were measured by the mixed antiglobulin reaction. To investigate whether both allotypic determinants can be expressed on the membrane of any one lymphocyte, a lymphocyte suspension was treated with antibody reagents to both determinants. Adsorption of each antibody was shown by mixed agglutination with indicator red cells carrying either As4 or As6 immunoglobulin; one of the red cell suspensions was labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. When lymphocytes of adult heterozygous rabbits were tested, separate As4 and As6 lymphocytes were shown, but often more than 50 per cent of the lymphocytes exhibited both determinants on the same cell. Tests on an artificial mixture of homozygous As44 lymphocytes and homozygous As66 lymphocytes produced only distinct separate rosettes of the two types. Tests were performed on the lymphocytes of baby rabbits resulting from matings of As/46 does × homozygous As/44 bucks. At 2–3 weeks, when maternal As/46 immunoglobulin was present in easily detectable amounts in the sera of all baby rabbits, genetically As/44 animals could be clearly differentiated from genetically As/46 animals; correspondingly in matings with homozygous As/66 bucks. In litters of matings As/44 does × As/66 bucks, As6 determinants could be detected on the lymphocytes before the As6 immunoglobulin could be shown in the serum. In the very young (2–3 weeks) baby heterozygous As/46 rabbits, the majority of lymphocytes reacted as either As4 or As6 with a very much smaller percentage of mixed As46 cells. By the 12th week, the number of cells exhibiting both determinants had increased but not to so high a figure as found in the adults. PMID:4104284

  5. Idelalisib for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Jacqueline C

    2016-09-01

    Idelalisib is a first-in-class selective oral PI3Kδ inhibitor for the treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma, a predominantly elderly population with high comorbidity. The drug promotes apoptosis in primary CLL cells ex vivo, independent of common prognostic markers and inhibits CLL cell homing, migration and adhesion to cells in the microenvironment. Idelalisib has shown efficacy with acceptable safety as monotherapy and combination therapy in relapsed/refractory CLL. Idelalisib has clinical activity in patients with CLL with del(17p). The development of other novel B-cell-targeted agents provides the opportunity to evaluate additional idelalisib treatment combinations for their potential to further improve outcomes in CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

  6. Subpopulations of human T lymphocytes. XVI. Maldistribution of T cell subsets associated with abnormal locomotion of T cells in untreated adult patients with Hodgkin's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S.

    1980-01-01

    Peripheral blood and splenic T cells from adult patients with Hodgkin's disease were examined for the proportions and numbers of T cells with receptors for IgM (Tμ) or IgG (Tγ) and their locomotor responses to chemotactic stimuli of casein and endotoxin-activated serum (EAS). Thirty per cent of patients had absolute lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. The proportion of Tμ cells was comparable but the proportion of Tγ cells was significantly increased (P<0·001) resulting in an abnormally low ratio of Tμ/Tγ cells when compared to those for age- and sex-matched controls. In the spleens, the proportions of T cells and Tμ cells were significantly increased (P<0·001) and Tγ cells significantly decreased (P<0·001) resulting in an abnormally high ratio of Tμ/Tγ cells when compared with normal spleens. In the peripheral blood both Tμ and Tγ cells were increased and T cells lacking either receptor (Tφ) were significantly decreased in patients in whom spleens were involved by the tumour when compared to those in whom spleens were not involved by the tumour. Peripheral blood T cells from patients with Hodgkin's disease responded poorly to the chemotactic stimuli when compared to T cells from normal controls or T cells from the spleens of the same patients. Tμ cell proportions in patients with combined stages III and IV were significantly lower (P<0·025) than those in the peripheral blood of patients in combined stages I and II. No correlation was observed between the above parameters and histopathological types of Hodgkin's disease. This study demonstrates an abnormal distribution of T cell subsets and abnormality of locomotion of T cells between peripheral blood and spleens in patients with Hodgkin's disease. This might explain the cellular basis of at least certain immunodeficiencies so commonly associated with Hodgkin's disease. PMID:6970098

  7. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Malignant Neoplasm; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  8. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-10

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  9. Validation of probability equation and decision tree in predicting subsequent dengue hemorrhagic fever in adult dengue inpatients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Thein, Tun L; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lee, Vernon J; Sun, Yan; Lye, David C

    2011-11-01

    We developed a probability equation and a decision tree from 1,973 predominantly dengue serotype 1 hospitalized adult dengue patients in 2004 to predict progression to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), applied in our clinic since March 2007. The parameters predicting DHF were clinical bleeding, high serum urea, low serum protein, and low lymphocyte proportion. This study validated these in a predominantly dengue serotype 2 cohort in 2007. The 1,017 adult dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore had a median age of 35 years. Of 933 patients without DHF on admission, 131 progressed to DHF. The probability equation predicted DHF with a sensitivity (Sn) of 94%, specificity (Sp) 17%, positive predictive value (PPV) 16%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94%. The decision tree predicted DHF with a Sn of 99%, Sp 12%, PPV 16%, and NPV 99%. Both tools performed well despite a switch in predominant dengue serotypes.

  10. The Effect of GVHD on Long-term Outcomes after Peripheral Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from an HLA-identical Sibling in Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Landmark Analysis Approach in Competing Risks.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Arash; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Mohammad, Kazem; Mousavi, Seied Asadollah; Bahar, Babak; Vaezi, Mohammad; Zeraati, Hojjat; Jahani, Mohammad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective therapy to prevent relapse in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). This benefit is affected by non-relapse mortality (NRM) due to complications such as graft versus host disease (GVHD). A new approach in analyzing time-dependent covariates in competing risks is landmark analysis. So, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of acute and chronic GVHD on long-term outcomes, relapse and NRM, after allogeneic HSCT in adult ALL using landmark analysis. This study was conducted on 252 ALL patients who were allogeneic transplanted from an HLA-identical sibling with peripheral blood (PB) as the source of stem cell from 2004 to 2012 and were followed-up until 2013. In the first 100 days after transplant, a landmark analysis on days +10, +11, +12, +17, +24, and +31 was applied to assess the effect of acute GVHD on early relapse and NRM. Similarly, for patients alive and event-free at day +100 after transplant, a landmark analysis at time points day +101, months +4, +5, +6, +9, and +12 was applied to evaluate the effect of chronic GVHD on late relapse and NRM. Five-year LFS and OS were 35.0% (95% CI: 29.1, 42.2%) and 37.5% (95% CI: 31.3, 45.0%), respectively. Five-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 44.5% (95% CI: 37.9, 51.0%) while this was 20.4% (95% CI: 15.4, 26.0%) for NRM. The landmark analysis in the first 100 days after transplant showed that the grade III/IV of aGVHD has a lower risk of relapse but higher risk of NRM after adjustment for the EBMT risk score. For patients alive at day +100, cGVHD had no significant effect on relapse. Limited cGVHD had lower risk of NRM and after 6 month post-transplant the risk of NRM decreased and there were not important difference between the groups of cGVHD. Using advanced models enables us to estimate the effects more precisely and ultimately make inference more accurately.

  11. Separation of lymphocytes by electrophoresis under terrestrial conditions and at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of human peripheral lymphocytes were examined with the following objectives: To determine differences in EPM of lymphocytes under immuno-stimulated and immuno-suppressed states. To define the conditions necessary for the separation of lymphocyte sub-populations in normal and pathological conditions; To investigate immunological active, charged chemical groups on lymphocyte surfaces; and to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms of immune responsiveness, as reflected by alterations in EPM. To evaluate the potential of lymphocyte electrophoresis as: (1) a means of monitoring the immune status of kidney transplant recipients, (2) in predicting the outcome of kidney transplants, and (3) as a method for separation of lymphocyte sub-populations, the EPM was studied for unfractionated human peripheral lymphocytes and of populations enriched with T and "B" cells from normal adults, hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

  12. Genetically Engineered Lymphocyte Therapy in Treating Patients With Lymphoma That is Resistant or Refractory to Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-27

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  13. Immunophenotypical characterization of the lymphocyte infiltrate in caprine pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Seva, J; Hernández, D; Bernabé, A; Pallarés, F J; Navarro, J A

    2000-01-01

    A study was made of the immunophenotype of the lymphocytes associated with natural caprine pulmonary tuberculosis at four stages of the disease. Regardless of the stage, CD4(+)and CD8(+)T lymphocytes predominated in lung and mediastinal lymph node lesions, but gamma/delta T and B (IgM(+)) cells were seen only rarely. At the primary complex stage, CD4(+)cells outnumbered CD8(+)cells. At the stage of generalized tuberculosis, however, and still more at the post-primary stage, CD8(+)cells outnumbered CD4(+)cells. At the final stage (tuberculous pneumonia), CD4(+)and CD8(+)cells were present in low but approximately equal numbers.

  14. Expression and in vitro upregulation of MHCII in koala lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Quintin; Canfield, Paul J; Higgins, Damien P

    2012-06-15

    Understanding and measuring immune activity of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), is important to studies of the epidemiology and impact of the widespread chlamydial and koala retroviral (KoRV) infections that occur in this iconic but increasingly threatened species. To explore the interaction of disease and immunity, and to assess the potential for use of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) upregulation as an indicator of lymphocyte activation in in vitro immune assays, we have investigated the expression of MHCII in koala lymphocytes by flow cytometry. MHCII expression was upregulated in mitogen stimulated B lymphocytes in vitro but no such increase was detected in vivo in free-living koalas with active inflammation. In assessing phenotypic baseline data of captive koalas, we have identified that MHCII is expressed predominantly on circulating B lymphocytes (85.7 ± 2.4%) but on very few T lymphocytes (3.4 ± 1.9%), even following activation, and suggest that the latter finding might be compensated by the greater absolute numbers of peripheral blood B lymphocytes in this species relative to many eutherian species.

  15. [Treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Mucsi, Orsolya

    2016-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western countries. The abnormal B lymphocytes progress into the blood and infiltrate the bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. CLL is a disease of the adults and older individuals who often have coexisting conditions. It usually progresses slowly, but in patients who need treatment, CLL eventually returns. For relapsed, refractory patients treatment options are limited. The only curative treatment is bone marrow transplantation. However, the new, alternative therapeutics show superior efficacy in CLL than standard regimens. The aim of this review is to summarize the most important therapeutic aspects of CLL and to give an insight into the novel treatment options. PMID:27275639

  16. Human T cells expressing V beta 8 do not predominantly recognize DR2 alloantigen.

    PubMed

    Christmas, S E; Brew, R; Crosby, I; Gecim, I E; Sells, R A

    1992-06-01

    A panel of seven monoclonal antibodies recognizing human T-cell antigen receptor (TcR) V alpha or V beta subsets has been used to measure TcR gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes and mixed lymphocyte culture responses (MLR) between DR2- and DR2+ (DRw15+) donors. There were no significant differences between DR2- and DR2+ donors in per cent T cells in fresh peripheral blood labelled with any of these antibodies, which included an antibody recognizing V beta 8. This indicates strongly that increased negative selection of V beta 8+ T cells does not occur in DR2+ compared with DR2- individuals. In MLR between DR2- and DR2+ donors the only significant change compared with fresh peripheral lymphocytes was that T cells expressing V beta 5.1 were decreased in DR2- lymphocyte populations responding to DR2 alloantigen. No changes in levels of V beta 8+ T cells were detected in MLR between DR2- and DR2+ donors. This suggests that V beta 8+ T cells are not predominantly reactive against DR2 (DRw15). The data support the concept that alloreactivity against a single class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatch is mediated by T cells expressing a range of different TcR V beta molecules.

  17. Characteristics of Entering Black Freshmen in Predominately Black and Predominately White Institutions: A Normative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Helen S.; Cross, Patricia H.

    Data tables are compiled on the characteristics of black freshmen entering a representative sanple of 393 predominately black and predominately white academic institutions. Using a ten percent random subsample of original data compiled by Alexander W. Astin for the Cooperative Institutional Research program, the researchers present extensive…

  18. Traffic and proliferative responses of recirculating lymphocytes in fetal calves.

    PubMed Central

    Hein, W R; Shelton, J N; Simpson-Morgan, M W; Morris, B

    1988-01-01

    The thoracic duct or efferent prescapular duct was cannulated in four fetal calves aged 121-259 days post-conception. The duration of lymph flow ranged from 2 to 20 days and the mean flow rates sustained over these collection periods varied from 5.4 to 48.8 ml/hr. Lymphocyte output ranged from 4.4 x 10(6) cells/hr in thoracic duct lymph from a 121-day fetus to 3.9 x 10(8) cells/hr in efferent prescapular lymph from a 259-day fetus. The circulating lymphocyte pool in fetal calves of about 120 and 190 days gestational age was calculated to contain, respectively, 4 x 10(8) cells and 2 x 10(10) cells. The proportion of lymphocytes bearing surface immunoglobulin detected in fetal lymph ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Recirculating lymphocytes from fetal calves produced strong proliferative responses when stimulated by T-cell mitogens but responded poorly to B-cell mitogens. Fetal lymphocytes also responded to stimulation by allogeneic cells and stimulated other cells to proliferate during mixed lymphocyte culture. When stimulated with Con A, fetal lymphocytes secreted IL-2 to a degree that was indistinguishable from the secretory behaviour of lymphocytes from adult animals. The results presented in this paper show that chronic lymphatic fistulae can be established successfully in fetal calves to give access to recirculating lymphocytes. This provides a new experimental approach for studying the development of the bovine immune system. PMID:2971606

  19. AR-42 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Relapsed Multiple Myeloma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large

  20. [Anesthetic management for pheochromocytoma resection: a comparison of epinephrine predominant and norepinephrine predominant pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Doi, M; Ikeda, K

    1994-04-01

    Eleven patients with pheochromocytoma were divided into two groups; epinephrine predominant group (n = 4) and norepinephrine predominant group (n = 7). In each case, anesthesia was given using only inhalational anesthetics and adenosine triphosphate (ATP); and the same strategy was used to control cardiovascular variables. If arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure or heart rate failed to be controlled with the strategy before the tumor resection, phentolamine, trinitroglycerine or propranolol was used. After the tumor resection, if decreasing the anesthetic concentration, cessation of ATP infusion and rapid intravenous infusion could not maintain the systolic arterial blood pressure above 80 mmHg, norepinephrine was infused. Maximum heart rate and arterial blood pressure during the tumor exploration were similar in both groups. No ventricular arrhythmias were recognized in any case. The frequency of usage of the cardiovascular depressants was not different between the two groups. In the norepinephrine predominant group, five cases required norepinephrine infusion after the tumor resection, but in the epinephrine predominant group, none required the norepinephrine infusion. Desensitization of alpha 1 adrenergic receptor induced by continuous high plasma norepinephrine concentration, was considered to decrease vascular resistance. In conclusion, except for the hypotension after the tumor resection in the norepinephrine predominant pheochromocytoma, both epinephrine predominant and norepinephrine predominant pheochromocytoma could be managed with similar anesthetic risks. PMID:8189622

  1. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  2. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma in First Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-04

    Lymphoid Leukemia in Remission; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  3. Respective roles and interactions of T-lymphocyte and PGE2-mediated monocyte suppressive activities in human newborns and mothers at the time of delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Mamas, S.; Dray, F.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-06-01

    Recently the concept of a poorly functional humoral immune response in the newborn was proposed. Data have been presented indicating that the impaired newborn B cell maturation, as shown in vitro in a pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell maturation system, is due both to an immaturity of lymphocyte subsets and to an increased suppressive T activity. In the present work, we present evidence that there exists a predominance of a naturally occurring T lymphocyte suppressive activity in the cord blood in that the removal of the suppressive activity by irradiation allows a normal maturation of newborn B cells. Such normal maturation of newborn B cells can also be obtained using mixed cultures of adult T cells and newborn B cells. Newborn suppressor T cells belong to both EA gamma (+) and EA gamma (-) fractions, and it is not known whether these two groups do or do not belong to different subsets. The PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activity does not play any role in the suppression observed in newborns since newborn monocytes are poorly suppressive and since they produce a smaller amount of PGE2 than adult monocytes. Some observations suggest, on the contrary, that the suppressive T lymphocytes can regulate the level of the PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activity. It should be noticed that similar observations about T lymphocyte and PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activities have been made at the same time using mothers' cells. These observations suggest the possibility that such changes in B cell immune regulation may result from an interaction between maternal and fetal lymphoid cells.

  4. Predominant fatty variant of myofibroblastoma of breast

    PubMed Central

    Baxendine-Jones, J; Theaker, J; Baldwin, L

    2001-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma of the breast is an uncommon but well defined benign stromal tumour. This report describes a case in which the predominant histological component was mature adipose tissue and two further cases with a major adipocytic component. Although small foci of adipose tissue are a recognised feature of this tumour, the dominance of the histological pattern by fat has not been described previously, and the recognition of this variant is important to allow confident diagnosis and avoid confusion with other primary adipocytic or stromal lesions, especially in the setting of potential needle core biopsy of such a lesion. Key Words: myofibroblastoma • variant • fatty PMID:11429434

  5. Lenalidomide, Ibrutinib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-10

    Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  6. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  7. Lymphocyte function in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Kawanami, S; Kanaide, A; Itoyama, Y; Kuroiwa, Y

    1979-01-01

    Mitogen-induced blastoid transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with myasthenia gravis was studied using a microplate culture technique and evaluated with 3H-thymidine incorporation. It was found that both phytohaemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen responses decreased significantly in patients with myasthenia gravis. In myasthenic crisis, indices of stimulation by phytohaemagglutination became very low. The autologous plasma neither inhibited nor facilitated mitogenic responses of lymphocytes. The decreased mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes suggests that part of the T lymphocyte function is subnormal in myasthenia. PMID:490180

  8. Vorinostat, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-04

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  9. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia with purulent pleurisy in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Keiko; Miyashita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shirano, Michinori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kameda, Kazuaki; Nishijima, Masayoshi; Imanishi, Masahiro; Yang, Xi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with fever and pleural effusion predominantly containing lymphocytes. Cultures of the pleural effusion and blood revealed Campylobacter fetus, and laboratory studies showed a low serum level of immunoglobulin. The patient was diagnosed with C. fetus pleuritis, bacteremia and primary hypogammaglobulinemia, and subsequent treatment with meropenem and immunoglobulin improved his condition. Although the underlying cause of the primary hypogammaglobulinemia remains unclear, the patient's status improved under immunoglobulin replacement therapy. C. fetus pleuritis is a rare infectious disease usually observed in immunocompromised hosts. We herein describe the first report of C. fetus pleuritis in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

  10. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process. PMID:27514593

  11. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Plasma Cell Leukemia; Progression of Multiple Myeloma or Plasma Cell Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  12. Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Wen, Jun; Nguyen, John; Cachia, Mark A.; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first study of stiffness/deformability changes of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic metastasis progresses are accompanied by biophysical property alterations. A microfluidic device was utilized to electrically measure cell volume and transit time of single lymphocytes from healthy and CLL patients. The results from testing thousands of cells reveal that lymphocytes from CLL patients have higher stiffness (i.e., lower deformability), as compared to lymphocytes in healthy samples, which was also confirmed by AFM indentation tests. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known knowledge on other types of metastatic cells (e.g., breast and lung cancer cells) whose stiffness becomes lower as metastasis progresses.

  13. Mixed lymphocyte reactivity of human lymphocytes primed in vitro. I. Secondary response to allogenic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Fradelizi, D; Dausset, J

    1975-05-01

    In order to study the mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity of human lymphocytes primed in vitro, a nucleopore culture chamber technique allowing human lymphocytes to be cultured for a period of at least two weeks has been developed. During the primary culture period in nucleopore chambers, human lymphocytes were sensitized against mitomycin-treated allogenic stimulating cells. It was shown that the stimulated lymphocytes underwent a blastogenic reaction and the results suggest a reversion to the state of small, resting, primed lymphocytes. In vitro primed lymphocytes displayed allogenic memory. This was characteristic of a secondary response, which is shown by the following: 1) acceleration, the peak of thymidine incorporation occurring on day 4,2) specificity, the accelerated response was observed only when the primed lymphocytes were confronted with the cell used for priming. Contact with a third party cell did not produce this kind of activation. 3) Amplitude; the peak DNA synthesis response was greater than that of unprimed lymphocytes cultivated for the same length of time.

  14. Lymphocytic Esophagitis: A Diagnosis of Increasing Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shirley; Saxena, Aditi; Waljee, Akbar; Piraka, Cyrus; Purdy, Julianne; Appelman, Henry; McKenna, Barbara; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Singal, Amit G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite being found with increasing frequency on esophageal biopsies, the clinical significance of lymphocytic esophagitis (LE) remains poorly understood. Goals The primary aim of our study was to characterize the clinical presentation and natural history of LE among adult patients. Study We retrospectively reviewed records for all 81 adult patients at the University of Michigan Medical Center who had a histopathological diagnosis of LE between January 1998 and November 2009. Patient demographics, clinical history, laboratory data, and imaging results from the time of diagnosis were obtained through review of computerized medical records. A telephone survey was conducted to collect natural history data. Results The number of LE diagnoses increased over time, with 81.5% (n=66) of patients being diagnosed in the last three years. The most frequent symptoms at the time of presentation were dysphagia (n=54), chest/abdominal pain (n=36), and heartburn (n=38). The majority (58.6%) of patients reported improvement in their initial gastrointestinal symptoms – most commonly associated with initiation of a proton pump inhibitor. Upon follow-up, most patients reported a good quality of life and satisfaction with their current health status. Conclusions Lymphocytic esophagitis is a new clinical entity with an increasing incidence. LE appears to have a benign natural history, with most patients reporting an improvement in symptoms and satisfaction with their health-related quality of life. Prospective studies are needed to better characterize the natural history and potential treatments for this clinical entity. PMID:22751335

  15. Ontogeny of B lymphocytes. II. Relative rates of appearance of lymphocytes bearing surface immunoglobulin and complement receptors.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, M C; Elfenbein, G J; Frank, M M; Paul, W E

    1974-05-01

    Many bursa-equivalent (B) lymphocytes of adult mice bear surface Ig and receptors for C3. The frequency of Ig-bearing cells increases rapidly immediately after birth, but these cells lack complement (C) receptors. Lymphocytes bearing C receptors are not found in the spleens of BALB/c, DBA/2, and C57BL/6 mice until 2 wk of age and do not attain substantial numbers until 3-4 wk of age. In AKR mice, a lag between appearance of Ig-bearing and complement receptor lymphocytes (CRL) is also observed but it is of much shorter duration. AKR mice have a frequency of CRL at 2 wk of age of 28% in comparison to a frequency of 4.8% for DBA/2 mice. The difference in frequency between young and adult mice and between "low" and "high CRL" strains cannot be explained by a nonspecific inability to form rosettes as similar results are obtained with soluble antigen-antibody-complement complexes. Analysis of CRL frequency in (AKR x DBA/2)F(1) mice and F(1) x parental backcross progeny suggests that two independent genes control the rate of appearance of CRL. Furthermore, the genetic difference in the ontogeny of CRL is recapitulated in the repopulation of the B-lymphocyte line in adult-irradiated mice restored with syngeneic bone marrow. Thus, the "CRL genes" described here appear to control B-cell differentiation throughout life.

  16. Predominant bacteria diversity in Chinese traditional sourdough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohua; He, Guoqing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major bacteria in Chinese traditional sourdough (CTS). Five CTS samples (Hn-87, Sx-91, Gs-107, Hf-112, and Hr-122) were collected from different Chinese steamed breads shops or private households. The total bacterial DNA was extracted from sourdough samples and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq 2000 system. Illumina tags were assigned to BLASTN server based on 16S rRNA libraries to reveal a genetic profile. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria in traditional sourdough samples were dominated by the genera Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. Beta diversity analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis compared the bacterial differences in traditional sourdough samples. The results showed that Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were the predominant genera among the 5 samples. This differentiated the sourdoughs into 3 typologies, namely, 1) Gs-107 and Sx-91, 2) Hr-122 and Hn-87, and 3) Hf-112. This study identified 3 unique major bacteria genus in CTS bread ecosystems.

  17. Predominance of sperm motion in corners.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Reza; Graham, Percival J; Liu, Qiaozhi; Sinton, David

    2016-01-01

    Sperm migration through the female tract is crucial to fertilization, but the role of the complex and confined structure of the fallopian tube in sperm guidance remains unknown. Here, by confocal imaging microchannels head-on, we distinguish corner- vs. wall- vs. bulk-swimming bull sperm in confined geometries. Corner-swimming dominates with local areal concentrations as high as 200-fold that of the bulk. The relative degree of corner-swimming is strongest in small channels, decreases with increasing channel size, and plateaus for channels above 200 μm. Corner-swimming remains predominant across the physiologically-relevant range of viscosity and pH. Together, boundary-following sperm account for over 95% of the sperm distribution in small rectangular channels, which is similar to the percentage of wall swimmers in circular channels of similar size. We also demonstrate that wall-swimming sperm travel closer to walls in smaller channels (~100 μm), where the opposite wall is within the hydrodynamic interaction length-scale. The corner accumulation effect is more than the superposition of the influence of two walls, and over 5-fold stronger than that of a single wall. These findings suggest that folds and corners are dominant in sperm migration in the narrow (sub-mm) lumen of the fallopian tube and microchannel-based sperm selection devices. PMID:27211846

  18. Predominance of sperm motion in corners

    PubMed Central

    Nosrati, Reza; Graham, Percival J.; Liu, Qiaozhi; Sinton, David

    2016-01-01

    Sperm migration through the female tract is crucial to fertilization, but the role of the complex and confined structure of the fallopian tube in sperm guidance remains unknown. Here, by confocal imaging microchannels head-on, we distinguish corner- vs. wall- vs. bulk-swimming bull sperm in confined geometries. Corner-swimming dominates with local areal concentrations as high as 200-fold that of the bulk. The relative degree of corner-swimming is strongest in small channels, decreases with increasing channel size, and plateaus for channels above 200 μm. Corner-swimming remains predominant across the physiologically-relevant range of viscosity and pH. Together, boundary-following sperm account for over 95% of the sperm distribution in small rectangular channels, which is similar to the percentage of wall swimmers in circular channels of similar size. We also demonstrate that wall-swimming sperm travel closer to walls in smaller channels (~100 μm), where the opposite wall is within the hydrodynamic interaction length-scale. The corner accumulation effect is more than the superposition of the influence of two walls, and over 5-fold stronger than that of a single wall. These findings suggest that folds and corners are dominant in sperm migration in the narrow (sub-mm) lumen of the fallopian tube and microchannel-based sperm selection devices. PMID:27211846

  19. Predominance of sperm motion in corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosrati, Reza; Graham, Percival J.; Liu, Qiaozhi; Sinton, David

    2016-05-01

    Sperm migration through the female tract is crucial to fertilization, but the role of the complex and confined structure of the fallopian tube in sperm guidance remains unknown. Here, by confocal imaging microchannels head-on, we distinguish corner- vs. wall- vs. bulk-swimming bull sperm in confined geometries. Corner-swimming dominates with local areal concentrations as high as 200-fold that of the bulk. The relative degree of corner-swimming is strongest in small channels, decreases with increasing channel size, and plateaus for channels above 200 μm. Corner-swimming remains predominant across the physiologically-relevant range of viscosity and pH. Together, boundary-following sperm account for over 95% of the sperm distribution in small rectangular channels, which is similar to the percentage of wall swimmers in circular channels of similar size. We also demonstrate that wall-swimming sperm travel closer to walls in smaller channels (~100 μm), where the opposite wall is within the hydrodynamic interaction length-scale. The corner accumulation effect is more than the superposition of the influence of two walls, and over 5-fold stronger than that of a single wall. These findings suggest that folds and corners are dominant in sperm migration in the narrow (sub-mm) lumen of the fallopian tube and microchannel-based sperm selection devices.

  20. Lymphocytic and Collagenous Colitis.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Correa; Giardiello

    2000-06-01

    Patients with symptomatic collagenous-lymphocytic colitis should eliminate dietary secretagogues such as caffeine- or lactose-containing food from their diet. When possible, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be discontinued. If steatorrhea is documented, a low-fat diet may be helpful. In the presence of bile salt malabsorption, binding resins such as cholestyramine might be useful. Nonspecific diarrheal agents such as loperamide hydrochloride, diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine, deodorized tincture of opium, or codeine might prove effective in some patients. Antibacterial agents such as bismuth subsalicylate (8 chewable 262-mg tablets daily) have been effective in symptom control. Metronidazole and erythromycin achieve response rates of 60%. Sulfasalazine, at the usual dose of 2 to 4 g daily, used in collagenous-lymphocytic colitis, demonstrated cessation of diarrhea in 1 to 2 weeks for 50% of patients. Other 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) compounds are preferred for patients with a history of sulfa allergy, and those who experience adverse reactions to sulfasalazine. Adrenocorticoid medication is reserved for patients whose conventional treatment with sulfasalazine or 5-ASA has failed. Resolution of diarrhea has been documented in 80% to 90% of patients within 1 week of treatment, however, in most patients, long-term therapy is required. Surgical management is reserved for those patients with disease refractory to medical therapy. Colectomy with ileostomy resulted in clinical and histologic resolution in small case series. If there is no abatement of symptoms, rule out other etiologies of diarrhea such as thyroid dysfunction, celiac disease, or bacterial overgrowth. PMID:11097741

  1. Anti-lymphocyte antibody levels in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C M; Pegrum, G D

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for measuring levels of lymphocyte autoantibody in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) has been developed. Antibody in the form of crude IgG was extracted from patients' sera and iodinated. The assay utilizes its cross-reactivity with other CLL cells. Levels were measured in 23 patients. The results show that an inverse relationship exists between the quantity of circulating CLL autoantibodies and the number of mouse red blood cell rosetting lymphocytes (M cells). The preliminary findings do not correlate with disease activity although it is our impression that patients who are maintaining higher levels of autoantibody and fewer M-rosetting cells have nonprogressive disease.

  2. Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-27

    Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

  3. Generation of a poor prognostic chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like disease model: PKCα subversion induces up-regulation of PKCβII expression in B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Rinako; Vukovic, Milica; Tarafdar, Anuradha; Cosimo, Emilio; Dunn, Karen; McCaig, Alison M.; Holroyd, Ailsa; McClanahan, Fabienne; Ramsay, Alan G.; Gribben, John G.; Michie, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence identifies the microenvironment as a critical factor in the development and progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, underlining the importance of developing suitable translational models to study the pathogenesis of the disease. We previously established that stable expression of kinase dead protein kinase C alpha in hematopoietic progenitor cells resulted in the development of a chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like disease in mice. Here we demonstrate that this chronic lymphocytic leukemia model resembles the more aggressive subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, expressing predominantly unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain genes, with upregulated tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 expression and elevated ERK-MAPK-mTor signaling, resulting in enhanced proliferation and increased tumor load in lymphoid organs. Reduced function of PKCα leads to an up-regulation of PKCβII expression, which is also associated with a poor prognostic subset of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like cells with the selective PKCβ inhibitor enzastaurin caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, and a reduction in the leukemic burden in vivo. These results demonstrate the importance of PKCβII in chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like disease progression and suggest a role for PKCα subversion in creating permissive conditions for leukemogenesis. PMID:25616575

  4. Increased radiosensitivity of a subpopulation of T-lymphocyte progenitors from patients with Fanconi's anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Reeves, J.D.; Misra, H.

    1981-06-01

    In vitro radiation survival of peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied in 15 clinically normal adults and 4 patients with Fanconi's anemia. Tritiated thymidine incorporation in a whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and a newly developed whole blood T-lymphocyte colony assay were used to measure lymphocyte blastogenesis and colony formation in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulation. Lymphocyte colony formation was found to be consistently more sensitive than the LST for detection of low-level radiation effects using both normal cells and lymphocytes from Fanconi's anemia patients. Lymphocytes from patients with Fanconi's anemia were significantly more sensitive to in vitro x irradiation than lymphocytes from clinically normal individuals as measured by their ability to divide when stimulated by PHA in the LST and colony formation assay. No significant difference in the radiosensitivity of the Con-A response was observed between the two groups. The PHA-responsive T-lymphocyte subpopulation in Fanconi's anemia patients appears to be intrinsically defective. The nature of this defect, significance in the disease process, and relevancy of these findings to the establishment of radiation protection standards are discussed.

  5. Increased radiosensitivity of a subpopulation ot T-lymphocyte progenitors from patients with Fanconi's anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Reeves, J.D.; Misra, H.

    1981-06-01

    In vitro radiation survival of peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied in 15 clinically normal adults and 4 patients with Fanconi's anemia. Tritiated thymidine incorporation in a whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and a newly developed whole blood T-lymphocyte colony assay were used to measure lymphocyte blastogenesis and colony formation in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulation. Lymphocyte colony formation was found to be consistently more sensitive than the LST for detection of low-level radiation effects using both normal cells and lymphocytes from Fanconi's anemia patients. Lymphocytes from patients with Fanconi's anemia were significantly more sensitive to in vitro x-irradiation than lymphocytes from clinically normal individuals as measured by their ability to divide when stimulated by PHA in the LST (patients, D37 . 198 R; normals, D37 . 309 R, p . 0.057) and colony formation assay (patients, D37 . 53 R; normals, D37 . 109 R, p . 0.016). No significant difference in the radiosensitivity of the Con-A response was observed between the two groups. The PHA-responsive T-lymphocyte subpopulation in Fanconi's anemia patients appears to be intrinsically defective. The nature of this defect, significance in the disease process, and relevancy of these findings to the establishment of radiation protection standards are discussed.

  6. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood, and lymphoid tissue What is chronic lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts in the ...

  7. Initiation of lymphocyte DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication in T lymphocytes appears to be regulated by two distinct activities: one associated with proliferation which mediates initiation, and another associated with quiescence which blocks initiation. Activated lymphocytes and proliferating lymphoid cell lines produce an activity, termed ADR, which can initiate DNA replication in isolated, quiescent nuclei. ADR is heat-labile, has protease activity or interacts closely with a protease, and is distinct from the DNA polymerases. ADR activity is absent in quiescent lymphocytes and appears in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes after IL-2 binding. The generation of active ADR appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of a precursor which is present in resting cells. Nuclei from mitogen-unresponsive lymphocytes fail to initiate DNA replication in response to ADR, of potential importance in the age-related decline of immunity. Quiescent lymphocytes lack ADR and synthesize an ADR-inhibitory activity. The ADR inhibitor is a heat-stable protein which suppresses the initiation of DNA synthesis, but is ineffective at suppressing elongation once DNA strand replication has begun. Nuclei from several neoplastic cell lines fail to respond to the ADR inhibitor, which may play a role in the continuous proliferation of these cells. At least one of these neoplastic cell lines produces both ADR and an inhibitory factor. These findings suggest that the regulation of proliferation is dependent on the balance between activating and inhibitory pathways. PMID:2005180

  8. Identification and expression of Helios, a member of the Ikaros family, in the Mexican axolotl: implications for the embryonic origin of lymphocyte progenitors.

    PubMed

    Durand, Charles; Kerfourn, Fabienne; Charlemagne, Jacques; Fellah, Julien S

    2002-06-01

    Transcription factors of the Ikaros gene family are critical for the differentiation of T and B lymphocytes from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. To study the first steps of lymphopoiesis in the Mexican axolotl, we have cloned the Helios ortholog in this urodele amphibian species. We demonstrated that the axolotl Helios contains a 144-bp deletion at the 5' end of the activation domain. Helios is expressed in both the thymus and spleen but not in the liver of the pre-adult axolotl. During ontogeny, Helios transcripts are detected from neurula stage, before the apparition of the first Ikaros transcripts and the colonization of lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, Helios and Ikaros mRNA are found predominantly in the ventral blood islands of late tail-bud embryos. These results suggest that in contrast to the Xenopus and amniote embryos where two sites of hematopoiesis have been characterized, the ventral blood islands could be the major site of hematopoiesis in the axolotl. PMID:12115658

  9. T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Anna; Hawkins, Michelle G; Foreman, Oded; Kent, Michael S; Vernau, William; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2011-12-01

    An adult, male double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on results of a complete blood cell count and cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with oral chlorambucil was attempted, but no response was evident after 40 days. The bird was euthanatized, and the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was confirmed on gross and microscopic examination of tissues. Neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, testes, and blood vessels. Based on CD3-positive immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the chronic lymphocytic leukemia was determined to be of T-cell origin.

  10. Pleural effusion associated with rheumatoid arthritis: what cell predominance to anticipate?

    PubMed

    Avnon, L Sølling; Abu-Shakra, M; Flusser, D; Heimer, D; Sion-Vardy, N

    2007-08-01

    Pleural involvement is the most frequent manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the chest. We report here two patients who presented with large exudative pleural effusions and subsequently developed sero-positive RA. In both cases, the differential cell count of the pleural effusion suggested empyema. A literature review identified that RA-associated pleural effusion afflicts more men than women and 95% of the patients have high titers of rheumatoid factor (RF). In 46% of cases, RA-associated pleural effusion is diagnosed in close temporal relationship with the diagnosis of RA. The effusion is an exudate and is characterized by low pH and glucose level, and high lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell count. At diagnosis there is a tendency for predominant neutrophils to occur consistent with an empyema and 7-11 days later, the cells in the pleural effusion are replaced by lymphocytes. Pleural effusion with predominant eosinophilia is rare. RA patients with acidic effusion and low glucose content with neutrophils predominance should be treated with thoracic drainage and antibiotics until an infection is ruled out. The histo-pathologic findings in pleural fluid of tadpole cells and multinucleated giant cells and the replacement of the mesothelial cells on the parietal pleural surface with a palisade of macrophage derived cells are described as pathogonomic for RA. Treatment with systemic steroids and intra-pleural steroids are effective in most cases. PMID:17294192

  11. In Vivo Depletion of T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Laky, Karen; Kruisbeek, Ada M

    2016-01-01

    In vivo depletion of T lymphocytes is a means of studying the role of specific T cell populations during defined phases of in vivo immune responses. In this unit, a protocol is provided for injecting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into wild-type adult mice. Depletion of the appropriate subset of cells is verified by flow cytometry analysis of lymph node and spleen cell suspensions in pilot experiments. Once conditions have been established, depleted mice can be used to study the impact of T cell subsets on a variety of in vivo immune responses. The depleted condition may be maintained by repeated injections of the monoclonal antibody, or reversed by normal thymopoiesis following discontinuation of antibody administration. PMID:27038463

  12. Changes in T-Lymphocytes' Viability After Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gomatos, Ilias P.; Alevizos, Leonidas; Kalathaki, Olga; Kantsos, Harilaos; Kataki, Agapi; Leandros, Emmanuel; Zografos, George; Konstantoulakis, Manousos

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery results in decreased immune and metabolic stress response compared to open surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the suspension of host immune defense in terms of apoptosis, necrosis, and survival of peripheral T-lymphocytes in patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy. Apoptosis, necrosis and viability of peripheral T-lymphocytes were measured preoperatively and postoperatively by means of flow cytometry in 27 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 25 undergoing open cholecystectomy. White cell count, CRP, and serum glucose levels were also measured. Viable peripheral T-lymphocytes were significantly decreased in open cholecystectomy (P = 0.02), while their late apoptotic as well as the overall necrotic rate were significantly increased (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Open cholecystectomy was also associated with lower levels of surviving circulating T-lymphocytes (P = 0.01) and higher percentage of necrotic T lymphocytes (P = 0.03) 24 hours postoperatively compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Serum CRP was increased 24 hours after open cholecystectomy (P = 0.04). All differences failed to sustain more than 48 hours postoperatively. Increased viability and decreased necrosis of circulating T-lymphocytes were observed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Necrosis (and not apoptosis) seems to be the predominant pathway of T-lymphocyte death in open cholecystectomy, in a process reaching its peak at 24 hours and further attenuating 48 hours postoperatively. PMID:25875553

  13. Resistance to Dasatinib in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes involves AMPK-mediated energetic re-programming.

    PubMed

    Martinez Marignac, Veronica L; Smith, Sarah; Toban, Nader; Bazile, Miguel; Aloyz, Raquel

    2013-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults in the western world. Although promising new therapies for this incurable disease are being tested in clinical trials, the therapeutic relevance of metabolic rewiring in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify targetable metabolic differences in primary CLL lymphocytes by the use of Dasatinib. Dasatinib is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and is being tested in clinical trials for several cancers including CLL. This drug has been shown to be beneficial to CML patients suffering from diabetes by reducing their glucose plasma levels. In keeping with this previous observation, we report that Dasatinib induced glucose use while reducing lactate production, suggesting that this tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreases aerobic glycolysis and shifts glucose use in primary CLL lymphocytes. Our results suggest that primary CLL lymphocytes (independently of traditional prognostic factors) can be stratified in two subsets by their sensitivity to Dasatinib in vitro. Increased glucose use induced by Dasatinib or by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration was not sufficient to sustain survival and ATP levels in CLL samples sensitive to Dasatinib. The two subsets of primary CLL lymphocytes are characterized as well by a differential dependency on mitochondrial respiration and the use of anabolic or catabolic processes to cope with induced metabolic/energetic stress. Differential metabolic reprogramming between subsets is supported by the contrasting effect on the survival of Dasatinib treated CLL lymphocytes with pharmacological inhibition of two master metabolic regulators (mTorc1 and AMPK) as well as induced autophagy. Alternative metabolic organization between subsets is further supported by the differential basal expression (freshly purified lymphocytes) of active AMPK, regulators of glucose metabolism and

  14. Intravital Two-Photon Imaging of Lymphocytes Crossing High Endothelial Venules and Cortical Lymphatics in the Inguinal Lymph Node.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung; Hwang, Il-Young; Kehrl, John H

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte recirculation through lymph nodes (LNs) requires their crossing of endothelial barriers present in blood vessels and lymphatics by means of chemoattractant-triggered cell migration. The chemoattractant-chemoattractant receptor axes that predominately govern the trafficking of lymphocytes into, and out of, LNs are CCL19/CCR7 and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1), respectively. Blood-borne lymphocytes downregulate S1PR1 and use CCR7 signaling to adhere to high endothelial venules (HEVs) for transmigration. During their LN residency, recirculating lymphocytes reacquire S1PR1 and attenuate their sensitivity to chemokines. Eventually lymphocytes exit the LN by entering the cortical or medullary lymphatics, a process that depends upon S1PR1 signaling. Upon entering into the lymph, lymphocytes lose their polarity, downregulate their sensitivity to S1P due to the high concentration of S1P, and upregulate their sensitivity to chemokines. However, many of the details of lymphocyte transmigration across endothelial barriers remain poorly understood. Intravital two-photon imaging with advanced microscope technologies not only allows the real-time observation of immune cells in intact LN of a live mouse, but also provides a means to monitor the interactions between circulating lymphocytes and stromal barriers. Here, we describe procedures to visualize lymphocytes engaging and crossing HEVs, and approaching and crossing the cortical lymphatic endothelium to enter the efferent lymph in live mice. PMID:27271904

  15. Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Puente, Xose S.; Pinyol, Magda; Quesada, Víctor; Conde, Laura; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Villamor, Neus; Escaramis, Georgia; Jares, Pedro; Beà, Sílvia; González-Díaz, Marcos; Bassaganyas, Laia; Baumann, Tycho; Juan, Manel; López-Guerra, Mónica; Colomer, Dolors; Tubío, José M. C.; López, Cristina; Navarro, Alba; Tornador, Cristian; Aymerich, Marta; Rozman, María; Hernández, Jesús M.; Puente, Diana A.; Freije, José M. P.; Velasco, Gloria; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Costa, Dolors; Carrió, Anna; Guijarro, Sara; Enjuanes, Anna; Hernández, Lluís; Yagüe, Jordi; Nicolás, Pilar; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M.; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Castillo, Ester; Dohm, Juliane C.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Piris, Miguel A.; de Alava, Enrique; Miguel, Jesús San; Royo, Romina; Gelpí, Josep L.; Torrents, David; Orozco, Modesto; Pisano, David G.; Valencia, Alfonso; Guigó, Roderic; Bayés, Mónica; Heath, Simon; Gut, Marta; Klatt, Peter; Marshall, John; Raine, Keiran; Stebbings, Lucy A.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.; Gut, Ivo; López-Guillermo, Armando; Estivill, Xavier; Montserrat, Emili; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution1,2. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes3,4. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer. PMID:21642962

  16. Approach to Chronic Lymphocytic Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Satish V; Nadkarni, Nilesh

    2015-09-01

    Chronic meningitis is a common clinical problem. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy is important in improving the overall outcome and to prevent long-lasting sequels. As many etiological agents lead to the development of chronic lymphocytic meningitis, it is important to develop a systematic approach to the diagnosis; taking clues from history, examination and laboratory tests, to make an accurate diagnosis and institute appropriate therapy. This review focuses on the diagnostic approach towards the commonly encountered situation of chronic lymphocytic meningitis. Chronic meningitis is defined as meningeal inflammation that persists for more than 4 weeks. Chronic meningitis accounts for less than 10% of all the cases of meningitis.1 Causes of chronic lymphocytic meningitis are mainly divided into infectious and non-infectious listed in Table 1.2 Due to advancement in investigations, diseases causing chronic meningitis may be diagnosed earlier than 4 weeks and hence the definition should be considered as a rough guideline. PMID:27608867

  17. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ghia, Paolo; Hallek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has undergone profound changes that have been driven by an improved understanding of the biology of the disease and the approval of several new drugs. Moreover, many novel drugs are currently under evaluation for rapid approval or have been approved by regulatory agencies, further broadening the available therapeutic armamentarium for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The use of novel biological and genetic parameters combined with a careful clinical evaluation allows us to dissect some of the heterogeneity of the disease and to distinguish patients with a very mild onset and course, who often will not need any treatment, from those with an intermediate prognosis and a third group with a very aggressive course (high-risk leukemia). On this background, it becomes increasingly challenging to select the right treatment strategy. In this paper, we describe our own approach to the management of different patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24881042

  18. T lymphocyte-dependent B lymphocyte proliferative response to antigen. I Genetic restriction of the stimulation of B lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, H.Y.; Mond, J.J.; Paul, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    For the purpose of examining more closely the interaction between T and B lymphocytes, we have developed an in vitro T lymphocyte-dependent B lymphocyte proliferation assay. Proliferation of B lymphocytes in response to antigen was found to depend on the presence of primed T lymphocytes; the B lymphocytes could be derived from nonprimed animals. It appears that these B cells were nonspecifically recruited to proliferate. This nonspecific recruitment, however, was found to be Ir-gene restricted in that B lymphocytes from B10.S mice, which are genetic nonresponders to the polymer Glu60-Ala30-Tyr10 (GAT), could not be stimulated by GAT-primed (responder X nonresponder) F1 T cells. The apparent lack of antigen specificity in the face of Ir gene-restricted T-B interaction may have important implications in our understanding of the recognition unit(s) on T lymphocytes.

  19. Changes of human B and B-1a peripheral blood lymphocytes with age.

    PubMed

    Veneri, Dino; Franchini, Massimo; Vella, Antonio; Tridente, Giuseppe; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Ortolani, Riccardo

    2007-08-01

    In 2057 consecutive subjects admitted to the Department of Pathology, Section of Immunology of the Verona University Hospital, CD19+ and CD5/CD19 double positive cells were determined to assess the behaviour of total peripheral B-lymphocytes and B-1a (CD5+) compartments in humans during aging. We show that the absolute number of total B lymphocytes increases about three-fold from the baseline conditions in the first year of life and progressively decreases until adult age. A slower decrease was detected from the adult age onwards. A similar behaviour has been observed within the B-1a subset of B-lymphocytes, although the decrease after the adult age seems more pronounced. Possible physiological explanations and/or implications for the disease states are taken into account.

  20. Modulation of murine lymphocyte and macrophage proliferation by parenteral zinc.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, M J; Wilson, F D; Fisher, G L; Erickson, K L

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a single i.p. injection of zinc (0.7, 1.3, 4.0 or 12.0 mg/kg), 24 h prior to sacrifice, on lymphocyte blastogenesis as well as lymphocyte and macrophage progenitor cell proliferation were examined using cells from adult BALB/c mice. Splenic lymphocyte blastogenesis in response to T cell mitogens decreased for mice receiving the highest zinc dosage while responses to B cell mitogens were initially depressed, subsequently increased, and finally declined sharply as the LD50 was approached. Splenic B cell colony formation decreased linearly in relation to zinc dosage with a 50% suppression of colony formation observed at approximately 8.0 mg/kg. In contrast, bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage colonies were enhanced at higher dosages (greater than or equal to 2.5 mg/kg) of zinc. These results indicate that zinc exposure at dosages less than the LD50 can influence lymphocyte blastogenesis and clonal expansion of both B cell and macrophage progenitors. PMID:6616965

  1. Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. H. David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy. Mature lymphocytes, which are the effectors of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, are extremely susceptible to apoptotic death, and depend on continuous reception of survival-inducing stimulation (in the forms of cytokines, cell-to-cell contacts, and antigen receptor signaling) from the microenvironment. For this reason, efforts to develop systems for long-term culture of functional, non-transformed and non-activated mature lymphocytes have been unsuccessful until now. The bone-marrow microenvironment supports the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic lineages, in addition to B-lymphocytes. Primary bone-marrow cell cultures designed to promote the development of specific cell types in vitro are highly desirable experimental systems, amenable to manipulation under controlled conditions. However, the dynamic and complex network of stromal cells and insoluble matrix proteins is disrupted in prior plate- and flask-based culture systems, wherein the microenvironments have a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character. In 2D bone-marrow cultures, normal B-lymphoid cells become progressively skewed toward precursor B-cell populations that do not retain a normal immunophenotype, and such mature B-lymphocytes as those harvested from the spleen or lymph nodes do not survive beyond several days ex vivo in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. The present 3D culture system is a bioreactor that contains highly porous artificial scaffolding that supports the long-term culture of bone marrow, spleen, and lymph-node samples. In this system, unlike in 2D culture systems, B-cell subpopulations developing

  2. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  3. Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monoclonal antibodies to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia Targeted therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia In recent years, new ... These drugs are often referred to as targeted therapy. Some of these drugs can be useful in ...

  4. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Print to PDF Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Approved by the ... Platelets that help the blood to clot About leukemia Types of leukemia are named after the specific ...

  5. How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Classified?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia treated? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? Most types of cancers are assigned numbered ... ALL are now named as follows: B-cell ALL Early pre-B ALL (also called pro-B ...

  6. Clinical data analysis of 19 cases of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Mao-Mao; Pu, Zeng-Hui; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement. PMID:26770532

  7. Clinical data analysis of 19 cases of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Mao-Mao; Pu, Zeng-Hui; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement.

  8. Studies on rabbit lymphocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sell, S.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Anti-allotypic sera that have no known allotypic determinants other than those also present in the genotype of the lymphocyte donor are as able to induce lymphocyte `blast' transformation in vitro as are anti-allotypic sera that do have allotypic determinants that are not present in the lymphocyte donor. Therefore, anti-allotypic sera do not appear to function in the stimulation of blast transformation by providing access for any of the known allotypic determinants into lymphocytes. PMID:5769980

  9. [Ultrastructure of blood lymphocytes in dairy cows with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Cerný, L; Hajdu, I

    1982-03-01

    The morphology of blood lymphocytes was studied ultrastructurally in cows with chronical lymphocytic leucosis (CLL) and in healthy controls. A significantly higher occurrence of the so-called nuclear pockets in the leucaemic lymphocytes was found (13.8% v. 0.83% in healthy animals). The surfaces of lymphocytes were stained with ruthenium red; this showed the possibility of differentiating two distinct populations of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In this way, a prevalence of B-lymphocytes, constituting 89.7% of all lymphocytes, was demonstrated in animals suffering from CLL. PMID:6179285

  10. Bortezomib, Ifosfamide, and Vinorelbine Tartrate in Treating Young Patients With Hodgkin's Lymphoma That is Recurrent or Did Not Respond to Previous Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Childhood Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Childhood Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Childhood Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Childhood Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Childhood Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

  11. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  12. Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Solid Tumors With Liver Dysfunction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-26

    Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Solid Neoplasm; AIDS Related Immunoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Burkitt Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Hodgkin Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma; Glioma; Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Colorectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Mature T- and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  13. Genetically Engineered Lymphocyte Therapy in Treating Patients With B-Cell Leukemia or Lymphoma That is Resistant or Refractory to Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  14. Age-Related Differences in Percentages of Regulatory and Effector T Lymphocytes and Their Subsets in Healthy Individuals and Characteristic STAT1/STAT5 Signalling Response in Helper T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Holcar, Marija; Goropevšek, Aleš; Ihan, Alojz; Avčin, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic process of the development of the immune system can in itself result in age-related immune malfunctions. In this study, we analysed lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of 60 healthy donors, divided into groups of children, adolescents, and adults, focusing on effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T lymphocytes and STAT1/STAT5 signalling response in helper T lymphocytes (Th) in adults, using flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate a decrease in the percentage of total Tregs and an increase in the percentage of total Teffs with age and a consequential immense increase in the Teff/Treg ratio. The increase of Teffs was most apparent in Th1, Th1Th17, and Th17CD161− subsets. Significant Th lymphocyte STAT1 expression differences were observed between children and adolescents, which were associated with the decrease in activated Tregs. Higher expression of STAT1 was found in FoxP3hi than in FoxP3low Th lymphocytes, while significant IL-2 induced STAT5 phosphorylation differences were found among the subsets of Th lymphocytes in adults. Our study demonstrates age-related changes in circulating Teff and Treg, as well as significant differences in STAT5/STAT1 signalling among FoxP3+ Th lymphocytes, providing new advances in the understanding of immunosenescence. PMID:26525134

  15. Age-Related Differences in Percentages of Regulatory and Effector T Lymphocytes and Their Subsets in Healthy Individuals and Characteristic STAT1/STAT5 Signalling Response in Helper T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Holcar, Marija; Goropevšek, Aleš; Ihan, Alojz; Avčin, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic process of the development of the immune system can in itself result in age-related immune malfunctions. In this study, we analysed lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of 60 healthy donors, divided into groups of children, adolescents, and adults, focusing on effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T lymphocytes and STAT1/STAT5 signalling response in helper T lymphocytes (Th) in adults, using flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate a decrease in the percentage of total Tregs and an increase in the percentage of total Teffs with age and a consequential immense increase in the Teff/Treg ratio. The increase of Teffs was most apparent in Th1, Th1Th17, and Th17CD161- subsets. Significant Th lymphocyte STAT1 expression differences were observed between children and adolescents, which were associated with the decrease in activated Tregs. Higher expression of STAT1 was found in FoxP3hi than in FoxP3low Th lymphocytes, while significant IL-2 induced STAT5 phosphorylation differences were found among the subsets of Th lymphocytes in adults. Our study demonstrates age-related changes in circulating Teff and Treg, as well as significant differences in STAT5/STAT1 signalling among FoxP3+ Th lymphocytes, providing new advances in the understanding of immunosenescence. PMID:26525134

  16. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-18

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  17. Lymphocytic inflammation in childhood bronchiolitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Mauad, Thais; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Schrumpf, Jasmijn; Hack, C Erik; Fernezlian, Sandra; Garippo, Ana L; Ejzenberg, Bernardo; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Rabe, Klaus F; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2004-09-01

    Childhood bronchiolitis obliterans (CBO) is an infrequent, severe disorder characterized by persistent obstructive respiratory symptoms after an acute episode of bronchiolitis. The viral etiology is most common, and adenovirus is the most frequently identified causative agent. Pathologically, the disease is characterized as constrictive type BO, with variable degrees of chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the bronchioles. The nature of the cellular infiltrate is largely unknown, and its characterization may provide better understanding of the disease and offer clues for therapy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the inflammatory infiltrate in the bronchioles of 23 open lung biopsies of children with CBO and to compare this to the infiltrate in histologically normal airways. Our results show that CD3+ T cells were the most frequent cell type observed in CBO, with a predominance of the CD8+ T-cell subtype. When compared to the control group, there was a larger number of CD8+, CD4+, CD20+, granzyme B+, and perforin+ lymphocytes in the CBO group. Further studies are needed to address the role of different cell types in the development of CBO.

  18. A basophil-activating factor from human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, E J; Foster, D W; Payan, D G

    1984-01-01

    Human T lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD) generate an activity which elicits non-cytotoxic histamine release from human basophils. Filtration of the T lymphocyte-derived activity on columns of Sephadex G-100 and Fractogel 55F sequentially revealed one predominant basophil-activating factor of mol. wt. 70,000-90,000, that was designated BAF-T. BAF-T was composed of two acidic proteins of approximate pI 4.4 and 5.2-5.5, as assessed by isoelectric focusing. The distinction of BAF-T from IgE was confirmed by the failure of BAF-T to bind to an anti-IgE affinity column and the capacity of BAF-T to release histamine maximally from basophils desensitized to IgE-dependent stimuli. The inability of BAF-T to release histamine from human lung mast cells and dog cutaneous mastocytoma cells suggests target cell specificity. The source and activity of BAF-T are consistent with a specific contribution of this mediator to human cellular immune and hypersensitivity responses involving T lymphocytes and basophils. PMID:6208144

  19. [Retarded excision of pyrimidine dimers in human unstimulated lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Snopov, S A; Roza, L; de Gruijl, F R

    2006-01-01

    Using immuno-labelling of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in nuclei of peripheral lymphocytes after their UVC-irradiation and cultivation, we have found that within the first four hours of cultivation the CPD-specific fluorescent signal from cell nuclei increased. Earlier, a similar increase in binding of antibody specific for pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts to undenatured DNA isolated from UV-irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells was reported (Mitchell et al., 1986). Our experiments showed that nucleotide excision repair enzyme might induce such of DNA modification in lymphocyte nuclei that increased specific antibody binding to DNA fragments with lesions. We suggest that enzymatic formation of open structures in DNA predominated qualitatively over dual-incision and excision of these fragments, and resulted in the enhanced exposure of the pyrimidine dimers in nuclei to specific antibodies. The results evidence that nucleotid excision repair in unstimualted human lymphocytes being deficient in dual incision and removal of UV-induced DNA lesions appear to be capable of performing chromatin relaxation and pre-incision uncoiling of DNA fragments with lesions.

  20. Synthesis of antibodies to hepatitis B virus by cultured lymphocytes from chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Dusheiko, G.M.; Hoofnagle, J.H.; Cooksley, W.G.; James, S.P.; Jones, E.A.

    1983-05-01

    It has been postulated that host immune defects are responsible for the development and persistence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state. The synthesis of both anti-HBs and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in cultures containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic HBsAg carriers and from control (antibody-positive) patients was measured in the presence of pokeweed mitogen. Similar amounts of polyclonal IgG and IgM were synthesized by cultures containing lymphocytes from chronic carriers and controls. Anti-HBc was detectable in lymphocyte supernatants from 2 of 20 controls and from 21 of 29 carriers. The presence of anti-HBc synthesis in vitro correlated with high serum titers of anti-HBc. In contrast, anti-HBs was detected in lymphocyte supernatants from 6 of 20 controls (predominantly in those who had high serum titers of anti-HBs) but in none of the supernatants from 29 HBsAg carriers. Co-culture experiments were performed using T and B lymphocyte fractions that had been purified by affinity chromatography. B lymphocytes from carriers co-cultured with allogeneic irradiated (''helper'') T lymphocytes from controls synthesized normal amounts of IgG, IgM, and anti-HBc but still did not synthesize detectable amounts of anti-HBs. In the converse experiments, B lymphocytes from controls were co-cultured with irradiated T lymphocytes from carriers. The T lymphocytes from 16 of 24 carriers augmented anti-HBs production by control B cells normally, the remaining eight did not. Finally, mixtures of control B cells and control irradiated T lymphocytes were co-cultured with T lymphocytes from chronic HBsAg carriers. 5 of 12 carriers demonstrated active suppression of anti-HBs production, and in three this suppression was specific, as IgG and IgM production remained normal.

  1. Vorinostat and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  2. Collagenous gastritis associated with lymphocytic gastritis and celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Stancu, M; De Petris, G; Palumbo, T P; Lev, R

    2001-12-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare disorder, with only 8 cases reported in the literature, 2 in children and 6 in adults. We report an additional case of collagenous gastritis in a 42-year-old man with celiac disease. A thickened (>10 microm) subepithelial collagen band with entrapped capillaries, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells was seen in the stomach, associated with lymphocytic gastritis. The duodenal mucosa showed severe villous atrophy but no subepithelial collagen deposition. No evidence of lymphocytic or collagenous colitis was found in the colon. The patient became symptom-free on a gluten exclusion diet and showed partial improvement of histopathologic findings after 3 months. Collagenous gastritis is a rare disease, but a wider recognition of its histopathologic features and clinical associations may bring more cases to light and provide additional clues in determining its etiology and pathogenesis. PMID:11735694

  3. Clonal dominance among T-lymphocyte infiltrates in arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Stamenkovic, I.; Stegagno, M.; Wright, K.A.; Krane, S.M.; Amento, E.P.; Colvin, R.B.; Duquesnoy, R.J.; Kurnick, J.T.

    1988-02-01

    Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) ..beta..-chain genes in 13 of 14 cultures showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders.

  4. Clonal Dominance among T-Lymphocyte Infiltrates in Arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, Ivan; Stegagno, Michele; Wright, Kathryn A.; Krane, Stephen M.; Amento, Edward P.; Colvin, Robert B.; Duquesnoy, Rene J.; Kurnick, James T.

    1988-02-01

    Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) β -chain genes in 13 of 14 cultures showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders.

  5. Human lymphocyte surface immunoglobulin capping. Normal characteristics and anomalous behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemic lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, H J

    1975-01-01

    The phenomenon of redistribution of surface membrane immunoglobulin (Ig) components (capping) has been well described in mouse lymphoid cells. The characteristics of this process in human lymphocytes are less clear. This study characterizes the phenomenon of surface membrane Ig redistribution of normal and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lymphocytes with the use of fluoroscein-labeled anti-Ig sera. Normal lymphocytes underwent rapid cap formation after incubation with anti-Ig serum in the cold and subsequent rewarming. The morphology was characteristic with aggregation over the pole of the cell opposite the nucleus and over the uropod when present. The process was energy dependent but independent of protein synthesis, and could be inhibited by vincristine, vinblastine, and colchicine but not by cytochalasin B. CLL cells, on the other hand, though showing fluorescent complex aggregation on the surface, rarely demonstrated unidirectional movement of these aggregates to form a cap. Cap formation in these cells could not be stimulated by supplementing the energy source or protein concentration of the medium nor by adding glutamic acid which could partially reverse the vincristine and vinblastine inhibition of normal capping. The failure of agents which inhibit motility to inhibit capping of the normal lymphocytes suggests that active locomotion is not a direct prerequisite for capping. The results also suggest the involvement of microtubules in normal capping and the possibility that abnormal membrane structure or microtubular function could explain the failure of CLL cells to behave normally in this regard. The role of this cellular defect in the immune deficiencies exhibited by many patients with CLL, however, is not established. Images PMID:1088910

  6. Animal model of human disease: lymphocytic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C A; Jarlnäs, M; Johnson, L

    1993-01-01

    Gastric specimens from 102 belonging to 11 different species were reviewed. Of the 11 species, only the gastric mucosa of pigs contained a large number of lymphocytes in the surface and in the foveolar epithelium (mean 82 lymphocytes/1000 epithelial cells, range 62-128 lymphocytes. The gastric specimens of the remaining 10 species revealed none or occasional lymphocytes in the surface or the foveolar epithelium. The occurrence of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the gastric mucosa of pigs mimics the human disease known as "lymphocytic gastritis". Since the etiology of this disease remains unknown, the apparently endemic nature of lymphocytic gastritis in pigs offer an alternative to investigate the possible cause(s), as well as the mechanism of, this disease.

  7. l-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3ζ chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 μm; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

  8. Evolution of the peripheral blood lymphocyte populations in multiparous rabbit does with two reproductive management rhythms.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Irene; Ferrian, Selena; Blas, Enrique; Pascual, Juan J; Cano, José L; Corpa, Juan M

    2011-03-15

    The emergence of epizootic rabbit enteropathy is leading to changes in weaning protocols in commercial rabbitries. Traditional weaning protocols are being replaced with late weaning, beyond 35 days postpartum (dpp). The main objectives of this study were to compare the peripheral blood lymphocyte populations of multiparous rabbit does under two reproductive rhythms (insemination at 11 dpp and weaning at 28 dpp, insemination at 25 dpp and weaning at 42 dpp), and to assess the influence on those of kits. Samples of peripheral blood were taken in 22 adult females and 44 of their kits at different critical times, and several lymphocytic populations were evaluated by flow cytometry. Additionally, the perirenal fat thickness of does was also measured at partum and weaning to observe if body condition correlates with lymphocyte populations. During whole lactation, counts of total, CD5(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes of females were generally lower with weaning at 42 dpp compared to 28 dpp. Moreover, counts of total, B and CD5(+) lymphocytes in rabbit does weaned at 42 dpp correlated to their body condition (+0.60 to 0.82; P<0.05), contrary to that observed in rabbit does weaned at 28 dpp. Some correlations between lymphocyte counts in both groups of does and weaning rabbits were observed. At weaning, those young rabbits weaned at 42 dpp had a significantly lower number of CD4(+) lymphocytes than those weaned at 28 dpp (P<0.01). In conclusion, the 42 ddp rabbit does presented a lower number of total lymphocytes and lymphocytic subpopulations during lactation and at weaning, as well as lesser capacity of adjustment during the gestation-lactation cycle.

  9. Blister fluid T lymphocytes during toxic epidermal necrolysis are functional cytotoxic cells which express human natural killer (NK) inhibitory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Le Cleach, L; Delaire, S; Boumsell, L; Bagot, M; Bourgault-Villada, I; Bensussan, A; Roujeau, J C

    2000-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life-threatening adverse drug reaction characterized by a massive destruction of the epidermis. Immunohistological studies of skin biopsies of TEN showed infiltrates of predominantly CD8+ T lymphocytes even though other authors reported a prominent involvement of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. The aim of this study was to characterize phenotypically and functionally the cells present in the cutaneous blister fluid of four patients with TEN. We first determined that lymphocytes were predominant in blister fluid obtained early, while monocytes/macrophages later became the most important population. We then showed that this lymphocyte population, mainly CD3+CD8+, corresponded to a peculiar cell subset as they expressed cutaneous leucocyte antigen, killer inhibitory receptors KIR/KAR and failed to express CD28 molecule. Functionally, we determined that blister T lymphocytes had a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)- and NK-like cytotoxicity. The role of this cytotoxic lymphocyte population present at the site of lesions during TEN remains to be understood. PMID:10606987

  10. Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  11. [Simultaneous occurrence of lymphocytic gastritis and lymphocytic colitis with transition to collagenous colitis].

    PubMed

    Christ, A D; Meier, R; Bauerfeind, P; Wegmann, W; Gyr, K

    1993-07-31

    Lymphocytic gastritis and lymphocytic colitis are two rare disorders of unknown etiology, only diagnosable by histology. Simultaneous occurrence of lymphocytic colitis and lymphocytic gastritis has not been described up to now. A 69-year-old female patient was examined because of crampy abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. Laboratory tests did not reveal an etiology and in colonoscopy the colon and terminal ileum were normal. Histology disclosed lymphocytic colitis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erosive bulbitis. Biopsies of the stomach revealed lymphocytic gastritis. A second colonoscopy one year later showed the development of collagenous colitis. PMID:8367708

  12. Predominant mania course in Indian patients with bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Rangappa, Sushma Bilichodu; Munivenkatappa, Shashidhara; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Jain, Sanjeev; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2016-08-01

    Many long-term follow-up studies suggest that bipolar disorder (BD) is highly recurrent and that depressive episodes are commoner than hypomania/manic episodes. However, some studies from tropical countries including India suggest that the patients experience a greater proportion of manic episodes than depressive episodes. The aim of the present study was to examine the course of BD type 1 (BD I) in a sample of hospitalized Indian subjects. We examined the clinical course of 285 BD I subjects with at least 5 years of illness using standard life charting method. These subjects were hospitalized between October 2010 and October 2012. The predominant polarity (having at least two-thirds of their lifetime episodes at one polarity) was mania (79%). Unipolar mania (≥ 3 mania episodes and no episodes of depression) was observed in 48% of the subjects. The frequency of rapid cycling course was noted in 2.5% of the subjects. Predominant manic polarity group had the illness onset mostly with a manic episode (88.9%) and the predominant depressive polarity group with a depressive episode (73.8%). Mania was the predominant polarity with a high rate of unipolar mania and a majority of the subjects had greater number of manic episodes than depressive/mixed episodes. The onset polarity determined the predominant polarity during the course of illness. Predominantly, mania course could have significant implications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:27520890

  13. Macrophage activation of allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation in the guinea pig mixed leukocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Greineder, D K; Rosenthal, A S

    1975-05-01

    The role of the macrophage in the guinea pig mixed leukocyte culture was investigated. Macrophages obtained from oil-induced peritoneal exudates, peritoneal wash-out cells, spleen, and alveolar washings were found to be effective stimulators of allogeneic lymph node and splenic lymphocyte DNA synthesis. The stimulatory properties of macrophages proved radioresistant but viability dependent. Unfractionated lymph node cells or adherence column purified lymph node lymphocytes and thymocytes were only minimally active as stimulators, even in the presence of macrophages syngeneic to the responder lymphocytes. Allogeneic fibroblasts, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, L2C leukemia cells, and xenogeneic (murine) macrophages failed to simulate. These data provide evidence that the macrophage is the predominant stimulator of the mixed leukocyte culture in the guinea pig.

  14. Hyperglycemia during induction therapy is associated with increased infectious complications in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are at high risk for developing hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemic adult ALL patients have shorter remissions, more infections, and increased mortality. No corresponding data are available in children. We hypothesized that children with ALL who become hypergl...

  15. Lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy: a molecular, immunophenotypic, and clinicopathologic evaluation of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Riccardo; Thorson, John; Finn, William G; Schnitzer, Bertram; Kleer, Celina G

    2003-03-01

    Lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy are uncommon fibroinflammatory breast diseases. The lesions seen in these entities are unique in that the associated lymphoid infiltrates are composed of predominantly B cells. In addition, B-cell lymphoepithelial lesions, a finding commonly associated with extranodal marginal zone B-cell/mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, are also often present in lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy. Although the clinical and immunomorphologic features are well characterized, the clonality of the B-cell infiltrate and the lymphomatous potential of lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy have not been emphasized in the literature. We evaluated 11 cases of lymphocytic mastitis/diabetic mastopathy for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement and correlated the findings with all available clinical data. A longstanding history of Type I diabetes mellitus was present in seven patients. One nondiabetic patient had Sjogren's syndrome, and two patients had no history of diabetes mellitus or other autoimmune disease. Clinical data were unavailable for one patient. B-cell-predominant lymphoid infiltrates were seen in all cases, and B-cell lymphoepithelial lesions were found in five. No evidence of a B-cell clone was found in any of the 11 cases by appropriately controlled immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement studies, and none of the patients developed lymphoma during follow-up intervals ranging from 2-126 months. These findings suggest that despite the presence of B-cell-predominant lymphoid infiltrates and lymphoepithelial lesions, lymphocytic mastitis and diabetic mastopathy do not appear to be associated with an increased risk for lymphoma. PMID:12640102

  16. Ibrutinib and Rituximab Compared With Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-04

    Anemia; Fever, Sweat, and Hot Flashes; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Weight Change

  17. Conversions of excision-repairable DNA lesions to micronuclei within one cell cycle in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fenech, M.; Neville, S. )

    1992-01-01

    The human lymphocyte micronucleus (MN) assay is relatively insensitive to genotoxic agents that predominantly induce excision-repairable lesions such as adducts and abasic sites. In this study the authors have explored the possibility of using cytosine arabinoside (ARA) to convert excision-repairable DNA lesions to micronuclei (MN) within one cell cycle. The system consisted of human lymphocytes as target cells, the cytokinesis-block (CB) method for identifying cells that had completed one nuclear division only, and X-rays, methylnitrosourea (MNU), and ultraviolet light (UV) as mutagens. With each mutagen they have observed significant increments induced MN in the cultures that had also been treated with ARA during G{sub 1}. These observations suggested that the combined ARA and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) method may enhance the detection of exposure to genotoxic agents that predominantly induce excision-repairable lesions.

  18. Persistent changes in circulating and intestinal γδ T cell subsets, invariant natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells in children and adults with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Margaret R; Elliott, Louise; Hussey, Seamus; Mahmud, Nasir; Kelly, Jacinta; Doherty, Derek G; Feighery, Conleth F

    2013-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The only current therapy is a lifelong gluten free diet. While much work has focused on the gliadin-specific adaptive immune response in coeliac disease, little is understood about the involvement of the innate immune system. Here we used multi-colour flow cytometry to determine the number and frequency of γδ T cells (Vδ1, Vδ2 and Vδ3 subsets), natural killer cells, CD56(+) T cells, invariant NKT cells, and mucosal associated invariant T cells, in blood and duodenum from adults and children with coeliac disease and healthy matched controls. All circulating innate lymphocyte populations were significantly decreased in adult, but not paediatric coeliac donors, when compared with healthy controls. Within the normal small intestine, we noted that Vδ3 cells were the most abundant γδ T cell type in the adult epithelium and lamina propria, and in the paediatric lamina propria. In contrast, patients with coeliac disease showed skewing toward a predominant Vδ1 profile, observed for both adult and paediatric coeliac disease cohorts, particularly within the gut epithelium. This was concurrent with decreases in all other gut lymphocyte subsets, suggesting a specific involvement of Vδ1 cells in coeliac disease pathogenesis. Further analysis showed that γδ T cells isolated from the coeliac gut display an activated, effector memory phenotype, and retain the ability to rapidly respond to in vitro stimulation. A profound loss of CD56 expression in all lymphocyte populations was noted in the coeliac gut. These findings demonstrate a sustained aberrant innate lymphocyte profile in coeliac disease patients of all ages, persisting even after elimination of gluten from the diet. This may lead to impaired immunity, and could potentially account for the increased incidence of autoimmune co-morbidity. PMID:24124528

  19. Persistent changes in circulating and intestinal γδ T cell subsets, invariant natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells in children and adults with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Margaret R; Elliott, Louise; Hussey, Seamus; Mahmud, Nasir; Kelly, Jacinta; Doherty, Derek G; Feighery, Conleth F

    2013-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The only current therapy is a lifelong gluten free diet. While much work has focused on the gliadin-specific adaptive immune response in coeliac disease, little is understood about the involvement of the innate immune system. Here we used multi-colour flow cytometry to determine the number and frequency of γδ T cells (Vδ1, Vδ2 and Vδ3 subsets), natural killer cells, CD56(+) T cells, invariant NKT cells, and mucosal associated invariant T cells, in blood and duodenum from adults and children with coeliac disease and healthy matched controls. All circulating innate lymphocyte populations were significantly decreased in adult, but not paediatric coeliac donors, when compared with healthy controls. Within the normal small intestine, we noted that Vδ3 cells were the most abundant γδ T cell type in the adult epithelium and lamina propria, and in the paediatric lamina propria. In contrast, patients with coeliac disease showed skewing toward a predominant Vδ1 profile, observed for both adult and paediatric coeliac disease cohorts, particularly within the gut epithelium. This was concurrent with decreases in all other gut lymphocyte subsets, suggesting a specific involvement of Vδ1 cells in coeliac disease pathogenesis. Further analysis showed that γδ T cells isolated from the coeliac gut display an activated, effector memory phenotype, and retain the ability to rapidly respond to in vitro stimulation. A profound loss of CD56 expression in all lymphocyte populations was noted in the coeliac gut. These findings demonstrate a sustained aberrant innate lymphocyte profile in coeliac disease patients of all ages, persisting even after elimination of gluten from the diet. This may lead to impaired immunity, and could potentially account for the increased incidence of autoimmune co-morbidity.

  20. Stimulation of human tonsillar lymphocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Oettgen, H. F.; Silber, R.; Miescher, P. A.; Hirschhorn, K.

    1966-01-01

    We have studied the in vitro behaviour of cultured human tonsillar lymphocytes. In comparison with peripheral blood lymphocytes these cells show a higher degree of formation of large cells and mitoses in control cultures without any additive. They behave in a manner similar to peripheral blood lymphocytes when cultured with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), streptolysin S (SLS) and specific antigens. The only exception is a lack of response to streptolysin O (SLO). PMID:5916348

  1. Cross-reactivity of sperm and T lymphocyte antigens.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented for cross-reactivity between antigens on human sperm and T lymphocytes. In 25 infertile couples in which both the males and females had significant antisperm immunity, antibody (Ab) titers to thymocytes (mean +/- S.E.M. 159 +/- 4 and 72 +/- 14, respectively, in males and females), T cell lines CCRF-CEM (69 +/- 5 and 48 +/- 8) and HSB-2 (56 +/- 15) and 41 +/- 8), suppressor-enriched (TG) cells (26 +/- 6 and 66 +/- 28) and helper-enriched (TG-) cells (26 +/- 4 and 46 +/- 14) were significantly elevated, as compared with Ab titers in 45 normal males and 45 normal females without antisperm immunity. Antibody titers to adult B cells, B cell line RAJI, and granulocytes were similar in the two groups. Antisperm Ab titers in sera, sperm extracts, and seminal plasma of the infertile subjects were significantly reduced after absorption with sperm, thymocytes, or T cell line CCRF-CEM but not with the B cell line RAJI. Antithymocyte Ab titers in the sera were significantly reduced (p less than 0.001) after absorption with thymocytes, CCRF-CEM, or sperm, but not RAJI. Lymphocytes from the infertile patients, when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen in vitro, produced antisperm and anti-T-lymphocyte antibodies at significantly higher titers than normal controls. PMID:6175235

  2. T-cell-predominant lymphoid hyperplasia in a tattoo*

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Erica Sales; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Batista, Everton da Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ferreira; Farre, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) can be idiopathic or secondary to external stimuli, and is considered rare in tattoos. The infiltrate can be predominantly of B or T-cells, the latter being seldom reported in tattoos. We present a case of a predominantly T CLH, secondary to the black pigment of tattooing in a 35-year-old patient, with a dense infiltrate of small, medium and scarce large T-cells. Analysis of the rearrangement of T-cells receptor revealed a polyclonal proliferation. Since the infiltrate of CLH can simulate a T lymphoma, it is important to show that lesions from tattoos can have a predominance of T-cells. PMID:25387518

  3. FCRL6 distinguishes mature cytotoxic lymphocytes and is upregulated in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Schreeder, Daniel M.; Pan, Jicun; Li, Fu Jun; Vivier, Eric; Davis, Randall S.

    2009-01-01

    Fc receptor-like 6 (FCRL6), the most recently characterized member of the FCRL family, is a cell surface glycoprotein with tyrosine-based regulatory potential. An extensive survey of human hematopoietic tissues disclosed that FCRL6 expression by NK and T cell subpopulations increases as a function of differentiation and is remarkably restricted to mature lymphocytes with cytotoxic capability. In particular, FCRL6 distinguishes perforin-expressing CD56dim NK cells, Vδ1+ and Vδ2+ γδ T cells, effector and effector memory CD8+ T cells, and rare cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in adult tissues. Analysis of this receptor in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was also performed. FCRL6 was found to mark significantly expanded populations of cytotoxic CD8+ T, CD4+ T, and NK cells in patients with CLL. Despite sequence homology with the known Fc receptors for IgG and IgE, FCRL6 did not bind immunoglobulin. Although FCRL6 can be tyrosine-phosphorylated, its antibody-mediated ligation was unable to influence cellular activation. Collectively these results demonstrate that FCRL6 is a distinct indicator of cytotoxic effector lymphocytes that is upregulated in diseases characterized by chronic immune stimulation. PMID:18991291

  4. Cryopreservation and storage effects on cell numbers and DNA damage in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cyrus K; Choi, Siu-Wai; Siu, Parco M; Benzie, Iris F F

    2011-12-01

    The comet assay measures DNA damage in individual cells (usually lymphocytes) and is widely used in biomonitoring studies. Lymphocytes are harvested and are usually cryopreserved for batch testing. We investigated cell loss during harvesting, cryopreservation, thawing, and washing of human peripheral lymphocytes and compared DNA damage, using the Fpg-assisted comet assay for oxidation-induced DNA lesions, in freshly harvested cells and cells that were thawed and tested after cryopreservation of 2-3 days and 4 weeks. Lymphocyte numbers were measured in fresh venous blood and after the steps of harvesting, cryopreservation, and washing. Results showed that >50% of lymphocytes in whole blood were harvested, but ∼60% were lost during washing. Loss during washing was not different (P>0.05) between fresh cells and cells thawed and washed after 2-3 days or 4 weeks cryopreservation. No change in DNA damage was seen after cryopreservation and thawing: mean (SD) % DNA in comet tail was 11.2 (1.53) in freshly harvested cells, 12.9 (1.39) in 2-3 days cryopreserved cells, and 12.9 (2.0) in cells tested after 4 weeks cryopreservation (P>0.05). Results indicate that there is no predominant loss of more highly damaged cells during cryopreservation and thawing and there is no induction of oxidation-induced DNA lesions in cryopreserved cells stored for up to 4 weeks.

  5. Usefulness of targeting lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels in the treatment of respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Tamada, Tsutomu; Tachi, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    T lymphocytes predominantly express delayed rectifier K(+)-channels (Kv1.3) in their plasma membranes. Patch-clamp studies revealed that the channels play crucial roles in facilitating the calcium influx necessary to trigger lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Using selective channel inhibitors in experimental animal models, in vivo studies further revealed the clinically relevant relationship between the channel expression and the development of chronic respiratory diseases, in which chronic inflammation or the overstimulation of cellular immunity in the airways is responsible for the pathogenesis. In chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis, in addition to the supportive management for the symptoms, the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolide antibiotics were shown to be effective against the over-activation or proliferation of T lymphocytes. Recently, we provided physiological and pharmacological evidence that macrolide antibiotics, together with calcium channel blockers, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, effectively suppress the Kv1.3-channel currents in lymphocytes, and thus exert anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory effects. In this review article, based on the findings obtained from recent in vivo and in vitro studies, we address the novel therapeutic implications of targeting the lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels for the treatment of chronic or acute respiratory diseases.

  6. Nonclonal lymphocytic proliferation in cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: a flow-cytometric and morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, K; Kelly, R; Kendrick, V

    1992-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, follicular B cell pseudolymphoma or lymphadenosis benigna cutis and lymphocytic infiltration of Jessner-Kanof are a group of benign lymphoid hyperplastic disorders which usually involve the skin of the face or head and neck. These lesions may be difficult to differentiate from malignant lymphocytic lymphomas both morphologically and clinically. To evaluate whether quantitative flow-cytometric analysis and DNA ploidy determination of the lymphoid cells in the lesions would provide additional and more precise diagnostic parameters, we have correlatively analyzed a case by morphological, flow-cytometric and immunohistochemical methods. The two latter methods both revealed that the lesions harbored nonclonal heterogeneous subpopulations of lymphoid cells, but 62% of the cells analyzed were of B cell lineage progenies. No pre-B cells, immature B or T determinants were detected. Ploidy analysis of the isolated lymphocytes disclosed predominantly diploid (2 N) cells with about 1% 4 N and a few (less than 5%) hyperdiploid (2.2 N) cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that 97.2% of the cells were in G0-G1 phase. Phenotyping and DNA ploidy study of the lymphocytes of the lesion may provide quantitative diagnostic parameters to distinguish this benign lesion from true lymphocytic lymphoma involvement of skin. The eventual biological behavior of the minor hyperdiploid subpopulation of lymphoid cells found in this lesion is currently uncertain, however.

  7. Differential effect of isolated placental isoferritins on in vitro T-lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Y; Konijn, A M; Shlomai, Z; Ben-Bassat, H

    1985-03-01

    The effect of isoferritins isolated from human term placenta on certain T-lymphocyte parameters was studied in vitro using normal human lymphocytes. These isoferritins differed in ion exchange affinity, isoelectric point, and subunit composition. Only the acidic isoferritins caused a marked suppression of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) blastogenesis and the most acidic isoferritin ('Acid I') was suppressive at a concentration as low as 0.25 microgram/ml. All four isoferritins suppressed concanavalin A (Con A) blastogenesis in a similar concentration dependent manner, with maximum effect at an isoferritin concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Both basic and acidic isoferritins reduced the Con-A-capping phenomenon in normal lymphocytes at concentrations higher than 0.5 microgram/ml, but at 0.25 microgram/ml only the acidic isoferritin was effective. The above findings support our previous report concerning the suppressive effect of splenic ferritin on T-lymphocyte function in vitro and indicate that acidic isoferritins, which often predominate in malignancy, demonstrate a higher degree of immunosuppressive activity. Thus, acidic isoferritins may play a role in the development of abnormal lymphocyte function encountered in certain proliferative disorders.

  8. Career Advice: Finding a Job at a Predominantly Undergraduate Institution

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Julio J.

    2016-01-01

    Seeking a teaching job at a predominantly undergraduate college or university can be a daunting proposition. Although reports from the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggest that the job market for teaching positions at postsecondary institutions will be healthy over the coming decade, competition for these positions will likely be intense. This essay explores the profiles of predominantly undergraduate institutions (PUIs), the nature of faculty positions at PUIs, the elements that make for a competitive job applicant, and strategies to consider during negotiations. Seeking a position at a PUI may be arduous at times, but the rewards reaped from a successful search for a PUI position are well worth the investment. PMID:27385929

  9. Career Advice: Finding a Job at a Predominantly Undergraduate Institution.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Julio J

    2016-01-01

    Seeking a teaching job at a predominantly undergraduate college or university can be a daunting proposition. Although reports from the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggest that the job market for teaching positions at postsecondary institutions will be healthy over the coming decade, competition for these positions will likely be intense. This essay explores the profiles of predominantly undergraduate institutions (PUIs), the nature of faculty positions at PUIs, the elements that make for a competitive job applicant, and strategies to consider during negotiations. Seeking a position at a PUI may be arduous at times, but the rewards reaped from a successful search for a PUI position are well worth the investment.

  10. Effects of atomic bomb radiation on differentiation of B lymphocytes and on the function of concanavalin A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Neriishi, S.; Ishimaru, T.; Shimba, N.; Hamilton, H.B.; Ohgushi, Y.; Koyanagi, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1985-02-01

    The differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-producing cells (Ig-PC) by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and the function of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor T lymphocytes were examined to elucidate the late effects of atomic bomb radiation. A total of 140 individuals, 70 with an exposure dose of 100 rad or more and an equal number with an exposure dose of 0 rad matched by sex and age, were selected from the Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) sample. Both the differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into Ig-PC by PWM and the function of Con A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes tended to be more depressed in the exposed group than in the control group, but a statistically significant difference could not be observed between the two groups. The function of Con A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes tended to decrease with age, but a statistical significance was detected only for percentage suppression against IgM-PC.

  11. Effects of environmental stressors on lymphocyte proliferation in Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Cathy J; Luer, Carl A; Noyes, David R

    2005-02-10

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected each year by exposure to cold weather or harmful algal blooms (red tide; Karenia brevis). Exposures can be sublethal, resulting in stressed animals that are rescued and taken to authorized facilities for rehabilitation, or lethal if exposures are prolonged or unusually severe. To investigate whether sublethal environmental exposures can impair immune function in manatees, rendering animals vulnerable to disease or death, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed in lymphocytes from manatees exposed to cold temperatures (N=20) or red tide (N=19) in the wild, and compared to lymphocyte responses from healthy free-ranging manatees (N=32). All animals sampled for this study were adults. Lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and proliferation was assessed after 96 h using incorporation of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), into newly synthesized DNA. Proliferation of lymphocytes from manatees rescued from exposure to red tide or cold-stress was approximately one-third that of lymphocytes from healthy free-ranging manatees. To examine the direct effects of red tide toxins on lymphocyte function, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed following co-culture of lymphocytes with K. brevis toxin extracts. Stimulation indices decreased with increasing toxin concentration, with a significant decrease in proliferation occurring in the presence of 400 ng red tide toxins/ml. When lymphocytes from cold-stressed manatees were co-cultured with red tide toxin extracts, proliferative responses were reduced even further, suggesting multiple stressors may have synergistic effects on immune function in manatees.

  12. Lenalidomide With or Without Rituximab in Treating Patients With Progressive or Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Prolymphocytic Leukemia, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-03

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  13. Identification and characterization of pro-T lymphocytes and lineage- uncommitted lymphocyte precursors from mice with three novel surface markers

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The study of prethymic stages of T cell development has been limited because specific markers for mouse pro-T lymphocytes were not available. We developed a panel of rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to our pro-T lymphocyte clones obtained from bone marrow of young adult mice and the thymus of 14-d-old embryos. The mAbs, called Joro 30-8, Joro 37-5, and Joro 75, were found to bind to all pro-T clones tested but not to cell lines representing later stages of T cell development, B lymphocyte, or myeloid lineages. We determined the frequency and tissue distribution in normal and immunodeficient mouse strains as well as the ontogeny in liver and thymus of cells positive for these mAbs. The results were consistent with the pattern of reactivity observed with cell lines. We isolated Joro 30-8+, Joro 37- 5+, and Joro 75+ bone marrow cells by cell sorter and found that: (a) phenotypically, they are Thy-1+, CD4-, CD8-, CD3-, B-220-, IgM-, F4/80- , and PgP-1+; (b) they grew in response to the combination of interleukin 3 (IL-3) + IL-4 or IL-3 + IL-4 + IL-6; and (c) Joro 37-5+ and Joro 75+ marrow cells gave rise to mature T lymphocytes but not to B lymphocytes, while Joro 30-8+ marrow cells generated both T and B lymphocytes after 8-12 wk of transfer into severe combined immunodeficient (Scid) mice. In normal mice subjected to 600 rad of irradiation to induce a wave of thymus recolonization, we found by flow fluorocytometry analysis that Joro+ cells entered the thymus 2 d after irradiation, expanded during the next 4 d, and underwent further differentiation, and from day 8 up to day 21, post-irradiation Joro+ cells were no longer detectable in the thymuses. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal thymus shows the presence of very few Joro 30-8+, Joro 37-5+, and Joro 75+ lymphoid cells in the subcapsular area and outer cortex but not in the medulla. The kinetic analysis of tissue sections from thymuses at various days post-irradiation suggests that Joro+ cells enter

  14. [Laboratory diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis].

    PubMed

    Marí, José María Navarro; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Anza, Diego Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocytic meningitis, mainly those with an acute and benign course, are caused by viruses. In our area, the most commonly involved agents are enteroviruses, herpes simplex, varicella zoster and Toscana viruses. Nucleic acids amplification techniques (NAAT) are the methods of choice to diagnose viral meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. They are more rapid and sensitive, and indeed, they are not influenced by the viability of the virus in the clinical specimen as traditional methods are. The development of commercial equipments, the degree of automation, and the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems are the most important premises to choose the molecular method in each laboratory. Recently, commercial kits of real-time PCR are available for the detection of enteroviruses and herpesviruses, which are the most frequently viruses involved in meningitis. Although NAAT from the clinical sample have replaced cell culture for diagnostic purposes, the combination of both methods remain useful. When the detection of the causal agent from the CSF sample is not possible, other specimens (pharyngeal exudates, stools) or serological methods can be used. Serology is the reference method for meningitis caused by West Nile virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which are less frequently detected in our area.

  15. Characteristics of ovine cytotoxic lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Knisley, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine characteristics of the effector cells responsible for cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the sheep. Conditions for the production and assay of ovine T cell growth factor (TCGF) activity were evaluated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of 2% autologous serum or serum-free media. A 28 h proliferation assay with 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ h Con A blasts per well was optimal for detection of TCGF. Peak TCGF activity occurred with a 30-37kD molecular weight fraction. Ovine PBL were used for in vitro generation of genetically-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Peripheral blood leukocytes from sheep that had been previously inoculated with live vaccinia virus were stimulated by being cultured in vitro on glutaraldehyde-fixed vaccinia-infected autologous skin fibroblasts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity was assessed in a 6 h /sup 51/Cr-release assay on autologous and allogeneic fibroblasts targets. Killing was restricted to virus-infected autologous targets. In vitro generation of both anti-vaccinia and anti-TNP CTL activity could be enhanced by the addition of TCGF containing media from ConA-stimulated PBL.

  16. What's New in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for chronic lymphocytic leukemia What`s new in chronic lymphocytic leukemia research and treatment? Many ... person's outlook and whether they will need treatment. New drugs for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Dozens of new ...

  17. What Are the Key Statistics about Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the key statistics about acute lymphocytic leukemia? The American Cancer Society’s estimates for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in the United States for 2016 (including ...

  18. Research Development Workshop for Faculty from Predominantly Black Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

    In response to the need to bolster research skills and research activity of faculty members in predominantly black colleges, the Mental Health Research and Development Center at Howard University began a three-year research and grantsmanship training program in 1978. The program has been funded by the National Institute of Education. Over 60…

  19. Diversity Education at a Predominately White Catholic College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrin, Julie R.; French, James Joss; DeLeon, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    This article discussed the successes that have occurred in a graduate and an undergraduate course in diversity education and English language acquisition at a small, predominantly white college. The activities and assignments that are discussed in this article have been refined by the four professors who teach the courses to enable candidates to…

  20. Identifiers of Predominantly Spanish-Speaking Children with Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida

    1998-01-01

    A study found four measures that would discriminate 31 predominantly Spanish-speaking children (ages 5 to 7) with normal language from 31 children with language impairments. The measures were: parental report of the child's speech and language skills, number of errors per terminable units, mean length per terminable units, and family history of…

  1. [Non-arthrosic geodes in the femur head. Isolated or predominant geodes].

    PubMed

    Lequesne, M; Castaing, N; Lamotte, J

    1985-04-01

    The isolated or predominant geodes of the femoral head without signs of coxarthritis or coxitis, seem to form in response to: osteochondritis dissecans in 9 cases where the sequester was only visible in profile films or oblique images for 5 cases, and only at time of operation in 2 cases; incipient necrosis in 3 adult cases, not evidenced in frontal films and only seen in profile films with the patient under axial traction; femoral head dysmorphia in 6 cases among which were 4 polyepiphyseal dysplasias and 2 coxa plana without radiographically apparent sequesters; induced increased pressure caused by congenital subluxation or a major disorder of posture and locomotion of lower limbs in 3 cases. In 2 cases no classification could be assigned to isolated or predominant geodes of the femoral head in spite of anatomic examination. The diagnosis of these isolated or predominant geodes of the head of the femur necessitates excellent films made from different angles of view (profile, "false" profile, usual profile, sometimes oblique shots, tomograms) and often enough a biopsy which must be obtained directly through the joint, not transcervically through the neck if a reliable specimen is desired. The surgical treatment indicated is voiding and packing to a maximum the geodes possibly correcting the former increased pressure discordance. But, in lots of cases the intensity of pain and discomfort remains moderate for years, so indication for surgery arises late after onset.

  2. Macrophage-induced thymic lymphocyte maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Van den Tweel, J G; Walker, W S

    1977-01-01

    Guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages were found to influence the functional maturation of thymic lymphocytes. Autologous thymic lymphocytes obtained from macrophage co-cultures responded to three different mitogens and were reduced in their ability to reassociate spontaneously with macrophages. Neither of these properties were found in thymic lymphocytes that had not been cultured with macrophages. These functional changes appeared to be specific for macrophages since thymic lymphocytes incubated with skin fibroblasts failed to respond to the test mitogens. Furthermore, they were not the result of either the inactivation, by macrophages, of a putative suppressor thymocyte or a soluble macrophage product. In addition to influencing the functional maturation of thymic lymphocytes, macrophages also appeared to play a direct role in inducing the mitogen response of functionally mature cells. PMID:304037

  3. Influence of fingolimod on basic lymphocyte subsets frequencies in the peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients – preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Julia; Czerwiec, Michał; Siwicka-Gieroba, Dorota; Walankiewicz, Monika; Grafka, Agnieszka; Zgurski, Michał; Surdacka, Agata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Roliński, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Background Fingolimod is a drug administered orally to adult patients treated for relapsing remitting course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mode of action of fingolimod is based on intense S1P1 receptor stimulation and “arresting” lymphocytes in lymphatic organs. Objective of the research was to assess changes in the frequencies of basic lymphocyte subsets in patients treated for multiple sclerosis with the use of fingolimod. Material and methods Study group comprised of 25 previously untreated adult patients with MS. Venous blood samples were collected from each patient before and one month, three months and six months after treatment initiation. Peripheral blood lymphocyte immunophenotype was assessed with a set of monoclonal antibodies bounded to appropriate fluorochromes and flow cytometer FACSC alibur. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using Statistica 9.0 software. Results Before fingolimod administration median of lymphocyte subsets percentage in each patient was in reference range. After 1 month of treatment we noticed significant changes in frequencies of following lymphocyte subsets: NK cells – 51.22% (p = 0.016), T CD4+ cells – 11.58% (p = 0.01), T CD4+:T CD8+ cells ratio – 0.61 (p = 0.005). After 3 and 6 months of treatment there was further increase of deviation from normal state. Conclusions The use of fingolimod is associated with profound changes in lymphocyte subsets distribution, which might bear a risk of the development of cellular immune deficiency symptoms. PMID:26648781

  4. Predominant cartilaginous hamartoma: an unusual variant of chondromatous hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Seda, Gilbert; Amundson, Dennis; Lin, Mercury Y

    2010-02-01

    Chondromatous hamartomas are the most common benign lung tumors and the third most common pulmonary nodule. Histologically, they are characteristically composed of hyaline cartilage mixed with fibromyxoid stroma and adipose tissue surrounded by epithelial cells. We report the case of a healthy, 60-year-old woman with an incidentally discovered chondromatous hamartoma that was thorascopically excised. Her pulmonary hamartoma was predominantly cartilaginous, which only occurs in 1% of hamartomas.

  5. Mitral valve involvement as a predominant feature of cardiac amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Girish; Williams, James; Slinn, Simon; Campbell, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis carries poor prognosis with a median survival of 5 months.1 The authors report an unusual presentation of cardiac amyloidosis in the form of predominant mitral regurgitation. The patient responded very well to medical therapy with subsequent improvement of mitral valve dysfunction. The authors would like to highlight this multisystem involvement and the presence of a complex overlap of systemic features. PMID:22767536

  6. Reprogramming T cell Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bared, Kalia

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provided a novel technology for the study of development and pharmacology and complement embryonic stem cells (ES) for cell therapy applications. Though iPSC are derived from adult tissue they are comparable to ES cells in their behavior; multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal. This makes iPSC research appealing because they can be studied in great detail and expanded in culture broadly. Fibroblasts were the first cell type reprogrammed to an iPSC using a retrovirus vector, since then alternative cell types including lymphocytes have been used to generate iPSC. Different types of vectors have also been developed to enhance iPSC formation and quality. However, specific T lymphocyte subsets have not been shown to reprogram to a pluripotent state to date. Here, we proposed to derive iPSC from peripheral blood effector and central memory T cells, reasoning that the resultant iPSC will maintain the epigenetic memory of a T lymphocyte, including the T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement. This epigenetic memory will enable the differentiation and expansion of T cell iPSC into professional T cells containing a specific TCR. These could then be used for cell therapy to target specific antigens, as well as to improve culture techniques to expand T cells in vitro. We studied different gene delivery methods to derive iPSC from different types of T lymphocytes. We assessed the viability of viral transduction using flow cytometry to detect green fluorescent marker contained in the viral construct and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc gene expression. Our results demonstrate that the Sendai virus construct is the most feasible platform to reprogram T lymphocytes. We anticipate that this platform will provide an efficient and safe approach to derive iPSC from different T cell subsets, including memory T cells.

  7. Age associated oxidative damage in lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Nandeslu; Das, Subhasis; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Kundu, Pratip Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocytes are an important immunological cell and have been played a significant role in acquired immune system; hence, may play in pivotal role in immunosenescence. Oxidative stress has been reported to increase in elderly subjects, possibly arising from an uncontrolled production of free radicals with aging and decreased antioxidant defenses. This study was aimed to evaluate the level of lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in lymphocytes of healthy individuals to correlate between oxidative damage with the aging process. Twenty healthy individuals of each age group (11–20; 21–30; 31–40; 41–50; and 51–60 years) were selected randomly. Blood samples were drawn by medical practitioner and lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples. Malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC) level were evaluated to determine the lipid and protein damage in lymphocytes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione and glutathione dependent enzymes were estimated to evaluate the antioxidant status in the lymphocytes. Increased MDA and PC levels strongly support the increased oxidative damage in elderly subject than young subjects. The results indicated that, balance of oxidant and antioxidant systems in lymphocytes shifts in favor of accelerated oxidative damage during aging. Thus oxidative stress in lymphocytes may particular interest in aging and may play important role in immunosenescence. PMID:20972374

  8. [Evolution and phylogeny of B lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Claudio-Piedras, Fabiola; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    B lymphocytes are one of the most important cell types involved in the immune response of mammals. The origin and evolution of this cellular type is unknown, but the B lymphocyte bona fide appeared first in fish. In this review we analize the principal components of the immune response of invertebrates, their phylogenetic distribution and the permancence of some properties that allowed the emergence of the B lymphocyte. We started from the idea that many of the components that characterize the B lymphocyte are found distributed among the invertebrates, however, it is in the B lymphocyte, where all these components that give this type of cell its identity, converged. The actual knowledge we have in regards of the lymphocytes comes, in the most part, from physiological studies in mammals, being the mice the more representative. The origin of the B lymphocyte, its alternative mechanisms for generating receptor diversity, its immune effector response, and the generation of memory, require an evolutionary and multidisiplinary approach for its study.

  9. Lymphocyte transformation and interferon production in human mononuclear cell microcultures for assay of cellular immunity to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Haahr, S; Rasmussen, L; Merigan, T C

    1976-01-01

    Interferon production and transformation in response to herpes simplex virus antigen were studied in microcultures of human mononuclear cells. Mononuclear cells consisting of monocytes and both T and B lymphocytes were purified by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. Lymphocytes, predominantly T with 5% B, were obtained by passage of buffy-coat cells through nylon fiber columns. For some experiments, autochthonous macrophages and column-purified lymphocytes were stimulated with herpesvirus antigen. The effect of specific antibody and cell concentration on reactivity is described. Crude and purified antigens were compared as cell culture stimulants. Significant differences in transformation and interferon were observed between donors with a history of herpes labialis and donors with no detectable antibody, both in cultures prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients and by column purification of lymphocytes. Cultures from seronegative donors prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients produced interferon but did not transform when stimulated by herpes simplex antigen. "Immune" interferon production, that is, type II as opposed to type I, occurred only with autochthonous macrophage and column-purified lymphocyte cultures. Interferon produced by Ficoll-Hypaque-purified mononuclear cultures was type I, and its production was unrelated to immune status. Similarly, column-purified lymphocytes responded to herpes simplex virus antigen with type I interferon if obtained from a seropositive donor. PMID:181328

  10. Distribution of CD4 Lymphocyte Cells Among Apparently Healthy HIV Seropositive and Seronegative Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Abdulazeez A

    2012-01-01

    Background: CD4 lymphocyte cells are often used as prognostic markers for monitoring the progression of immunosupression such as HIV infection. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the distribution of CD4 lymphocytes among apparently healthy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative and seropositive populations in a Nigerian state. Materials and Methods: A total of 1520 apparently healthy subjects aged 18–64 years, composed of 800 males and 720 females attending some selected health institutions in the state, participated in the study. Ten milliliters of blood was collected from each subject; 5 ml of this was used for HIV antibodies sero-typing while the remaining 5 ml was anticoagulated and used for CD4 lymphocytes level determination. Only samples tested positive both with Capillus and Determine HIV test kits were further differentiated into sero-types with a standard diagnostic HIV test kit. The CD4 lymphocyte levels of all the sample were determined; mean CD4 levels of 205.1±0.09 and 287.4±0.3 cells/μl were recorded among females seropositives and seronagatives respectively. Statistical analysis by the Student t-test showed a significant difference in the mean CD4 lymphocyte count by gender. Results: Findings showed a mean CD4 level of 311.7±1.2 cells/μl among seropositive males while 399.3±0.6 cells/μl was recorded among seronegatives (t=5.86). The study also recorded a CD4 lymphocyte range of 232–464 cells/μl among apparently healthy seronegative population in this locality. Conclusion: The findings showed a significantly higher mean CD4 lymphocyte count among adult male HIV seronegatives (χ2=9.22) and seropositives (χ2=15.07) than their female counterparts. Further research work using the automation technique is suggested to confirm this new range for monitoring HIV subjects on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22454823

  11. Human B lymphocytes show greater susceptibility to H2O2 toxicity than T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Farber, C M; Liebes, L F; Kanganis, D N; Silber, R

    1984-05-01

    Lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and from normal subjects were incubated with a glucose-glucose oxidase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generating system to study the effect of oxidant stress on these cells. Within 4 hr, 90% of normal but only 21% of CLL lymphocytes remained viable. When normal and CLL preparations enriched in B or T cells were exposed to H2O2, B lymphocytes from both groups were highly susceptible to oxidative damage while T lymphocytes were relatively resistant. The H2O2 scavenger catalase prevented the cytotoxicity. The present work identifies the human B lymphocyte as a cell that should be a suitable target for selective killing by H2O2-generating systems.

  12. The Pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D. A. G.

    1966-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was examined in a series of 88 cases observed during a 15-year period. In untreated cases the trend of the absolute lymphocyte counts followed two main patterns. In the type I trend, the counts rose throughout the observation period; in the type II trend, the tendency to rise ceased and the counts stabilized above and below a mean value, the stationary trend being maintained for months or years. The type II trend was associated with relatively benign disease. The development of lymphocytosis was correlated with the progression of lymphadenopathy. It is suggested that lymphocytosis may result from the physiological process of recirculation and that the accumulation of lymphocytes may result from the proliferation of a single slightly abnormal cell-line. The abnormal cells might survive an unusually long time because they are unable to respond to stimuli which cause normal lymphocytes to transform. PMID:4952384

  13. Molecular analysis of the bare lymphocyte syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, K E; Stobo, J D; Peterlin, B M

    1985-07-01

    The bare lymphocyte syndrome is a disorder in which class I histocompatibility antigens fail to be expressed normally on the surface of lymphocytes. Utilizing complementary DNA probes for both beta 2-microglobulin and class I genes, the molecular basis for this syndrome was investigated in a family with two siblings exhibiting the bare lymphocyte syndrome. Southern blot analysis demonstrated no gross internal defect in either class I or beta 2-microglobulin genes. Northern blot analysis of class I and beta 2-microglobulin messenger RNAs also revealed no qualitative difference between affected and unaffected family members. In contrast, quantitation of both class I and beta 2-microglobulin transcripts demonstrated each to be decreased in patients when compared to controls. Moreover, the decrease in both transcripts was coordinate. These results suggest that the bare lymphocyte syndrome may represent a pretranslational regulatory defect of both class I and beta 2-microglobulin gene expression.

  14. Soluble HLA class I antigen secretion by normal lymphocytes: relationship with cell activation and effect of interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Brieva, J A; Villar, L M; Leoro, G; Alvarez-Cermeño, J C; Roldán, E; Gonzalez-Porqué, P

    1990-01-01

    HLA class I antigens are thought to be integral membrane proteins. However, soluble forms of these molecules have been detected. Our laboratory has recently shown that the predominant form of these soluble proteins present in human serum, spleen tissue and culture supernatant of activated lymphocytes exhibits molecular weight and structure similar to classical HLA class I antigens, but lacks HLA A or B polymorphic determinants. In the present study, the secretion of such soluble proteins by lymphocytes has been further explored. Phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated normal lymphocytes secrete considerable quantities of soluble HLA (sHLA) class I proteins. This secretion seems to be a general property of lymphocytes, since activation of T as well as B cells by appropriate mitogens equally induce sHLA I secretion. Lymphocytes require RNA and protein synthesis, but not DNA synthesis, for the secretion to occur. Kinetic studies reveal that maximal sHLA I secretion precedes the peak of DNA synthesis by 24 h. In vitro stimulation with antigens or alloantigens also provokes sHLA I secretion. Moreover, this phenomenon has also been detected for in vivo-activated lymphocytes, as enhanced spontaneous sHLA I secretion was observed in cultures of low-density blastic B and T cells, and of blood lymphocytes obtained from normal subjects who had received a booster immunization 5 days earlier. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increases the expression of membrane-bound class I antigens but does not induce any sHLA I secretion, suggesting that both molecules are under different regulatory mechanisms. Our results indicate that human lymphocytes, upon stimulation, actively secrete considerable amounts of a soluble form of these biologically relevant proteins. PMID:2122936

  15. Ontogeny of Innate T Lymphocytes – Some Innate Lymphocytes are More Innate than Others

    PubMed Central

    Vermijlen, David; Prinz, Immo

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes have recently received a lot of attention. However, there are different ideas about the definition of what is “innate” in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes without V(D)J-rearranged antigen receptors are now termed innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and include cells formerly known as natural killer (NK) cells. Also, lymphocytes that are innate should be able to recognize microbial or stress-induced patterns and react rapidly without prior sensitization, as opposed to adaptive immune responses. Formally, genuine innate lymphocytes would be present before or at birth. Here, we review the ontogeny of human and mouse innate T lymphocyte populations. We focus on γδ T cells, which are prototype lymphocytes that often use their V(D)J rearrangement machinery to generate genetically encoded predetermined recombinations of antigen receptors. We make parallels between the development of γδ T cells with that of innate αβ T cells [invariant (i)NKT and mucosa-associated invariant T cells] and compare this with the ontogeny of innate B cells and ILCs (including NK cells). We conclude that some subsets are more innate than others, i.e., innate lymphocytes that are made primarily early in utero during gestation while others are made after birth. In practice, a ranking of innateness by ontogeny has implications for the reconstitution of innate lymphocyte subsets after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25346734

  16. [A Case of Musicophilia with Right Predominant Temporal Lobe Atrophy].

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman exhibiting musicophilia with right predominant temporal lobe atrophy happened to visit our clinic. She had no musical background, but beginning two years ago, she acquired a strong preference for especially popular music and sometimes sang at home. She did not exhibit obvious semantic aphasia or facial agnosia, and showed only mild behavioral changes including apathy. Her musicophilia can be explained as an instance of stereotypical behavior. Her right temporal lobe atrophy may have caused changes in her emotional and reward systems, resulting in her music specific behaviors. PMID:26560960

  17. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm(3), bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  18. [A Case of Musicophilia with Right Predominant Temporal Lobe Atrophy].

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman exhibiting musicophilia with right predominant temporal lobe atrophy happened to visit our clinic. She had no musical background, but beginning two years ago, she acquired a strong preference for especially popular music and sometimes sang at home. She did not exhibit obvious semantic aphasia or facial agnosia, and showed only mild behavioral changes including apathy. Her musicophilia can be explained as an instance of stereotypical behavior. Her right temporal lobe atrophy may have caused changes in her emotional and reward systems, resulting in her music specific behaviors.

  19. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm3, bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  20. [Measurements of electric membrane potentials in lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Kowal, E; Malofiejew, M; Kostrzewska, A

    1975-01-01

    The interior of vital lymphocytes, as opposed to their outer environment, has a negative electric potential (rest potential), the magnitude of which depends on the potassium ion concentration of the extracellular medium. The bioelectric phenomena at the lymphocyte are determined not only by the functional state of the cell membrane, but also by the milieu of the blood cells which includes also the adsorbed proteins and lipids. PMID:1199616

  1. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-..beta.. and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1/sup +/ cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 ..mu..m nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML(/sup 3/H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide.

  2. Spinal fluid lymphocytes responsive to autologous and allogeneic cells in multiple sclerosis and control individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, G; Kotilinek, L; Schwartz, M; Sternad, M

    1984-01-01

    Spinal fluid lymphocytes from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls were stimulated with either autologous non-T cells or with allogeneic non-T cells followed by stimulation with autologous non-T lymphocytes. Cells responding to these stimuli were cloned and their proliferative responses to autologous and allogeneic MS and normal non-T cells were measured. Large numbers of clones with specific patterns of reaction to both autologous and allogeneic cells were obtained from lymphocytes in MS cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but only occasionally from cells in control CSF. Patterns of responses among clones from a particular CSF were similar and often identical, which suggested that cells in MS CSF were relatively restricted in their specificities. Surface antigen phenotyping of the clones showed them to be predominantly OKT4+, with 13% OKT8+ and 11% OKT4+8+. Peripheral T cells that were stimulated and cultured in parallel with CSF cells were different in that they usually did not give rise to as many clones nor were their patterns of response similar. Many CSF clones were heteroclitic, that is they responded to particular allogeneic cells but not autologous cells. Lymphocytes in MS CSF thus appear to represent a selected population of cells with a high frequency of responsiveness to autologous and allogeneic antigens. Such responses may be evidence for immune regulation within the central nervous system or could represent responses to altered-self antigens. PMID:6237121

  3. [Primary Sjögren's syndrome with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary multiple cystic lesions].

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, S; Fujino, N; Yoshinaga, T; Kiyama, T; Maemoto, H; Outsuka, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a case of primary Sjögren's syndrome with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and multiple cystic lesions. The patient was a 64-year-old woman. Abnormal chest shadows were detected by x-ray and computed tomographic (CT) examinations. The patient had no family history of disease and had never smoked. She had complained of dryness in the eyes and mouth for about 10 years. Laboratory tests were positive for anti-nuclear antigen, anti-SS-A antigen, and anti-SS-B antigen. Sialography revealed marked destruction of the salivary glands, yielding a diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Chest X-ray films and CT scans showed multiple cystic lesions in both lungs, measuring from a few mm to 3 cm in diameter, as well as fine centrilobular nodules. Slight anemia and hyper gamma globlinemia were also detected. Pulmonary function tests showed mild obstructive disturbance. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis disclosed an elevated lymphocytic fraction (28.6%), but transbronchial lung biopsy provided no adequate specimens for diagnosis. Thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens demonstrated marked infiltration of lymphocytes and histiocytes through the interstitium of alveolar walls and peri-bronchovascular sheath, with some lymphoid follicles. The overall appearance was compatible with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. The cysts themselves were nonspecific, and no cellular infiltration was noted in the cyst walls. Because of the predominantly peribronchial distribution of the lesions, we suspected that the cysts were formed by the check valve mechanism. However, no definitive evidence was obtained. PMID:10586590

  4. Association of murine CD31 with transmigrating lymphocytes following antigenic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, S. A.; Baldwin, H. S.; Watkins, S. C.; Albelda, S. M.; Abbas, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Human CD31 is a recently characterized molecule present on leukocytes, platelets, and endothelium. Its function is not known. Because it is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and structurally homologous to carcinoembryonic antigen, a putative intercellular adhesion molecule, it is believed that CD31 may function also as an adhesion molecule. In this report, we characterize the cellular reactivity of a monoclonal antibody to a murine protein that is homologous to CD31. To delineate the cellular reactivity of the murine CD31 homologue recognized by our monoclonal antibody, we used immunoperoxidase and immunoelectron microscopic techniques. The most striking finding was that the putative murine homolog of CD31 is expressed in particularly high amounts on endothelium-adherent lymphocytes transmigrating across sinusoidal or venular vascular boundaries. Such a distribution was apparent in draining murine lymph nodes during the peak of an immune response after immunization with a protein antigen in adjuvant, a situation in which there are many transmigrating lymphocytes. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis also shows that CD31 is predominantly distributed on portions of transmigrating lymphocytes that are in contact with or adjacent to areas of contact with endothelial cells. These findings suggest a previously undescribed role for CD31 in lymphocyte recruitment and transmigration. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:1415479

  5. B lymphocytes in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Kevin C.; Bar-Or, Amit; Zamvil, Scott S.; Hemmer, Bernhard; Tedder, Thomas F.; von Büdingen, H.-Christian; Stuve, Olaf; Yeaman, Michael R.; Smith, Terry J.; Stadelmann, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the CNS that predominantly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. A majority (approximately 75%) of patients with NMO are seropositive for autoantibodies against the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). These autoantibodies are predominantly IgG1, and considerable evidence supports their pathogenicity, presumably by binding to AQP4 on CNS astrocytes, resulting in astrocyte injury and inflammation. Convergent clinical and laboratory-based investigations have indicated that B cells play a fundamental role in NMO immunopathology. Multiple mechanisms have been hypothesized: AQP4 autoantibody production, enhanced proinflammatory B cell and plasmablast activity, aberrant B cell tolerance checkpoints, diminished B cell regulatory function, and loss of B cell anergy. Accordingly, many current off-label therapies for NMO deplete B cells or modulate their activity. Understanding the role and mechanisms whereby B cells contribute to initiation, maintenance, and propagation of disease activity is important to advancing our understanding of NMO pathogenesis and developing effective disease-specific therapies. PMID:25977932

  6. T and B lymphocytes in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Itoyama, Y; Kawanami, S; Goto, I; Kuroiwa, Y

    1979-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from seventeen non-thymectomized and nine thymectomized patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and thirteen healthy controls were examined for the presence of surface markers characteristic of T and B lymphocytes by rosette formation with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). T cells were identified by their capacity to spontaneously form rosettes with SRBCs. The percentage of B lymphocytes was determined by the erythrocyte antibody complement (EAC) rosette-forming test. The EAC complex was prepared with either whole rabbit anti-SRBC serum or with the IgM fraction of rabbit anti-SRBC serum. The two kind of erythrocyte complement rosette-forming cells (EAC-RFC) are designated erythrocyte-haemolysin-complement RFC (EA(H)C-RFC), and erythrocyte-IgM-complement RFC (EA(M)C-RFC). The percentage of total lymphocytes and T cells was not altered in MG patients. The percentage of 'active' T cells, which have been considered to be more actively involved in cellular immunity, was also similar in MG patients and controls. A significant increase in EA(H)C-RFC occurred in both thymectomized and non-thymectomized MG patients, while in B cells detected by EA(M)C-RFC no alterations were found. The increase in EA(H)C-RFC in lymphocytes from MG patients may be due to an increase in the 19S antibody-forming B lymphocytes or to an increase in T cells which have Fc receptors on their surface. PMID:315844

  7. Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

  8. Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Multiple Myeloma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-24

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  9. Picophytoplankton predominance in hypersaline lakes (Transylvanian Basin, Romania).

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Boglárka; Vörös, Lajos; Pálffy, Károly; Székely, Gyöngyi; Bartha, Csaba; Keresztes, Zsolt Gyula

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence and importance of photoautotrophic picoplankton (PPP, cells with a diameter <2 μm) was studied along a trophic and salinity gradient in hypersaline lakes of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania). The studied lakes were found to be rich in PPP, with abundances (maximum 7.6 × 10(6) cells mL(-1)) higher than in freshwater and marine environments of similar trophic conditions. The contribution of PPP to the total phytoplankton biovolume did not decrease with increasing trophic state as it was generally found in other aquatic environments. Regardless of the trophic conditions, the contribution of PPP could reach 90-100 % in these hypersaline lakes. We hypothesized that the PPP predominance might be the result of the low grazing pressure, since heterotrophic nanoflagellates (the main grazers of PPP) were absent in the studied samples. There were significant differences in community composition among the lakes along the salinity gradient. CyPPP predominated in less saline waters (mainly below 5 %), while EuPPP were present along the entire salinity range (up to 18.7 %), dominating the phytoplankton between 3 and 13 % salinity. Above 13 % salinity, the phytoplankton was composed mainly of Dunaliella species.

  10. Predominant enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere packaged meat and poultry.

    PubMed

    Säde, Elina; Murros, Anna; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-06-01

    Enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere (MA) packaged meat (n = 54) and poultry (n = 32) products were enumerated, and 899 isolates were picked and ribotyped. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of representative strains were sequenced and analyzed. Altogether 54 (60%) of the samples contained enterobacteria >10(4) CFU/g. In 34% of the poultry samples, enterobacteria counts were >10(6) CFU/g suggesting that enterobacteria may contribute to spoilage of MA packaged poultry. The enterobacteria identified were predominantly Hafnia spp. (40%) and Serratia spp. (42%) with Hafnia alvei, Hafnia paralvei, Serratia fonticola, Serratia grimesii, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia proteamaculans, and Serratia quinivorans being the species identified. In addition, 6% of the isolates were identified as Rahnella spp., 3% as Yersinia spp., and 1% as Buttiauxella spp. Percentage distributions of the predominant genera in different products showed that 89% of the Serratia spp. were from products packaged under a high-O2 MA containing CO2 (25-35%), whereas most (76%) isolates of Hafnia originated from anaerobically packaged red meat and poultry. These findings suggest that the gas mixture used for MA packaging influence the selection of enterobacteria growing on meat and poultry. PMID:23541191

  11. 76 FR 10014 - Predominantly Black Institutions Competitive Grant Program; Office of Postsecondary Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Predominantly Black Institutions Competitive Grant Program; Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Predominantly Black Institutions Competitive Grant Program; Notice Inviting Applications for New... Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The purpose of the Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI)...

  12. Human-mouse mixed lymphocyte cultures. II. Partial separation of functionally distinct populations on discontinuous albumin gradients.

    PubMed Central

    Boylston, A W; Anderson, R L

    1979-01-01

    Human-mouse mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) develop stable, strain-specific responses directed towards antigens determined by the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC). By restimulation in vitro a two- to four-fold increase in total cell numbers can be achieved. Sensitized cells can be fractionated on discontinuous BSA gradients to produce fractions with predominantly proliferative or cytotoxic activity towards the intiating antigens. Mixing experiments show that fractionation of biological activity is the result of fractination of specifically sensitized effector cells rather than fractionation of inhibitory or collaborative elements. Since biological activities or can be separated on the basis of physical properties into distinct cell populations these experiments support the idea that these functions are the properties of distinct subclasses of human T lymphocyte. Xenogeneic MLC coupled to physical separation measures is a useful approach to the study of antigen-specific human T lymphocytes. PMID:155651

  13. Human-mouse mixed lymphocyte cultures. II. Partial separation of functionally distinct populations on discontinuous albumin gradients.

    PubMed

    Boylston, A W; Anderson, R L

    1979-02-01

    Human-mouse mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) develop stable, strain-specific responses directed towards antigens determined by the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC). By restimulation in vitro a two- to four-fold increase in total cell numbers can be achieved. Sensitized cells can be fractionated on discontinuous BSA gradients to produce fractions with predominantly proliferative or cytotoxic activity towards the intiating antigens. Mixing experiments show that fractionation of biological activity is the result of fractination of specifically sensitized effector cells rather than fractionation of inhibitory or collaborative elements. Since biological activities or can be separated on the basis of physical properties into distinct cell populations these experiments support the idea that these functions are the properties of distinct subclasses of human T lymphocyte. Xenogeneic MLC coupled to physical separation measures is a useful approach to the study of antigen-specific human T lymphocytes.

  14. Lymphocyte subpopulations and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecules in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Cindrić, Gordan; Aurer, Andrej; Plancak, Darije; Ljerka, Jindra; Girotto, Miljena

    2004-12-01

    Immunological responses to invading bacteria play a major role in the course of inflammatory periodontal diseases, such as CP. It was suggested that one of the major elements in determining the course of the disease is the expression of cellular adhesion molecules. We therefore investigated the expression of cellular adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and beta-1 integrins, capillary density and lymphocyte subpopulations in gingival biopsies obtained from 20 patients with CP who responded and 21 patient who failed to respond to initial treatment using immunohistochemical methods. We found no differences between the two groups in capillary density, ICAM-1 and beta-1 integrin expression. Patients who responded to treatment had a lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate consisting predominantly of T cells, while those who failed to respond had an approximately equal number of T and B cells. Our findings support the role of host immunological mechanisms in determining the outcome of CP and argue against a major role of differential cellular adhesion molecule expression.

  15. Metabolic Regulation of T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    MacIver, Nancie J.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    T cell activation leads to dramatic shifts in cell metabolism to protect against pathogens and to orchestrate the action of other immune cells. Quiescent T cells require predominantly ATP-generating processes, whereas proliferating effector T cells require high metabolic flux through growth-promoting pathways. Further, functionally distinct T cell subsets require distinct energetic and biosynthetic pathways to support their specific functional needs. Pathways that control immune cell function and metabolism are intimately linked, and changes in cell metabolism at both the cell and system levels have been shown to enhance or suppress specific T cell functions. As a result of these findings, cell metabolism is now appreciated as a key regulator of T cell function specification and fate. This review discusses the role of cellular metabolism in T cell development, activation, differentiation, and function to highlight the clinical relevance and opportunities for therapeutic interventions that may be used to disrupt immune pathogenesis. PMID:23298210

  16. Bortezomib and Fludarabine With or Without Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Indolent Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  17. A unique CD8(+) T lymphocyte signature in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Yamina; Mauvais, François-Xavier; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Kratzer, Roland; Marchi, Christophe; Barilleau, Émilie; Waeckel-Enée, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Hartemann, Agnès; Cordier, Corinne; Mégret, Jerome; Rocha, Benedita; de Lonlay, Pascale; Beltrand, Jacques; Six, Adrien; Robert, Jean-Jacques; van Endert, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Human type 1 diabetes results from a destructive auto-reactive immune response in which CD8(+) T lymphocytes play a critical role. Given the intense ongoing efforts to develop immune intervention to prevent and/or cure the disease, biomarkers suitable for prediction of disease risk and progress, as well as for monitoring of immunotherapy are required. We undertook separate multi-parameter analyses of single naïve and activated/memory CD8(+) T lymphocytes from pediatric and adult patients, with the objective of identifying cellular profiles associated with onset of type 1 diabetes. We observe global perturbations in gene and protein expression and in the abundance of T cell populations characterizing pediatric but not adult patients, relative to age-matched healthy individuals. Pediatric diabetes is associated with a unique population of CD8(+) T lymphocytes co-expressing effector (perforin, granzyme B) and regulatory (transforming growth factor β, interleukin-10 receptor) molecules. This population persists after metabolic normalization and is especially abundant in children with high titers of auto-antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and with elevated HbA1c values. These findings highlight striking differences between pediatric and adult type 1 diabetes, indicate prolonged large-scale perturbations in the CD8(+) T cell compartment in the former, and suggest that CD8(+)CD45RA(-) T cells co-expressing effector and regulatory factors are of interest as biomarkers in pediatric type 1 diabetes. PMID:27318739

  18. Characterization of the atypical lymphocytes in African swine fever

    PubMed Central

    Karalyan, Z. A.; Ter-Pogossyan, Z. R.; Abroyan, L. O.; Hakobyan, L. H.; Avetisyan, A. S.; Karalyan, N. Yu; Karalova, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated. Materials and Methods: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models. Results: This study indicated the increased size, high metabolic activity, and the presence of additional DNA amount in atypical lymphocytes caused by ASFV infection. Furthermore, in atypical lymphocytes, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio usually decreased, compared to normal lymphocytes. In morphology, they looking like lymphocytes transformed into blasts by exposure to mitogens or antigens in vitro. They vary in morphologic detail, but most of them are CD2 positive. Conclusions: Our data suggest that atypical lymphocytes may represent an unusual and specific cellular response to ASFV infection. PMID:27536044

  19. Pattern of CD4 T-lymphocyte Values in Cancer Patients on Cytotoxic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Madu, AJ; Ocheni, S; Ibegbulam, OG; Aguwa, EN; Madu, KA

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of patients prior to cytotoxic chemotherapy usually includes absolute neutrophils count. Other cellular markers of susceptibility to infection as well as immunocompetence include the T Helper lymphocyte count. In cancer patients, decrease in these lymphocytes has been observed to be associated with decreased overall survival. Aim: To assess the degree of CD4 lymphopenia encountered during cytotoxic chemotherapeutic treatment for cancer and evaluate the differences observed for the various drug combinations. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with various histologically diagnosed malignancies had their CD4 lymphocyte counts carried out at days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed with breast cancer 36/80 cases (45%), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8/80 cases (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13/80 cases (16.3%), multiple myeloma 7/80 cases (8.8%), colorectal carcinoma 6/80 cases (7.5%), and other malignancies 10/80 cases (12.5%). CD4 lymphocyte count was done using the Partec Cyflow® 2000 CD4 cell counter, and their socio-demographic data of the patients were assessed using a questionnaire. Results: The mean (sd) CD4 lymphocyte count pre- and post-chemotherapy was observed to be 567 (341) cells/μLand 349 (207) cells/μL while the median values were 454 cells/μLand 349 cells/μL respectively. There were significant differences in CD4 lymphocyte counts after chemotherapy compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Conclusion: Epirubicin combinations used in breast cancer patients as well as (Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine) ABVD regimen used in treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma were found to be significantly less lymphotoxic than other chemotherapeutic combinations. These drugs or their combinations may be less immunotoxic than other known regimen used for these malignancies. PMID:24379998

  20. B lymphocytes: how they develop and function

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that lymphocyte subpopulations participate in distinct components of the immune response focused attention onto the origins and function of lymphocytes more than 40 years ago. Studies in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated that B and T lymphocytes were responsible primarily for the basic functions of antibody production and cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. The decades that followed have witnessed a continuum of unfolding complexities in B-cell development, subsets, and function that could not have been predicted. Some of the landmark discoveries that led to our current understanding of B lymphocytes as the source of protective innate and adaptive antibodies are highlighted in this essay. The phenotypic and functional diversity of B lymphocytes, their regulatory roles independent of antibody production, and the molecular events that make this lineage unique are also considered. Finally, perturbations in B-cell development that give rise to certain types of congenital immunodeficiency, leukemia/lymphoma, and autoimmune disease are discussed in the context of normal B-cell development and selection. Despite the significant advances that have been made at the cellular and molecular levels, there is much more to learn, and cross-disciplinary studies in hematology and immunology will continue to pave the way for new discoveries. PMID:18725575

  1. STUDIES ON RABBIT LYMPHOCYTES IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Stewart; Rowe, David S.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1965-01-01

    In vitro cultures of the peripheral blood lymphocytes of rabbits may be stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, staphylococcal filtrate, antiallotype serum, or sheep anti-rabbit whole serum to synthesize protein, RNA and DNA as indicated by the incorporation of radiolabelled precursor substances into these products. A sequence of events found in all stimulated cultures characteristically shows protein synthesis followed by RNA synthesis, histologic blast transformation, DNA synthesis, and mitosis, with the complete sequence requiring 48 hours. All four stimulants induce essentially identical metabolic changes. Characterization of the proteins synthesized by lymphocytes in vitro has failed to demonstrate immunoglobulin synthesis by stimulated or non-stimulated cultures. It is concluded that the majority of proteins produced by peripheral lymphocytes stimulated in vitro are most likely cellular proteins related to the metabolic alterations necessary for mitosis. Absorption of sheep antisera to whole rabbit serum with rabbit IgG does not always remove the transforming capacity of the sheep antisera. Thus, it is likely that antibodies to proteins other than IgG present in the small lymphocyte may also be able to stimulate transformation. A possible common mechanism for the induction of lymphoblast transformation may be the ability of both specific and non-specific stimulants to react with protein constituents of the lymphocyte which may also be present in serum. PMID:4954762

  2. Complementary Antiviral Efficacy of Hydroxyurea and Protease Inhibitors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Dendritic Cells and Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini, Giampiero; Foli, Andrea; Comolli, Giuditta; Lisziewicz, Julianna; Lori, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may transmit the virus to T cells in vivo. Scarce information is available about drug efficacy in dendritic cells because preclinical testing of antiretroviral drugs has been limited predominantly to T cells and macrophages. We compared the antiviral activities of hydroxyurea and two protease inhibitors (indinavir and ritonavir) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and in lymphocytes. At therapeutic concentrations (50 to 100 μM), hydroxyurea inhibited supernatant virus production from monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro but the drug was ineffective in activated lymphocytes. Concentrations of hydroxyurea insufficient to be effective in activated lymphocytes cultured alone strongly inhibited supernatant virus production from cocultures of uninfected, activated lymphocytes with previously infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro. In contrast, protease inhibitors were up to 30-fold less efficient in dendritic cells than in activated lymphocytes. Our data support the rationale for testing of the combination of hydroxyurea and protease inhibitors, since these drugs may have complementary antiviral efficacies in different cell compartments. A new criterion for combining drugs for the treatment of HIV infection could be to include at least one drug that selectively targets HIV in viral reservoirs. PMID:11836405

  3. Lymphocyte changes in secondary dengue fever: use of the Technicon H*1 to monitor progress of infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, T C; Chan, Y C; Han, P

    1991-09-01

    Secondary dengue fever as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of an infection that presents with few clinical signs that help in the diagnosis. Previous workers have reported the value of buffy coat determinations of atypical lymphocytes as an aid to the diagnosis. We report here the use of an automated white blood cell differential counter, the Technicon H*1 in the monitoring of the atypical lymphocyte count as a measure of the progress of the infection in a retrospective study of serial full blood counts in 45 serologically confirmed patients. Technicon H*1 'basophil' and large unstained cell counts and manual atypical lymphocyte counts rose in tandem with the drop in platelets and decreased when the platelets recovered. In a sub-study, the atypical lymphocytes were immunophenotyped and found to be predominantly derived from T lymphocytes. We conclude that the Technicon H*1 is a useful monitor of the activity of the infection in dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  4. Predominant Runoff Components During Heavy Rainfall Events on Cultivated Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeřábek, J.; Zumr, D.; Strouhal, L.

    2015-12-01

    The fact that flash floods initiated in arable catchments are often accompanied by massive sediment and nutrient loads often leads to the assumption that surface runoff is the principle pathway by which runoff reaches watercourses. But the hydrology of cultivated catchments has its specific features due to the temporary variable topsoil properties and a sharp divide between topsoil and compacted subsoil. Under various conditions the prevailing runoff mechanisms may vary from surface runoff to subsurface runoff or deep percolation. On the basis of an evaluation of several rainfall-runoff events in a representative agricultural catchment (Nucice, Czech Republic), we show that runoff from cultivated land may be generated in a way similar to that seen on forested slopes, where shallow subsurface runoff is the predominant pathway. To identify the predominant runoff pathway, we employed a combination of turbidity measurements and stream discharge data. Although we observed temporal variability of topsoil properties attributable to seasonal weather changes and agricultural activities, e.g. bulk density and porosity, runoff generation was mainly driven by precipitation characteristics and the initial catchment saturation. The concept of the runoff formation was also observed during plot scale experiments with rainfall simulator. Various initial soil moisture conditions, and vegetation stages delimited the simulations. Variable proportions of both monitored runoff components were observed in relation to rainfall intensity and duration, ranging from zero surface runoff to a distinct dominance of surface runoff. Even with the highest tested precipitation intensities, surface runoff always formed due to saturation excess of the topsoil, irrespective of the topsoil properties and crops. The experiments were numerically modelled and analysed to understand the effect of temporal variability in the macropores and intra-aggregate voids ratio within the topsoil. We used a

  5. STUDIES ON RABBIT LYMPHOCYTES IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Stewart; Gell, P. G. H.

    1965-01-01

    Lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of newborn rabbits heterozygous for IgG allotypes As4 and As5, or As5 and As6, obtained at an age when only the maternal allotypic determinants are detectable in the serum, may be stimulated in vitro to transform into "blast" cells with antiallotype sera directed against the determinants contolled both by the maternal and by the paternal chromosomes. This result rules out the possibility that allotypic specificity is conferred upon lymphocytes by environmental IgG and suggests that the lymphocytes of newborn rabbits have the potential to synthesize IgG determinants either in the form of intact IgG molecules or constituent polypeptide chains. PMID:4159058

  6. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  7. Uncovering subdominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    van der Most, R G; Concepcion, R J; Oseroff, C; Alexander, J; Southwood, S; Sidney, J; Chesnut, R W; Ahmed, R; Sette, A

    1997-01-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in BALB/c mice is predominantly directed against a single, Ld-restricted epitope in the viral nucleoprotein (residues 118 to 126). To investigate whether any Kd/Dd-restricted responses were activated but did not expand during the primary response, we used a BALB/c mutant, BALB/c-H-2dm2, which does not express the Ld molecule. Splenocytes from LCMV-infected BALB/c mice were transferred into irradiated BALB/c-H-2dm2 mice and rechallenged with LCMV. Thus, they were exposed to an antigenic stimulus without the involvement of the immunodominant Ld-restricted epitope. In this adoptive transfer model, the donor splenocytes protected the recipient mice against chronic LCMV infection by mounting a potent Kd- and/or Dd-restricted secondary antiviral response. Analysis of a panel of Kd binding LCMV peptides revealed that residues 283 to 291 from the viral glycoprotein (GP(283-291)) comprise a major new epitope in the adoptive transfer model. Because the donor splenocytes were first activated during the primary infection in BALB/c mice, the GP(283-291) epitope is a subdominant epitope in BALB/c mice that becomes dominant after rechallenge in BALB/c-H-2dm2 mice. This study makes two points. First, it shows that subdominant CTL responses can be protective, and second, it provides a general experimental approach for uncovering subdominant CTL responses in vivo. This strategy can be used to identify subdominant T-cell responses in other systems. PMID:9188577

  8. Role of T lymphocytes in collagen II-induced arthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Klareskog, L.; Holmdahl, R.; Larsson, E.; Wigzell, H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of T lymphocytes in collagen II induced arthritis in rats has been investigated. Functional T cells were needed for the development of arthritis since none out of 14 nude rats injected with collagen type II developed arthritis, whereas 11 out of 14 of their normal counterparts did. With the help of antibodies specific for Ia antigens and different T cell subsets in the rats, an immunohistochemical method was used to demonstrate that T cells, predominantly of `helper' type and anti-Ia reactive non-T cells were abundant in the arthritic synovial tissue. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:6219836

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants) and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics) are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron) or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency) emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin) were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. PMID:26929659

  10. Predominance of single bacterial cells in composting bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galès, Amandine; Bru-Adan, Valérie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delabre, Karine; Catala, Philippe; Ponthieux, Arnaud; Chevallier, Michel; Birot, Emmanuel; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants have become an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. Accurate knowledge of the particle-size distribution in bioaerosols emitted from open-air composting facilities during operational activity is a requirement for improved modeling of air dispersal. In order to investigate the aerodynamic diameter of bacteria in composting bioaerosols this study used an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor for sampling and quantitative real-time PCR for quantification. Quantitative PCR results show that the size of bacteria peaked between 0.95 μm and 2.4 μm and that the geometric mean diameter of the bacteria was 1.3 μm. In addition, total microbial cells were counted by flow cytometry and revealed that these qPCR results corresponded to single whole bacteria. Finally, the enumeration of cultivable thermophilic microorganisms allowed us to set the upper size limit for fragments at an aerodynamic diameter of ∼0.3 μm. Particle-size distributions of microbial groups previously used to monitor composting bioaerosols were also investigated. In collected the bioaerosols, the aerodynamic diameter of the actinomycetes Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula-and-relatives and also of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, appeared to be consistent with a majority of individual cells. Together, this study provides the first culture-independent data on particle-size distribution of composting bioaerosols and reveals that airborne single bacteria were emitted predominantly from open-air composting facilities.

  11. Identification of the Predominant Volatile Compounds Produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Kaminśki, E.; Libbey, L. M.; Stawicki, S.; Wasowicz, E.

    1972-01-01

    A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH2Cl2, and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth. PMID:4629700

  12. Mandibular dysfunction in an institutionalized and predominantly elderly population.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, M I; Weiss, R; Morrison, B J; Waxler-Morrison, N E

    1987-11-01

    Oral health problems were identified among 653 residents of 40 long-term care institutions in Vancouver, using a personal interview and a dental examination. Information on jaw function was analysed as part of this investigation to identify associations between the clinical signs of mandibular dysfunction and the complaints of the subjects, their occlusal instability, and the quality of their dentures. The sample population were predominantly female and over 75 years of age, and 42% had some natural teeth. Complaints of jaw dysfunction, usually sore muscles, were heard from 13% of the 488 subjects interviewed. The examination was performed on all of the subjects and revealed that 43% had unstable occlusal contacts, 37% were using loose or unstable dentures, and 20% had one or more clinical signs of jaw dysfunction. Joint noise was the most frequent sign detected and it was heard in a greater percentage of the women than men, while deviation of the mandible during mouth opening was observed with great frequency in the younger age groups. There was no apparent association found between the clinical signs of jaw dysfunction and the complaints of the subjects or the condition of their teeth or dentures. The study demonstrated that complaints and clinical signs of jaw dysfunction, with the exception of joint noises, were uncommon in this population.

  13. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 in rural communities, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Lee, I L; Tan, T C; Tan, P C; Nanthiney, D R; Biraj, M K; Surendra, K M; Suresh, K G

    2012-04-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite. To date, there have been sporadic and scanty studies on Blastocystis sp. carried out in rural communities in Nepal. We surveyed the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. and its possible associated risk factors, and reported the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtype in two rural communities, Bolde Phediche and Bahunipati, in Nepal. Human faecal samples were collected from 241 participants, cultured using in vitro cultivation and examined for Blastocystis sp. The presence of Blastocystis sp. in faecal samples was further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently genotyped using subtype-specific sequence tagged site (STS) primers. There were 26.1% (63/241) of the participants that were infected by Blastocystis sp. We detected 84.1% (53/63) of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 infections in these rural communities. The unusually high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 can be attributed to the rearing of family-owned animals in barns built close to their houses. Eighty one percent (51/63) of the Blastocystis sp. infected participants drank not boiled or unfiltered water. The present study revealed that Blastocystis sp. could pose a health concern to the communities and travellers to the hilly area in Nepal. Infection may be transmitted through human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions. We provide recommendations to ensure good public health practices.

  14. Predominance of 2-hydroxymelatonin over melatonin in plants.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-11-01

    The cloning of the gene encoding melatonin 2-hydroxylase (M2H), which is responsible for the synthesis of 2-hydroxymelatonin, has expanded the study of melatonin metabolism in plants. Kinetic analysis of M2H enzymatic activity demonstrated that the catalytic efficiency of M2H is much higher than those of other melatonin biosynthetic enzymes such as serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), suggesting that melatonin metabolism is rapid in plants. To test this prediction, we selected 24 plant species belonging to 16 families and quantified the levels of melatonin and 2-hydroxymelatonin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The melatonin levels in most of the species were <1 ng/g fresh weight (FW), while those in leaves from radish and feverfew were 3.5 and 3.3 ng/g FW, respectively. In contrast, the average levels of 2-hydroxymelatonin were much higher at 6.2 ng/g FW. The average ratio of 2-hydroxymelatonin to melatonin in plants was approximately 368:1, indicating that the accumulation of 2-hydroxymelatonin predominates over that of melatonin. These data were consistent with previous results on the kinetics of the corresponding enzymes, as well as with in vivo melatonin conversion data. Among several melatonin metabolites in plants, the most abundant metabolite was found to be 2-hydroxymelatonin (99%) followed by 4-hydroxymelatonin (0.05%), but 6-hydroxymelatonin was not detected in rice seedlings.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants) and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics) are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron) or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency) emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin) were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. PMID:26929659

  16. Bovine T lymphocyte responses to Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, John H

    2002-12-20

    The long-held paradigm of T lymphocyte-mediated activation of mononuclear phagocytes (Mø) as the major mechanism of protection against facultative intracellular pathogens such as Brucella has been modified to include killing of infected Mø by various subsets of T lymphocytes. Remnants of killed infected cells are phagocytosed by immunologically-activated Mø, which are much more efficient at killing such pathogens. Most of the detailed information regarding immunity in general and that of brucellosis specifically has been obtained using murine infection models rather than in cattle. However, there has been considerable definition of cellular phenotypes, cytokines and functional characteristics of T lymphocytes in cattle over the last decade. This was mainly due to development of monoclonal antibodies against cell surface markers and application of molecular cloning and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for isolation, characterization and detection of genes encoding bovine cytokines. This review discusses cellular and molecular immunity in bovine brucellosis as pertains to T lymphocyte interactions with the Mø. Although current knowledge directly obtained from brucellosis immunity studies in the bovine host is limited and incomplete, the many parallels between the bovine and murine immune systems allow for some extrapolation in the description of bovine host defense mechanisms. Direct information from studies with immunized cattle supports the concepts of coordinate activation of uninfected Mø and killing of Brucella-infected Mø by antigen-specific T lymphocytes as major mechanisms of host defense in bovine brucellosis. There also appears to be a bias in the T lymphocyte compartment towards recognition of particular bacterial stress proteins following immunization with live Brucella vaccines.

  17. Lymphocyte migration patterns in organ allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Kupiec-Weglinski, J W; Tilney, N L

    1989-04-01

    A central tenet of immunology is the observation, made 30 years ago, that lymphocytes recirculate continuously between peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. In recent years, the subject of lymphocyte migration, both under physiological conditions and in states of alloresponsiveness, has become more enigmatic. It lies outside most current topics of immunological investigations, labelling and tracing techniques are problematic, and many experimental findings are phenomenological and difficult to interpret. Indeed, our overall knowledge of the functional differences between the various host lymphoid compartments and their constituent cell populations remains rudimentary. However, as understanding increases regarding the host immunological events responding to an antigenic stimulus such as a graft, with growing definition of the distinctive and interconnecting roles of lymphocyte subpopulations and their products acting on each other to produce graft destruction, the conceptual importance of lymphocyte migration again is becoming obvious. This role includes many facets of immunity such as the effects of antigen specificity, immunologic memory, differential behavior of recirculating or sessile populations, and local and systemic contact between antigen and effector cells. It has become evident that lymphocytes migrate in a non-random and highly dynamic fashion determined by a range of specific and non-specific factors; in the setting of organ transplantation, patterns are profoundly affected by the interrelated cellular and humoral components of the immunological cascade which may lead either to graft rejection or to its prolongation in untreated and immunologically modified recipients, respectively. Thus, the traffic of lymphocytes throughout host lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments and their activity within these compartments should be considered an integral part of the host immunomodulation triggered by transplantation of histoincompatible tissue. Gradual filling

  18. STUDIES ON RABBIT LYMPHOCYTES IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Stewart; Gell, P. G. H.

    1965-01-01

    Rabbit lymphocytes may be stimulated in vitro with specific antiallotype sera to transform into "blast" cells and to synthesize DNA. This transformation only occurs when the donor cells are obtained from a rabbit having a given γ-globulin allotype (As4) and these cells are cultured in the presence of an antiserum prepared against the given allotype (As4). Heterologous (sheep, goat, and guinea pig) anti-rabbit γ-globulin sera also induce significant blast transformation and DNA synthesis in rabbit lymphocytes. Allotypic transformation and DNA synthesis are due to 7S antiallotype antibodies and do not require complement. The degree of transformation and rate of DNA synthesis is related to the concentration of antibody. Incubation of the appropriate cells with the antiallotype antibody for as short a time as 15 minutes results in a significant degree of "blast" transformation, indicating that the recognition of the antiallotype specificity in the cells and stimulation of the cellular changes leading to eventual transformation is rapid. The activity of the antiallotype sera as measured by transforming or haemagglutinating capacity, may be absorbed by lymphocytes of the appropriate allotype, but is not absorbed by lymphocytes from a donor rabbit not having the allotype to which the antiserum is directed. Transformation does not occur with mixtures of lymphocytes from different rabbits even if 1 donor is immunized against an allotype present in the other donor. Peripheral rabbit lymphocytes can also be induced to undergo "blast transformation" in vitro by phytohaemagglutinin and staphylococcal filtrate. The lack of demonstrable leucoagglutinins in staphylococcal filtrate and antiallotype serum indicates that agglutination is not a necessary prerequisite to the induction of blast transformation. PMID:14316952

  19. Murine macrophage-lymphocyte interactions: scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, R M; Hinsdill, R D; Sandok, P L; Horowitz, S D

    1978-01-01

    Light and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed murine macrophage-lymphocyte interactions involving the initial contact of peritoneal, spleen, or thymus lymphocytes with peritoneal macrophage processes or microprocesses followed by clustering of lymphocytes over the central nuclear area of the macrophages. Lymphocyte-lymphocyte clustering was not observed in the absence of macrophages. Attachment and subsequent clustering appeared not to require the presence of serum or antigen; the attachment of allogeneic or xenogeneic lymphocytes was comparable to that seen in the syngeneic system, but central clustering of these lymphocytes failed to occur. No attachment or clustering was observed when thymic lymphocytes were cultured with thymus derived fibroblasts rather than with peritoneal macrophages. Lymphocyte attachment to immune, antigen-activated, syngeneic macrophages occurred more rapidly than that to normal unstimulated syngeneic macrophages; however, lymphocytes attached to the "activated" macrophages appeared to be killed by a nonphagocytic mechanism. A similar increase in the rate of lymphocyte attachment to macrophages occurred in the presence of migration inhibitory factor. Subsequent lymphocyte clustering on macrophages was observed in the migration inhibitory factor-stimulated cultures. In addition, lymphocyte-macrophage interactions similar to those in vitro were observed to occur in vivo on intraperitoneally implanted cover slips. Images PMID:101458

  20. Lymphocyte stimulation by soluble subcellular fractions.

    PubMed

    Pegrum, G D; Thompson, E A; Lewis, C M; Grant, V A

    1976-04-01

    Nuclear material can produce inhibition or stimulation of healty leucocytes under different experimental conditions, Reactivity could not be produced in cultures using intact nuclei and allogeneic lymphocytes. The effect of nuclear and cytoplasm fractions was compared with that of whole cells on intact healthy lymphocytes. The HLA activity in the individual fractions was assessed. Stimulation was produced by certain nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions and these were closely related to the peaks of HLA activity. The response to these fractions showed less activity than that achieved in conventional one way MLC tests.

  1. A receptor for 'self' on lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, H

    1977-01-01

    A large population of lymphocytes is able to form rosettes with syngeneic, allogeneic or closely related xenogeneic erythrocytes. Similar results were found with spleen cells from mice, rats and rabbits. The highest numbers were found in mice where up to 30% of lymphocytes bound autologous erythrocytes. Rosette formation is probably due to stereospecific cell surface receptors since erythrocytes of distant xenogeneic origin were not recognized. Rosette forming cells do not seem to be restricted to the B-cell or T-cell compartment since mouse thymus cells as well as spleen cells from congenitally athymic (nude) mice bound erythrocytes to a similar degree. PMID:73501

  2. Proteomics/genomics and signaling in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wollscheid, Bernd; Watts, Julian D; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2004-06-01

    Recent technological advances in genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics have offered new insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie lymphocyte signaling and function, and the development of new tools in these areas has opened up new avenues for biological investigation. By adding a quantitative dimension to lymphocyte proteome profiling, molecular machines and spatiotemporal regulatory processes can now be analyzed using such discovery-driven approaches. Biologists employing genomic and proteomic tools are gathering data at increasing speed and their struggle to extract maximal biological information is helped by new software tools that enable the detailed comparison of multiple datasets.

  3. Age and stage dependency of estrogen receptor expression by lymphocyte precursors

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Hideya; Kouro, Taku; Yokota, Takafumi; Comp, Phillip C.; Kincade, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Sex steroids negatively regulate B lymphopoiesis in adult mice. Paradoxically, lymphocytes arise during fetal life, when estrogen levels are high and maternal lymphopoiesis is suppressed. Here we demonstrate that embryonic B lymphopoiesis was unaffected by estrogen, but sensitive to glucocorticoids. Both fetal and adult precursors contained glucocorticoid receptor transcripts, but only adult precursors expressed estrogen receptor α and β together with the androgen receptor. Fetal hematopoietic cells did not efficiently acquire functional estrogen receptors after transplantation to irradiated adult mice. Sex steroid receptors were also expressed in a stage- and developmental age-dependent fashion in human precursors. A developmental switch in responsiveness of hematopoietic cells to sex steroids may be essential for formation of the immune system. PMID:11752459

  4. Response of lymphocytes to a mitogenic stimulus during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Several studies were performed that demonstrate that immunological activities of lymphocytes can be affected by spaceflight or by models that attempt to simulate some aspects of weightlessness. Included among these are the responses of lymphocytes to external stimuli such as mitogens and viruses. When cultures of lymphocytes were flown in space, the ability of the lymphocytes to respond to mitogens was inhibited. Similar results were obtained when lymphocytes from astronauts or animals just returned from space were placed into culture immediately upon return to earth, and when models of hypogravity were used. Lymphocytes placed in culture during spaceflights produced enhanced levels of interferon compared to control cultures. When cultures of lymphocytes were prepared for cosmonauts or rodents immediately upon return to earth, interferon production was inhibited. These results suggest that space flight can have profound effects on lymphocyte function, and that effects on isolated cells may be different from that on cells in the whole organism.

  5. The influence of transmeridian flight on human circulating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohkoshi, H; Asukata, I; Tajima, N; Yamamoto, K; Sasaki, M; Hokari, M; Sakai, T

    1991-01-01

    We studied the influence of transmeridian flight on the number of circulating lymphocytes, which have a circadian rhythm with low values in the daytime. The number of T lymphocytes was found to be higher than the baseline value, yet its rhythmicity was maintained after eastward flight with an 8-h time difference. The number of OKB2+ as well as Leu11+ cells were suppressed after the flight. The change in the number of T lymphocytes occurred due to the increased number of OKT4+ lymphocytes. There was no correlation between the number of OKT4+ lymphocytes and the plasma cortisol level, though plasma cortisol is a major factor in regulating the number of lymphocytes. These data showed that the number of helper/inducer T lymphocytes, B cells, and natural killer cells were affected by the physical conditions experienced after the flight. The changes in T lymphocytes were independent of those of plasma cortisol levels.

  6. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia? What should you ask your doctor about acute lymphocytic leukemia? It is important to have frank, honest discussions ... answer many of your questions. What kind of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) do I have? Do I have any ...

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... this is unknown. Having an identical twin with ALL Someone who has an identical twin who develops ...

  8. Epistasis in natural populations of a predominantly selfing plant

    PubMed Central

    Volis, S; Shulgina, I; Zaretsky, M; Koren, O

    2011-01-01

    Populations of predominantly selfing plant species often show spatial genetic structure but little is known whether epistatic gene interactions are spatially structured. To detect a possible epistatic effect and a spatial scale at which it operates, we created artificial crosses between plants spanning a range of fixed distances from 1 to 400 m in three populations of wild barley. The self-pollinated and crossed progeny (F1) and two generations of segregated progeny (F2 and F3) were tested in experimentally simulated population environments for relative performance (RP). The measured fitness traits included number of seeds, total seed weight and seed germination. For any of these traits, there was no association between RP of F1, F2 and F3 plants and either pairwise kinship coefficients or crossing distance. In contrast, in all three populations, we found lower seed viability of outcrossed as compared with self-pollinated genotypes in the first generation of segregation. However, in the F3 generation this outbreeding effect disappeared in the two populations and greatly decreased in the third population. For seed production, heterosis in F1 and outbreeding depression in F2 were observed only in the population with unusually high number of heterozygotes. Our findings support the view that in selfing species a spatial mosaic of various locally abundant genotypes represents not randomly fixed combinations of alleles but the co-adapted gene complexes that were sieved by selection, while heterozygotes are characteristic for the transient phase of this process, when segregation and purging of maladaptive genotypes have not yet occurred. PMID:20551977

  9. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Types Persist in Finnish Chicken Production

    PubMed Central

    Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Huneau, Adeline; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%]), and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST), but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC) accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3%) delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types) generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU) countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks. PMID:25700264

  10. Cellular Immunotherapy Following Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-29

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma

  11. Volume regulation by human lymphocytes. Role of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, S.; Dupre, A.; Rothstein, A.

    1982-05-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes regulate their volumes in hypotonic solutions. In hypotonic media in which Na+ is the predominant cation, an initial swelling phase is followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) associated with a net loss of cellular K+. In media in which K+ is the predominant cation, the rapid initial swelling is followed by a slower second swelling phase. /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes increased during RVD and returned to normal when the original volume was approximately regained. Effects similar to those induced by hypotonic stress could also be produced by raising the intracellular Ca++ level. In isotonic, Ca++-containing media cells were found to shrink upon addition of the Ca++ ionophore A23187 in K+-free media, but to swell in K+-rich media. Exposure to Ca++ plus A23187 also increased /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes. Quinine (75 microM), an inhibitor of the Ca++-activated K+ pathway in other systems blocked RVD, the associated K+ loss, and the increase in /sup 86/Rb+ efflux. Quinine also inhibited the volume changes and the increased /sup 86/Rb fluxes induced by Ca++ plus ionophore. The calmodulin inhibitors trifluoperazine, pimozide and chlorpromazine blocked RVD as well as Ca++ plus A23187-induced volume changes. Trifluoperazine also prevented the increase in /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes and K+ loss induced by hypotonicity. Chlorpromazine sulfoxide, a relatively ineffective calmodulin antagonist, was considerably less potent as an inhibitor of RVD than chlorpromazine. It is suggested than an elevation in cytoplasmic (Ca++), triggered by cell swelling, increases the plasma membrane permeability to K+, the ensuing increased efflux of K+, associated anions, and osmotically obliged water, leading to cell shrinking (RVD).

  12. Effects of exercise on lymphocytes and cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, B. K.; Toft, A. D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To review results on exercise induced changes in the immune system following strenuous and moderate exercise. Methods—A literature search over the past 15 years was conducted using Medline and selected papers. Results—After intense long term exercise, the immune system is characterised by concomitant impairment of the cellular immune system and increased inflammation. Thus low concentrations of lymphocytes, suppressed natural immunity, suppressed lymphocyte proliferation, and suppressed levels of secretory IgA in saliva are found simultaneously with high levels of circulating proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The underlying mechanisms are multifactorial and include neuroendocrinological and metabolic factors. The clinical consequences of the exercise induced immune changes have not formally been identified, but the exercise effect on lymphocyte dynamics and immune function may be linked to the exercise effects on resistance to infections and malignancy and the cytokine response may be linked to muscle damage or muscle cell growth. Conclusions—Moderate exercise across the life span seems to increase resistance to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas repeated strenuous exercise suppresses immune function. It is premature to offer advice on nutrition to athletes in order to alter the exercise induced immunosuppression found after exercise. Key Words: exercise; cytokine; lymphocytes; immunosuppression; nutrition PMID:10953894

  13. Cancer Statistics: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 6,590 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.4% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,430 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 77,855 people living with acute lymphocytic leukemia ...

  14. B Lymphocyte Calcium InFlux

    PubMed Central

    King, Leslie B.; Freedman, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic changes in cytoplasmic calcium concentration dictate the immunological fate and functions of lymphocytes. During the past few years important details have been revealed about the mechanism of store-operated calcium entry in lymphocytes, including the molecular identity of calcium-release activated (CRAC) channels and the ER calcium sensor (STIM1) responsible for CRAC channel activation following calcium depletion of stores. However, details of the potential fine regulation of CRAC channel activation that may be imposed on lymphocytes following physiologic stimulation within an inflammatory environment have not been fully addressed. In this review, we discuss several underexplored aspects of store-operated (CRAC-mediated) and store-independent calcium signaling in B lymphocytes. First, we discuss the potential novel requirement for antigen-receptor linked pathways in initiating CRAC channel activation. Second, we will discuss results suggesting that coupling between stores and CRAC channels may be regulated, allowing for graded activation in response to partial depletion of ER stores. Third, we will discuss mechanisms that sustain the duration of calcium entry via CRAC channels. Finally, we discuss distinct calcium permeant non-selective cation channels (NSCCs) that are activated by innate stimuli in B cells, potential means by which these innate calcium signaling pathways and CRAC channels crossregulate one another and the mechanistic basis and physiologic consequences of innate calcium signaling. PMID:19754903

  15. Targeting cytotoxic T lymphocytes for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maher, J; Davies, E T

    2004-01-01

    In light of their preeminent role in cellular immunity, there is considerable interest in targeting of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to cancer. This review summarises the active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches under development to achieve this goal, emphasising how recent advances in tumour immunology and gene transfer have impacted upon this field. PMID:15266309

  16. The lymph node in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dick, F R; Maca, R D

    1978-01-01

    Lymph nodes were examined from 41 cases of typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Degree of immaturity was graded as absent to minimal (Grade I), moderate (Grade II) and marked (Grade III). A moderate degree of immaturity was found in the lymph node in 14 of 41 cases even though the cells seen on the initial bone marrow and peripheral blood smears obtained from these patients were essentially all mature. The morphology of these nodes could be confused with poorly differentiated lymphocytic or mixed lymphocytic-histiocytic lymphoma in terms of the degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity was found in 5 cases; the morphology of these cases resembled histiocytic lymphoma. In the remaining 22 cases immaturity was essentially absent. The morphology of these cases was similar to that of diffuse well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma. Our studies suggest that a moderate degree of immaturity in the lymph node of patients with CLL does not indicate that these patients will have a marked shortening of their survival. PMID:580071

  17. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes...

  19. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes...

  20. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes...

  2. Drought Stress Predominantly Endures Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aarti; Dixit, Sandeep K.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to a combination of drought and bacterial pathogen infection, an agronomically important and altogether a new stress, are not well-studied. While occurring concurrently, these two stresses can lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on plants due to stress-interaction. It is reported that plant responses to the stress combinations consist of both strategies, unique to combined stress and those shared between combined and individual stresses. However, the combined stress response mechanisms governing stress interaction and net impact are largely unknown. In order to study these adaptive strategies, an accurate and convenient methodology is lacking even in model plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. The gradual nature of drought stress imposition protocol poses a hindrance in simultaneously applying pathogen infection under laboratory conditions to achieve combined stress. In present study we aimed to establish systematic combined stress protocol and to study physiological responses of the plants to various degrees of combined stress. Here, we have comprehensively studied the impact of combined drought and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection on A. thaliana. Further, by employing different permutations of drought and pathogen stress intensities, an attempt was made to dissect the contribution of each individual stress effects during their concurrence. We hereby present two main aspects of combined stress viz., stress interaction and net impact of the stress on plants. Mainly, this study established a systematic protocol to assess the impact of combined drought and bacterial pathogen stress. It was observed that as a result of net impact, some physiological responses under combined stress are tailored when compared to the plants exposed to individual stresses. We also infer that plant responses under combined stress in this study are predominantly influenced by the drought stress. Our results show that pathogen multiplication was reduced by

  3. Age-dependent oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in Down's lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zana, Marianna . E-mail: mzana@freemail.hu; Szecsenyi, Anita; Czibula, Agnes; Bjelik, Annamaria; Juhasz, Anna; Rimanoczy, Agnes; Vetro, Agnes; Pakaski, Magdolna; Janka, Zoltan; Kalman, Janos; Szabo, Krisztina; Szucs, Peter; Varkonyi, Agnes; Boda, Krisztina; Rasko, Istvan

    2006-06-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of lymphocytes from children (n = 7) and adults (n = 18) with Down's syndrome (DS). The basal oxidative condition, the vulnerability to in vitro hydrogen peroxide exposure, and the repair capacity were measured by means of the damage-specific alkaline comet assay. Significantly and age-independently elevated numbers of single strand breaks and oxidized bases (pyrimidines and purines) were found in the nuclear DNA of the lymphocytes in the DS group in the basal condition. These results may support the role of an increased level of endogenous oxidative stress in DS and are similar to those previously demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease. In the in vitro oxidative stress-induced state, a markedly higher extent of DNA damage was observed in DS children as compared with age- and gender-matched healthy controls, suggesting that young trisomic lymphocytes are more sensitive to oxidative stress than normal ones. However, the repair ability itself was not found to be deteriorated in either DS children or DS adults.

  4. Asthma patient education opportunities in predominantly minority urban communities.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Luis E; McLean, Don

    2007-12-01

    Disenfranchised ethnic minority communities in the urban United States experience a high burden of asthma. Conventional office-based patient education often is insufficient to promote proper asthma management and coping practices responsive to minority patients' environments. This paper explores existing and alternative asthma information and education sources in three urban minority communities in western New York State to help design other practical educational interventions. Four focus groups (n = 59) and four town hall meetings (n = 109) were conducted in one Hispanic and two black communities. Focus groups included adult asthmatics or caretakers of asthmatics, and town meetings were open to all residents. A critical theory perspective informed the study. Asthma information and education sources, perceptions of asthma and ways of coping were elicited through semi-structured interviews. Data analysis followed a theory-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Several asthma education and information resources from the health care system, media, public institutions and communities were identified. Intervention recommendations highlighted asthma workshops that recognize participants as teachers and learners, offer social support, promote advocacy, are culturally appropriate and community-based and include health care professionals. Community-based, group health education couched on people's experiences and societal conditions offers unique opportunities for patient asthma care empowerment in minority urban communities.

  5. Lymphocyte transformation studies in drug hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, R.J.; Tse, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    In a group of patients with clinically diagnosed drug hypersensitivity the in vitro lymphocyte response to the suspected drug was assessed by the lymphocyte transformation test. The test gave positive results in all 15 patients with penicillin-induced immediate or accelerated allergic reactions and positive immediate skin-test reactivity to the major or the minor antigenic determinant of penicillin, or both, but in only 3 of the 12 patients with delayed-onset maculopapular rashes induced by penicillin, despite positive immediate reactivity to the skin-test reagents. Lymphocyte stimulation greater than five times the control level was demonstrated for five patients with penicillin-induced erythroderma, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or a serum-sickness-like illness, or with methicillin-induced interstitial nephritis, all of whom had negative reactions to the appropriate skin-test reagents. A low level of stimulation was seen in eight other skin-test-negative patients with possible allergic reactions induced by penicillins. However, in all subjects tested the stimulation was significantly greater than the mean for control subjects. For 9 of 11 patients with isoniazid-induced hepatitis or maculopapular rashes, but for only 8 of 31 patients with eruptions induced by a variety of drugs other than penicillins and isoniazid, significant stimulation occurred in the lymphocyte transformation test. It is concluded that the lymphocyte transformation test is useful in the detection of hypersensitivity to the penicillins (although in IgE-mediated reactions skin testing is clearly preferable) and isoniazid but is of limited value in the demonstration of hypersensitivity to other drugs. PMID:445303

  6. T lymphocytes and their products in atopic allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kay, A B

    1991-01-01

    Various cells are associated with inflammatory events characteristic of atopic allergy and asthma. As well as T cells and eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, mononuclear phagocytes and platelets have all to be considered particularly as their mediators have potential for contributing directly to the features of bronchial asthma. Nevertheless, mast cell/T lymphocyte/eosinophil interactions may be of particular significance. For instance, the acute symptoms of allergy and asthma such as sneezing, bronchospasm and hives are believed to be largely the result of mediator release from mast cells whereas chronic symptoms (the result of allergic inflammation) can be explained on the basis of eosinophil-mediated tissue damage. Allergen is recognized directly by T cells. Specialized T cell subsets, possibly the Th2 equivalent, predominate in allergy and elaborate IL-4 (an essential co-factor for IgE production) and IL-5 which brings about terminal differentiation and activation of the eosinophil. Basic proteins derived from the crystalloid granule together with PAF and leukotrienes produce chronic wheeze, bronchial irritability, and might also be involved in permanent nasal blockage in chronic rhinitis. This general hypothesis is continually being tested. It is clearly important to identify precise molecular targets in allergy and asthma in order to construct therapeutic strategies. PMID:1937873

  7. Immunologic studies in two patients with persistent lymphocytic thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis, and low radioactive iodine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, I.; Gupta, M.; Hostetter, A.; Sheeler, L.; Skillern, P.; Tubbs, R.

    1984-08-01

    Two patients with persistent lymphocytic thyroiditis and thyrotoxicosis were studied. Both patients presented with severe hyperthyroidism of nine months' duration and had nontender, small thyroid glands. Uptake of radioactive iodine (131I) was consistently low. Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels remained elevated without remission until thyroidectomy. The serum thyroglobulin level was normal, but testing for microsomal antibody gave weakly positive results in one case. Thyroglobulin and thyroid stimulatory antibodies were not found. The ratio of helper to suppressor T cells was elevated in one case. Neither patient showed response to propranolol, prednisone, or iodine. Light microscopic and immunohistologic studies showed severe lymphocytic thyroiditis with formation of secondary lymphoid follicles. Lymphocytes were predominately T cells (OKT11-positive), primarily helper/inducer T cells (OKT4-positive). Hyperplastic nodules contained high immunoreactive thyroglobulin and thyroxine levels. Aberrant thymus was seen within the thyroid. These studies suggest the possibility of intrathyroidal stimulation and hydrolysis of thyroglobulin within thyroid cells and also support the hypothesis that T and B cell immunoregulatory defects are important in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  8. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    von Mandach, U.; Gubler, H. P.; Engel, G.; Huch, R.; Huch, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8383562

  9. T lymphocyte phenotypic profile in lung segments affected by cavitary and non-cavitary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    MAZZARELLA, G; BIANCO, A; PERNA, F; D'AURIA, D; GRELLA, E; MOSCARIELLO, E; SANDUZZI, A

    2003-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may depend on a complex interaction between the host and the pathogen. Clinical outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis are variable, ranging from asymptomatic lifelong infection to parenchymal lung destruction, resulting in cavitary lesions. To investigate the hypothesis that local cellular immune response may affect presentation and outcome in tuberculosis, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in lung segments affected by cavitary and non-cavitary tuberculosis. We then correlated the type of cellular response at the level of the involved lung segments with clinical evolution in terms of cavity formation. We found alveolar lymphocytosis in patients with both cavitary and non-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis, with increased CD4+ lymphocytes in patients with non-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis. A predominant Th1 immune response has been observed in non-cavitary patients, while cavitary involved segments exhibit the presence of Th2 lymphocyte subsets. These data, while confirming the importance of Th1-type CD4+ cells and IFN-γ in effective cellular immunity in active pulmonary tuberculosis, also suggest that the presence of Th2 lymphocytes may contribute to tissue necrosis phenomena associated with cavitary evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis. Our observations indicate the importance of the type of local immune response at the site of disease in the development of different clinical characteristics and outcome in pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:12699418

  10. Alteration of lymphocyte phenotype and function in sickle cell anemia: Implications for vaccine responses.

    PubMed

    Balandya, Emmanuel; Reynolds, Teri; Obaro, Stephen; Makani, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have increased susceptibility to infections, secondary to impairment of immune function. Besides the described dysfunction in innate immunity, including impaired opsonization and phagocytosis of bacteria, evidence of dysfunction of T and B lymphocytes in SCA has also been reported. This includes reduction in the proportion of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, reduction of CD4+ helper: CD8+ suppressor T cell ratio, aberrant activation and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg ), skewing of CD4+ T cells towards Th2 response and loss of IgM-secreting CD27 + IgM(high) IgD(low) memory B cells. These changes occur on the background of immune activation characterized by predominance of memory CD4+ T cell phenotypes, increased Th17 signaling and elevated levels of C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which may affect the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines available to prevent infections in SCA. Thus, in order to optimize the use of vaccines in SCA, a thorough understanding of T and B lymphocyte functions and vaccine reactivity among individuals with SCA is needed. Studies should be encouraged of different SCA populations, including sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of SCA is highest. This article summarizes our current understanding of lymphocyte biology in SCA, and highlights areas that warrant future research. Am. J. Hematol. 91:938-946, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27237467

  11. Specific human B lymphocyte alloantigens linked to HL-A.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, D L; Abelson, L; Henkart, P; Harris, S D; Amos, D B

    1975-01-01

    Sera, previously found to react specifically with B lymphoid cultured cells, were tested on isolated T and B peripheral blood lymphocytes in a microcytotoxicity assay. Studies were performed on lymphocytes obtained from several large Amish families. The sera used in these studies were cytotoxic to peripheral blood, B lymphocytes, but not cytotoxic to T lymphocytes. The antigens detected followed the inheritance pattern of HL-A haplotypes. The strong linkage disequilibrium with HL-A antigens suggests that genes controlling the expression of B lymphocyte antigens are linked to genes controlling HL-A alloantigens. PMID:1082138

  12. Roles of Lymphocyte Kv1.3-Channels in the Pathogenesis of Renal Diseases and Novel Therapeutic Implications of Targeting the Channels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Delayed rectifier K+-channels (Kv1.3) are predominantly expressed in T lymphocytes. Based on patch-clamp studies, the channels play crucial roles in facilitating the calcium influx necessary to trigger lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Using selective channel inhibitors in experimental animal models, in vivo studies then revealed the clinically relevant relationship between the channel expression and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In renal diseases, in which “chronic inflammation” or “the overstimulation of cellular immunity” is responsible for the pathogenesis, the overexpression of Kv1.3-channels in lymphocytes promotes their cellular proliferation and thus contributes to the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. We recently demonstrated that benidipine, a potent dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, which also strongly and persistently inhibits the lymphocyte Kv1.3-channel currents, suppressed the proliferation of kidney lymphocytes and actually ameliorated the progression of renal fibrosis. Based on the recent in vitro evidence that revealed the pharmacological properties of the channels, the most recent studies have revealed novel therapeutic implications of targeting the lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels for the treatment of renal diseases. PMID:25866450

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte homing receptors define a novel class of adhesion molecules on diverse cell types

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A 90-kD lymphocyte surface glycoprotein, defined by monoclonal antibodies of the Hermes series, is involved in lymphocyte recognition of high endothelial venules (HEV). Lymphocyte gp90Hermes binds in a saturable, reversible fashion to the mucosal vascular addressin (MAd), a tissue-specific endothelial cell adhesion molecule for lymphocytes. We and others have recently shown that the Hermes antigen is identical to or includes CD44 (In[Lu]-related p80), human Pgp-1, and extracellular matrix receptor III-molecules reportedly expressed on diverse cell types. Here, we examine the relationship between lymphoid and nonlymphoid Hermes antigens using serologic, biochemical, and, most importantly, functional assays. Consistent with studies using mAbs to CD44 or Pgp-1, mAbs against five different epitopes on lymphocyte gp90Hermes reacted with a wide variety of nonhematolymphoid cells in diverse normal human tissues, including many types of epithelium, mesenchymal elements such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle, and a subset of glia in the central nervous system. To ask whether these non- lymphoid molecules might also be functionally homologous to lymphocyte homing receptors, we assessed their ability to interact with purified MAd using fluorescence energy transfer techniques. The Hermes antigen isolated from both glial cells and fibroblasts--which express a predominant 90-kD form similar in relative molecular mass, isoelectric point, and protease sensitivity to lymphocyte gp90Hermes--was able to bind purified MAd. In contrast, a 140-160-kD form of the Hermes antigen isolated from squamous epithelial cells lacked this capability. Like lymphocyte binding to mucosal HEV, the interaction between glial gp90Hermes and MAd is inhibited by mAb Hermes-3, but not Hermes-1, suggesting that similar molecular domains are involved in the two binding events. The observation that the Hermes/CD44 molecules derived from several nonlymphoid cell types display binding domains homologous to those

  14. Training Older Adults to Access Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.; Bertera, Robert L.; Morgan, Russell; Wuertz, Ellen; Attey, Alfred M. O.

    2007-01-01

    Many older adults do not use health information available on the Internet. Older adults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills.…

  15. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  16. Proteomic profiling of lymphocytes in autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytes play important roles in the balance between body defense and noxious agents involved in a number of diseases, e.g. autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer. The proteomic analyses have been applied to identify and validate disease-associated and disease-specific biomarkers for therapeutic strategies of diseases. The proteomic profiles of lymphocytes may provide more information to understand their functions and roles in the development of diseases, although proteomic approaches in lymphocytes are still limited. The present review overviewed the proteomics-based studies on lymphocytes to headlight the proteomic profiles of lymphocytes in diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer, with a special focus on lung diseases. We will explore the potential significance of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets from the current status in proteomic studies of lymphocytes and discuss the value of the currently available proteomic methodologies in the lymphocytes research. PMID:24397796

  17. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  18. Improved Bowel Preparation with Multimedia Education in a Predominantly African-American Population: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Chandra, Lakshya; Verma, Vipin; Kaur, Sumanjit; Allawy, Allawy; Secco, Alessandra; Anand, Rohit; Dutta, Sudhir K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Inadequate bowel preparation is a major impediment in colonoscopy quality outcomes. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of multimedia education (MME) in improving bowel preparation quality and adenoma detection rate. Methods. This was an IRB-approved prospective randomized study that enrolled 111 adult patients undergoing outpatient screening or surveillance colonoscopy. After receiving standard colonoscopy instructions, the patients were randomized into MME group (n = 48) and control group (n = 46). The MME group received comprehensive multimedia education including an audio-visual program, a visual aid, and a brochure. Demographics, quality of bowel preparation, and colonoscopy findings were recorded. Results. MME group had a significantly better bowel preparation in the entire colon (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.16–6.09) and on the right side of the colon (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.12–6.71) as compared to control group (p < 0.05). Large polyps (>1 cm) were found more frequently in the MME group (11/31, 35.5% versus 0/13; p < 0.05). More polyps and adenomas were detected in MME group (57 versus 39 and 31 versus 13, resp.) but the difference failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion. MME can lead to significant improvement in the quality of bowel preparation and large adenoma detection in a predominantly African-American population. PMID:27006590

  19. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: evidence from golf putting.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Hartley, Alan A; Joubert, Sven; Didierjean, André; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-01-01

    Can motor learning be equivalent in younger and older adults? To address this question, 48 younger (M = 23.5 years) and 48 older (M = 65.0 years) participants learned to perform a golf-putting task in two different motor learning situations: one that resulted in infrequent errors or one that resulted in frequent errors. The results demonstrated that infrequent-error learning predominantly relied on nondeclarative, automatic memory processes whereas frequent-error learning predominantly relied on declarative, effortful memory processes: After learning, infrequent-error learners verbalized fewer strategies than frequent-error learners; at transfer, a concurrent, attention-demanding secondary task (tone counting) left motor performance of infrequent-error learners unaffected but impaired that of frequent-error learners. The results showed age-equivalent motor performance in infrequent-error learning but age deficits in frequent-error learning. Motor performance of frequent-error learners required more attention with age, as evidenced by an age deficit on the attention-demanding secondary task. The disappearance of age effects when nondeclarative, automatic memory processes predominated suggests that these processes are preserved with age and are available even early in motor learning. PMID:21736434

  20. Activation of autoreactive T-lymphocytes by cultured syngeneic glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Radeke, H H; Emmendörffer, A; Uciechowski, P; von der Ohe, J; Schwinzer, B; Resch, K

    1994-03-01

    The capacity of intrinsic, glomerular mesangial cells (MC) to cause an autoreactive response of syngeneic lymphocytes in vitro are presented. Initial experiments demonstrated the MHC class II dependent capacity of MC to present exogenous antigen to sensitized lymph node lymphocytes (LN) and to activate naive, allogeneic LN in the absence of a nominal antigen. However, the most striking finding of the present investigation was that mouse MC (C57BL/6 or DBA/2) augmented a significant activation of naive, syngeneic lymphocytes. The extent of the proliferative lymphocyte response was comparable to that observed after stimulation with allogeneic MC. Moreover, during syngeneic coculture substantial amounts of interferon bioactivity were generated. Equipotent concentrations of rm IFN-gamma were sufficient to induce class II MHC expression of mouse MC. In control experiments the macrophage cell line, IC-21 (C57BL/6), or freshly prepared DBA/2 mouse peritoneal macrophages did not elicit a syngeneic LN response. Using MC, which had not been pretreated, the MC-specific LN stimulation occurred after prolonged periods of coculture. The stimulation index (S.I.) was 9.77 after 144 hours compared with LN controls (S.I. = 1). However, a 48 hour pretreatment of MC with either rm IFN-gamma alone or in combination with rh TNF-alpha and/or the continuous presence of rm IL-1 alpha during coculture periods from 72 to 144 hours substantially enhanced the proliferative LN response. Analysis of non-adherent LN by flow cytometry (FACS) after 96 or 120 hours coculture with MC revealed an increased ratio of Thy1.2+ to B220+ cells with a predominant rise of L3T4+ T-helper cells compared to Lyt2+ cytotoxic T-cells. Furthermore, immune fluorescence microscopy showed that a fraction of Thy1.2+ lymphoblasts adhered to MC. FACS analysis of these adherent LN after detachment demonstrated that in comparison to cocultures with untreated MC, cocultures of LN with IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha pre-treated MC

  1. Transferrin Binding to Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Activated by Phytohemagglutinin Involves a Specific Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Robert M.; Werner, Phillip; Arnaud, Philippe; Galbraith, Gillian M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Immunohistological studies have indicated that membrane sites binding transferrin are present upon activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In this study, we have investigated transferrin uptake in human lymphocytes exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), by quantitative radiobinding and immunofluorescence in parallel. In stimulated lymphocytes, binding was maximal after a 30-min incubation, being greatest at 37°C, and greater at 22°C than at 4°C. Although some shedding and endocytosis of transferrin occurred at 22° and 37°C, these factors, and resulting synthesis of new sites, did not affect measurement of binding which was found to be saturable, reversible, and specific for transferrin (Ka 0.5-2.5 × 108 M−1). Binding was greater after a 48-h exposure to PHA than after 24 h, and was maximal at 66 h. Sequential Scatchard analysis revealed no significant elevation in affinity of interaction. However, although the total number of receptors increased, the proportion of cells in which binding of ligand was detected immunohistologically increased in parallel, and after appropriate correction, the cellular density of receptors remained relatively constant throughout (60,000-80,000 sites/cell). Increments in binding during the culture period were thus due predominantly to expansion of a population of cells bearing receptors. Similar differences in binding were apparent upon comparison of cells cultured in different doses of PHA, and in unstimulated cells binding was negligible. Transferrin receptors appear, therefore, to be readily detectable only upon lymphocytes that have been activated. Images PMID:6253523

  2. Directional migration of recirculating lymphocytes through lymph nodes via random walks.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Niclas; Matejovicova, Lenka; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Shawe-Taylor, John; Chain, Benny

    2012-01-01

    Naive T lymphocytes exhibit extensive antigen-independent recirculation between blood and lymph nodes, where they may encounter dendritic cells carrying cognate antigen. We examine how long different T cells may spend in an individual lymph node by examining data from long term cannulation of blood and efferent lymphatics of a single lymph node in the sheep. We determine empirically the distribution of transit times of migrating T cells by applying the Least Absolute Shrinkage & Selection Operator (LASSO) or regularised S-LASSO to fit experimental data describing the proportion of labelled infused cells in blood and efferent lymphatics over time. The optimal inferred solution reveals a distribution with high variance and strong skew. The mode transit time is typically between 10 and 20 hours, but a significant number of cells spend more than 70 hours before exiting. We complement the empirical machine learning based approach by modelling lymphocyte passage through the lymph node insilico. On the basis of previous two photon analysis of lymphocyte movement, we optimised distributions which describe the transit times (first passage times) of discrete one dimensional and continuous (Brownian) three dimensional random walks with drift. The optimal fit is obtained when drift is small, i.e. the ratio of probabilities of migrating forward and backward within the node is close to one. These distributions are qualitatively similar to the inferred empirical distribution, with high variance and strong skew. In contrast, an optimised normal distribution of transit times (symmetrical around mean) fitted the data poorly. The results demonstrate that the rapid recirculation of lymphocytes observed at a macro level is compatible with predominantly randomised movement within lymph nodes, and significant probabilities of long transit times. We discuss how this pattern of migration may contribute to facilitating interactions between low frequency T cells and antigen presenting cells

  3. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

  4. Mean dose to lymphocytes during radiotherapy treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Brandan, M.E.; Perez-Pastenes, M.A.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Gonsebatt, M.E.; Diaz-Perches, R.

    1994-10-01

    Using a probabilistic model with parameters from four radiotherapy protocols used in Mexican hospitals for the treatment of cervical cancer, the authors have calculated the distribution of dose to cells in peripheral blood of patients. Values of the mean dose to the lymphocytes during and after a {sup 60}Co treatment are compared to estimates from an in vivo chromosome aberration study performed on five patients. Calculations indicate that the mean dose to the circulating blood is about 2% of the tumor dose, while the mean dose to recirculating lymphocytes may reach up to 7% of the tumor dose. Differences up to a factor of two in the dose to the blood are predicted for different protocols delivering equal tumor doses. The data suggest mean doses higher than the predictions of the model. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Stretched cell cycle model for proliferating lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Mark R.; Kan, Andrey; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Wellard, Cameron J.; Markham, John F.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic variation in cell cycle time is a consistent feature of otherwise similar cells within a growing population. Classic studies concluded that the bulk of the variation occurs in the G1 phase, and many mathematical models assume a constant time for traversing the S/G2/M phases. By direct observation of transgenic fluorescent fusion proteins that report the onset of S phase, we establish that dividing B and T lymphocytes spend a near-fixed proportion of total division time in S/G2/M phases, and this proportion is correlated between sibling cells. This result is inconsistent with models that assume independent times for consecutive phases. Instead, we propose a stretching model for dividing lymphocytes where all parts of the cell cycle are proportional to total division time. Data fitting based on a stretched cell cycle model can significantly improve estimates of cell cycle parameters drawn from DNA labeling data used to monitor immune cell dynamics. PMID:24733943

  6. Predicting survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Ali; Tam, Constantine S; Keating, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of prognostic markers that may predict survival and guide management in patients diagnosed with the early stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Currently, the most important traditional prognostic factors include clinical staging, lymphocyte doubling time and β2-microglobulin/thymidine kinase; and the most important novel markers include karyotypic aberrations (typically assessed by FISH probes or CpG oligonucleotide karyotyping) and IgVH mutation status. Although each of these factors have individually shown significant correlations with survival, there is increasing appreciation that the most complete information may be obtained by using a combination of several factors in prognostic normograms or models. In this article, we review the current state-of-the-art with regards to CLL prognostic factors and discuss how they can be applied in the clinic. PMID:22369330

  7. Lymphocytes subsets reference values in childhood.

    PubMed

    Tosato, F; Bucciol, G; Pantano, G; Putti, M C; Sanzari, M C; Basso, G; Plebani, M

    2015-01-01

    Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocyte subsets and activation markers is a basic tool in the diagnostic process of primary immunodeficiency diseases, its use becoming more and more widespread as the knowledge about these illnesses increases. However, the availability of reliable reference values, which need to be age-matched for the pediatric population, is a pre-requisite for the reliable interpretation of immunophenotyping data. Aim of this study is to analyze the lymphocyte subsets and activation markers distribution in children aged 0-18 years referring to the University Hospital of Padova and to create age-matched reference values expressed by percentiles, thus providing a valuable guideline for the interpretation of the immunophenotype. PMID:25132325

  8. Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis in 24 dogs.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G; Collins-Kelly, L; Lappin, M; Tyler, D

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (LPE) was diagnosed by intestinal biopsy in 24 dogs with chronic small intestinal diarrhea. Vomiting, weight loss, and reduced appetite were frequent. Breed predispositions were not documented, although four patients were German Shepherd dogs. Hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoglobulinemia were common and most likely a result of protein-losing enteropathy. Other biochemical abnormalities were uncommon. Intestinal malabsorption was common. Neutrophilia (sometimes with increased band neutrophils), monocytosis, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia were the most consistent hematologic abnormalities. The severity of the lymphocytic-plasmacytic infiltration was not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) between regions of small intestine. However, the severity of cellular infiltration often varied among different regions of small intestine in the same dog. Changes in villous architecture and lacteal dilation were common. Intestinal nematode infestation was diagnosed in five dogs, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was diagnosed in one dog. In the remaining 18 dogs, besides LPE, no other associated or concurrent intestinal disease was diagnosed.

  9. Symptomatic overlap in patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome and microscopic colitis in a sub group of Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M A; Raihan, A S M A; Ahamed, D S; Masud, H; Safiullah, A B M; Khair, K B; Salimullah, A S M; Islam, M M S

    2012-04-01

    Microscopic Colitis (MC) and diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) has almost similar clinical feature but MC is diagnosed by histologic criteria and IBS is diagnosed by symptom-based criteria. There is ongoing debate about the importance of biopsies from endoscopically normal colonic mucosa in the investigation of patients with IBS-D. Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MC in patient with IBS-D and to determine the distribution of MC in the colon. This observational study was conducted in department of Gastroenterology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2008 to December 2009. Patients were evaluated thoroughly & who meet Rome-II criteria with normal routine laboratory tests, were included in the study. Colonoscopy was done and biopsies were taken from the caecum, transverse colon, descending colon, and rectum. Out of total 60 patients, 22 had Lymphocytic Colitis (LC), 28 had nonspecific microscopic colitis (NSMC) and 10 had irritable bowel syndrome noninflamed (IBSNI). The distribution of LC was restricted to proximal colon in 15 patients, in the left colon in 2 patients and diffuses throughout the colon in 5 patients. There is considerable symptom overlap between the patients of IBS-D and patients with microscopic colitis. Without colonoscopic biopsy from multiple sites, possibility of MC cannot be excluded in patients with IBS-D and it can be said that clinical symptom based criteria for irritable bowel syndrome are not sufficient enough to rule out the diagnosis of microscopic colitis.

  10. Receptors on lymphocytes for endogenous splenic glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, M G; Parish, C R

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that lymphocytes carry cell surface receptors for sulphated polysaccharides (SPS), and SPS recognition may play a role in lymphocyte migration and positioning in vivo. This paper describes attempts to isolate and characterize the endogenous glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of murine spleen and determine whether splenic lymphocytes carry cell surface receptors for these GAGs. A procedure was devised for isolating GAGs from murine spleen in good yield and high purity and the GAG preparation was then radiolabelled for subsequent binding studies. It was found that the splenic GAGs bound to murine splenocytes in a saturable, rapid and reversible manner with only a small subpopulation of the splenic GAG preparation being involved in binding. This reactive species was chondroitinase ABC-resistant and nitrous acid-sensitive, indicative of a heparan sulphate/heparin-like molecule. Furthermore, using immunofluorescent flow cytometry studies it was demonstrated that the majority of spleen cells have receptors for these GAGs. Subsequent ion-exchange fractionation and SDS-PAGE analysis of chondroitinase ABC-resistant GAGs confirmed that the splenic GAG recognized by splenocytes was a heparan sulphate/heparin molecule of approximately 20,000 MW with a binding affinity to splenocytes of approximately 5 X 10(-8) M. Additional binding inhibition studies indicated two possible binding sites for splenic GAGs on the splenocyte surface, one being fully inhibited by a range of SPS such as heparin (both coagulant and anticoagulant forms), pentosan sulphate, fucoidan, dextran sulphate, lambda- and iota-carrageenan, and the second being partially inhibited by kappa-carrageenan. The possible relevance of these heparan sulphate/heparin receptors on splenocytes to lymphocyte positioning in vivo is discussed. Images Figure 6 PMID:2541072

  11. Novel agents for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous group of B-cell neoplasm. CLL is typically sensitive to a variety of cytotoxic agents, but relapse frequently occurs with conventional approaches. The treatment of CLL is evolving rapidly with the introduction of novel drugs, such as bendamustine, ofatumumab, lenalidomide, ibrutinib, idelalisib, veltuzumab, XmAb5574, navitoclax, dasatinib, alvespimycin, and TRU-016. This review summarizes the most current clinical experiences with these agents in the treatment of CLL. PMID:23680477

  12. Genotoxic effects of borax on cultured lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2009-03-01

    The effect of borax on human chromosomes was analyzed in this study. Venous blood from 30 male students at Thammasat University, Thailand (age 18-25 years) was collected for lymphocyte cell cultures. This experiment was divided into two groups: the first group was the control group and the second group was the experimental group. The lymphocyte cells in the control group were cultured without borax. The experimental group was divided into four subgroups. The lymphocyte cells in each experimental subgroup were cultured with different concentrations of borax (0.1 mg/ml, 0.15 mg/ml, 0.2 mg/ml and 0.3 mg/ml). Human chromosomes were studied for abnormalities through Giemsa-staining and G-banding. The results show that the numbers of metaphase plates (the metaphase plate which contained 46 chromosomes; 46, XY) and metaphase chromosomes were reduced when lymphocyte cells were cultured with 0.15 mg/ml (57.2%), 0.2 mg/ml (50.8%) and 0.3 mg/ml (42.3%) concentrations of borax. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and experimental subgroups (p < 0.05). Sister chromatid separation was found in the 0.3 mg/ml borax concentration experimental subgroup. This shows that borax (at 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/ml concentrations) affects the cell and human chromosomes (both numerical and structural abnormalities). Borax may cause human chromosome abnormalities and lead to genetic defects.

  13. Microgravity and Cellular Consequences in Lymphocyte Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is a well-accepted analog for microgravity culture on the ground. Gene array experiments and immunoblotting identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down regulated in modeled microgravity. Thus events governing cell shape might warrant attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites that are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes

  14. HLA-related lymphocyte responsiveness in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gross, W L; Vorwerk, I; Westphal, E; Christophers, E; Hahn, G; Schlaak, M

    1983-01-01

    In order to find associations among the genetic, immunological and environmental factors that might be important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the relationship between streptococcal antigen- or mitogen-induced lymphocyte responses in vitro and HLA phenotypes was studied in 23 patients with psoriasis. Patients showed an elevated lymphocyte response to somatic A-streptococcal antigens when compared with healthy controls. In contrast, the response to mitogens (PHA, Con A, PWM) was impaired in patients with psoriasis. The impaired mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation was found mostly in psoriatics with HLA-B13/B17. The elevated cellular immune response to somatic A-streptococcal antigens, on the other hand, was observed mainly in psoriatics without HLA-B13/B17. The results indicate that gene products of the HLA region known to be associated with psoriasis are involved in the cellular immune response, as expected from clinical trials. These findings also provide further evidence of at least two different subtypes of psoriasis, characterized by genetically and immunologically defined markers.

  15. Primary immunodeficiencies of the B lymphocyte.

    PubMed

    Moise, Ana; Nedelcu, Filofteia Daniela; Toader, Maria Adela; Sora, Steluta Mihaela; Tica, Anca; Ferastraoaru, Denisa Elena; Constantinescu, Ileana

    2010-01-01

    The immune response consists of two main components: humoral immunity represented by B lymphocytes and cellular immunity maintained by the T lymphocytes. Immunoglobulins, produced by B-lymphocytes, are the main mediators of humoral immunity, and deficiencies at this level affect the body's response to infection. Plasmocytes produce nine antibody izotypes: immunoglobulins G (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4), immunoglobulins M (IgM), immunoglobulins A (IgA1, IgA2), immunoglobulins D (IGD) and immunoglobulins E (IgE). Primary hypogammaglobulinemias are characterized by the occurrence of recurrent infections and, paradoxically, by the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Characteristic for these diseases is that symptoms occur at 7-9 months after birth, when transplacental antibody titers transmitted from the mother decrease, and the infant's body is unable to synthesize them to normal levels. Primary hypogammaglobulinemias are transmitted genetically, but mutations at the molecular level are still not fully understood. The most common are: Bruton agammaglobulinemia, transient newborn hypogammaglobulinemia, selective immunoglobulin deficiency and variable common immunodeficiency. Treatment consists of monthly antibiotics and immunoglobulins, depending on antibody titers (except for IgA deficiency).

  16. [Phenotypic and functional diversity of B lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    For many years, it has been considered that the function of B cells is only to serve as precursors of antibody-producing plasma cells; however, this simplistic view has been challenged in the past thirty years. The first big surprise came during the seventies, when it was shown that B lymphocytes are not a homogeneous population, but is made up of various subpopulations with different origin and functions, including both innate and acquired immunity. During the eighties, it was discovered that B cells are an important source of cytokines, extending its functions from antigen presentation to cooperation with T cells. From the year two thousand, it is clear that B cells are, functionally speaking, as heterogeneous as T lymphocytes, extending its functions to the regulation of the immune response. The story does not end yet, as they continue to discover new features that will have to be incorporated into the main body of knowledge about the mechanisms by which the immune response works. Thus, we can conclude by congratulating the B lymphocytes by these first 50 years and we can predict at least another 50 of robust growth.

  17. Shigella impairs T lymphocyte dynamics in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Celli, Susanna; Arena, Ellen T.; Nothelfer, Katharina; Roux, Pascal; Sellge, Gernot; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Bousso, Philippe; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Phalipon, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri is responsible for the endemic form of bacillary dysentery, an acute rectocolitis in humans. S. flexneri uses a type III secretion system to inject effector proteins into host cells, thus diverting cellular functions to its own benefit. Protective immunity to reinfection requires several rounds of infection to be elicited and is short-lasting, suggesting that S. flexneri interferes with the priming of specific immunity. Considering the key role played by T-lymphocyte trafficking in priming of adaptive immunity, we investigated the impact of S. flexneri on T-cell dynamics in vivo. By using two-photon microscopy to visualize bacterium–T-cell cross-talks in the lymph nodes, where the adaptive immunity is initiated, we provide evidence that S. flexneri, via its type III secretion system, impairs the migration pattern of CD4+ T cells independently of cognate recognition of bacterial antigens. We show that bacterial invasion of CD4+ T lymphocytes occurs in vivo, and results in cell migration arrest. In the absence of invasion, CD4+ T-cell migration parameters are also dramatically altered. Signals resulting from S. flexneri interactions with subcapsular sinus macrophages and dendritic cells, and recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells are likely to contribute to this phenomenon. These findings indicate that S. flexneri targets T lymphocytes in vivo and highlight the role of type III effector secretion in modulating host adaptive immune responses. PMID:23417297

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of T-lymphocyte subsets in the developing lymphoid tissues of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Louise G; Nair, Sham V; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2012-12-01

    Research into marsupial adaptive immunity during ontogeny has been hampered by the lack of antibodies that react to marsupial immunological cell populations. In this study, newly synthesised polyclonal antibodies to the T cell marker, CD8, have been developed and used to investigate the ontogeny and distribution of this T cell population in the tammar wallaby. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the distribution of the CD8 lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues of tammar neonates during the first 144 days of pouch life was similar to that of the eutherian mammals. However, CD8α(+) lymphocytes were observed in the intestines of tammar neonates prior to their first appearance in the cervical thymus, an observation that has not been found in eutherians. A dual labelling immunohistochemical approach was used for the indirect demonstration of CD4 and enabled the simultaneous detection in the tammar wallaby tissues of the two major T-lymphocyte populations, CD4 and CD8 that are associated with adaptive immunity. As in eutherian mammals, CD4(+) cells were the predominant T cell lymphocyte subset observed in the spleen while in the nodal tissues, an age-related decrease in the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was noted. These antibodies provide a new immunological tool to study the role of T cell subsets in marsupial immunity and disease pathogenesis studies. PMID:22929957

  19. Fludarabine Phosphate, Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation, and Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Cyclosporine, Mycophenolate Mofetil, Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Hematopoietic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-01

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

  20. Transfer of cholesterol from macrophages to lymphocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    de Bittencourt Júnior, P I; Curi, R

    1998-02-01

    A major feature of macrophage metabolism is its capacity to produce and export cholesterol. Several reports have shown that the manipulation of lymphocyte cholesterol content elicits important changes in lymphocyte proliferation. These findings lead to an inquiry as to whether macrophage-derived cholesterol released into the lymphocyte surroundings may be transferred to the latter thus affecting lymphocyte function. In this study, cholesterol transfer from macrophages to lymphocytes was examined in vitro using rat cells in culture. The findings indicate that there may be a significant transfer of cholesterol from [4-14C]cholesterol labeled resident peritoneal macrophages to mesenteric lymph node resting lymphocytes (up to 173.9 +/- 2.7 pmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages when co-cultivated for 48 h), in a lipoprotein-dependent manner. This represents the mass transfer of ca. 17 nmoles of cholesterol molecules per 10(7) lymphocytes from 10(7) macrophages (calculated on the basis of specific radioactivity incorporated into macrophages after the pre-labelling period), which suggests that macrophages are capable of replacing the whole lymphocyte cholesterol pool every 21 h. Moreover, an 111%-increase in the total cholesterol content of lymphocytes was found after co-cultivation with macrophages for 48 h. When compared to peritoneal cells, monocytes/macrophages obtained from circulating blood leukocytes presented a much higher cholesterol transfer capacity to lymphocytes (3.06 +/- 0.10 nmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages co-cultivated for 24 h). Interestingly, inflammatory macrophages dramatically reduced their cholesterol transfer ability (by up to 91%, as compared to resident macrophages). Cholesterol transfer may involve a humoral influence, since it is not only observed when cells are co-cultivated in a single-well chamber system (cells in direct contact), but also in a two-compartment system (where cells can communicate but not by direct contact). Co

  1. HIV, antiretroviral treatment, hypertension, and stroke in Malawian adults

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Connor, Myles D.; Mzinganjira, Henry; Kampondeni, Sam; Choko, Augustine; Hopkins, Mark; Emsley, Hedley C.A.; Bryer, Alan; Faragher, Brian; Heyderman, Robert S.; Allain, Theresa J.; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate HIV, its treatment, and hypertension as stroke risk factors in Malawian adults. Methods: We performed a case-control study of 222 adults with acute stroke, confirmed by MRI in 86%, and 503 population controls, frequency-matched for age, sex, and place of residence, using Global Positioning System for random selection. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for case-control comparisons. Results: HIV infection (population attributable fraction [PAF] 15%) and hypertension (PAF 46%) were strongly linked to stroke. HIV was the predominant risk factor for young stroke (≤45 years), with a prevalence of 67% and an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% confidence interval) of 5.57 (2.43–12.8) (PAF 42%). There was an increased risk of a stroke in patients with untreated HIV infection (aOR 4.48 [2.44–8.24], p < 0.001), but the highest risk was in the first 6 months after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) (aOR 15.6 [4.21–46.6], p < 0.001); this group had a lower median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (92 vs 375 cells/mm3, p = 0.004). In older participants (HIV prevalence 17%), HIV was associated with stroke, but with a lower PAF than hypertension (5% vs 68%). There was no interaction between HIV and hypertension on stroke risk. Conclusions: In a population with high HIV prevalence, where stroke incidence is increasing, we have shown that HIV is an important risk factor. Early ART use in immunosuppressed patients poses an additional and potentially treatable stroke risk. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome may be contributing to the disease mechanisms. PMID:26683649

  2. Significance of mouse red cell rosette-forming lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Pegrum, G D; Evans, C A

    1978-01-01

    Increased mouse red cell (M) rosetting lymphocytes were demonstrated in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic lymphatic leukaemia. The range was wide, and patients showed considerable variation not only in the number of M cells but also in T and B rosetting lymphocytes. Treatment reduced M rosette lymphocytes proportionately as the total white count fell, and differential removal occurred only when the patients became leucopaenic. If we assume the M rosetting cells are the abnormal 'leukaemic' cells, treatment does not preferentially remove these. The M rosetting capacity appeared to be related to the presence of an immunoglobulin factor previously demonstrated on the cells and in the serum of patients with CLL which enhances in vitro viability of the leukaemic cells.

  3. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  4. Synthesis of DNA and Poly(Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose) in Normal and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Nathan A.; Adams, Jessie W.; Sikorski, Georgina W.; Petzold, Shirley J.; Shearer, William T.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 9 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 12 normal control donors. The cells were assayed for synthesis of DNA and poly-(adenosine diphosphate ribose) (poly[ADPR]) immediately after isolation and on successive days following their treatment with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Two different techniques were used to measure DNA synthesis. In the standard technique, DNA synthesis was measured by incubating intact cells with [3H]deoxythymidine. In the new technique, the lymphocytes were first rendered permeable to nucleotides, then DNA synthesis was measured by incubating them with [3H]deoxythymidine triphosphate in the presence of deoxyATP, deoxyGTP, deoxyCTP, ATP, and Mg++. Both assays showed the anticipated rise in DNA synthesis after PHA stimulation of normal cells. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with CLL demonstrated low levels of DNA synthesis in both assay systems. The initial levels of poly(ADPR) synthesis were greater in CLL lymphocytes than in normal cells. Studies with a T-cell-depleted population of normal cells showed the same activity for poly(ADPR) synthesis that was demonstrated by the original population of normal cells. PHA stimulation produced an increase in poly(ADPR) synthesis in both the normal and CLL cells. The increase in poly(ADPR) synthesis in normal cells was coincident with the increase in DNA synthesis. The increase in poly(ADPR) synthesis in the CLL cells was dissociated from the delayed and diminished increase in DNA synthesis. Thus, CLL cells have higher than normal initial levels of poly(ADPR) synthesis. Poly(ADPR) synthesis is dissociated from DNA synthesis in CLL cells whereas it varies directly with DNA synthesis in normal lymphocytes. PMID:659624

  5. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a clump of risk factors for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Menopause and age are thought to predispose women to the development of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal women in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Two hundred and fifty (250) Ghanaian women were randomly selected for the study. They were evaluated for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Harmonization (H_MS) criteria. Results Out of the total subjects, 143 (57.2%) were premenopausal and 107 (42.8%) menopausal. The study population was between the ages of 20–78 years. The overall percentage prevalence of MetS were 14.4%, 25.6%, 29.2% and 30.4% according to the WHO, NCEP-ATP III, IDF and H_MS criteria, respectively. The prevalence was found to increase with age, irrespective of criterion used. Generally, MetS was significantly higher among postmenopausal women (p < 0.05 by all criteria) compared to their premenopausal cohort, but with marked inter-criteria variations. Abdominal obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride-high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were significantly (p < 0.05) different among the two groups of women. Central obesity, higher blood pressure and raised fasting blood glucose were the predominant components that contributed to the syndrome in Ghanaian women. Conclusion The higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women is an indication that they are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Therefore women in that group should be monitored for the two conditions and also be advised to adopt healthy

  6. Subsets of T lymphocytes in relation to T lymphocyte function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, J C; Hawkins, S A; Swallow, M W; Lyttle, J A; Patterson, V H; Merrett, J D; Haire, M

    1985-01-01

    T lymphocyte control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of autologous B lymphocytes was examined in parallel to the enumeration of subpopulations of mononuclear cells in 22 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and in 22 healthy individuals. All were seropositive for EBV. The incidence of lack of T cell control was significantly higher in patients than in controls, confirming previous published work. In the present study, we have shown in addition a significantly reduced proportion of OKT8+ cells and a significantly increased ratio of OKT4/OKT8 cells in the group of patients with lack of control. The findings point to abnormal immunoregulation in MS. PMID:3000660

  7. [Determination of kinetic parameters lymphocyte populations in cows with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V A; Feofanova, T V; Busol, V A; Nikolaeva, N V

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed changes in the number of lymphocytes in the blood of cows with chronic lymphoid leukemia using the Gomperts equation of population dynamics. The parameters of this equation were determined. Coefficients beta and gamma proved to be the most variable. The former reflects the delay and the latter characterizes the maximum rate of growth of the lymphocyte population. According to these parameters, three groups of animals were distinguished with different kinetics of leucosis and different correlations between immuno-hematological indices. PMID:7670356

  8. The relative ability of four rubella antigens to elicit blast cell transformation of lymphocytes from immune individuals.

    PubMed

    Rossier, E; Phipps, P H; Webb, T; Polley, J

    1977-05-01

    The ability of crude, semi-purified, and purified rubella antigens to elicit a specific and significant blast cell transformation of lymphocytes from immune individuals was investigated in 25 seronegative and 25 seropositive young adults. The type of preparation and the purity of the antigens were critical. Titration of the antigens by complement fixation or hemagglutination was of little value for selecting the best antigen which was a whole virion-purified antigen.

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  10. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  11. The changing paradigm of chronic lymphocytic leukemia management.

    PubMed

    Lobetti-Bodoni, Chiara; Bertoni, Francesco; Stussi, Georg; Cavalli, Franco; Zucca, Emanuele

    2013-07-01

    B cell-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the commonest adult leukemia in western world, is today most often diagnosed at early-stage, following the accidental detection of lymphocytosis during a routine blood analysis. Moreover, the expectations of CLL patients have dramatically changed in the past decade and for the first time a significant overall survival improvement has been demonstrated in the disease--at least in the younger and fit patients--with the use of the FCR regimen, which combines rituximab fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. New drugs and new regimens are currently being developed for the relapsed patients and for those too old or too frail to receive aggressive treatments. Some of these promising compounds will likely be part of the future front-line treatments. Additionally, the increasing knowledge on the molecular features that predict the clinical outcome may soon result in a molecular classification of the disease. These acquisitions are producing a migration from palliative care to a curative and individually-tailored approach. In this review we tried to summarize the advances achieved in the past decade and help the specialists in internal medicine and the general practitioners to understand the completely changed scenario in which the disease should nowadays be managed.

  12. Physiological changes induced in cardiac myocytes by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hassin, D.; Fixler, R.; Shimoni, Y.; Rubinstein, E.; Raz, S.; Gotsman, M.S.; Hasin, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The lethal hit induced by viral specific, sensitized, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) attacking virus-infected heart cells is important in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis and reflects the key role of CTL in this immune response. The mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Studies of the physiological changes induced in mengovirus-infected, cultured, neonatal, rat heart cells by CTL that had been previously sensitized by the same virus are presented. The CTL were obtained from spleens of mengovirus-infected, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matched adult rats. Cell wall motion was measured by an optical method, action potentials with intracellular microelectrodes, and total exchangeable calcium content by /sup 45/Ca tracer measurements after loading the myocytes with /sup 45/Ca and then exposing them to CTL. After 50 min (mean time) of exposing mengovirus-infected myocytes to the CTL, the mechanical relaxation of the myocyte was slowed, with a subsequent slowing of beating rate and a reduced amplitude of contraction. Impaired relaxation progressed, and prolonged oscillatory contractions lasting up to several seconds appeared, with accompanying oscillations in the prolonged plateau phase of the action potentials. Arrest of the myocyte contractions appeared 98 min (mean time) after exposure to CTL. It is concluded that infection of cultured myocytes with mengovirus predisposes them to attack by mengovirus specific CTL, and that persistent dysfunction of the myocyte is preceded by reversible changes in membrane potential and contraction. This is suggestive of an altered calcium handling by the myocytes possibly resulting in the cytotoxic effect.

  13. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a lymphocyte surface antigen for the cetacean homologue to CD45R.

    PubMed Central

    De Guise, S; Erickson, K; Blanchard, M; Dimolfetto, L; Lepper, H; Wang, J; Stott, J L; Ferrick, D A

    1998-01-01

    As part of our current efforts to develop assays and reagents to study the immune system of marine mammals, and in view of the effort currently made to develop monoclonal antibodies to cell surface proteins of lymphocyte subsets in different species, the present paper reports on the characterization of a monoclonal antibody against the homologue of CD45R on cetacean lymphocytes. The specificity of this antibody has been characterized on the basis of immunoprecipitation of the antigen it recognized, immunoperoxidase staining on cetacean lymph node and thymus sections, as well as one and two-colour flow cytometric analysis of cetacean peripheral blood mononuclear cells and single-cell suspensions of thymus, lymph node and spleen. Anticetacean CD45R (F21.H) immunoprecipitated proteins of 180, 200 and 220 x 10(3) MW, with the 180 x 10(3) MW from being predominantly expressed on T cells and the 220 x 10(3) MW form expressed predominantly on B cells and thymocytes F21.H labelled all B cells and a proportion of T cells on single-cell suspensions of spleen cells. CD45R- killer whale peripheral blood lymphocytes expressed a higher density of CD2 than CD45R+, a characteristic of memory T cells. Killer whale T lymphocytes also lost the expression of CD45R upon activation with concanavalin A (Con A) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). This is the first report of a monoclonal antibody to CD45R in cetaceans, and this antibody is foreseen as a possible valuable diagnostic and research tool to assess immune functions of captive and wild cetaceans as part of the evaluation of their health status. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9741342

  14. Differential transforming activity of the retroviral Tax oncoproteins in human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tong; Cheng, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1 and -2) are two closely related retroviruses. HTLV-1 causes adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma, whereas HTLV-2 infection is not etiologically linked to human disease. The viral genomes of HTLV-1 and -2 encode highly homologous transforming proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, respectively. Tax-1 is thought to play a central role in transforming CD4+ T lymphocytes. Expression of Tax-1 is crucial for promoting survival and proliferation of virally infected human T lymphocytes and is necessary for initiating HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. In transgenic mice and humanized mouse model, Tax-1 has proven to be leukemogenic. Although Tax-1 is able to efficiently transform rodent fibroblasts and to induce lymphoma in mouse model, it rarely transforms primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes. In contrast, Tax-2 efficiently immortalizes human CD4+ T cells though it exhibits a lower transforming activity in rodent cells as compared to Tax-1. We here discuss our recent observation and views on the differential transforming activity of Tax-1 and Tax-2 in human T cells.

  15. Cardiomyocyte marker expression in a human lymphocyte cell line using mouse cardiomyocyte extract.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Zahra; Tavakolinejad, Sima; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Rasooli, Manuchehr

    2011-03-01

    Cell transplantation shows potential for the treatment of cardiac diseases. Embryonic stem cells, cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have been suggested as sources for transplantation therapy. Because of some technical limitations with the use of stem cells, transdifferentiation of fully differentiated cells is a potentially useful alternative. We investigated whether human peripheral blood cells could transdifferentiate into cardiomyocyte. Transdifferentiation was induced in a human B lymphocyte cell line (Raji). Cardiomyocyte extract was prepared from adult mouse cardiomyocytes. The cells were treated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, permeabilized with streptolysin O, and exposed to the mouse cardiomyocyte extract. They were cultured for 10 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks. Cardiomyocyte markers were detected with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry revealed that some cells expressed myosin heavy chain, α-actinin and cardiac troponin T after 3 and 4 weeks. Flow cytometry confirmed these data. In cells exposed to trichostatin A and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and permeabilized in the presence of the cardiomyocyte extract, troponin T expression was seen in 3.53% of the cells and 3.11% of them expressed α-actinin. After exposure to the cardiomyocyte extract, some permeabilized cells adhered to the plate loosely; however, the morphology did not change significantly, and they continued to show a rounded shape after 4 weeks. Our treated lymphocytes expressed cardiomyocyte markers. Our results suggest that lymphocytes may be useful in future research as a source of cells for reprogramming procedures.

  16. Changes in antigenic nature of lymphocytes caused by common viruses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E; Lewis, C M; Pegrum, G D

    1973-12-22

    Healthy human lymphocytes were incubated in the presence of influenza A2/Singapore/57, herpes simplex type 1, or adenovirus type 2. After two days the cultures were inactivated by irradiation. Fresh lymphocytes taken from the same donor were then found to react to the virus-treated cells in short-term cultures. We suggest that this reactivity is due to a change in the surface characteristics of the lymphocytes brought about by the presence of the virus. This may account for anomalous reactions in mixed lymphocyte cultures, and a similar effect in vivo might cause accelerated graft rejection.

  17. Increased mitogenic response in lymphocytes from chronically centrifuged mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Otfried; Hunzinger, E.; Cogoli, Augusto; Bechler, B.; Lee, J.; Moore, J.; Duke, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects upon the mitogenic response of splenic lymphocytes when exposing mice to prolonged hypergravity conditions (3.5 G for 1 year) were studied. Cultures of splenic lymphocytes isolated from both centrifuged and control (1 G) animals were stimulated with Concanavalin A and the response measured using both morphological and biochemical means. Lymphocytes obtained from centrifuged mice exhibited much higher activation rates (as measured by the incorporation of H-3 thymidine) and larger cell aggregates consisting of more lymphoblasts and mitotic figures than those observed in non centrifuged control animals. Isolated splenic lymphocytes thus appear to have been conditioned by hypergravity state.

  18. Predominance of rotavirus G2P[4] and emergence of G12P[9] strains in Asunción, Paraguay, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Magaly; Amarilla, Alberto A; Galeano, Maria E; Aquino, Victor H; Fariña, Norma; Russomando, Graciela; Parra, Gabriel I

    2010-04-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. Monitoring the diversity of rotavirus strains is of great importance for current and future vaccination programs. To determine the diversity of rotavirus circulating in Asuncion, Paraguay, between 2006 and 2007, we carried out a molecular characterization of rotaviruses detected in children <5 years old and adults (>18 years old). We found that the most common circulating strain was G2P[4] (69/143), followed by G9P[8] (37/143). The temporal distribution of strains showed that, in children, G2P[4] was predominant in 2006, and that G2P[4] and G9P[8] were co-predominant in 2007, whereas in adults, G2P[4] was predominant in both years. Additionally, one G9P[6] and three G12P[9] strains were found in adult samples, making this the first report of these strains circulating in Paraguay. Sequence analysis of the G12P[9] strains suggests across-border migration of this strain within the southern cone of America.

  19. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: case-based session.

    PubMed

    Rai, K R; Döhner, H; Keating, M J; Montserrat, E

    2001-01-01

    Drs. Hartmut Döhner, Michael J. Keating, Kanti R. Rai and Emili Montserrat form the panel to review chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) while focusing on the clinical features of a particular patient. The pace of progress in CLL has accelerated in the past decade. The pathophysiological nature of this disease, as had been known in the past, was based largely on the intuitive and empiric notions of two leaders in hematology, William Dameshek and David Galton. Now the works of a new generation of leaders are providing us with the scientific explanations of why CLL is a heterogeneous disease, perhaps consisting of at least two separate entities. In one form of CLL, the leukemic lymphocytes have a surface immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region gene that has undergone somatic mutations, with tell-tale markers suggesting that these cells had previously traversed the germinal centers. Such patients have a distinctly superior prognosis than their counterparts whose leukemic lymphocytes IgV genes have no mutations (these are indeed immunologically naive cells), who have a worse prognosis. The introduction of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique has provided us with new insights into the diverse chromosomal abnormalities that can occur in CLL, and which have significant impact on the clinical behavior and prognosis of patients with this disease. Major advances in therapeutics of CLL also have occurred during the past decade. Two monoclonal antibodies, Campath-1H (anti-CD52) and rituximab (anti-CD20), and one nucleoside analogue, fludarabine, have emerged as three agents of most promise in the front-line treatment of this disease. Studies currently in progress reflect our attempts to find the most effective manner of combining these agents to improve the overall survival statistics for CLL patients. As in many other hematological malignancies, high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous or HLA-compatible allogeneic stem cells rescue strategies are under study as

  20. Inhibition of human lymphocyte transformation by human alpha-foetoprotein (HAFP); comparison of foetal and hepatoma HAFP and kinetic studies in vitro immunosuppression.

    PubMed Central

    Yachnin, S; Lester, E

    1976-01-01

    Five pure isolates of human alpha-foetoprotein (HAFP) from adults with tumours of the li er or stomach, as well as HAFP isolated from foetal liver, inhibit in vitro human lymphocyte transformation induced by phytomitogens, anti-human thymocyte serum, and the mixed lymphocyte culture. Foetal HAFP produces 50% inhibition at concentrations of 1-5 mug/ml. The HAFPs isolated from tumour-bearing adults are 1-3 orders of magnitude less potent (50% inhibition achieved at approximately 20, 130, 500, and 2000 mug/ml, respectively). In order to achieve maximum inhibition HAFP must be present at the time of mitogen addition; pre-exposure of lymphocytes to HAFP, followed by washing, does not result in lymphocyte suppression. The inhibiting effect of HAFP cannot be overcome by a ten-fold increase in mitogen concentration implying that HAFP does not act by simple competition with the lymphocyte membrane for the mitogen combining site. HAFP may play an immunoregulatory role during foetal development. PMID:64327

  1. Chronic poisoning by copper in tap water: I. Copper intoxications with predominantly gastointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Eife, R; Weiss, M; Barros, V; Sigmund, B; Goriup, U; Komb, D; Wolf, W; Kittel, J; Schramel, P; Reiter, K

    1999-06-28

    Copper can induce acute and chronic intoxications in humans. Copper in tap water has caused a series of severe systemic diseases in Germany in recent years (copper induced liver cirrhosis). Besides cirrhosis, another type of disease with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms has occurred which likewise appeared to be induced by copper in tap water. - In a retrospective investigation we looked for additional indications and proof that chronic copper poisoning has been the cause of the observed gastrointestinal diseases. All patients suffering from this type of disease had copper plumbing in their houses. - The patients (children and adults) suffered from nausea, vomiting, colic, and diarrhoea. In the group of infants, one refused formula milk (prepared with tap water) and the others suffered from persistent restlessness, unexplainable screaming (especially at night) and/or long lasting diaper rash. - We accept the diagnosis of chronic copper intoxication as the cause of the gastrointestinal symptoms when at least one of the following criteria were fulfilled: 1. first manifestation, remission and relapse of the disease depend on intake and a non-intake of water containing copper, respectively. 2. hypercupric state of the patients (i.e. pathological high concentrations of the non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper in serum and/or elevated copper levels in urine) 3. signs of systemic copper intoxication in the same patient 4. signs of systemic copper intoxication or hypercupric states in members of the patient s family or in his neighbourhood (non-relatives) - We found that the disease can even be caused by copper concentrations below the allowed concentration given by the German Guidelines for Drinking Water (Trinkwasserverordnung). - The data prove that copper in drinking water can cause gastrointestinal diseases and not only the better known systemic diseases (i.e. copper induced liver cirrhosis). Copper poisoning must be considered as a possible cause of chronic

  2. Obesity and survival in a cohort of predominantly Hispanic children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Langevin, Anne-Marie; Lewis, Margaret; Estrada, Jaime; Mullins, Judith; Pitney, Aaron; Ma, Jennie Z; Chisholm, Gary B; Pollock, Brad H

    2006-09-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common malignancy in children, constitutes 25% of all pediatric cancer. Childhood cancer patients who are obese at diagnosis represent a particular challenge for the oncologist. Obesity may complicate chemotherapy dose determination, and has been associated with decreased overall and event-free survival in a number of adult cancer patients, and more recently in pediatric patients. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether obesity at diagnosis was associated with decreased overall and event-free survival in a cohort of 322 predominantly Hispanic pediatric patients with B-precursor ALL. Obesity was classified as an age-standardized and sex-standardized body mass index z-score at or above the 95th percentile. Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall and event-free survival were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Obesity at diagnosis was not associated with decreased overall survival (HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 0.69-2.87) or event-free survival (HR = 1.08, 95% confidence interval = 0.65-1.82) in the overall cohort or in either of the 2 age-at-diagnosis (2 to 9 y; 10 to 18 y) subgroups. Our finding of no obesity-related prognostic effect in the overall cohort and in the under 2 to 9-year age-at-diagnosis cohort was consistent with the previous large-scale study of ALL patients; the absence of a prognostic effect in the 10 to 18-year age-at-diagnosis cohort, however, conflicted with previous findings.

  3. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Lymphocytes from Different Age Groups of Bolivian Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Ruiz, Julio C.; Williams, Lawrence; Abee, Christian R.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2013-01-01

    Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease). While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3–4 years), adult (8–10 years) and aged (16–19 years) squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive) were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical. PMID:24282512

  4. Ways to Enhance Lymphocyte Trafficking into Tumors and Fitness of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bellone, Matteo; Calcinotto, Arianna

    2013-01-01

    The tumor is a hostile microenvironment for T lymphocytes. Indeed, irregular blood flow, and endothelial cell (EC) anergy that characterize most solid tumors hamper leukocyte adhesion, extravasation, and infiltration. In addition, hypoxia and reprograming of energy metabolism within cancer cells transform the tumor mass in a harsh environment that limits survival and effector functions of T cells, regardless of being induced in vivo by vaccination or adoptively transferred. In this review, we will summarize on recent advances in our understanding of the characteristics of tumor-associated neo-angiogenic vessels as well as of the tumor metabolism that may impact on T cell trafficking and fitness of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. In particular, we will focus on how advances in knowledge of the characteristics of tumor ECs have enabled identifying strategies to normalize the tumor-vasculature and/or overcome EC anergy, thus increasing leukocyte-vessel wall interactions and lymphocyte infiltration in tumors. We will also focus on drugs acting on cells and their released molecules to transiently render the tumor microenvironment more suitable for tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes, thus increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of both active and adoptive immunotherapies. PMID:24062984

  5. Anchorage and lymphocyte function. Spreading-capacity distinguishes common thymocytes and peripheral T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Otteskog, P; Sundqvist, K G

    1983-01-01

    Contact of T-enriched human blood lymphocytes with an adhesive surface in the presence of Concanavalin A (Con A) almost immediately induced a sequence of motile changes in virtually all cells. The initial event in this spreading process was the formation of filopodia distinct from the microvilli of lymphocytes in suspension. The filopodia were accompanied by lamellipodia, ruffles and flattening of the nucleus. Contact with a nonadhesive substratum in the presence of Con A did not trigger this sequence of changes. Cytochalasin B and D or low temperature inhibited the contact-induced changes. With the exception of a small number of cells (5-15%), T-enriched lymphocytes that were allowed to settle in the absence of Con A showed a radius of action (area occupied by the cells/translational movement per hr) of 39 micrometers 2/ less than 1 micrometer. The small 'motile' population showed a radius of action of 74 micrometers 2/8 micrometers. The Con-A-mediated spreading-process yielded a radius of action of the lymphocytes of 117 micrometers 2/6 micrometers. This augmented radius of action markedly facilitated cell-cell interaction in a high frequency of the cells and appeared to be a prerequisite for such interactions at 'low' cell density. Thymocytes reactive with OKT 6 antibodies or belonging to the 'high-density' fraction of cells attached to a Con-A-coated surface to the same extent as peripheral OKT 3 positive lymphocytes, but did not exhibit the morphological changes characteristic of a spreading-process. In contrast, OKT 6 negative thymocytes or thymocytes with a relatively low density showed spreading indistinguishable from that of OKT 3 positive peripheral lymphocytes. These results characterize the spreading-process in human T lymphocytes and demonstrate its functional importance for interactions with the environment. Spreading-capacity appears to reflect the stage of maturation of T cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4b Figure 4c Figure 7 PMID

  6. Lymphocytic Arteritis in Epstein-Barr Virus Vulvar Ulceration (Lipschütz Disease): A Report of 7 Cases.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Mary M; Sangüeza, Martin; Werner, Betina; Kutzner, Heinz; Carlson, John A

    2015-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can rarely present as painful genital ulcers, mostly in young female adolescents. Typically diagnosed by clinical findings, EBV vulvar ulceration (EBVVU) is rarely biopsied. Herein, the authors report the histopathology in 8 biopsies from 7 EBVVU patients, all serologically confirmed for acute (4/7) or reactivated-chronic (3/7) EBV infection. The 7 women all presented with 1 or more painful, punched-out vulvar ulcers. Only patients with acute EBV infection showed other clinical findings: fever and/or atypical lymphocytosis affected 75% (3/4); lymphadenopathy in 50%; and malaise/fatigue, dysuria and/or hepatomegaly in 25%. All reactivated-chronic EBVVU had a solitary ulcer, and 2 had history of a similar episode of vulvar ulceration (aphthosis). Histopathologically, lymphocytic arteritis was identified in 88% (7/8); a submucosal scar was found in the eighth specimen. Other histopathologies included venulitis (62%), endarteritis obliterans (38%), thrombosis (25%), neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis (25%), and mucosal lymphoid hyperplasia (12%). Dense angiocentric CD3 CD4 T-cell lymphocyte-predominant infiltrates were found, regionally or diffusely. In 2 specimens, neutrophils compromised half of the infiltrate. Minor components of CD8, CD20, and CD30 lymphocytes, CD123 plasmacytoid monocytes, CD68 macrophages, and plasma cells were present. Small-vessel endothelium and smooth muscle adjacent to the ulcers faintly expressed cytoplasmic EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1). In situ hybridization for early EBV mRNA (EBER) identified rare solitary or scattered clustered positive lymphocytes in 38%. Polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA was positive in one EBER positive biopsy. EBV infection has been documented in muscular vessel vasculitis. Based on the aforementioned, EBVVU appears to be the consequence of localized lymphocytic arteritis.

  7. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  8. Forced Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis by Altering Th1 Lymphocyte Composition and Egress

    PubMed Central

    Calik, Michael W.; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Langert, Kelly A.; Stubbs, Evan B.

    2015-01-01

    A short-term exposure to moderately intense physical exercise affords a novel measure of protection against autoimmune-mediated peripheral nerve injury. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which forced exercise attenuates the development and progression of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), an established animal model of Guillain–Barré syndrome. Adult male Lewis rats remained sedentary (control) or were preconditioned with forced exercise (1.2 km/day × 3 weeks) prior to P2-antigen induction of EAN. Sedentary rats developed a monophasic course of EAN beginning on postimmunization day 12.3 ± 0.2 and reaching peak severity on day 17.0 ± 0.3 (N = 12). By comparison, forced-exercise preconditioned rats exhibited a similar monophasic course but with significant (p < .05) reduction of disease severity. Analysis of popliteal lymph nodes revealed a protective effect of exercise preconditioning on leukocyte composition and egress. Compared with sedentary controls, forced exercise preconditioning promoted a sustained twofold retention of P2-antigen responsive leukocytes. The percentage distribution of pro-inflammatory (Th1) lymphocytes retained in the nodes from sedentary EAN rats (5.1 ± 0.9%) was significantly greater than that present in nodes from forced-exercise preconditioned EAN rats (2.9 ± 0.6%) or from adjuvant controls (2.0 ± 0.3%). In contrast, the percentage of anti-inflammatory (Th2) lymphocytes (7–10%) and that of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (∼20%) remained unaltered by forced exercise preconditioning. These data do not support an exercise-inducible shift in Th1:Th2 cell bias. Rather, preconditioning with forced exercise elicits a sustained attenuation of EAN severity, in part, by altering the composition and egress of autoreactive proinflammatory (Th1) lymphocytes from draining lymph nodes. PMID:26186926

  9. Chronic granulomatous pneumonia and lymphocytic responses induced by inhaled beryllium metal in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Swafford, D.S.; Hoover, M.D.; Tohulka, M.D.; Finch, G.L.

    1997-12-31

    Inhalation of beryllium (Be) has been associated with 2 syndromes: an acute chemical pneumonitis and a granulomatous lung disease known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of CBD using the inhalation route of exposure. A/J (H-2a haplotype) and C3H/HeJ (H-2{sup k}) Mice were exposed once for 90 min in nose-only exposure tubes to aerosols of Be metal. Six mo later, lung histopathologic responses were assessed. Further analyses defined the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in pulmonary lesions and evaluated proliferation of lymphocytes in situ and in response to Be in vitro. Responses were similar in both strains of mice. Most Be-exposed mice had minimal to mild interstitial fibrosis. The majority of lymphocytes in interstitial infiltrates and in microgranulomas were CD4+ T cells. Interstitial compact aggregates of lymphocytes contained B cells centrally and CD4+ cells peripherally. Lymphocyte labeling indices, used to assess proliferation in situ, were significantly greater within microgranulomas compared to compact lymphocytic aggregates. Lymphocyte stimulation indices in response to BeSO{sub 4} in vitro were not positive in blood, spleen, or tracheobronchial lymph node samples. Be-specific immune responses and nonspecific inflammatory responses to toxic and foreign-body properties of Be may have contributed to the histopathology in both strains of mice. The interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrates, presence of microgranulomas, multinucleated foreign-body and Langhans giant cells, interstitial fibrosis, and CD4+ T-cell predominance with local proliferation are features similar to CBD in humans. The chronic lung disease induced in these mice by inhaled Be can be used to investigate the importance of variables such as dose, exposure pattern, and physicochemical form of Be in producing this disease. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Endothelial PI 3-kinase activity regulates lymphocyte diapedesis.

    PubMed

    Nakhaei-Nejad, Maryam; Hussain, Amer M; Zhang, Qiu-Xia; Murray, Allan G

    2007-12-01

    Lymphocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation involves a bidirectional series of cues between the endothelial cell (EC) and the leukocyte that culminate in lymphocyte migration into the tissue. Remodeling of the EC F-actin cytoskeleton has been observed after leukocyte adhesion, but the signals to the EC remain poorly defined. We studied the dependence of peripheral blood lymphocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) through an EC monolayer in vitro on EC phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity. Lymphocytes were perfused over cytokine-activated EC using a parallel-plate laminar flow chamber. Inhibition of EC PI 3-kinase activity using LY-294002 or wortmannin decreased lymphocyte TEM (48 +/- 6 or 34 +/- 7%, respectively, vs. control; mean +/- SE; P < 0.05). Similarly, EC knockdown of the p85alpha regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase decreased lymphocyte transmigration. Treatment of EC with jasplakinolide to inhibit EC F-actin remodeling also decreased lymphocyte TEM to 24 +/- 10% vs. control (P < 0.05). EC PI 3-kinase inhibition did not change the strength of lymphocyte adhesion to the EC or formation of the EC "docking structure" after intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ligation, whereas this was inhibited by jasplakinolide treatment. A similar fraction of lymphocytes migrated on control or LY-294002-treated EC and localized to interendothelial junctions. However, lymphocytes failed to extend processes below the level of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin on LY-294002-treated EC. Together these observations indicate that EC PI 3-kinase activity and F-actin remodeling are required during lymphocyte diapedesis and identify a PI 3-kinase-dependent step following initial separation of the VE-cadherin barrier.

  11. Secondary autoimmune cytopenias in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kerry A; Woyach, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Secondary autoimmune cytopenias in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are distinct clinical entities that require specific management. These autoimmune disorders have a complex pathogenesis that involves both the leukemic cells and the immune environment in which they exist. The mechanism is not the same in all cases, and to varying degrees involves the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells in antibody production, antigen presentation, and stimulation of T cells and bystander polyclonal B cells. Diagnosis of autoimmune cytopenias can be challenging as it is difficult to differentiate between autoimmunity and bone marrow failure due to disease progression. There is a need to distinguish these causes, as prognosis and treatment are not the same. Evidence regarding treatment of secondary autoimmune cytopenias is limited, but many effective options exist and treatment can be selected with severity of disease and patient factors in mind. With new agents to treat CLL coming into widespread clinical use, it will be important to understand how these will change the natural history and treatment of autoimmune cytopenias.

  12. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  13. STUDIES ON RABBIT LYMPHOCYTES IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Gell, P. G. H.; Sell, Stewart

    1965-01-01

    Specific antisera directed against all six of the well characterised allotypic determinants of rabbit IgG (As1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) are capable of inducing blast transformation and DNA synthesis when added to lymphocyte cultures obtained from donor rabbits having the appropriate IgG allotype. Mixtures of antisera directed against two different allotypic determinants induce a "summation" of transformation and DNA synthesis over and above the effect of mixtures of two antisera directed against the same allotypic determinant. This summation effect is observed regardless of whether the antisera which have been mixed are directed against allotypic determinants controlled by the same locus or by different loci. The finding that summation occurs with mixtures of two antisera directed against both the allotypic determinants of a double homozygote rabbit (As1, 6) suggests that lymphocytes from the peripheral blood may be primed to produce only one or the other of the two polypeptide chains of IgG, but not both. PMID:5849239

  14. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-26

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma,; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  15. What's in a Name? A Comparison of Methods for Classifying Predominant Type of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, A.S.; Leeb, R.T.; English, D.; Graham, J.C.; Briggs, E.C.; Brody, K.E.; Marshall, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The primary aim of the study was to identify a classification scheme, for determining the predominant type of maltreatment in a child's history that best predicts differences in developmental outcomes. Method:: Three different predominant type classification schemes were examined in a sample of 519 children with a history of alleged…

  16. Lymphocytic colitis: clinical presentation and long term course

    PubMed Central

    Mullhaupt, B; Guller, U; Anabitarte, M; Guller, R; Fried, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—Lymphocytic colitis is characterised by chronic watery diarrhoea with normal endoscopic or radiological findings and microscopic evidence of pronounced infiltration of the colonic mucosa with lymphocytes.
Aim—To investigate the long term clinical and histological evolution of the disease in a large group of patients with well characterised lymphocytic colitis. 
Methods—Between 1986 and 1995 the histological diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis was obtained in 35 patients; 27 of these agreed to a follow up examination. All clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological records were reviewed at that time and the patients had a second endoscopic examination with follow up biopsies. 
Results—The patients initially presented with the typical findings of lymphocytic colitis. After a mean (SD) follow up of 37.8 (27.5) months, diarrhoea subsided in 25 (93%) and histological normalisation was observed in 22 (82%) of the 27 patients. Progression from lymphocytic colitis to collagenous colitis was not observed. 
Conclusions—Lymphocytic colitis is characterised by a benign course with resolution of diarrhoea and normalisation of histology in over 80% of patients within 38 months. Considering the benign course of the disease, the potential benefit of any drug treatment should be carefully weighed against its potential side effects. 

 Keywords: lymphocytic colitis; colitis; diarrhoea PMID:9824342

  17. Myeloperoxidase in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: Production and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Okada, Sabrina Sayori; de Oliveira, Edson Mendes; de Araújo, Tomaz Henrique; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Albuquerque, Renata Chaves; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Nakaya, Helder Imoto; Campa, Ana; Moreno, Ana Carolina Ramos

    2016-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme in the front-line protection against microorganisms. In peripheral blood, it is accepted that MPO is only produced by myeloid-lineage cells. Thus, MPO presence is unexpected in lymphocytes. We showed recently that B1-lymphocytes from mice have MPO. Here, we showed that subsets of human peripheral B, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes express MPO. The content of MPO in lymphocytes was very low compared to neutrophils/monocytes with a preferential distribution in the nucleus and perinuclear region. Also, we performed a MPO mRNA expression analysis from human blood cells derived from microarray raw data publicly available, showing that MPO is modulated in infectious disease. MPO was increased in CD4(+) T lymphocytes from HIV chronic infection and in CD8(+) T lymphocytes from HCV-positive patients. Our study points out MPO as a multifunctional protein due to its subcellular localization and expression modulation in lymphocytes indicating alternative unknown functions for MPO in lymphocytes. PMID:26632272

  18. Role of interferon in lymphocyte recruitment into the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Issekutz, T.B.; Stoltz, J.M.; Webster, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    Large numbers of lymphocytes are recruited from the blood into sites of cutaneous DTH reactions. Our goal was to investigate the factors controlling this recruitment. /sup 111/In-labeled peritoneal exudate lymphocytes were injected iv and the accumulation of these cells in skin sites injected with a variety of stimuli, was used to measure lymphocyte recruitment in rats. Large numbers of lymphocytes migrated into vaccinia- and KLH-injected sites in sensitized animals, but only into the viral and not the KLH lesions in non-immune animals. Lymphocytes also migrated efficiently into sites injected with the alpha-interferon (IFN) inducers, uv-inactivated vaccinia virus and poly I:C, as well as into sites injected with IFN. In each case there was a dose-response relationship. Analysis of the kinetics of lymphocyte recruitment demonstrated that the peak rate of migration occurred most rapidly after the injection of IFN, later after poly I:C, and was slowest to be reached after vaccinia virus. Rabbit anti-IFN blocked the recruitment of lymphocytes by uv-inactivated vaccinia and by IFN. Histologically, all of these sites demonstrated a dense mononuclear cell infiltrate in the dermis. It is suggested that IFN may be an important mediator in the recruitment of lymphocytes into inflammatory reactions.

  19. Corticosteroid-sensitive lymphocytes are normal in atopic asthma.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, M R; Bondarevsky, E; Schwartz, H J; Schmitt, D

    1981-07-01

    Corticosteroids, well known to increase susceptibility to infection, are often administered to atopic patients. Atopy may be associated with lymphocyte abnormalities and increased susceptibility to infections caused by intracellular organisms. We sought to determine whether atopic and nonatopic subjects respond in a similar manner to corticosteroids administered both systemically and locally. We compared the response of peripheral blood leukocytes of 15 atopic asthmatics and 10 nonatopic control subjects to prednisone or beclomethasone dipropionate. We determined leukocyte number, total eosinophil count, T-cell number, complement receptor lymphocyte number, and concanavalin A (Con A)- and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation before and 5 hr after administration of 20 mg of prednisone orally or 336 micrograms of beclomethasone dipropionate by aerosol inhalation. Baseline values of the groups differed. The atopic asthmatic group had higher total eosinophil count, lower percent lymphocyte count, and slightly lower Con A- and PHA (high concentration)-induced lymphocyte proliferation. T-cell and complement receptor lymphocyte number were equivalent in both groups. Prednisone caused a profound eosinopenia, monocytopenia, T lymphopenia, depression of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, and increase in leukocyte number and complement receptor lymphocyte percent. Beclomethasone dipropionate was associated with little or no change in these parameters. We conclude that atopic asthma is not associated with a defect in corticosteroid-sensitive leukocyte populations and that beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol, as opposed to prednisone, does not alter peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations.

  20. Molecular analyses of in vivo hprt mutations in human T-lymphocytes: IV. Studies in newborns

    SciTech Connect

    McGinniss, M.J.; Nicklas, J.A.; Albertini, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to characterize in vivo gene mutations that occur during fetal development, molecular analyses were undertaken of mutant 6-thioguanine resistant T-lymphocytes isolated from placental cord blood samples of 13 normal male newborns. These mutant T-cells were studied to define hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene structural alterations and to determine T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement patterns. Structural hprt alterations, as shown by Southern blot analyses, occurred in 85% of these mutant clones. These alterations consisted mostly of deletion of exons 2 and 3. These findings contrast with the 10-20% of gross structural alterations occurring randomly across the entire gene previously reported for T-cell mutants isolated from normal young adults. Iterative analyses of hprt structural alterations and TCR gene rearrangement patterns show that approximately one-third of the newborn derived mutants may have originated as pre- or intrathymic hprt mutations. This too contrasts with previous findings in adults where the background in vivo hprt mutations appeared to originate in postthymic T-lymphocytes.

  1. Age-related decline of perforin expression in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, D; Laskarin, G; Rubesa, G; Strbo, N; Bedenicki, I; Manestar, D; Glavas, M; Christmas, S E; Podack, E R

    1998-10-01

    In this study a flow cytometric technique for detecting cytoplasmic perforin (P) has been used to quantify age-related changes in perforin expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Proportions of P+ lymphocytes increased after birth, but declined rapidly after the age of 70 years. This was true for both T cells and CD16(+) and CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells. Children showed in addition to high levels of perforin positive CD8(+) cells a much higher proportion of CD4(+)P+ cells than the other age groups. In elderly individuals there was also a highly significant reduction in mean levels of perforin per cell as compared with all other groups (P < .05 to .001). Adult women had consistently higher mean levels of perforin per cell than adult men for all P+ cell phenotypes. Functional tests clearly showed the deficiency in early spontaneous cytotoxic potential of PBL from elderly persons due to relative P deficiency, which can be corrected by stimulation of cytolytic cells with target cells and interleukin-2 (IL-2). The deficiency in cytolytic activity on the contact with target cells may have implications for antiviral and antitumor immunity in elderly persons.

  2. Effect of spaceflight on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Patricia V.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexandr L.; Lesniak, A. T.; Mastro, Andrea M.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, inguinal lymp node lymphocytes from rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission were tested for proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Cells cultured with mitogenic lectins, phorbol ester, and calcium ionophore, or T-cell mitogen and lymphokine, were assayed for DNA synthesis by (H-3) thymidine incorporation. Lymphocytes incubated with a T-cell mitogen alone also were tested for IL-2 production. Proliferation of lymphocytes from flight rats was not significantly different from controls for any of the mitogens tested. Furthermore, lymph node lymphocytes from control and flown rats produced similar amounts of IL-23. Thus microgravity may act on lymphocytes in a tissue-specific manner, a new finding that could impact on the evaluation of spaceflight effects on immunocompetence.

  3. Scuba diving enhances endogenous antioxidant defenses in lymphocytes and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M D; Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Tauler, P; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2007-03-01

    The aim was to study the effects of a scuba diving session on the lymphocyte antioxidant system, NO synthesis, the capability to produce reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant response in neutrophils. For that purpose seven male divers performed an immersion at a depth of 40 m for 25 min. The same parameters were measured after an hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment at resting conditions in a hyperbaric chamber. Lymphocyte H2O2 production rose after diving and after HBO treatment. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activities increased after diving in lymphocytes, while after HBO exposure only increased GPx activity. Lymphocyte HO-1 mRNA expression increased after diving and after HBO exposure, while iNOS levels and nitrite levels significantly increased after diving. The hyperoxia associated to scuba diving leads to a condition of oxidative stress with increased lymphocyte H2O2 production, HO-1 expression, NO synthesis and antioxidant enzyme adaptations in order to avoid oxidative damage.

  4. Mitogenic effect of Parkia speciosa seed lectin on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Suvachittanont, W; Jaranchavanapet, P

    2000-12-01

    Mitogenic activity of a lectin, purified from Parkia speciosa seeds, on the isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes taken from normal blood donors and patients with esophageal carcinoma was examined using [3H]thymidine incorporation. The lectin increases the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA of human lymphocytes. The activity of the lectin increased as its concentration was increased and then declined once the concentration passed an optimum point. The stimulant effect was also expressed using a proliferation index (PI): the ratio of [3H]thymidine incorporated into lymphocytes in the presence and absence of the lectin. The mitogenic activity of the lectin is comparable to those of the known T-cell mitogens, such as concanavalin A, phytohaemagglutinin, and pokeweed mitogen. Only slightly less responsiveness was observed in the case of lymphocytes from esophageal cancer compared to lymphocytes from normal donors. PMID:11199124

  5. Evaluation of lymphocyte subgroups in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, C; Yuca, S A; Yilmaz, N; Oner, A F; Caksen, H

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be fully elucidated, although it follows infection with a hypermutant defective M-protein measles virus. This study analysed peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups to determine their role in the pathophysiology of SSPE. It included 22 children with SSPE aged 2 - 15 years (patient group) and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy children (control group). In children < 6 years old, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the proportions of lymphocytes expressing the surface markers CD3, CD8, CD19 or CD16/56, or in CD4/CD8 ratio. The proportion of CD4(+) lymphocytes in SSPE patients < 6 years of age was significantly lower compared with the control group. In children >or= 6 years old, there were no significant differences in the lymphocyte subgroups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a low CD4(+) lymphocyte count might be responsible for SSPE in younger children.

  6. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  7. RNA-binding protein hnRNPLL as a critical regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing

    2016-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins orchestrate posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, such as messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, RNA stability regulation, and translation regulation. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins (hnRNPs) refer to a collection of unrelated RNA-binding proteins predominantly located in the nucleus (Han et al. Biochem J 2010, 430:379-392). Although canonical functions of hnRNPs are to promote pre-mRNA splicing, they are involved in all the processes of RNA metabolism through recognizing specific cis-elements on RNA (Dreyfuss et al. Annu Rev Biochem 1993, 62:289-321; Huelga et al. Cell Rep 2012, 1:167-178; Krecic and Swanson. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1999, 11:363-371). Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein L like (hnRNPLL) is a tissue-specific hnRNP, which was identified as a regulator of CD45RA to CD45RO switching during memory T-cell development (Oberdoerffer et al. Science 2008, 321:686-691; Topp et al. RNA 2008, 14:2038-2049; Wu et al. Immunity 2008, 29:863-875). Since then, hnRNPLL has emerged as a critical regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis and terminal differentiation, controlling alternative splicing or expression of critical genes for the lymphocytes development (Wu et al. Immunity 2008, 29:863-875; Chang et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015, 112:E1888-E1897). This review will summarize recent advances in understanding the functions of hnRNPLL, focusing on its biochemical functions and physiological roles in lymphocyte differentiation and homeostasis. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:295-302. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1335 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. RNA-binding protein hnRNPLL as a critical regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing

    2016-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins orchestrate posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, such as messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, RNA stability regulation, and translation regulation. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins (hnRNPs) refer to a collection of unrelated RNA-binding proteins predominantly located in the nucleus (Han et al. Biochem J 2010, 430:379-392). Although canonical functions of hnRNPs are to promote pre-mRNA splicing, they are involved in all the processes of RNA metabolism through recognizing specific cis-elements on RNA (Dreyfuss et al. Annu Rev Biochem 1993, 62:289-321; Huelga et al. Cell Rep 2012, 1:167-178; Krecic and Swanson. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1999, 11:363-371). Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein L like (hnRNPLL) is a tissue-specific hnRNP, which was identified as a regulator of CD45RA to CD45RO switching during memory T-cell development (Oberdoerffer et al. Science 2008, 321:686-691; Topp et al. RNA 2008, 14:2038-2049; Wu et al. Immunity 2008, 29:863-875). Since then, hnRNPLL has emerged as a critical regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis and terminal differentiation, controlling alternative splicing or expression of critical genes for the lymphocytes development (Wu et al. Immunity 2008, 29:863-875; Chang et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015, 112:E1888-E1897). This review will summarize recent advances in understanding the functions of hnRNPLL, focusing on its biochemical functions and physiological roles in lymphocyte differentiation and homeostasis. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:295-302. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1335 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26821996

  9. Microbe-dependent lymphatic migration of neutrophils modulates lymphocyte proliferation in lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Henry R.; Bailey, Jacqueline; Tomura, Michio; Brink, Robert; Chtanova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment to the site of injury is an essential first step of an anti-bacterial response. However, little is known about the basis for and relevance of neutrophil migration from inflamed tissue into lymphoid organs. We established a photoconversion-based system to monitor the fate of neutrophils recruited to inflamed skin. While neutrophils are efficiently recruited to sites of both microbial and sterile lesions, subsequent re-localization to draining lymph nodes happens only when bacteria are present in the primary lesion. Skin egress of neutrophils occurs via lymphatic vessels and is dependent on CD11b and CXCR4 but not CCR7. Neutrophils are the predominant immune cell to migrate from inflamed skin into lymph nodes where they augment lymphocyte proliferation. Furthermore, inhibition of neutrophil migration from skin reduces T-cell proliferation in draining lymph nodes. Thus neutrophils mediate rapid cellular communication between the initial injury site and secondary lymphoid organs and modulate immune responsiveness. PMID:25972253

  10. Rho and Rap guanosine triphosphatase signaling in B cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mele, Silvia; Devereux, Stephen; Ridley, Anne J

    2014-09-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells proliferate predominantly in niches in the lymph nodes, where signaling from the B cell receptor (BCR) and the surrounding microenvironment are critical for disease progression. In addition, leukemic cells traffic constantly from the bloodstream into the lymph nodes, migrate within lymphatic tissues and egress back to the bloodstream. These processes are driven by chemokines and their receptors, and depend on changes in cell migration and integrin-mediated adhesion. Here we describe how Rho and Rap guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) contribute to both BCR signaling and chemokine receptor signaling, particularly by regulating cytoskeletal dynamics and integrin activity. We propose that new inhibitors of BCR-activated kinases are likely to affect CLL cell trafficking via Rho and Rap GTPases, and that upstream regulators or downstream effectors could be good targets for therapeutic intervention in CLL.

  11. A Study of Media Use and Reliance Patterns, Interest Levels, Attitudes and Preferences of Black Students at a Predominantly White and a Predominantly Black University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morah, Tanya M.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship between American mass media and the black community. Subjects were two groups of black midwestern college students--one group studying at a predominantly black university and the other at a mostly white university--with similar social and economic backgrounds. It was hypothesized that black…

  12. Strong mitogenic effect for murine B lymphocytes of an immunosuppressor substance released by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed Central

    Arala-Chaves, M P; Ribeiro, A S; Santarém, M M; Coutinho, A

    1986-01-01

    A noncytotoxic protein substance, produced by Streptococcus intermedius, with very potent immunosuppressive properties (F3'EP-Si) was tested for lymphocyte mitogenic activity. Although devoid of T-cell mitogenicity, F3'EP-Si stimulated proliferation and led to high numbers of plaque-forming cells in cultures of normal or T-cell-depleted, small or large splenic B cells from both lipopolysaccharide-responding and -nonresponding mice. The B-cell mitogenic activity of F3'EP-Si was quantitatively comparable to that of lipopolysaccharide, and the simultaneous exposure to both mitogens stimulated additive B-cell responses. Injection of F3'EP-Si into normal mice resulted in increased numbers of spleen cells, higher rates of mitotic activity, and very large numbers of plaque-forming cells, predominantly of the immunoglobulin G2a and -b isotypes. In preliminary experiments, the analysis of surface markers among the lymphocytes participating in the blastogenic response in vivo revealed a T-cell component in the response to F3'EP-Si. These observations are discussed in the context of the immunosuppressive activity of this and other microbial substances. PMID:3490441

  13. Dengue virus protein recognition by virus-specific murine CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, A L; Kurane, I; Lai, C J; Bray, M; Falgout, B; Men, R; Ennis, F A

    1993-01-01

    The identification of the protein targets for dengue virus-specific T lymphocytes may be useful for planning the development of subunit vaccines against dengue. We studied the recognition by murine dengue virus-specific major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) of dengue virus proteins using recombinant vaccinia viruses containing segments of the dengue virus genome. CTL from H-2k mice recognized a single serotype-cross-reactive epitope on the nonstructural (NS) protein NS3. CTL from H-2b mice recognized a serotype-cross-reactive epitope that was localized to NS4a or NS4b. CTL from H-2d mice recognized at least three epitopes: a serotype-specific epitope on one of the structural proteins, a serotype-cross-reactive epitope on NS3, and a serotype-cross-reactive epitope on NS1 or NS2a. Our findings demonstrate the limited recognition of dengue virus proteins by CTL from three inbred mouse strains and the predominance of CTL epitopes on dengue virus nonstructural proteins, particularly NS3. Since human dengue virus-specific CTL show similar patterns of recognition, these findings suggest that nonstructural proteins should be considered in designing vaccines against dengue. PMID:7678307

  14. Dimerization of DOCK2 is essential for DOCK2-mediated Rac activation and lymphocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Masao; Uruno, Takehito; Mori, Sayako; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Nishikimi, Akihiko; Sanematsu, Fumiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Fukui, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The migratory properties of lymphocytes depend on DOCK2, an atypical Rac activator predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Although DOCK2 does not contain the Dbl homology domain typically found in guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), DOCK2 mediates the GTP-GDP exchange reaction for Rac via its DOCK homology region (DHR)-2 (also known as CZH2 or Docker) domain. DOCK2 DHR-2 domain is composed of three lobes, and Rac binding site and catalytic center are generated entirely from lobes B and C. On the other hand, lobe A has been implicated in dimer formation, yet its physiological significance remains unknown. Here, we report that lobe A-mediated DOCK2 dimerization is crucial for Rac activation and lymphocyte migration. We found that unlike wild-type DOCK2, DOCK2 mutant lacking lobe A failed to restore motility and polarity when expressed in thymoma cells and primary T cells lacking endogenous expression of DOCK2. Similar results were obtained with the DOCK2 point mutant having a defect in dimerization. Deletion of lobe A from the DHR-2 domain did not affect Rac GEF activity in vitro. However, fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses revealed that lobe A is required for DOCK2 to activate Rac effectively during cell migration. Our results thus indicate that DOCK2 dimerization is functionally important under the physiological condition where only limited amounts of DOCK2 and Rac are localized to the plasma membrane. PMID:23050005

  15. CD8+ T Lymphocyte Expansion, Proliferation and Activation in Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Andréia Manso; Carvalho, Karina Inacio; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Villas-Boas, Lucy Santos; da Silva, Wanessa Cardoso; Rodrigues, Célia Luiza de Lima; Oliveira, Olímpia Massae Nakasone Peel Furtado; Levi, José Eduardo; Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau Affonso; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque; Kallas, Esper George

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever induces a robust immune response, including massive T cell activation. The level of T cell activation may, however, be associated with more severe disease. In this study, we explored the level of CD8+ T lymphocyte activation in the first six days after onset of symptoms during a DENV2 outbreak in early 2010 on the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Using flow cytometry we detected a progressive increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells in 74 dengue fever cases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 cases were thawed and evaluated using expanded phenotyping. The expansion of the CD8+ T cells was coupled with increased Ki67 expression. Cell activation was observed later in the course of disease, as determined by the expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR. This increased CD8+ T lymphocyte activation was observed in all memory subsets, but was more pronounced in the effector memory subset, as defined by higher CD38 expression. Our results show that most CD8+ T cell subsets are expanded during DENV2 infection and that the effector memory subset is the predominantly affected sub population. PMID:25675375

  16. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression evolves between the neutrophilic and lymphocytic phases of viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Makis, Alexandros; Shipway, David; Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Pshezhetskiy, Dmitry; Chaliasos, Nikolaos; Stebbing, Justin; Siamopoulou, Antigone

    2010-09-01

    Viral meningitis is characterized by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte pleocytosis, although neutrophils may predominate in the early phase. The T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine balance and expression of adhesion molecules seem to be involved in the CSF chemotaxis. We aimed to determine expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules in enteroviral meningitis. We investigated the serum and CSF levels of adhesion molecules (E-selectin, L-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]) and cytokines (interleukin-12 [IL-12] and IL-4) in 105 children during an outbreak of enteroviral meningitis. Diagnosis was confirmed with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or serology for echovirus or Coxsackie virus, and matched with control subjects for clinical features but with negative PCR and/or serology. Apart from VCAM-1, the CSF levels of all investigated inflammatory molecules were significantly increased. In serum, sL-selectin and ICAM-1 levels were significantly higher than control subjects. Serum and CSF L-selectin, serum VCAM-1, and CSF IL-12 were all observed to be expressed in significantly higher levels in the neutrophil-dominant subgroup (72% had duration of symptoms <24 h) than in the lymphocyte-dominant group (87.5% had duration of symptoms >24 h). Serum and CSF ICAM-1 was found at significantly higher levels in the latter group. Evolving expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines indicates a shift from Th1 to Th2 immune responses as infection progresses.

  17. Selection of genetic variants of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in spleens of persistently infected mice. Role in suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and viral persistence

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) persistence and the suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in BALB/c WEHI mice infected at birth with LCMV Armstrong strain. Using adoptive transfer experiments we found that spleen cells from persistently infected (carrier) mice actively suppressed the expected LCMV-specific CTL response of spleen cells from normal adult mice. The suppression was specific for the CTL response and LCMV - specific antibody responses were not affected. Associated with the specific CTL suppression was the establishment of persistent LCMV infection. The transfer of spleen or lymph node cells containing LCMV - specific CTL resulted in virus clearance and prevented establishment of the carrier state. The suppression of LCMV -specific CTL responses by carrier spleen cells is not mediated by a suppressor cell, but is due to the presence of genetic variants of LCMV in spleens of carrier mice. Such virus variants selectively suppress LCMV-specific CTL responses and cause persistent infections in immunocompetent mice. In striking contrast, wild-type LCMV Armstrong, from which these variants were generated, induces a potent CTL response in immunocompetent mice and the LCMV infection is rapidly cleared. Our results show that LCMV variants that emerge during infection in vivo play a crucial role in the suppression of virus-specific CTL responses and in the maintenance of virus persistence. PMID:6332167

  18. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Version 1.2015

    PubMed Central

    Zelenetz, Andrew D.; Gordon, Leo I.; Wierda, William G.; Abramson, Jeremy S.; Advani, Ranjana H.; Andreadis, C. Babis; Bartlett, Nancy; Byrd, John C.; Czuczman, Myron S.; Fayad, Luis E.; Fisher, Richard I.; Glenn, Martha J.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Harris, Nancy Lee; Hoppe, Richard T.; Horwitz, Steven M.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Kim, Youn H.; Krivacic, Susan; LaCasce, Ann S.; Nademanee, Auayporn; Porcu, Pierluigi; Press, Oliver; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Reddy, Nishitha; Reid, Erin; Saad, Ayman A.; Sokol, Lubomir; Swinnen, Lode J.; Tsien, Christina; Vose, Julie M.; Wilson, Lynn; Yahalom, Joachim; Zafar, Nadeem; Dwyer, Mary; Sundar, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are different manifestations of the same disease, which are managed in the same way. The advent of novel monoclonal antibodies (ofatumumab and obinutuzumab) led to the development of effective chemoimmunotherapy regimens. The recently approved small molecule kinase inhibitors (ibrutinib and idelalisib) are effective treatment options for CLL in elderly patients with decreased tolerance for aggressive regimens and in patients with poor prognostic features who do not benefit from conventional chemoimmunotherapy regimens. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas describes the recent specific to the incorporation of recently approved targeted therapies for the management of patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed or refractory CLL/SLL. PMID:25736010

  19. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Knight, C.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization.The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights.Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system.We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon Inc (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells for a time period of forty eight hours exposure.Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  20. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization. The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights. Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system and nervous system. We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes and astrocyte cells to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon, Inc. (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells up to a time period of 120 hours exposure. Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  1. Antigen-binding thymus-derived lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Nancy M.; Greaves, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Thymus-derived `rosette'-forming lymphocytes which have been separated from other SRBC-sensitive cells by means of cotton wool columns were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin. This was carried out by inhibition of rosette formation by anti-immunoglobulin sera. Inhibition was effected by a number of anti-IgM sera shown to contain antibodies with specificities directed towards the `hinge' region of the μ chain. No other heavy chain specific antisera were inhibitory. The ratio of rosette inhibition by anti-κ and anti-λ light chain sera varied during the course of the response to SRBC, the latter inhibiting by 89 per cent 3 days post-immunization. PMID:4113387

  2. Targeted treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Aisha; Sher, Taimur; Paulus, Aneel; Miller, Kena C; Chitta, Kasyapa S; Chanan-Khan, Asher

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has evolved over the last few decades. Recognition has increased of several key components of CLL biology currently manipulated for therapeutics. A milestone in the treatment of CLL was reached with the incorporation of immunotherapy with conventional chemotherapy. The fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab combination has demonstrated survival advantage for the first time in the treatment of CLL. Several other biological compounds are being explored with the hope of improving responses, impacting survival, and ultimately curing CLL. Important agents being tested are targeted on CLL surface molecules and their ligands, signal transduction protein and oncogenes. This review provides a brief summary of the recent advances made in preclinical and clinical investigation of selected promising therapeutic agents, which lead the target-directed therapeutic approach. PMID:22162923

  3. Collagenous gastritis associated with lymphocytic colitis.

    PubMed

    Groisman, G M; Meyers, S; Harpaz, N

    1996-03-01

    Collagenous sprue and collagenous colitis are two well-recognized idiopathic enteritides whose defining histologic attribute is fibrous thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane. Analogous changes in gastric mucosa seem to be quite rare. The term "collagenous gastritis" was recently applied for the first time to an isolated case of refractory gastritis in which distinctive subepithelial gastric fibrosis was noted. We report an additional case of this entity in a 35-year-old woman with refractory dyspepsia. In contrast to the earlier case of collagenous gastritis, our patient also had lymphocytic colitis, a type of colitis associated with watery diarrhea. Collagenous gastritis appears to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity, the histologic changes of which should be sought in patients with unexplained dyspepsia. Increased awareness of this condition and its possible clinical correlates may provide clues to its etiology and pathogenesis. PMID:8742654

  4. Identifying the predominant peak diameter of high-density and low-density lipoproteins by electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Krauss, R M; Nichols, A V; Vranizan, K M; Wood, P D

    1990-06-01

    Particle size distributions of high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoproteins, obtained by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, exhibit apparent predominant and minor peaks within characteristic subpopulation migration intervals. In the present report, we show that identification of such peaks as predominant or minor depends on whether the particle size distribution is analyzed according to migration distance or particle size. The predominant HDL peak on the migration distance scale is frequently not the predominant HDL peak when the distribution is transformed to the particle size scale. The potential physiologic importance of correct identification of the predominant HDL peak within a gradient gel electrophoresis profile is suggested by our cross-sectional study of 97 men, in which diameters associated with the predominant peak, determined using migration distance and particle size scales, were correlated with plasma lipoprotein and lipid parameters. Plasma concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I and B correlated more strongly with the predominant peak obtained using the particle size scale than the migration distance scale. The mathematical transformation from migration distance to particle diameter scale had less effect on the LDL distribution. The additional computational effort required to transform the HDL-distribution into the particle size scale appears warranted given the substantial changes it produces in the gradient gel electrophoresis profile and the strengthening of correlations with parameters relevant to lipoprotein metabolism.

  5. Lymphocytes subsets in children with febrile convulsions.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Karaman, Sait; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas, Dursun; Yilmaz, Cahide; Atas, Bülent

    2007-07-01

    In this study, lymphocytes subsets including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were analyzed in children with febrile convulsion (FC) to determine whether there was the association of lymphocytes subsets in the pathogenesis of FC. The study includes 48 children with FC, and 55 healthy age matched control subjects, followed in Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were examined in the study and control groups. The analyses were performed in the Hematology Laboratory, Yüzüncü Yil University Faculty of Medicine, with flow cytometer device (Coulter Epics XL2, Flow Cytometer). A total of 48 children [17 girls (35.5%) and 31 boys (64.5%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 22.20 +/- 13.75 months) with FC and 55 healthy children [28 girls (51%) and 27 boys (49%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 28.87 +/- 17.04 months) were included in the study. When compared with the control group, the study found significantly decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values in the study group (p <.05). However, there was not significant difference in CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values between the control and study groups (p >.05). When comparing the children with and without positive family history for FC, the study did not find any difference for all CD values between the groups (p >.05). Similarly, there was not significant difference in CD values between the children with simple and complex FC (p >.05). The findings suggested that decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values might be responsible for the infections connected with FC or that they might be related to the pathogenesis of FC in some children.

  6. FACTORS RELATED TO ABDOMINAL PAIN IN GASTROPARESIS: CONTRAST TO PATIENTS WITH PREDOMINANT NAUSEA AND VOMITING

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors associated with abdominal pain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain versus other symptoms are limited. This study related pain to clinical factors in gastroparesis and contrasted pain/discomfort- with nausea/vomiting-predominant disease. Methods Clinical and scintigraphy data were compared in 393 patients from 7 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium with moderate-severe (Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] score ≥3) vs. none-mild (PAGI-SYM <3) upper abdominal pain and predominant pain/discomfort vs. nausea/vomiting. Key Results Upper abdominal pain was moderate-severe in 261 (66%). Pain/discomfort was predominant in 81 (21%); nausea/vomiting was predominant in 172 (44%). Moderate-severe pain was more prevalent with idiopathic gastroparesis and with lack of infectious prodrome (P≤0.05) and correlated with scores for nausea/vomiting, bloating, lower abdominal pain/discomfort, bowel disturbances, and opiate and antiemetic use (P<0.05) but not gastric emptying or diabetic neuropathy or control. Gastroparesis severity, quality of life, and depression and anxiety were worse with moderate-severe pain (P≤0.008). Factors associated with moderate-severe pain were similar in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Compared to predominant nausea/vomiting, predominant pain/discomfort was associated with impaired quality of life, greater opiate, and less antiemetic use (P<0.01), but similar severity and gastric retention. Conclusions & Inferences Moderate-severe abdominal pain is prevalent in gastroparesis, impairs quality of life, and is associated with idiopathic etiology, lack of infectious prodrome, and opiate use. Pain is predominant in one fifth of gastroparetics. Predominant pain has at least as great an impact on disease severity and quality of life as predominant nausea/vomiting. PMID:23414452

  7. Breast Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: Semi-Automatic Detection of Vascular Map and Predominant Feeding Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Antonella; Fusco, Roberta; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Vallone, Paolo; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Sansone, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To obtain breast vascular map and to assess correlation between predominant feeding vessel and tumor location with a semi-automatic method compared to conventional radiologic reading. Methods 148 malignant and 75 benign breast lesions were included. All patients underwent bilateral MR imaging. Written informed consent was obtained from the patients before MRI. The local ethics committee granted approval for this study. Semi-automatic breast vascular map and predominant vessel detection was performed on MRI, for each patient. Semi-automatic detection (depending on grey levels threshold manually chosen by radiologist) was compared with results of two expert radiologists; inter-observer variability and reliability of semi-automatic approach were assessed. Results Anatomic analysis of breast lesions revealed that 20% of patients had masses in internal half, 50% in external half and the 30% in subareolar/central area. As regards the 44 tumors in internal half, based on radiologic consensus, 40 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (61% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 14% by lateral thoracic vessels, 16% by both thoracic vessels and 9% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01), based on semi-automatic detection, 38 tumors demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (66% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 11% by lateral thoracic vessels, 9% by both thoracic vessels and 14% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01). As regards the 111 tumors in external half, based on radiologic consensus, 91 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (25% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 39% by lateral thoracic vessels, 18% by both thoracic vessels and 18% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01), based on semi-automatic detection, 94 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (27% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 45% by lateral thoracic vessels, 4% by both thoracic vessels and 24% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01). An

  8. Involvement of the Fas/FasL pathway in the pathogenesis of germ cell tumours of the adult testis.

    PubMed

    Kersemaekers, Anne-Marie F; van Weeren, Pascale C; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2002-04-01

    Induction of apoptosis by Fas ligand (FasL) of Fas-containing cells is a known mechanism involved in the eradication of inappropriate cells during normal development. Alterations of the Fas/FasL pathway have been found in various types of cancer, leading to circumvention of attack of the tumour by the immune system. An alternative way to circumvent eradication by induction of apoptosis is through changes in the downstream inhibitors. For example, Fas-associating phosphatase-1 (Fap-1) binds directly to the Fas receptor and results in a block of the downstream signalling. To shed more light on the role of the Fas/FasL pathway in the development of human testicular germ cell tumours of the adult testis, this study investigated the presence of Fas, FasL, Fap-1, HLA class I and II molecules, CD45 (lymphocyte marker), and CD57 [natural killer (NK) cell marker] by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections of 41 cases of seminomas, non-seminomas, and spermatocytic seminomas. Every germ cell tumour was positive for Fap-1 and negative for HLA classes I and II, like their non-malignant cells of origin. The infiltrating lymphocytes, predominantly present in seminomas, showed consistently positive staining for Fas and CD45, but not for Fap-1. No Fas was found on NK cells. All seminomas and non-seminomas (except teratomas), including their precursor stages, carcinoma in situ, intratubular seminoma and intratubular non-seminoma, showed positive staining for FasL, but not for Fas. Teratoma showed no staining for FasL and was positive for Fas. In contrast, both Fas and FasL were detectable on spermatocytic seminoma. These data indicate a different regulation of the Fas/FasL system in seminoma and spermatocytic seminoma, supporting a separate pathogenesis for these germ cell-derived tumours. The presence of Fap-1 in all histological variants of germ cell tumours might be related to the consistently positive staining in cells of the germ lineage. This study indicates that production of

  9. [The characteristic of proliferative activity of thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes in the offspring of females with experimental chronic liver diseases of various aetiology].

    PubMed

    Briukhin, G V; Fedosov, A A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of the proliferative activity of thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes in the offspring of female rats with chronic liver pathology of various genesis. In adult female Wistar rats toxic and autoimmune forms of liver lesions were modeled. The offspring of these experimental animals was studied at different time points of postnatal ontogenesis. Proliferative activity of thymocytes and lymphocytes was estimated by counting the proportion of cells with multiple nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs) and using the cytofluorometric method with acridine orange. In the offspring of experimental animals, the depression of proliferative activity of thymocytes as well as the increase of the proliferative activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found at all the time points studied. This was indicated by a change in a relative number of AgNORs-activated cells and a decrease of nucleic acid content in cortical thymocytes. PMID:17201321

  10. Longitudinal studies of blood lymphocyte capacity in Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerkholm, M.; Wedelin, C.; Holm, G.; Johansson, B.; Mellstedt, H.

    1981-11-01

    Blood lymphocyte functional capacity and serum immunoglobulins were studied in 40 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) admitted to Radiumhemmet, Stockholm, before treatment and in complete remission 2-56 months following termination of radiotherapy (total nodal irradiation (TNI); n . 29) or chemotherapy (MOPP; n . 11). Lymphocyte studies included determination of total lymphocyte and T-cell counts and evaluation of spontaneous DNA synthesis during the first day of culture and mitogen-(concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen) and antigen (purified protein derivative, PPD)-induced activation on the third day. Blood lymphocyte and T-cell counts decreased dramatically following TNI. A slow restitution was seen, but pretreatment levels were not reached even four years following therapy. The responses to ConA and PPD but not PWM were significantly reduced shortly after TNI. The mitogen response did not increase with time as did the PPD response. Lymphocyte counts and lymphocyte stimulation, which were severely depressed before treatment of patients in the chemotherapy group, remained unchanged 2-36 months after termination of therapy. A significant reduction of IgM levels was observed regardless of the mode of treatment. Splenectomy prevented the profound reduction of blood lymphocyte and T-cell counts following therapy but did not influence the other immunologic variables under study.

  11. Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mandala, Wilson L.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Gilchrist, James J.; Graham, Stephen M.; Pensulo, Paul; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Taylor, Terrie E.; Molyneux, Elizabeth E.; Drayson, Mark T.; Ward, Steven A.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69+ NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4+ lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria. PMID:26581890

  12. Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Wilson L; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Gilchrist, James J; Graham, Stephen M; Pensulo, Paul; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Elizabeth E; Drayson, Mark T; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2015-11-18

    Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69(+) NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4(+) lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria.

  13. T-and B-lymphocyte chimerism in the marmoset.

    PubMed Central

    Niblack, G D; Kateley, J R; Gengozian, N

    1977-01-01

    Marmosets are natural blood chimeras, this condition resulting from the high frequency of fraternal twinning and the consistent development of placental vasular anastomoses between the two embryos. Identification of chimerism by sex-chromosome analysis of cultured blood lymphocytes provided a means of determining the proportion of chimerism among T and B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were enriched for T or B cells by filtration through a nylon column (yields greater than 95 per cent T-cells) or inactivation of T lymphocytes by treatment with a goat anti-marmoset thymocyte antiserum in the presence of complement (yeilds greater than 95 per cent B cells). Mitogenic stimulation of these separated, enriched cell populations yielded metaphase plates which could be scored for percentage male and female cells. Tests on five different blood chimeras showed the T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism to be the same. Stimulation of blood lymphocytes with cells from another species of marmoset in a mixed lymphocyte culture test revealed the chimeric T-cell response (i.e., host and co-twin cells) to be similar to that obtained with a mitogenic lectin. The demonstration of equivalent T- and B-cell chimerism in these animals suggests derivation of these cells from a common stem cell pool and the response of both T-cell populations to an antigenic stimulus in proportions similar to their percentage chimerism suggests complete immunologic tolerance exists in this species for co-twin histocompatibility antigens. PMID:139360

  14. Lymphocyte Subsets in a Population of Nonfrail Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Sánchez-Flores, María; Maseda, Ana; Marcos-Pérez, Diego; Millán-Calenti, José C; Pásaro, Eduardo; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Laffon, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    Age-related frailty is characterized by increased vulnerability to stress due to decline in homeostatic reserve, which results in increased risk of adverse health outcomes including disability, hospitalization, and death. The relationship between frailty and immunological system alterations is well established. Thus, analysis of immunological changes, such as alterations in lymphocyte subsets, during senescence may provide useful markers for frailty and associated pathologies. Since reference ranges currently used for lymphocyte subsets do not specifically differentiate the elderly group, the aim of this study was to (1) establish reference ranges in nonfrail elderly individuals and (2) assess the evolution of these parameters with age. Further, the influence of other physiological and lifestyle factors was also evaluated. The study was performed on 144 elderly individuals (aged 65-95) from Galicia (in northwestern Spain). Percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3(+) T lymphocytes, CD4(+) T-helper lymphocytes, CD8(+) T-cytotoxic lymphocytes, CD19(+) B lymphocytes, and CD56(+)16(+) natural killer cells) were analyzed in peripheral blood by flow cytometry, and reference ranges were calculated. The individual status as nonfrail or prefrail did not markedly affect the immunological parameters, but an apparent influence of age was obtained for %CD3(+), %CD4(+), and %CD19(+) cells, all of which fell with increasing age. Women showed higher levels of %CD19(+) lymphocytes. No significant influence of smoking habits, physical activity, or drinking alcohol or caffeine beverages was observed. The results obtained may serve as a basis to establish comparisons between frail and nonfrail elderly individuals, in order to determine the usefulness of lymphocyte subsets as immunological biomarkers of frailty. PMID:26167746

  15. γ/δ Cells in Fetal, Neonatal, and Adult Rat Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Kühnlein, P.; Vicente, A.; Varas, A.; Hünig, T.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we have analyzed the appearance and maturation of γ/δ T cells, recognized with a new mAb V65, in the central and peripheral lymphoid organs of fetal, neonatal, and adult Wistar rats. Cytofluorometrical analysis demonstrated the first V65+ γ/δ T cells in the thymus of 16-17-day embryonic rats, although by immunohistology, they were identified only in 19-day rat embryos in both the cortico-medullary border and thymic medulla. Phenotypically, γ/δ thymocytes from fetal and neonatal thymus expressed CD3, CD2, and CD5, but only 60-80% were CD8+ and approximately 40-50% expressed the α chain (p55) of the IL-2R. In the periphery, the immunohistological study identified for the first time ,γ/δ T cells in the splenic white pulp and the gut of 21-day fetal rats, where they occurred within the epithelium as well as in the lamina propria. After birth, γ/δ lymphocytes appeared in the skin, where they were present as dendritic epidermal T cells in increasing numbers during postnatal life. Whereas these γ/δ T cells formed the predominant T-cell population in the rat skin, γ/δ T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, BALT, or the gut only represented a minor T-cell population. These results are discussed in comparison to γ/δ T cells of other vertebrate species. PMID:8770557

  16. Acral pseudolymphomatous angiokeratoma of children (APACHE)-like eruption in adult identical twins.

    PubMed

    Fonia, A; Bhatt, N; Robson, A; Kennedy, C T C

    2016-10-01

    Acral pseudolymphomatous angiokeratoma of children (APACHE) is a condition that was first described in 1990 in a group of children, but has since been described in adults. We present the cases of identical twin patients aged 40 years. The first brother presented with an 8-year history of itchy lesions over the left ankle and the insteps of both feet. After a diagnostic biopsy, he was treated with potent steroids under occlusion for 8 weeks, which resulted in flattening of the lesions and resolution of the pruritus. The second twin had a 20-year history of a very similar presentation but the lesions were less pronounced; he chose not to have treatment. No other family members were affected. Skin biopsies from both patients showed similar changes. Within an overall hyperkeratotic and acanthotic epidermis, there were focal areas of lichenoid change and epidermal thinning. Beneath these areas, there was oedema and nodular aggregates of dense inflammatory cell infiltrate, predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate. APACHE has not been previously described in twins. PMID:27663149

  17. "Unsettling Relations": Racism and Sexism Experienced by Faculty of Color in a Predominantly White Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Edith; Wane, Njoki

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative investigation of the experiences of nine women of color in a predominantly White Canadian university is presented. This study emphasizes racism and sexism pervading in some contexts, situations, and relationships for women of color in academe.

  18. The Use of Chemical Probes for the Characterization of the Predominant Abiotic Reductants in Anaerobic Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the predominant chemical reductants and pathways for electron transfer in anaerobic systems is paramount to the development of environmental fate models that incorporate pathways for abiotic reductive transformations. Currently, such models do not exist. In this chapt...

  19. Exposure to Brominated Trihalomethanes in Water During Pregnancy and Micronuclei Frequency in Maternal and Cord Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Marie; Patelarou, Evridiki; Decordier, Ilse; Vande Loock, Kim; Chatzi, Leda; Espinosa, Ana; Fthenou, Eleni; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-01-01

    Background: Water disinfection by-products have been associated with an increased cancer risk. Micronuclei (MN) frequency in lymphocytes is a marker of genomic damage and can predict adult cancer risk. Objective: We evaluated maternal exposure to drinking water brominated trihalomethanes (BTHM) in relation to MN frequency in maternal and cord blood lymphocytes. Methods: MN frequency was examined in 214 mothers and 223 newborns from the Rhea mother–child cohort in Crete, Greece, in 2007–2008. Residential BTHM water concentrations were estimated during pregnancy using tap water analyses and modeling. Questionnaires on water related habits were used to estimate BTHM exposure from all routes. Associations between BTHM and MN frequency were estimated using negative binomial regression. Results: BTHM concentrations in residential tap water during pregnancy ranged from 0.06 to 7.1 μg/L. MN frequency in maternal binucleated lymphocytes was found to increase with BTHM concentrations in residential water for exposure during the first [rate ratio (RR) for 1 μg/L = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.11] and second trimesters (RR for 1 μg/L = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), and through all routes of BTHM exposure during the first trimester (RR for 1 μg/week = 3.14; 95% CI: 1.16, 8.50). Conclusions: These findings suggest that exposure to BTHM may increase the frequency of MN in maternal binucleated lymphocytes. Citation: Stayner LT, Pedersen M, Patelarou E, Decordier I, Vande Loock K, Chatzi L, Espinosa A, Fthenou E, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Gracia-Lavedan E, Stephanou EG, Kirsch-Volders M, Kogevinas M. 2014. Exposure to brominated trihalomethanes in water during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in maternal and cord blood lymphocytes. Environ Health Perspect 122:100–106; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206434 PMID:24184846

  20. Predominance of a single clone of the most widely distributed bamboo species Phyllostachys edulis in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Isagi, Yuji; Oda, Takashi; Fukushima, Keitaro; Lian, Chunlan; Yokogawa, Masashi; Kaneko, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Phyllostachys edulis, one of the most dominant bamboo species with the leptomorph rhizome system, has been asexually expanding its range into adjacent natural forest sites by shooting new culms. The resulting ecological problems include simplification of stand structure and decline in the species diversity of local flora. In this study, the genetic diversity of P. edulis for the entire distribution range from Japan to China was analyzed using 16 microsatellite markers. Among these, 12 loci were fixed by a single allele, whereas only two alleles were detected for each of the remaining 4 loci; all adult samples shared the same genotype at all loci including the four heterozygous loci. These observations indicate that all current samples from Japan and China comprise an identical clone. The clone is distributed over more than 2,800 km with an estimated biomass of approximately 6.6 × 10(11) kg, which is exceptionally large. Among seedlings from flowering events in 2005 and 2006, 20 different genets were generated by recombination through selfing of a single flowering genet. Predominance of a single clone in the wild and a diverse composition of genets among seedlings suggest that the intermittent flowering of P. edulis in the wild has produced a variety of clones through recombination. However, the resulting seedlings cannot compete with other tree species or adult P. edulis, and almost all adult P. edulis growing in Japan and China likely propagated through vegetative reproduction of a single clone by human transplantation, and subsequently expanded into adjacent forest sites by shooting young sprouts. The relatively small size of the flowering area and rapid culm reproduction has led to the stability of P. edulis communities. However, the low genetic diversity is an important consideration for the long-term management of this prevailing bamboo species. PMID:26582068

  1. Changes in gravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, N. R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Risin, D.; McIntyre, B. W.; Pizzini, R. P.; Cooper, D.; Baker, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunity relies on the circulation of lymphocytes through many different tissues including blood vessels, lymphatic channels, and lymphoid organs. The ability of lymphocytes to traverse the interstitium in both nonlymphoid and lymphoid tissues can be determined in vitro by assaying their capacity to locomote through Type I collagen. In an attempt to characterize potential causes of microgravity-induced immunosuppression, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on human lymphocyte function in vitro using a specialized rotating-wall vessel culture system developed at the Johnson Space Center. This very low shear culture system randomizes gravitational vectors and provides an in vitro approximation of microgravity. In the randomized gravity of the rotating-wall vessel culture system, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not locomote through Type I collagen, whereas static cultures supported normal movement. Although cells remained viable during the entire culture period, peripheral blood lymphocytes transferred to unit gravity (static culture) after 6 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system were slow to recover and locomote into collagen matrix. After 72 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system and an additional 72 h in static culture, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not recover their ability to locomote. Loss of locomotory activity in rotating-wall vessel cultures appears to be related to changes in the activation state of the lymphocytes and the expression of adhesion molecules. Culture in the rotating-wall vessel system blunted the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to polyclonal activation with phytohemagglutinin. Locomotory response remained intact when peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated by anti-CD3 antibody and interleukin-2 prior to introduction into the rotating-wall vessel culture system. Thus, in addition to the systemic stress factors that may affect immunity, isolated lymphocytes respond to gravitational changes

  2. STUDIES ON THE DIFFERENTIATION OF THYMUS-DERIVED LYMPHOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Owen, J. J. T.; Raff, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    The development pathway from embryonic thymus-stem cell to peripheral thymus-derived lymphocyte has been demonstrated using the alloantigens θ (theta) and TL as surface markers of cell differentiation. On the basis of cytotoxicity tests carried out on CBA.H or A embryo thymus cultured in diffusion chambers and on CBA.H embryo thymus grafts and peripheral lymphocytes derived from them in AKR hosts, it has been concluded that two differentiation stages take place during the maturation of thymus-derived cells, namely a first step from stem cell to thymocyte and a second step from thymocyte to peripheral lymphocyte. PMID:5511571

  3. Small lymphocytic lymphoma involving an enlarging complex renal cyst.

    PubMed

    Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Gapin, Tracy B; Wajsman, Zev

    2005-01-01

    A 47-year-old white man presented for evaluation of a complex right renal mass. He had a history of human immunodeficiency virus. Cervical lymph node biopsy had revealed small lymphocytic lymphoma. Computed tomographic scan disclosed diffuse mesenteric and retroperitoneal adenopathy consistent with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as well as a 4.5-cm complex cystic right renal mass, which 17 months later enlarged to 6.2 cm. The mass resembled multiloculated cystic nephroma. Partial nephrectomy revealed infiltration of the cyst wall by small lymphocytic lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of lymphoma arising in or colonizing a renal cyst.

  4. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin attenuates capacity of hematopoietic stem cells to undergo lymphocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenhoerster, Lori S.; Tate, Everett R.; Lakatos, Peter A.; Wang, Xuexia; Laiosa, Michael D.

    2014-06-01

    The process of hematopoiesis, characterized by long-term self-renewal and multi-potent lineage differentiation, has been shown to be regulated in part by the ligand-activated transcription factor known as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ubiquitous contaminant and the most potent AHR agonist, also modulates regulation of adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSC/HPC) homeostasis. However, the effect of developmental TCDD exposure on early life hematopoiesis has not been fully explored. Given the inhibitory effects of TCDD on hematopoiesis and lymphocyte development, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to TCDD would alter the functional capacity of fetal HSC/HPCs to complete lymphocyte differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we employed a co-culture system designed to facilitate the maturation of progenitor cells to either B or T lymphocytes. Furthermore, we utilized an innovative limiting dilution assay to precisely quantify differences in lymphocyte differentiation between HSC/HPCs obtained from fetuses of dams exposed to 3 μg/kg TCDD or control. We found that the AHR is transcribed in yolk sac hematopoietic cells and is transcriptionally active as early as gestational day (GD) 7.5. Furthermore, the number of HSC/HPCs present in the fetal liver on GD 14.5 was significantly increased in fetuses whose mothers were exposed to TCDD throughout pregnancy. Despite this increase in HSC/HPC cell number, B and T lymphocyte differentiation is decreased by approximately 2.5 fold. These findings demonstrate that inappropriate developmental AHR activation in HSC/HPCs adversely impacts lymphocyte differentiation and may have consequences for lymphocyte development in the bone marrow and thymus later in life.

  5. Developmental Exposure to 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Attenuates Capacity of Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Undergo Lymphocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ahrenhoerster, Lori S.; Tate, Everett R.; Lakatos, Peter A.; Wang, Xuexia; Laiosa, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The process of hematopoiesis, characterized by long-term self-renewal and multi-potent lineage differentiation, has been shown to be regulated in part by the ligand-activated transcription factor known as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ubiquitous contaminant and the most potent AHR agonist, also modulates regulation of adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSC/HPC) homeostasis. However, the effect of developmental TCDD exposure on early life hematopoiesis has not been fully explored. Given the inhibitory effects of TCDD on hematopoiesis and lymphocyte development, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to TCDD would alter the functional capacity of fetal HSC/HPCs to complete lymphocyte differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we employed a co-culture system designed to facilitate the maturation of progenitor cells to either B or T lymphocytes. Furthermore, we utilized an innovative limiting dilution assay to precisely quantify differences in lymphocyte differentiation between HSC/HPCs obtained from fetuses of dams exposed to 3μg/kg TCDD or control. We found that the AHR is transcribed in yolk sac hematopoietic cells and is transcriptionally active as early as gestational day (GD) 7.5. Furthermore, the number of HSC/HPCs present in the fetal liver on GD 14.5 was significantly increased in fetuses whose mothers were exposed to TCDD throughout pregnancy. Despite this increase in HSC/HPC cell number, B and T lymphocyte differentiation is decreased by approximately 2.5 fold. These findings demonstrate that inappropriate developmental AHR activation in HSC/HPCs adversely impacts lymphocyte differentiation and may have consequences for lymphocyte development in the bone marrow and thymus later in life. PMID:24709672

  6. B Lymphocytes in Multiple Sclerosis: Bregs and BTLA/CD272 Expressing-CD19+ Lymphocytes Modulate Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Piancone, Federica; Saresella, Marina; Marventano, Ivana; La Rosa, Francesca; Zoppis, Martina; Agostini, Simone; Longhi, Renato; Caputo, Domenico; Mendozzi, Laura; Rovaris, Marco; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    B lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) by secreting antibodies and producing cytokines. This latter function was analyzed in myelin olygodendrocyte protein (MOG)-stimulated CD19+ B lymphocytes of 71 MS patients with different disease phenotypes and 40 age-and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Results showed that: 1) CD19+/TNFα+, CD19+/IL-12+ and CD19+/IFNγ+ lymphocytes are significantly increased in primary progressive (PP) compared to secondary progressive (SP), relapsing-remitting (RR), benign (BE) MS and HC; 2) CD19+/IL-6+ lymphocytes are significantly increased in PP, SP and RR compared to BEMS and HC; and 3) CD19+/IL-13+, CD19+/IL-10+, and CD19+/IL-10+/TGFβ+ (Bregs) B lymphocytes are reduced overall in MS patients compared to HC. B cells expressing BTLA, a receptor whose binding to HVEM inhibits TcR-initiated cytokine production, as well as CD19+/BTLA+/IL-10+ cells were also significantly overall reduced in MS patients compared to HC. Analyses performed in RRMS showed that fingolimod-induced disease remission is associated with a significant increase in Bregs, CD19+/BTLA+, and CD19+/BTLA+/IL-10+ B lymphocytes. B lymphocytes participate to the pathogenesis of MS via the secretion of functionally-diverse cytokines that might play a role in determining disease phenotypes. The impairment of Bregs and CD19+/BTLA+ cells, in particular, could play an important pathogenic role in MS. PMID:27412504

  7. Macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes from two multiply exposed, uninfected individuals resist infection with primary non-syncytium-inducing isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, R I; Paxton, W A; Sheridan, K E; Koup, R A

    1996-01-01

    Despite multiple, high-risk sexual exposures, some individuals remain uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). CD4+ lymphocytes from these individuals are less susceptible to infection in vitro with some strains of HIV-1, suggesting that the phenotype of the virus may influence its ability to interact with certain CD4+ cells. In the present study, we examined the susceptibility of CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages from two exposed uninfected individuals (EU2 and EU3) to infection with a panel of biologically cloned isolates of HIV-1 having either a non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) or a syncytium-inducing (SI) phenotype. Our results indicate that CD4+ T lymphocytes from EU2 and EU3 are resistant to infection with NSI isolates of HIV-1 but are susceptible to infection with primary SI isolates. In addition, we found that macrophages from EU2 and EU3 are resistant to infection with both NSI and SI isolates. The latter finding was confirmed by using several uncloned NSI and SI isolates obtained from patients during acute HIV-1 infection. In further experiments, env clones encoding glycoproteins characteristic of NSI or SI viruses were used in single-cycle infectivity assays to evaluate infection of CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages from EU2 and EU3. Consistent with our previous results, we found that macrophages from these individuals are resistant to infection with NSI and SI env-pseudotyped viruses, while CD4+ T lymphocytes are resistant to NSI, but not SI, pseudotyped viruses. Overall, our results demonstrate that CD4+ cells from two exposed uninfected individuals resist infection in vitro with primary, macrophage-tropic, NSI isolates of HIV-1, which is the predominant viral phenotype found following HIV-1 transmission. Furthermore, infection with NSI isolates was blocked in both CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages from these individuals, suggesting that there may be a common mechanism for resistance in both cell types. PMID:8971004

  8. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of neutrophil migration and lymphocyte transformation by thiamine related to inhibition of the peroxidase/H2O2/halide system.

    PubMed Central

    Theron, A; Anderson, R; Grabow, G; Meiring, J L

    1981-01-01

    The effects of thiamine on neutrophil functions and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation were investigated in vitro and in vivo in adult volunteers following the injection of 50 mg thiamine intramuscularly. Thiamine caused stimulation of neutrophil motility in vitro and in vivo and increased lymphocyte transformation in vivo. Enhancement of these functions was related to inhibition of neutrophil post-phagocytic iodination of Candida albicans by the MPO/H2O2/halide system. The horseradish peroxidase/-H2O2/125 I-mediated iodination of bovine serum albumin was also inhibited by thiamine concentrations which caused increased neutrophil motility. It was found that preincubation of neutrophils and lymphocytes with the horseradish peroxidase/H2O2/halide system caused considerable inhibition of the migratory and proliferative responses respectively. Inclusion of thiamine at concentrations which were found to inhibit the peroxidase/-H2O2/halide system protected the neutrophil migratory and lymphocyte proliferative responses from inactivation by this system. It is suggested that thiamine may cause increased neutrophil migration and lymphocyte transformation by protecting these cells from toxic oxidative products generated by the peroxidase/H2O2/halide system. PMID:6273033

  9. Measurements of mutation rates in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wabl, M; Jäck, H M; Meyer, J; Beck-Engeser, G; von Borstel, R C; Steinberg, C M

    1987-04-01

    It is established that somatic mutation is an important source of antibody diversity in vivo. It is also established that Igh-V gene segments are hypermutable in vitro. This is not a completely satisfactory situation. While there is no reason to believe that Igh-V genes are not hypermutable in vivo as well, direct experimental evidence is lacking. Perhaps experiments with transgenic mice will soon fill this gap. It is not so clear how much higher than normal the rate of hypermutation is. As far as we are aware, there are no direct measurements of mutation rates per base pair per cell generation in mammals, certainly not for lymphocyte cell lines. For a variety of reasons, it is difficult to measure very low mutation rates. The general consensus is that the normal rate should be somewhere between 10(-10) and 10(-12) mutations per base pair per cell generation. Therefore, an experiment designed to directly determine a rate using the compartmentalization test would involve hundreds of cultures, each containing at least 10(9) cells. It is not a trivial problem to find one or a few mutants among so many cells. It is simple to study mutation to resistance to a drug, for example, ouabain or azaguanine, but, as we discussed, there are technical and conceptual pitfalls. The vast excess of dead cells influences the growth of a few mutant cells, particularly in lymphocyte cell lines. Even if this problem could be solved, the mutation rate so obtained would be "per gene(s)" and not "per base pair". The problems associated with cytotoxic agents can be avoided by immunofluorescence methods in conjunction with selective cloning or cell sorting. Using these techniques, we have carried out extensive experiments to determine whether the immunoglobulin mutator system acts, at least partially, on genetic elements other than those in or near the heavy chain variable region gene segment. For an opal termination codon in a heavy chain constant region gene segment, the rate of reversion

  10. IL-12, IL-6 and IFN-gamma production by lymphocytes of pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis remission during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Tchórzewski, H; Krasomski, G; Biesiada, L; Głowacka, E; Banasik, M; Lewkowicz, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with progressive activity. The RA remission was observed in women during pregnancy, but the mechanism responsible for remission is hypothetical only and concerns mechanisms of immune regulation such as lymphocyte subpopulations and interleukin production. AIMS: The lymphocyte subpopulations and interleukin production in vitro in a group of healthy non-pregnant women, healthy pregnant women and pregnant women suffering from RA may help towards a better understanding of regulation of the immune processes. METHODS: The investigations were performed in trimester III--2 days after delivery and 6 weeks after delivery. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated on Gradisol gradient and analysed immediately or after having been cultured for 72 hours in RPMI medium supplemented with 10% FCS. The cultures were terminated after 72 h, supernatants stored at -72 degrees C for interleukin evaluation. The concentrations of IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha and its soluble receptors R-I, R-II were estimated in non-stimulated and PHA (Sigma, 5 microg/ml) stimulated culture supernatants using ELISA Endogen kits according to the manufacturer's instructions. RESULTS: The general pattern of T cell subpopulation distribution was similar in all analysed groups. Decreased IFN-gamma, IL-12 and increased IL-6 production by lymphocytes after PHA stimulation was found in trimester III in pregnant women with RA as compared to healthy pregnant woman. CONCLUSION: The obtained results suggest that in pregnant women with RA the TH1 cell response predominates, contrary to healthy pregnant women with TH2 type functional response. These phenomena were not observed after delivery. PMID:11213913

  11. Toward Deep Learning for Adult Students in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Xie, Kui

    2009-01-01

    Adult students have become the new majority in online distance education. Research in online distance education, however, is still predominantly based on the historical perspective of the traditional student profile. This study examines adult students' learning engagement in online courses and explores the impact of online course design models and…

  12. Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis in an immunocompromised young adult.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K

    2015-01-01

    Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma.

  13. Serum gastrin in canine chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluates serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, as well as its possible relationship with the severity of lesions present in the stomach. To achieve this aim, 5 dogs without gastrointestinal disease and 15 dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis were included. Serum gastrin concentrations were significantly increased in dogs with chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis compared with those in dogs without gastrointestinal disease. Also, there was a positive correlation between the severity of the gastric lesion and the serum gastrin concentration. Our findings indicate the possibility that gastrin plays a role in the etiology of an accompanying chronic antral gastritis in canine chronic lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis. PMID:16152719

  14. Interaction of nanosilver particles with human lymphocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhornik, Alena; Baranova, Ludmila; Volotovski, Igor; Chizhik, Sergey; Drozd, Elizaveta; Sudas, Margarita; Buu Ngo, Quoc; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Huynh, Thi Ha; Hien Dao, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The damaging effects of nanoparticles were hypothesized to be the oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species and initiation of inflammatory reactions. In this context a study on the effects of nanosilver particles on the formation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocyte culture was carried out. The obtained results showed that fluorescence intensity considerably increased after cells had interacted with nanosilver particles of varying concentrations, indicating the formation of reactive oxygen species and their accumulation in lymphocyte cells. Morphological study of the lymphocyte cells under the effects of nanosilver particles showed that the change in morphology depends on the concentration and size of nanosilver particles: for a size ≤20 nm the lymphocyte cell significantly shrank with pronounced differences in the morphological structure of the cell membrane, but for a size ≥200 nm no change was observed.

  15. CD45 regulates apoptosis in peripheral T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Dawes, Ritu; Petrova, Svetla; Beverley, Peter C L; Tchilian, Elma Z

    2006-06-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key mechanism for regulating lymphocyte numbers. Murine lymph node lymphocytes cultured in vitro without added stimuli show significant levels of apoptosis over 24 h, detectable by staining with Annexin V. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes from transgenic (Tg) mice expressing single CD45RABC or CD45RO isoforms show increased apoptosis and the extent of apoptosis is inversely correlated with the level of CD45 expression. CD45 Tg cells exhibit phosphatidyl serine translocation and DNA oligonucleosome formation, and can be partially rescued from apoptosis by culture in caspase inhibitors or common gamma-chain-binding cytokines. We conclude that CD45 is an important regulator of spontaneous apoptosis in T lymphocytes and this mechanism may contribute to the disease associations reported for individuals expressing CD45 variant alleles. PMID:16621865

  16. Activation of microcarrier-attached lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechler, B.; Cogoli, A.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Muller, O.; Hunzinger, E.; Criswell, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    A technology has been developed to achieve optimal attachment of adhesion-independent lymphocytes to microcarrier beads. The activation of T-lymphocytes by concanavalin A was tested under microgravity conditions in an experiment carried out in space during the first Spacelab Life Science Mission. Activation, measured as the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the production of interferon-gamma, more than doubled in attached lymphocytes in microgravity. The depression of the activation discovered in previous space experiments is due to an impairment not of the lymphocyte but of the macrophage function. The system described here may be useful for radiobiological investigations on the effect of high-energy particles and for testing the efficiency of the immune system in humans during the long-duration space flight planned in the future. The biotechnological significance of the increased lymphokine production in space remains to be assessed.

  17. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol trigger a sequence of events leading to migration of CCR5-expressing Th1 lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun-Mi; Kim, Bo-Young; Lee, Sae-A; Eo, Seong-Kug; Yun, Yungdae; Kim, Chi-Dae; Kim, Koanhoi

    2014-02-01

    Th1 lymphocytes are predominant in atherosclerotic lesions. However, mechanisms involved in the Th1 predominance are unknown. We have investigated the possibility of Th1 lymphocyte recruitment in a cholesterol-rich milieu. A high cholesterol diet resulted in enhanced expression of CCR5 ligands, including CCL3 and CCL4, but not of proatherogenic CXCR3 ligands, in atherosclerotic arteries of ApoE{sup −/−} mice. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol, cholesterol oxides (oxysterols) detected in abundance in atherosclerotic lesions, greatly induced the transcription of CCL3 and CCL4 genes in addition to enhancing secretion of corresponding proteins by THP-1 monocytic cells. However, an identical or even higher concentration of cholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholsterol did not influence expression of these chemokines. Conditioned media containing the CCR5 ligands secreted from THP-1 cells induced migration of Jurkat T cells expressing CCR5, a characteristic chemokine receptor of Th1 cells, but not of Jurkat T cells that do not express CCR5. The migration of CCR5-expressing Jurkat T cells was abrogated in the presence of a CCR5-neutralizing antibody. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. Pharmacological inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways blocked transcription as well as secretion of CCL3 and CCL4 in conjunction with attenuated migration of CCR5-expressing Jurkat T cells. This is the first report on the involvement of cholesterol oxides in migration of distinct subtype of T cells. We propose that 27-hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol can trigger a sequence of events that leads to recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways play a major role in the process. - Graphical abstract: Th1 lymphocytes are predominant in atherosclerotic lesions. However, mechanisms involved in the Th1 predominance are unknown. We have investigated the possibility of

  18. Fas ligand- mediated killing by intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Participation in intestinal graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T; Brunner, T; Tietz, B; Madsen, J; Bonfoco, E; Reaves, M; Huflejt, M; Green, D R

    1998-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are constitutively cytotoxic; however, the mechanism and target of their cytotoxicity are unknown. Apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and an increase in IEL numbers are classical signs of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), although whether IEL can mediate IEC apoptosis directly in GVHD is unclear. Recent evidence suggests that target epithelial organ injury observed in GVHD is predominantly Fas-mediated; therefore, we investigated the possibility that IEL induce apoptosis of IEC through a Fas-mediated mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that the IEL isolated from normal mice readily display potent Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated killing activity after CD3 stimulation, and that IEC express Fas, suggesting that IEC are potential targets for FasL-mediated killing by IEL. In vitro, IEL isolated from GVHD mice have markedly increased FasL-mediated killing potential and are spontaneously cytolytic toward host-derived tumor cells predominantly through a Fas-mediated pathway. In vivo transfer of IEL isolated from GVHD mice induced significantly more IEC apoptosis in F1 wild-type mice than in Fas-defective F1lpr mice. Thus, these results demonstrate that FasL-mediated death of IEC by IEL is a major mechanism of IEC apoptosis seen in GVHD. PMID:9449689

  19. Adult Literacy and the Poor Farming People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    In discussing Rafe-uz-Zaman's essay on adult literacy and national development (see v9, n1 of this journal), the author cites examples to support his thesis that mass literacy campaigns in predominately agricultural countries can be successful only if there is simultaneous undertaking of economic development programs focused on the rural poor. (MF)

  20. Lymphopoiesis and lymphocyte recirculation in the sheep fetus

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The production and the circulation of lymphocytes has been examined in the sheep fetus where neither foreign antigen nor immunoglobulins occur. It was found that as the lymphoid organs increased in size during fetal life, the numbers and the output of lymphocytes in the thoracic duct lymph increased. The recirculating pool of lymphocytes was estimated to be 5.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(8) cells in fetal lambs 95-100 days of age, 5.7 +/- 1.2 X 10(9) cells in fetuses 130-135 days of age, and 1.2 +/0 9.3 X 10(10) cells in fetuses near to term. The rate of addition of lymphocytes to the recirculating pool was 3.2 +/- 1.9 X 10(6) cells/h in fetuses of 100 days and 3.4 +/- 0.9 X 10(7) cells/h in fetuses of 130 days of age. Lymphocytes recirculated from blood to lymph in fetuses; labeled cells injected into the blood stream reappeared in the thoracic duct lymph promptly and reached maximum levels around 12-18 h after they were injected. Labeled lymphocytes were detected subsequently in greatest numbers in the lymph nodes, particularly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and in the interfollicular areas of the Peyer's patches. Chronic drainage of thoracic duct lymph from fetuses in utero for periods of up to 36 days had no obvious effects on the growth or development of the fetus and only minimal effects on the content of lymphocytes in the various lymphoid tissues even though the number of cells in the blood and lymph were reduced to between 20-30% of normal levels. Thymectomy done in fetuses about 2 mo befor cannulation of the thoracic duct reduced the output of cells in the thoracic duct to about 25% of normal levels and caused a significant reduction in the content of lymphocytes in the various lymphoid tissues. Thymectomized fetal lambs subjected to thoracic duct drainage for periods up to 2 wk in utero had a similar complement of lymphocytes in their lymphoid tissues to intact thymectomized fetal lambs. Lymphocytes obtained from the thoracic duct lymph of lambs thymectomized 2 mo

  1. Antisera against leukaemia-associated antigens on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, C C; Marti, G E; Mittal, K K

    1977-01-01

    Antisera were raised in rabbits against leukaemic lymphosarcoma (LSL) cells which carried surface markers of both thymus-derived T lymphocytes (T cells) and bone marrow-derived B lymphocytes (B cells). After absorption with leucocytes, erythrocytes and serum proteins from normal individuals, the antisera demonstrated significant complement-dependent cytotoxicity against leukaemic cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (9/11), LSL (7/9) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (9/12), with an antibody titre of 1:64 or greater. The antisera did not react with: (a) blood lymphocytes from clinically healthy individuals (0/23), patients with ono-lymphoproliferative disorders (0/8) and normal umbilical cords (0/3), (b) normal lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen (0/7), allogeneic lymphocytes (0/3), fetuin (0/1), purified protein derivative (PPD) (0/2), and candida antigen (0/1); (C) normal marrow cells (0/3), (D) normal thymocytes (0/2) and (E) leukaemic cells from patients with acute myeloblastic (AML) (0/10) and chronic granulocytic leukaemia (CGL) (0/3). However, the antisera did react with lymphoblastoid cells from continuous B-cell lines derived from an AML patient and from a non-leukaemic individual and, to a lesser extent, with lymphocytes from patients with infectious mononucleosis. The antisera also reacted with lymphocytes from chronically infected tonsils. Cytotoxicity of the antisera against lymphoblastoid and tonsillar cells was inhibited by ALL and CLL cell-lysates; and, conversely, cytotoxicity against ALL cells was inhibited by the lymphoblastoid cell extract. In contrast, a cell lysate or extract from normal inhibited by the lymphoblastoid cell extract. In contrast, a cell lysate or extract from normal lymphocytes did not inhibit cytotoxicity toward lymphoblastoid, tonsillar or ALL cells. Cytotoxicity of the antisera was neutralized by a goat anti-rabbit IgG (GAR IgG). These results suggest that the antisera contained

  2. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Bigazzi, Francesca; Magni, Chiara; Bonti, Viola; Diciotti, Stefano; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH), ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema) and severity (mild and severe diseases) were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide %) and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively). IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed significantly in predominant emphysema, and ischemic heart disease and PVD prevailed in mild COPD. All cardiovascular comorbidities prevailed significantly in predominant airway phenotype of COPD and mild COPD severity. Conclusion Specific comorbidities prevail in different phenotypes of COPD; this fact may be relevant to identify patients at risk for specific, phenotype-related comorbidities. The highest prevalence of comorbidities in patients with mild disease indicates that these patients should be investigated for coexisting diseases or syndromes even in the less severe, pauci-symptomatic stages of COPD. The simple method employed to phenotype and

  3. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Bigazzi, Francesca; Magni, Chiara; Bonti, Viola; Diciotti, Stefano; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH), ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema) and severity (mild and severe diseases) were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide %) and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively). IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed significantly in predominant emphysema, and ischemic heart disease and PVD prevailed in mild COPD. All cardiovascular comorbidities prevailed significantly in predominant airway phenotype of COPD and mild COPD severity. Conclusion Specific comorbidities prevail in different phenotypes of COPD; this fact may be relevant to identify patients at risk for specific, phenotype-related comorbidities. The highest prevalence of comorbidities in patients with mild disease indicates that these patients should be investigated for coexisting diseases or syndromes even in the less severe, pauci-symptomatic stages of COPD. The simple method employed to phenotype and

  4. Lymphocyte transformation test for diagnosis of isothiazolinone allergy in man.

    PubMed

    Stejskal, V D; Forsbeck, M; Nilsson, R

    1990-06-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) has been used for evaluation of in vitro lymphocyte responses in 18 patients with dermatitis and positive patch tests to 200 ppm of a combination of 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazolinone and 28methylisothiazolinone (MCI) in nine patients with dermatitis unrelated to MCI and in seven subjects without skin diseases. Two workers sensitized by occupational exposure to a formulation containing 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) were also studied. Lymphocytes from nine patch-test-positive patients proliferated vigorously to MCI in vitro. Lymphocytes from the remaining nine patients were not stimulated. Lymphocytes from two BIT-sensitized workers responded to BIT in vitro. The lymphocyte proliferation to isothiazolinones indicates the presence of memory cells in the patients' blood and confirms immunologic reaction to the inducing agent. To establish clinical relevance of LTT results, 12 MCI patch-test-positive patients underwent "use test" with lotion containing 15 ppm MCI. Four of five LTT-positive patients were use-test-positive, whereas seven of seven LTT-negative patients were use-test-negative. LTT-positive and lotion-positive patients responded to 100 ppm or lower concentrations of MCI on patch testing, whereas seven of eight LTT-negative and lotion-negative patients responded to 200 ppm only. In the case of MCI, proliferation was due to the chlorinated component, indicating that this part contains an allergenic epitope. Finally, MCI-specific lymphocyte proliferation was observed only in patients with MCI-positive skin test, but not in nine patients with dermatitis induced by other agents, or in seven subjects without skin diseases. Thus, the lymphocyte transformation test is able to distinguish between irritant and allergic skin responses. It may also be valuable in establishing the clinically relevant patch-test concentration of allergens with irritative properties.

  5. Genotoxicity of the herbicide butachlor in cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Panneerselvam, N; Shanmugam, G

    1995-08-01

    Butachlor, a pre-emergence herbicide was investigated for its ability to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosome aberrations (CA) in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes were treated with three different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 micrograms/ml) of butachlor for 24, 48 and 72 h. Our results indicate a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations at 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment with butachlor. No SCE was promoted by butachlor.

  6. Biophysical Aspects of T Lymphocyte Activation at the Immune Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Hivroz, Claire; Saitakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocyte activation is a pivotal step of the adaptive immune response. It requires the recognition by T-cell receptors (TCR) of peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC) present at the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). T lymphocyte activation also involves engagement of costimulatory receptors and adhesion molecules recognizing ligands on the APC. Integration of these different signals requires the formation of a specialized dynamic structure: the immune synapse. While the biochemical and molecular aspects of this cell–cell communication have been extensively studied, its mechanical features have only recently been addressed. Yet, the immune synapse is also the place of exchange of mechanical signals. Receptors engaged on the T lymphocyte surface are submitted to many tensile and traction forces. These forces are generated by various phenomena: membrane undulation/protrusion/retraction, cell mobility or spreading, and dynamic remodeling of the actomyosin cytoskeleton inside the T lymphocyte. Moreover, the TCR can both induce force development, following triggering, and sense and convert forces into biochemical signals, as a bona fide mechanotransducer. Other costimulatory molecules, such as LFA-1, engaged during immune synapse formation, also display these features. Moreover, T lymphocytes themselves are mechanosensitive, since substrate stiffness can modulate their response. In this review, we will summarize recent studies from a biophysical perspective to explain how mechanical cues can affect T lymphocyte activation. We will particularly discuss how forces are generated during immune synapse formation; how these forces affect various aspects of T lymphocyte biology; and what are the key features of T lymphocyte response to stiffness. PMID:26913033

  7. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  8. Richter Syndrome in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Candida; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2016-02-01

    The term Richter syndrome (RS) indicates the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into an aggressive lymphoma. RS is a rare complication with an aggressive clinical course, bearing an unfavorable prognosis. In the majority of cases, CLL transforms into RS as diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and a clonal relation between the two processes can be found. However, clonally unrelated RS can occur and transformations to other histologies beside DLBCL have been described. Recent data have shed some light on genetic characteristics that can influence and drive the transformation from CLL to RS. This molecular information has not been translated yet into significant treatment advances, and currently the therapy regimens for RS continue to rely on intensive chemotherapy combinations followed by stem cell transplant in suitable candidates. Based on the rapid pace of discoveries in the field of hematological malignancies and on the recent revolution in the therapeutic landscape for CLL and B cell lymphomas, new therapeutic options for RS might be available in the upcoming years. PMID:26830086

  9. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  10. Gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nisar A; Malek, Sami N

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of genes mutated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has stimulated new research into the role of these genes in CLL pathogenesis. CLL cases carry approximately 5-20 mutated genes per exome, a lower number than detected in many human tumors. Of the recurrently mutated genes in CLL, all are mutated in 10% or less of patients when assayed in unselected CLL cohorts at diagnosis. Mutations in TP53 are of major clinical relevance, are often associated with del17p and gain in frequency over time. TP53 mutated and associated del17p states substantially lower response rates, remission duration, and survival in CLL. Mutations in NOTCH1 and SF3B1 are recurrent, often associated with progressive CLL that is also IgVH unmutated and ZAP70-positive and are under investigation as targets for novel therapies and as factors influencing CLL outcome. There are an estimated 20-50 additional mutated genes with frequencies of 1%-5% in CLL; more work is needed to identify these and to study their significance. Finally, of the major biological aberration categories influencing CLL as a disease, gene mutations will need to be placed into context with regard to their ultimate role and importance. Such calibrated appreciation necessitates studies incorporating multiple CLL driver aberrations into biological and clinical analyses. PMID:27040699

  11. Signal transduction in T lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1997-01-01

    More than 120 experiments conducted in space in the last 15 years have shown that dramatic changes are occurring in several types of single cells during their exposure to microgravity. One focus of today's research on cells in space is on signal transduction, especially those steps involving the cytoskeleton and cell-cell interactions. Signal transduction is often altered in microgravity as well as in hypergravity. This leads to changes in cell proliferation, genetic expression and differentiation. Interesting examples are leukocytes, HeLa cells, epidermoid cells and osteoblastic cells. Signalling pathways were studied in T lymphocytes in microgravity by several investigators after the discovery that mitogenic activation in vitro is virtually nil at 0g. T cells are a good model to study signal transduction because three extracellular signals (mitogen, IL-1 and IL-2) are required for full activation, and two classical pathways (via proteins G and PKC) are activated within the cell. In addition, low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins (Ras and Rap) are interacting with the cytoskeleton. The data at 0g support the notion that the expression of IL-2 receptor is inhibited at 0g, while mitogen binding and the transmission of IL-1 by accessory cells occur normally. In addition, alterations of the cytoskeleton suggest that the interaction with Rap proteins is disturbed. Data obtained with phorbol esters indicate that the function of PKC is changed in microgravity. Similar conclusions are drawn from the results with epidermoid cells A431.

  12. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.

  13. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin; O’Brien, Susan

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are currently being studied as potential therapeutic targets. These include Lyn, Syk, PI3 and Bruton tyrosine (BTK). Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of BTK. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation. In addition, it also affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in CLL and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients is very encouraging. In relapsed-refractory patients with CLL, a 67% response rate was observed (420mg dose cohort) with single-agent ibrutinib. Long-term follow-up of these studies and other ongoing/planned studies of ibrutinib either as single-agent or in combination with monoclonal antibodies and chemoimmunotherapy is eagerly awaited. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. PMID:23915749

  14. The detection of micromolar pericellular ATP pool on lymphocyte surface by using lymphoid ecto-adenylate kinase as intrinsic ATP sensor.

    PubMed

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Mikhailov, Andrey; Samburski, Sergei S; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2006-08-01

    Current models of extracellular ATP turnover include transient release of nanomolar ATP concentrations, triggering of signaling events, and subsequent ectoenzymatic inactivation. Given the high substrate specificity for adenylate kinase for reversible reaction (ATP + AMP <--> 2ADP), we exploited lymphoid ecto-adenylate kinase as an intrinsic probe for accurate sensing pericellular ATP. Incubation of leukemic T- and B-lymphocytes with [3H]AMP or [alpha-32P]AMP induces partial nucleotide conversion into high-energy phosphoryls. This "intrinsic" AMP phosphorylation occurs in time- and concentration-dependent fashions via nonlytic supply of endogenous gamma-phosphate-donating ATP, remains relatively resistant to bulk extracellular ATP scavenging by apyrase, and is diminished after lymphocyte pretreatment with membrane-modifying agents. This enzyme-coupled approach, together with confocal imaging of quinacrine-labeled ATP stores, suggests that, along with predominant ATP accumulation within cytoplasmic granules, micromolar ATP concentrations are constitutively retained on lymphoid surface without convection into bulk milieu. High basal levels of inositol phosphates in the cells transfected with ATP-selective human P2Y2-receptor further demonstrate that lymphocyte-surrounding ATP is sufficient for triggering purinergic responses both in autocrine and paracrine fashions. The ability of nonstimulated lymphocytes to maintain micromolar ATP halo might represent a novel route initiating signaling cascades within immunological synapses and facilitating leukocyte trafficking between the blood and tissues.

  15. Elevated liver fibrosis index FIB-4 is not reliable for HCC risk stratification in predominantly non-Asian CHB patients.

    PubMed

    Demir, Münevver; Grünewald, Friederike; Lang, Sonja; Schramm, Christoph; Bowe, Andrea; Mück, Vera; Kütting, Fabian; Goeser, Tobias; Steffen, Hans-Michael

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to validate the liver fibrosis index FIB-4 as a model for risk stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma development in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B infection seen at a tertiary referral center in Germany.We retrospectively analyzed 373 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Patient demographics, hepatitis B markers, antiviral treatment, laboratory parameters, results from liver imaging and histology were recorded. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their FIB-4 levels and their hazard ratios for developing hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and antiviral medication.Median follow-up was 8.7 years (range 1-21.3 years), 93% of patients were of non-Asian origin, and 64% were male. Compared with patients with a low FIB-4 (<1.25) patients with FIB-4 ≥1.25 showed a hazard ratio for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma of 3.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-7.41) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.75 (95% CI: 0.64-4.74). Notably, 68% of patients with liver cirrhosis and 68% of those who developed HCC during observation had a low FIB-4 (<1.25).We could not confirm that a FIB-4 value ≥1.25 is a reliable clinical indicator for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further studies in geographically and ethnically diverse populations are needed to prove its utility as a predictive tool.

  16. Effect of sorbitol gum chewing on plaque pH response after ingesting snacks containing predominantly sucrose or starch.

    PubMed

    Park, K K; Schemehorn, B R; Bolton, J W; Stookey, G K

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chewing a sorbitol gum (Trident) for 10 minutes on interproximal plaque pH changes following ingestion of selected sucrose- or starch-containing foods. The snacks containing predominantly sucrose (and/or simple sugars) were chocolate bar, cream-filled cupcakes, cream-filled sandwich cookie, cherry pie and raisins. The snacks containing predominantly starch were oat cereal, granola bars, pretzels, potato chips and corn chips. Plaque pH responses were monitored using an indwelling wire-telemetry system in five adult panelists. The test design involved two sets of 5 x 5 Latin square randomization in which each set consisted of two series of tests. In the first series of tests, the fasted, resting plaque pH was recorded for 5 minutes, panelists ingested the designated snacks for 2 minutes, and the pH response was monitored for the remainder of a 2-hour period. In the second series of tests, the same procedure was followed through the snack ingestion. After the pH response to the snack was monitored for 15 minutes, the panelists were asked to chew one stick of sorbitol gum for 10 minutes and the pH response was then monitored for the balance of the 2-hour period. Results indicated that both the sugar- and starch-containing snacks tested in this study caused significant decreases in interproximal plaque pH. Chewing a sorbitol gum after ingestion of the snacks significantly reduced the demineralizing potential of the plaque. The chewing of sorbitol gum following the ingestion of snacks can be recommended as an adjunct to other caries-preventive oral hygiene measures. PMID:2076247

  17. Elevated liver fibrosis index FIB-4 is not reliable for HCC risk stratification in predominantly non-Asian CHB patients.

    PubMed

    Demir, Münevver; Grünewald, Friederike; Lang, Sonja; Schramm, Christoph; Bowe, Andrea; Mück, Vera; Kütting, Fabian; Goeser, Tobias; Steffen, Hans-Michael

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to validate the liver fibrosis index FIB-4 as a model for risk stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma development in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B infection seen at a tertiary referral center in Germany.We retrospectively analyzed 373 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Patient demographics, hepatitis B markers, antiviral treatment, laboratory parameters, results from liver imaging and histology were recorded. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their FIB-4 levels and their hazard ratios for developing hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and antiviral medication.Median follow-up was 8.7 years (range 1-21.3 years), 93% of patients were of non-Asian origin, and 64% were male. Compared with patients with a low FIB-4 (<1.25) patients with FIB-4 ≥1.25 showed a hazard ratio for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma of 3.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-7.41) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.75 (95% CI: 0.64-4.74). Notably, 68% of patients with liver cirrhosis and 68% of those who developed HCC during observation had a low FIB-4 (<1.25).We could not confirm that a FIB-4 value ≥1.25 is a reliable clinical indicator for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further studies in geographically and ethnically diverse populations are needed to prove its utility as a predictive tool. PMID:27661015

  18. Elevated liver fibrosis index FIB-4 is not reliable for HCC risk stratification in predominantly non-Asian CHB patients

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Münevver; Grünewald, Friederike; Lang, Sonja; Schramm, Christoph; Bowe, Andrea; Mück, Vera; Kütting, Fabian; Goeser, Tobias; Steffen, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to validate the liver fibrosis index FIB-4 as a model for risk stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma development in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B infection seen at a tertiary referral center in Germany. We retrospectively analyzed 373 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Patient demographics, hepatitis B markers, antiviral treatment, laboratory parameters, results from liver imaging and histology were recorded. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their FIB-4 levels and their hazard ratios for developing hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and antiviral medication. Median follow-up was 8.7 years (range 1–21.3 years), 93% of patients were of non-Asian origin, and 64% were male. Compared with patients with a low FIB-4 (<1.25) patients with FIB-4 ≥1.25 showed a hazard ratio for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma of 3.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–7.41) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.75 (95% CI: 0.64–4.74). Notably, 68% of patients with liver cirrhosis and 68% of those who developed HCC during observation had a low FIB-4 (<1.25). We could not confirm that a FIB-4 value ≥1.25 is a reliable clinical indicator for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further studies in geographically and ethnically diverse populations are needed to prove its utility as a predictive tool. PMID:27661015

  19. Impaired B lymphocyte reactivity in patients after radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, G.; Zierach, P.; Herrmann, F.; Brust, V.J.; Ruehl, H.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of therapeutic irradiation upon B lymphocyte function was investigated in patients with various malignancies. The test system used was a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, which made it possible to study the activation and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC). Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal individuals and patients before and after radiotherapy were stimulated in vitro with the polyclonal B cell activator pokeweed mitogen, and the number of ISC was estimated. B cell reactivity was markedly reduced in those patients who had received irradiation within the last six months. In patients in whom radiotherapy had been terminated more than 12 months before the lymphocytes were tested, B cell reactivity was comparable to that of patients prior to radiotherapy. By means of marker analyses, there was a reduction of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood with a preponderance of T helper cells. Several mechanisms--e.g., reduced or defective B cell differentiation, altered regulatory T-helper or suppressor cell function or activation of suppressive monocytes--could be responsible for impaired B cell reactivity after radiotherapy.

  20. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-01-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  1. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of CD8+ lymphocytes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G A; Reubel, G H; Pedersen, N C

    1996-01-01

    To determine the lymphoid target cells of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vivo, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) were positively selected (>97% purity) for surface expression of CD4, CD8, or CD20 and then analyzed for SIV provirus using semiquantitative DNA amplification. We found provirus in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but none in CD20+ lymphocytes. During acute SIV infection (< or = 214 days postinoculation), the percentage of PBL and LNL CD4+ cells containing proviral DNA ranged from 0.2 to 20% and from 0.2 to 2%, respectively. Proviral burden in the CD8+ population of either PBL or LNL ranged from 0.01 to 0.2%. Virus isolation by cocultivation was positive for both CD4+ and CD8+ purified populations. No difference in proviral burden was observed between PBL and LNL subsets during acute SIV infection. Up to 19.4% of positively selected CD8+ cells also expressed CD4, and thus the provirus may reside within a dual-positive population. This dual-positive population may represent activated lymphocytes that are particularly susceptible to infection and may provide an opportunity for virus entry into the CD8+ CD4- lymphocytes in vivo. PMID:8764081

  2. Hypermetabolism in B–lymphocytes from malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Kerstin; Hack, Guido; Lehmann–Horn, Frank; Jurkat–Rott, Karin; Wearing, Scott; Zullo, Alberto; Carsana, Antonella; Klingler, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle metabolism which is characterized by generalized muscle rigidity, increased body temperature, rhabdomyolysis, and severe metabolic acidosis. The underlying mechanism of MH involves excessive Ca2+ release in myotubes via the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). As RyR1 is also expressed in B–lymphocytes, this study investigated whether cellular metabolism of native B–lymphocytes was also altered in MH susceptible (MHS) individuals. A potent activator of RyR1, 4–chloro–m–cresol (4-CmC) was used to challenge native B-lymphocytes in a real–time, metabolic assay based on a pH–sensitive silicon biosensor chip. At the cellular level, a dose–dependent, phasic acidification occurred with 4–CmC. The acidification rate, an indicator of metabolic activation, was significantly higher in B–lymphocytes from MHS patients and required 3 to 5 fold lower concentrations of 4–CmC to evoke similar acidification rates to MHN. Native B–lymphocytes from MHS individuals are more sensitive to 4–CmC than those from MHN, reflecting a greater Ca2+ turnover. The acidification response, however, was less pronounced than in muscle cells, presumably reflecting the lower expression of RyR1 in B–lymphocytes. PMID:27646467

  3. Peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Covas, M I; Esquerda, A; García-Rico, A; Mahy, N

    1992-01-01

    Interest in T-lymphocyte subsets has arisen because of their involvement in the autoimmune process. Contradictory results have been published in the literature about the number of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in autoimmune diseases. In order to investigate the number and distribution of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in autoimmune thyroid disease, the levels of total T-lymphocytes (CD3), T-helper (CD4) and T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) lymphocytes were determined in 44 patients with Graves' disease (1), multinodular goiter (2) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (3). All patients had high levels of antithyroglobulin and thyroid antiperoxidase (antimicrosomal) antibodies. The T subset levels were related to the functional thyroid status, measured as serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH). Our data show the existence of a strong influence of functional status on CD3, CD4 and CD8 levels, as reflected in the significant correlations obtained with FT4 (negative) and TSH (positive). A significant decrease in all populations was observed in Graves' disease hyperthyroid patients. A decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio in Hashimoto's thyroiditis hypothyroid patients was observed, in contrast to an increase in the ratio in autoimmune hyperthyroid patients. This points to the CD4/CD8 ratio as a differential characteristic between the two autoimmune (hypothyroid and hyperthyroid) entities, independent of free thyroxine levels. No significant correlation was found between antithyroid antibody levels and peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets or serum levels of FT4 and TSH.

  4. Mycoplasma pulmonis possesses a novel chemoattractant for B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, S E; Simecka, J W; Gambill, G P; Davis, J K; Cassell, G H

    1992-01-01

    Mycoplasma pulmonis causes chronic murine respiratory mycoplasmosis, which is characterized by extensive peribronchial and perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells, including B lymphocytes. B-lymphocyte recruitment into sites of inflammation is presently poorly understood but must involve directed chemotaxis of these cells in response to some external recruitment stimulus. In these studies, picogram amounts of M. pulmonis membrane protein were found to possess potent chemoattractant activity for resting rat B lymphocytes. This report is the first description of a bacterially derived chemoattractant for B lymphocytes and offers a unique opportunity to study regulation of B-lymphocyte recruitment to a site of chronic pulmonary inflammation. Furthermore, M. pulmonis membrane activation of fresh rat serum was found to produce a potent stimulus for recruitment of peritoneal and alveolar macrophages. M. pulmonis-mediated recruitment of lymphocytes and macrophages may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis, a role in which organisms on the bronchiolar epithelial surfaces may release proteins which can directly or indirectly promote chemotaxis of inflammatory cells from the circulation. PMID:1730502

  5. The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities.

    PubMed

    Popple, Amy; Williams, Jason; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is driven by the activation and proliferation of allergen-specific memory T-lymphocytes and is currently diagnosed by patch testing with a selected panel of chemical allergens. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can be used to monitor ex vivo T-lymphocyte responses to antigens, including contact allergens. The LTT is not viewed as being an alternative to patch testing, but it does seek to reflect experimentally skin sensitization to specific chemicals. The LTT is based on stimulation in vitro of antigen-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation. That is, exposure in culture of primed memory T-lymphocytes to the relevant antigen delivered in an appropriate configuration will provoke a secondary response that reflects the acquisition of skin sensitization. The technical aspects of this test and the utility of the approach for investigation of immune responses to contact allergens in humans are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on further development and refinement of the protocol. An important potential application is that it may provide a basis for characterizing those aspects of T-lymphocyte responses to contact allergens that have the greatest influence on skin sensitizing potency and this will be considered in some detail.

  6. Hypermetabolism in B-lymphocytes from malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Kerstin; Hack, Guido; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Wearing, Scott; Zullo, Alberto; Carsana, Antonella; Klingler, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle metabolism which is characterized by generalized muscle rigidity, increased body temperature, rhabdomyolysis, and severe metabolic acidosis. The underlying mechanism of MH involves excessive Ca(2+) release in myotubes via the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). As RyR1 is also expressed in B-lymphocytes, this study investigated whether cellular metabolism of native B-lymphocytes was also altered in MH susceptible (MHS) individuals. A potent activator of RyR1, 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) was used to challenge native B-lymphocytes in a real-time, metabolic assay based on a pH-sensitive silicon biosensor chip. At the cellular level, a dose-dependent, phasic acidification occurred with 4-CmC. The acidification rate, an indicator of metabolic activation, was significantly higher in B-lymphocytes from MHS patients and required 3 to 5 fold lower concentrations of 4-CmC to evoke similar acidification rates to MHN. Native B-lymphocytes from MHS individuals are more sensitive to 4-CmC than those from MHN, reflecting a greater Ca(2+) turnover. The acidification response, however, was less pronounced than in muscle cells, presumably reflecting the lower expression of RyR1 in B-lymphocytes. PMID:27646467

  7. Hypermetabolism in B-lymphocytes from malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Kerstin; Hack, Guido; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Wearing, Scott; Zullo, Alberto; Carsana, Antonella; Klingler, Werner

    2016-09-20

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle metabolism which is characterized by generalized muscle rigidity, increased body temperature, rhabdomyolysis, and severe metabolic acidosis. The underlying mechanism of MH involves excessive Ca(2+) release in myotubes via the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). As RyR1 is also expressed in B-lymphocytes, this study investigated whether cellular metabolism of native B-lymphocytes was also altered in MH susceptible (MHS) individuals. A potent activator of RyR1, 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) was used to challenge native B-lymphocytes in a real-time, metabolic assay based on a pH-sensitive silicon biosensor chip. At the cellular level, a dose-dependent, phasic acidification occurred with 4-CmC. The acidification rate, an indicator of metabolic activation, was significantly higher in B-lymphocytes from MHS patients and required 3 to 5 fold lower concentrations of 4-CmC to evoke similar acidification rates to MHN. Native B-lymphocytes from MHS individuals are more sensitive to 4-CmC than those from MHN, reflecting a greater Ca(2+) turnover. The acidification response, however, was less pronounced than in muscle cells, presumably reflecting the lower expression of RyR1 in B-lymphocytes.

  8. Xerotolerant Cladosporium sphaerospermum Are Predominant on Indoor Surfaces Compared to Other Cladosporium Species

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Frank J. J.; Meijer, Martin; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor fungi are a major cause of cosmetic and structural damage of buildings worldwide and prolonged exposure of these fungi poses a health risk. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium species are the most predominant fungi in indoor environments. Cladosporium species predominate under ambient conditions. A total of 123 Cladosporium isolates originating from indoor air and indoor surfaces of archives, industrial factories, laboratories, and other buildings from four continents were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and a part of the translation elongation factor 1α gene (TEF) and actin gene (ACT). Species from the Cladosporium sphaerospermum species complex were most predominant representing 44.7% of all isolates, while the Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum species complexes represented 33.3% and 22.0%, respectively. The contribution of the C. sphaerospermum species complex was 23.1% and 58.2% in the indoor air and isolates from indoor surfaces, respectively. Isolates from this species complex showed growth at lower water activity (≥ 0.82) when compared to species from the C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum species complexes (≥ 0.85). Together, these data indicate that xerotolerance provide the C. sphaerospermum species complex advantage in colonizing indoor surfaces. As a consequence, C. sphaerospermum are proposed to be the most predominant fungus at these locations under ambient conditions. Findings are discussed in relation to the specificity of allergy test, as the current species of Cladosporium used to develop these tests are not the predominant indoor species. PMID:26690349

  9. Xerotolerant Cladosporium sphaerospermum Are Predominant on Indoor Surfaces Compared to Other Cladosporium Species.

    PubMed

    Segers, Frank J J; Meijer, Martin; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Wösten, Han A B; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor fungi are a major cause of cosmetic and structural damage of buildings worldwide and prolonged exposure of these fungi poses a health risk. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium species are the most predominant fungi in indoor environments. Cladosporium species predominate under ambient conditions. A total of 123 Cladosporium isolates originating from indoor air and indoor surfaces of archives, industrial factories, laboratories, and other buildings from four continents were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and a part of the translation elongation factor 1α gene (TEF) and actin gene (ACT). Species from the Cladosporium sphaerospermum species complex were most predominant representing 44.7% of all isolates, while the Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum species complexes represented 33.3% and 22.0%, respectively. The contribution of the C. sphaerospermum species complex was 23.1% and 58.2% in the indoor air and isolates from indoor surfaces, respectively. Isolates from this species complex showed growth at lower water activity (≥ 0.82) when compared to species from the C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum species complexes (≥ 0.85). Together, these data indicate that xerotolerance provide the C. sphaerospermum species complex advantage in colonizing indoor surfaces. As a consequence, C. sphaerospermum are proposed to be the most predominant fungus at these locations under ambient conditions. Findings are discussed in relation to the specificity of allergy test, as the current species of Cladosporium used to develop these tests are not the predominant indoor species.

  10. Circadian variations of cortisol, melatonin and lymphocyte subpopulations in geriatric age.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, G; Vendemiale, G; La Viola, M; De Cata, A; Carughi, S; Greco, A; Balzanelli, M; Tarquini, R

    2010-01-01

    A number of age-related changes in the 24-hour hormonal and non-hormonal rhythms have been found in older human beings. Lymphocyte subpopulations present circadian variation of some of their subsets and this variation may influence magnitude and expression of the immune responses. Numerous interactions exist among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, mediated by neurotransmitters, hormones and cytokines. The aim of this study is to evaluate circadian variations of some endocrine and immune factors in older adults. Cortisol and melatonin serum levels were measured and lymphocyte subpopulation analyses were performed on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours from ten healthy young and middle-aged subjects and from ten healthy elderly subjects. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in the observed values of CD20 (higher in young and middle-aged subjects) and CD25 and DR+ T cells (higher in elderly subjects). In the group of young and middle-aged subjects a clear circadian rhythm was validated for the time-qualified changes of all the factors studied. In the group of elderly subjects a number of rhythms were absent or altered. The results of the current study show that aging is associated with enhanced responsiveness of T cell compartment and alterations of circadian rhythmicity.

  11. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.; Yoshimura, H.; Kohno, Y.; Tarutani, O.; Kuma, K.; Sakane, S.; Takeda, K.; Mozai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients.

  12. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Altamimi, Eyad M.; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. Methods This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabic translation - was collected. Classes from academic years (grades) 6 - 8 were selected. SPSS Statistical Package Version 17 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, and continuous data were analyzed using t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Five hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 454 returned answered (91%). Two hundred twenty-nine (50.8%) were males. The average age of participants was 12.7 years (11 - 15 years). One hundred sixteen (25.7%) had abdominal pain-predominant FGID. Seventy-nine (68%) of them were females. Forty-seven (10.6%) had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-six (8%), 17 (3.8%), 11 (2.4%) and five (1.1%) had abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain, functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional dyspepsia, respectively. Conclusion Abdominal pain-predominant FGID has become a major health issue in Jordanian children. One of four children between the ages of 11 and 15 years exhibits at least one abdominal pain-predominant FGID. The most common form of abdominal pain-predominant FGID in our children was IBS. Females are affected more often than males. Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms are seen regularly with abdominal pain-predominant FGIDs.

  13. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, Dimitry; Gudzenko, Natalya; Dyagil, Iryna; Goroh, Eugeny; Polyschuk, Oksana; Trotsuk, Natalya; Babkina, Nataly; Romanenko, Anatoly

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) incidence in a cohort of 110,645 (enlarged later to 152,520) male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to a range of radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. The standardized incidence rates are presented for a 27-y period after the exposure. For 2007-2012 period, the authors have identified the incident CLL cases in an enlarged cohort of 152,520 persons by linkage of the cohort file with the Ukrainian National Cancer Registry (NCRU). CLL data for the previous period (1987-2006) were identified in a frame of the Ukrainian-American leukemia study in the original cohort of 110,645 male clean-up workers. A significant CLL incidence excess was shown for the entire study period 1987-2012, with more prominent levels for the earliest years (1987-1996) when the standardized incidence rate (SIR) value was estimated to be 3.61 with 95% confidence interval from 2.32 to 4.91. In 2007-2012, the CLL incidence decreased substantially but still exceeded the national level although not significantly. In parallel, the several studies were performed at the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine (NRCRM) to explore if any clinical and cytogenetic features of CLL existed in the clean-up workers. The clinical study included 80 exposed and 70 unexposed CLL cases. Among the major clinical differences of the CLL course in the clean-up workers were a shorter period of white blood cells (WBC) doubling (10.7 vs. 18.0; p<0.001), frequent infectious episodes, lymphoadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly (37 vs. 16), higher expression for CD38, and lower expression for ZAP-70 antigen. PMID:27356063

  14. Identification of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases 3, 4 and 7 in human CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes: role in regulating proliferation and the biosynthesis of interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Giembycz, M. A.; Corrigan, C. J.; Seybold, J.; Newton, R.; Barnes, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes purified from the peripheral blood of normal adult subjects were identified and characterized, and their role in modulating proliferation and the biosynthesis of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma evaluated. 2. In lysates prepared from both subsets, SK&F 95654 (PDE3 inhibitor) and rolipram (PDE4 inhibitor) suppressed cyclic AMP hydrolysis indicating the presence of PDE3 and PDE4 isoenzymes in these cells. Differential centrifugation and subsequent inhibitor and kinetic studies revealed that the particulate fraction contained, predominantly, a PDE3 isoenzyme. In contrast, the soluble fraction contained a PDE4 (approximately 65% of total activity) and, in addition, a novel enzyme that had the kinetic characteristics of the recently identified PDE7. 3. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies with primer pairs designed to recognise unique sequences in the human PDE4 and PDE7 genes amplified cDNA fragments that corresponded to the predicted sizes of HSPDE4A, HSPDE4B, HSPDE54D and HSPDE7. No message was detected for HSPDE4C after 35 cycles of amplification. 4. Functionally, rolipram inhibited phytohaemagglutinin- (PHA) and anti-CD3-induced proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and the elaboration of IL-2, which was associated with a three to four fold increase in cyclic AMP mass. In all experiments, however, rolipram was approximately 60 fold more potent at suppressing IL-2 synthesis than at inhibiting mitogenesis. In contrast, SK&F 95654 failed to suppress proliferation and cytokine generation, and did not elevate the cyclic AMP content in T-cells. Although inactive alone, SK&F 95654 potentiated the ability of rolipram to suppress PHA- and anti-CD3-induced T-cell proliferation, and PHA-induced IL-2 release. 5. When a combination of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin were used as a co-mitogen, rolipram did not affect proliferation but

  15. The B7-2 (B70) costimulatory molecule expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes is the CD86 differentiation antigen.

    PubMed

    Engel, P; Gribben, J G; Freeman, G J; Zhou, L J; Nozawa, Y; Abe, M; Nadler, L M; Wakasa, H; Tedder, T F

    1994-09-01

    T-cell activation is initiated after T-cell receptor binding to antigen, but also requires interactions between costimulatory molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells. An important costimulatory molecule expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes has been recently identified and termed B7-2 or B70. Independently, a new Cluster of Differentiation was defined in the Fifth International Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop as CD86, a molecule predominantly expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes. In this study, the two monoclonal antibodies that defined CD86, FUN-1 and BU-63, were shown to bind to cDNA transfected cells expressing B7-2/B70. The FUN-1 monoclonal antibody also completely blocked the costimulatory activity of B7-2/B70 in functional assays. Therefore, the serologically defined CD86 differentiation antigen is the B7-2/B70 molecule.

  16. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man.

    PubMed

    Stejskal, Vera DM; Danersund, Antero; Lindvall, Anders; Hudecek, Romuald; Nordman, Veronica; Yaqob, Amer; Mayer, Wolfgang; Bieger, Wilfried; Lindh, Ulf

    1999-01-01

    Many patients attribute their health problems to amalgam and other dental metals. In genetically susceptible indviduals, mercury and gold may function as haptens and elicit allergic and autoimmune reactions. The frequency of metal-induced lymphocyte responses was examined in 3,162 patients in three European laboratories using MELISA(R), an optimized lymphocyte proliferation test. The patients suffered from local and systemic symptoms attributed to dental restorations. The effect of dental metal removal was studied in 111 patients with metal hypersensitivity and symptoms resembling Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). After consultation with a dentist the patients decided to replace their metal restorations with non-metallic materials. The changes in health and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity were studied by inquiries and follow-up MELISA(R). Lymphocyte reactivity was also analyzed in 116 healthy subjects with no complaints of metal allergy. A significant number of patients had metal-specific lymphocytes in the blood. Nickel was the most common sensitizer, followed by inorganic mercury, gold, phenylmercury, cadmium and palladium. As compared to lymphocyte responses in healthy subjects, the CFS group had significantly increased responses to several metals, especially to inorganic mercury, phenylmercury and gold. Following dental metal removal, 83 patients (76%) reported long-term health improvement. Twenty-four patients (22%) reported unchanged health and two (2%) reported worsening of symptoms. Following dental metal replacement, the lymphocyte reactivity to metals decreased as well. We propose that an inflammatory process induced by metals may modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and trigger multiple non-specific symptoms characterizing CFS and other chronic conditions like myalgic encephalitis (ME) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). PMID:11460087

  17. Effect of controlled ozone exposure on human lymphocyte function

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.L.; Smialowicz, R.; Harder, S.; Ketcham, B.; House, D.

    1981-04-01

    The effects of ozone (O/sub 3/) on cell-mediated immunity were studied in 16 human subjects exposed to 1176 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ O/sub 3/ (0.6 ppM) for 2 h in an environmentally controlled exposure chamber. Venous blood samples were taken before and immediately after controlled air and O/sub 3/ exposures, as well as at 72 h, 2 and 4 weeks, and at one random time at least 1 month after treatment. The relative frequency of T lymphocytes in blood and the in vitro blastogenic response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and Candida albicans were determined. During the course of the experiment, no statistically significant changes were observed in the number of T lymphocytes that form spontaneous rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. The response of T lymphocytes to PHA was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in samples taken at 2 and 4 weeks, following O/sub 3/ exposure. Normal response to PHA was observed at 2 months post-O/sub 3/ exposure. No statistically significant changes in lymphocyte responses to Con A, PWM, or Candida were seen. These results show that one 2 h exposure of humans to 0.6 ppM O/sub 3/ may lead to a transient suppression of the PHA-stimulated blastogenic transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The data indicate that the blastogenic response to PHA of human lymphocytes is exquisitely sensitive to O/sub 3/ exposure and could serve as a bioassay for evaluating subtle changes in cellular immunity induced by O/sub 3/ and possibly other pollutants.

  18. Locomotion in Lymphocytes is Altered by Differential PKC Isoform Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    1999-01-01

    Lymphocyte locomotion is critical for proper elicitation of the immune response. Locomotion of immune cells via the interstitium is essential for optimal immune function during wound healing, inflammation and infection. There are conditions which alter lymphocyte locomotion and one of them is spaceflight. Lymphocyte locomotion is severely inhibited in true spaceflight (true microgravity) and in rotating wall vessel culture (modeled microgravity). When lymphocytes are activated prior to culture in modeled microgravity, locomotion is not inhibited and the levels are comparable to those of static cultured lymphocytes. When a phorbol ester (PMA) is used in modeled microgravity, lymphocyte locomotion is restored by 87%. This occurs regardless if PMA is added after culture in the rotating wall vessel or during culture. Inhibition of DNA synthesis also does not alter restoration of lymphocyte locomotion by PMA. PMA is a direct activator of (protein kinase C) PKC . When a calcium ionophore, ionomycin is used it does not possess any restorative properties towards locomotion either alone or collectively with PMA. Since PMA brings about restoration without help from calcium ionophores (ionomycin), it is infer-red that calcium independent PKC isoforms are involved. Changes were perceived in the protein levels of PKC 6 where levels of the protein were downregulated at 24,72 and 96 hours in untreated rotated cultures (modeled microgravity) compared to untreated static (1g) cultures. At 48 hours there is an increase in the levels of PKC & in the same experimental set up. Studies on transcriptional and translational patterns of calcium independent isoforms of PKC such as 8 and E are presented in this study.

  19. Functional inactivation of lymphocytes by methylene blue with visible light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Zhenzhen; Mo, Qin; Wang, Li; Wang, Xun; Wu, Xiaofei; Jia, Yao; Huang, Yuwen

    2015-10-01

    Transfusion of allogeneic white blood cells (WBCs) may cause adverse reactions in immunocompromised recipients, including transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), which is often fatal and incurable. In this study, the in vitro effect of methylene blue with visible light (MB + L) treatment on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production was measured to investigate whether MB + L can be used to prevent immune reactions that result from transfused lymphocytes. WBCs and 3 μM of MB were mixed and transferred into medical PVC bags, which were then exposed to visible light. Gamma irradiation was conducted as a parallel positive control. The cells without treatment were used as untreated group. All the groups were tested for the ability of cell proliferation and cytokine production upon stimulation. After incubation with mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or plate-bound anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, the proliferation of MB + L/gamma-irradiation treated lymphocytes was significantly inhibited (P < 0.01) as compared to the untreated ones; the proliferation inhibitive rate of the MB + L group was even higher than that of gamma-irradiated cells (73.77% ± 28.75% vs. 44.72% ± 38.20%). MB + L treated cells incubated up to 7 days with PHA also showed no significant proliferation. The levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-1β present in the supernatant of MB + L treated lymphocytes upon stimulation were significantly lower than those of untreated lymphocytes. These results demonstrated that MB + L treatment functionally and irreversibly inactivated lymphocytes by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation and the production of cytokines. MB + L treatment might be a promising method for the prevention of adverse immune responses caused by WBCs. PMID:26295729

  20. Expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cook-Moreau, Jeanne M; El-Makhour Hojeij, Yola; Barrière, Guislaine; Rabinovitch-Chable, Hélène C; Faucher, Karine S; Sturtz, Franck G; Rigaud, Michel A

    2007-01-01

    5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the biologically active leukotrienes. Its presence has been reported in cells of the myeloid lineage and B lymphocytes but has not been formally defined in T lymphocytes. In this study, we provide evidence for 5-LOX expression on both transcriptional and translational levels in highly purified peripheral blood T cells as well as in human T lymphoblastoid cell lines (MOLT4 and Jurkat). Messenger RNA (mRNA) of 5-LOX was amplified by conventional reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; MOLT4 and Jurkat cells) and by in situ RT-PCR (T lymphocytes). 5-LOX protein expression was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence studies. 5-LOX was present primarily in the cytoplasm with some nuclear localization and was translocated to the nuclear periphery after culture in a mitosis-supporting medium. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of different T-lymphocyte populations, including CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD45RA, T helper type 2, and T-cell receptor-αβ and -γδ expressing cells, did not identify a differential distribution of the enzyme. Purified peripheral blood T lymphocytes were incapable of synthesizing leukotrienes in the absence of exogenous arachidonic acid. Jurkat cells produced leukotriene C4 and a small amount of leukotriene B4 in response to CD3–CD28 cross-linking. This synthesis was abolished by two inhibitors of leukotriene synthesis, MK-886 and AA-861. The presence of 5-LOX in T lymphocytes but the absence of endogenous lipoxygenase metabolite production compared to Jurkat cells may constitute a fundamental difference between resting peripheral lymphocytes and leukaemic cells. PMID:17484769

  1. Acute lymphocytic cholangitis and liver failure in an Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Crook, Erika K; Carpenter, Nancy A

    2014-03-01

    An adult male Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) with confirmed inflammatory bowel disease developed acute severe icterus, bilirubinuria, bilirubinemia, and elevated bile acids after a diet change. Liver biopsies showed moderate lymphoplasmacytic cholangiohepatitis (lymphocytic cholangitis). The tiger developed neurologic signs including ataxia, tremors, and seizures, as well as epistaxis. Therapy consisted of antibiotics, a steroid anti-inflammatory, vitamins, pro-coagulants, and liver-supportive medicines. The tiger improved from acute liver failure within 3 wk, while the epistaxis began at 3.5 wk and did not resolve until 10.5 wk. The long-term maintenance plan consists of oral prednisolone, metronidazole, ursodiol, and an all muscle-meat beef diet. PMID:24712173

  2. Acute sinusitis and blindness as the first presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K H; Thomas, G; van Beers, E J; Hosman, A E; Mourits, M P; van Noesel, C J M; Kater, A P; Reinartz, S M

    2014-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most frequent form of leukaemia among adults in the Western world, presenting at a median age of 65 years. The diagnosis is usually made incidentally during routine blood examination while the disease is still in its early phase. We report a case of blindness of 24 hours due to acute sinusitis based on CLL localisation in a patient with undiagnosed CLL. Emergency endoscopic sinus surgery and intra- and extra-ocular orbital decompression were performed. The sinusitis resolved after surgery and intravenous antibiotics. Her vision improved within 24 hours and eventually recovered completely after six months. Her CLL remained in an indolent state, needing no active treatment. This case illustrates that blindness from a lymphoproliferative disorder may be treated with emergency endoscopic sinus surgery instead of conventional chemotherapy in order to salvage the vision first, even if the vision is lost for more than 24 hours.

  3. Acute lymphocytic cholangitis and liver failure in an Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Crook, Erika K; Carpenter, Nancy A

    2014-03-01

    An adult male Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) with confirmed inflammatory bowel disease developed acute severe icterus, bilirubinuria, bilirubinemia, and elevated bile acids after a diet change. Liver biopsies showed moderate lymphoplasmacytic cholangiohepatitis (lymphocytic cholangitis). The tiger developed neurologic signs including ataxia, tremors, and seizures, as well as epistaxis. Therapy consisted of antibiotics, a steroid anti-inflammatory, vitamins, pro-coagulants, and liver-supportive medicines. The tiger improved from acute liver failure within 3 wk, while the epistaxis began at 3.5 wk and did not resolve until 10.5 wk. The long-term maintenance plan consists of oral prednisolone, metronidazole, ursodiol, and an all muscle-meat beef diet.

  4. Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Fails to Fully Regenerate the B-Lymphocyte Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ghosn, Eliver Eid Bou; Waters, Jeffrey; Phillips, Megan; Yamamoto, Ryo; Long, Brian R.; Yang, Yang; Gerstein, Rachel; Stoddart, Cheryl A.; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Herzenberg, Leonore A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary B cells are key components of cellular and humoral immunity and, like all lymphocytes, are thought to originate and renew from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, our recent single-HSC transfer studies demonstrate that adult bone marrow HSCs do not regenerate B-1a, a subset of tissue B cells required for protection against pneumonia, influenza, and other infections. Since B-1a are regenerated by transfers of fetal liver, the question arises as to whether B-1a derive from fetal, but not adult, HSCs. Here we show that, similar to adult HSCs, fetal HSCs selectively fail to regenerate B-1a. We also show that, in humanized mice, human fetal liver regenerates tissue B cells that are phenotypically similar to murine B-1a, raising the question of whether human HSC transplantation, the mainstay of such models, is sufficient to regenerate human B-1a. Thus, our studies overtly challenge the current paradigm that HSCs give rise to all components of the immune system. PMID:26724903

  5. CC chemokine receptor 7 required for T lymphocyte exit from peripheral tissues

    PubMed Central

    Debes, Gudrun F.; Arnold, Carrie N.; Young, Alan J.; Krautwald, Stefan; Lipp, Martin; Hay, John B.; Butcher, Eugene C.

    2006-01-01

    Lymphocytes travel throughout the body to carry out immune surveillance and participate in inflammatory reactions. Their path takes them from blood through tissues into lymph and back to blood. Molecules that control lymphocyte recruitment into extralymphoid tissues are well characterized, but exit is assumed to be random. Here, we showed that lymphocyte emigration from the skin was regulated and pertussis toxin-sensitive. CD4+ lymphocytes emigrated more efficiently than CD8+ or B lymphocytes. T lymphocytes in the afferent lymph expressed functional CCR7, and CCR7 was required for T lymphocyte exit from the skin. The regulated expression of CCR7 by tissue T lymphocytes may control their exit, acting with recruitment mechanisms to regulate lymphocyte transit and accumulation during immune surveillance and inflammation. PMID:16116468

  6. Chemokine receptor CCR7 required for T lymphocyte exit from peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Debes, Gudrun F; Arnold, Carrie N; Young, Alan J; Krautwald, Stefan; Lipp, Martin; Hay, John B; Butcher, Eugene C

    2005-09-01

    Lymphocytes travel throughout the body to carry out immune surveillance and participate in inflammatory reactions. Their path takes them from blood through tissues into lymph and back to blood. Molecules that control lymphocyte recruitment into extralymphoid tissues are well characterized, but exit is assumed to be random. Here, we showed that lymphocyte emigration from the skin was regulated and was sensitive to pertussis toxin. CD4(+) lymphocytes emigrated more efficiently than CD8(+) or B lymphocytes. T lymphocytes in the afferent lymph expressed functional chemokine receptor CCR7, and CCR7 was required for T lymphocyte exit from the skin. The regulated expression of CCR7 by tissue T lymphocytes may control their exit, acting with recruitment mechanisms to regulate lymphocyte transit and accumulation during immune surveillance and inflammation. PMID:16116468

  7. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  8. Success Factors of Black Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Black faculty at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) have historically been underrepresented and made to endure with academic isolation, scholarship marginalization and other challenges to the tenure process. When it comes to science, technology, engineering and math, also known as STEM, as it relates to race and success, little is known of…

  9. Undergraduate Survey of Black Undergraduate Students Attending Predominantly White, State-Supported Universities. Preliminary Report: 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.; And Others

    This report discusses the results of a survey of the characteristics and the social and academic experiences of black undergraduates at eight predominantly white and regionally diverse State college campuses. The majority of the students sampled were freshmen. Major findings are that: (1) black undergraduates did not report markedly unpleasant or…

  10. Identity, Age, Proportion of Online Classes, and Success among Students in a Predominantly Online Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen-Landy, Bev

    2012-01-01

    Most colleges and universities in the US offer at least some classes online, and a significant number of colleges and universities offer degree programs either all online or predominantly online. Many of the distance learning courses and programs emerge from traditional courses and programs; however, in the past decade we have seen the emergence…

  11. Balancing Survival and Resistance: Experiences of Faculty of Color in Predominantly Euro American Schools of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Hassouneh, Dena; Akeroyd, Jen; Beckett, Ann K.

    2013-01-01

    This report of findings from a grounded theory study conducted with 23 faculty of color (FOC) in predominately Euro American schools of nursing presents the central process used by FOC as they navigate academic careers as persons of color. As FOC struggled to progress in their careers and influence their academic environments they engaged in a…

  12. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  13. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    PubMed

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation. PMID:27664632

  14. Black Male College Achievers and Resistant Responses to Racist Stereotypes at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…

  15. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  16. Black Female Voices: Self-Presentation Strategies in Doctoral Programs at Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavers, Marjorie C.; Moore, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation uses Black feminist thought as the interpretive lens to investigate perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). Semistructured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and how these…

  17. Coloring the Academic Landscape: Faculty of Color Breaking the Silence in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    This article, based on a larger, autoethnographic qualitative research project, focuses on the first-hand experiences of 27 faculty of color teaching in predominantly White colleges and universities. The 27 faculty represented a variety of institutions, disciplines, academic titles, and ranks. They identified themselves as African American,…

  18. Do Black Students Learn More at Historically Black or Predominantly White Colleges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Louise; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Study investigated the relative freshman-year cognitive impacts on black students enrolled in 2 historically black and 16 predominantly white colleges. Results indicated general parity in standardized measures of reading comprehension, mathematics, critical thinking, and composite achievement between black students attending black colleges and…

  19. Do Black Students Learn More at Historically Black or Predominantly White Colleges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Louise; And Others

    This study investigated the relative freshman-year cognitive impacts of 2 historically black and 16 predominantly white colleges on black students. Of these institutions, 5 were 2-year institutions and the rest were 4-year colleges. The data were taken from a pool of 2,416 freshmen students who participated in the National Study of Student…

  20. A genetic analysis of male-predominant pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Scott, D; Richmond, R C

    1988-07-01

    Chemical signals from males play an important role in stimulating Drosophila melanogaster females to mate, and male-predominant pheromones may influence a female's choice of mates. Male-predominant pheromones also inhibit courtship, thereby functioning as antiaphrodisiacs. Interstrain variation in the ratio of two male-predominant pheromones (7-tricosene and 7-pentacosene) has been reported, but the genetic basis for this potentially important variation has not been examined. In a series of crosses between strains that differ radically in the amounts of 7-tricosene and 7-pentacosene, we have identified both X-linked and autosomal contributions to interstrain variation in the amounts of these compounds. The X-linked loci act as enhancers for production of the compound predominant in the strain from which the X chromosome originated. Autosomal factors for each of the two compounds appear to segregate as high vs. low, with incomplete dominance of high 7-tricosene over low, and low 7-pentacosene over high. A significant negative correlation between the quantities of 7-pentacosene and 7-tricosene in the F2 and backcross progeny, but not in the F1s or parentals, indicates linkage between autosomal loci regulating the expression of each compound. However, the phenotypic distributions of the backcross progeny indicate that additional unlinked loci are also directly involved in the production of these two hydrocarbons.

  1. Proteome-wide identification of predominant subcellular protein localizations in a bacterial model organism

    SciTech Connect

    Stekhoven, Daniel J.; Omasits, Ulrich; Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Christoph; Ahrens, Christian H.

    2014-03-01

    Proteomics data provide unique insights into biological systems, including the predominant subcellular localization (SCL) of proteins, which can reveal important clues about their functions. Here we analyzed data of a complete prokaryotic proteome expressed under two conditions mimicking interaction of the emerging pathogen Bartonella henselae with its mammalian host. Normalized spectral count data from cytoplasmic, total membrane, inner and outer membrane fractions allowed us to identify the predominant SCL for 82% of the identified proteins. The spectral count proportion of total membrane versus cytoplasmic fractions indicated the propensity of cytoplasmic proteins to co-fractionate with the inner membrane, and enabled us to distinguish cytoplasmic, peripheral innermembrane and bona fide inner membrane proteins. Principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbor classification training on selected marker proteins or predominantly localized proteins, allowed us to determine an extensive catalog of at least 74 expressed outer membrane proteins, and to extend the SCL assignment to 94% of the identified proteins, including 18% where in silico methods gave no prediction. Suitable experimental proteomics data combined with straightforward computational approaches can thus identify the predominant SCL on a proteome-wide scale. Finally, we present a conceptual approach to identify proteins potentially changing their SCL in a condition-dependent fashion.

  2. 76 FR 51011 - Applications for New Awards; Predominantly Black Institutions Formula Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Applications for New Awards; Predominantly Black Institutions Formula Grant Program AGENCY: Office of... Institutions (PBI) Formula Grant Program. Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2011... application a sum that bears the same ratio to one-half of that amount as the number of Federal Pell...

  3. Sociocultural Influences on Undergraduate Students' Conversations on Race at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvalson, Sherri Ivy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the sociocultural influences on dialogues about race of undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). This qualitative study included 16 undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a small, private university in the Midwest who participated…

  4. Racial Microaggressions: The Narratives of African American Faculty at a Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2012-01-01

    What role does race play in the lives of fourteen African American (7 women, 7 men) faculty on a predominantly White campus? This case study focuses on their narratives which revealed that racial microaggressions were a common and negative facet of their lives on campus. Specifically, their narratives suggest interactions of microinvalidations…

  5. Predominant bacteria in an activated sludge reactor for the degradation of cutting fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.A.; Claus, G.W.; Taylor, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    For the first time, an activated sludge reactor, established for the degradation of cutting fluids, was examined for predominant bacteria. In addition, both total and viable numbers of bacteria in the reactor were determined so that the percentage of each predominant type in the total reactor population could be determined. Three samples were studied, and a total of 15 genera were detected. In each sample, the genus Pseudomonas and the genus Microcyclus were present in high numbers. Three other genera, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, and Corynebacterium, were also found in every sample but in lower numbers. In one sample, numerous appendage bacteria were present, and one of these, the genus Seliberia, was the most predominant organism in that sample. However, in the other two samples no appendage bacteria were detected. Six genera were found in this reactor which have not been previously reported in either cutting fluids in use or in other activated sludge systems. These genera were Aeromonas, Hyphomonas, Listeria, Microcyclus, Moraxella, and Spirosoma. None of the predominant bacterial belonged to groups of strict pathogens. 22 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Mentoring 101: Advancing African-American Women Faculty and Doctoral Student Success in Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…

  7. The Benefits of a Comprehensive Retention Program for African American Students at a Predominately White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lakitta

    2013-01-01

    Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the retention of African American students at predominately White colleges and universities continues to be problematic. Although many of these institutions have implemented retention programs for African American students, few have incorporated a comprehensive program that utilizes multi-program…

  8. Role of predominant rumen bacteria in the cause of polioencephalomalacia (cerebrocortical necrosis) in cattle.

    PubMed

    Haven, T R; Caldwell, D R; Jensen, R

    1983-08-01

    Rumen contents of 2 heifers with acute polioencephalomalacia (cerebrocortical necrosis) were compared with rumen contents from a healthy steer fed a fibrous diet. Also examined were (i) the quantitative nature of the predominant rumen microflora, (ii) the distribution of morphologic types of bacteria in the rumen contents, (iii) the extent that morphologic groups produced or degraded thiamine, and (iv) the cumulative effects of metabolic activities of the predominant rumen bacteria concerning the net production or degradation of thiamine. The differences in the frequency of occurrence of particular bacterial morphologic groups, the extent of growth, and the amount of thiamine metabolism in relationship to growth were also evaluated. The cumulative thiamine metabolism of the predominant bacteria associated with the rumen of polioencephalomalacia-affected heifers led to substantial net thiamine destruction, whereas metabolism associated with the rumen of a normal steer led to thiamine production. Polioencephalomalacia may occur as a consequence of alteration of the metabolic activities of the predominant resident ruminal bacteria associated with diseased cattle.

  9. African American Faculty Expressing Concerns: Breaking the Silence at Predominantly White Research Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…

  10. Public Platitudes and Hidden Tensions: Racial Climates at Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Katherine E.

    1990-01-01

    Theories of intergroup attitudes suggest that the period of relative calm on college campuses was only superficial. Theories are supported by a study of a "quiet" predominantly White liberal arts college. Findings indicate significant differences between Blacks and Whites on a variety of measures of interracial attitudes and interaction patterns.…

  11. A Comparison of College Park Black Freshmen with Black Freshmen Nationally in Predominantly White Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Mary A.; And Others

    The purpose of the study was to compare selected characteristics of College Park black freshmen with those of black freshmen nationally. Summer 1972 orientation black freshmen and Fall 1971 national black freshmen in predominantly white universities were the subjects of the study. The responses of 194 black freshmen on the University Student…

  12. A Comparison of College Park Black Freshmen with Black Freshmen Nationally in Predominantly White Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Mary A.; And Others

    The purpose of the study was to compare selected characteristics of University of Maryland College Park black freshmen with those of black freshmen nationally. Summer 1972 orientation black freshmen and Fall 1971 national black freshmen in predominantly white universities were the subjects of the study. The responses of 194 black freshmen on the…

  13. The Black Student Experience at Predominantly White Colleges: Implications for School and College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.

    2010-01-01

    Research from higher education and cultural studies that has examined the Black college student experience at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) is presented to assist counselors in understanding how Black college students' relationships with faculty, family, friends from home, and peers in Black student organizations can become assets or…

  14. African American and White Adolescents' Strategies for Managing Cultural Diversity in Predominantly White High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined 3 strategies used by 77 African American and 138 White high school students to manage cultural diversity: multicultural, separation, and assimilation strategies. Discusses results in relation to forces supporting adolescents' strategy development and the implications of strategy use for adjustment in predominantly white schools. (SLD)

  15. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Integrated Home-School Behavioral Treatment for ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; Easterlin, Barbara; Zalecki, Christine; McBurnett, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral psychosocial treatment integrated across home and school (Child Life and Attention Skills Program) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I). Method: Sixty-nine children ages 7 to 11 years were randomized to the Child Life and Attention Skills…

  16. School Counselors' Activities in Predominantly African American Urban Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Lacretia

    2014-01-01

    A total of 102 school counselors who worked in predominantly African American urban schools in Michigan were surveyed to ascertain how frequently they engaged in school counseling activities as conceptualized by the American School Counseling Association. Additionally, this exploratory study sought to determine whether there were differences in…

  17. Neurocognitive Functioning in AD/HD, Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Gilbert, Sharone N.; Raj, Anu; Zhu, John; Pope-Boyd, Sa'brina; Stepak, Brenda; Vail, Lucia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    The Predominantly Inattentive (PI) and Combined (CB) subtypes of AD/HD differ in cognitive tempo, age of onset, gender ratio, and comorbidity, yet a differentiating endophenotype has not been identified. The aim of this study was to test rigorously diagnosed PI, CB, and typical children on measures selected for their potential to reveal…

  18. Experiences of Black Women Who Persist to Graduation at Predominantly White Schools of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Francine Simms

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the experiences of Black women who attended predominantly White nursing schools. A phenomenological design was used to investigate eight nurses who persisted through to graduation from their nursing programs in the 21st century. The study examined persistence through the lens of academic involvement, alienation,…

  19. Racial Microaggressions in the Residence Halls: Experiences of Students of Color at a Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Stacy A.; Huntt, Margaret Browne; Mendenhall, Ruby; Lewis, Jioni A.

    2012-01-01

    Students of color often perceive the campus climate more negatively than do their White counterparts. Our study begins to uncover what students of color experience in residence halls. Using focus group data from a larger study exploring racial microaggressions at a predominantly White institution (PWI), we identified over 70 racial…

  20. Latina "Testimonios": A Reflexive, Critical Analysis of a "Latina Space" at a Predominantly White Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Judith; Garcia, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Judith Flores and Silvia Garcia (University of Utah) draw from the work of their mentor, Rina Benmayor and "Telling to live: Latina feminist testimonios" to establish an organization for Latinas who are staff, faculty, students, alumni, and community members at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Critical race feminism (CRF), Latina/o…