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Sample records for adult male rural

  1. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  2. A Population based Study on Alcoholism among Adult Males in a Rural Area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ruma; Gnanasekaran, Sruthy; Suchithra, S; Srilalitha, V; Sujitha, R; Sivaranjani, S Sowmya; Subitha, S; Dcruze, Lawrence

    2014-06-01

    India's reputation as a country with a culture of abstinence especially in matters regarding alcohol is underserved. There has been a rapid proliferation of city bars and nightclubs in recent years and people are fast shedding its inhibitions about alcohol as a lifestyle choice. This scenario has led to fears of an undocumented rise in alcohol abuse among all sections of society. Policies by the government has been laid down to regulate sales and pricing of alcohol, but not well improvised. Our aim was to find out the prevalence of alcoholism among adult males in a rural population and also to analyze its association between various factors. A cross sectional study in a rural population at Kuthampakkam village, in Poonamallee block of Tiruvallur district in Tamil Nadu, India. The study population included adult male population. Simple random sampling method was adopted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, history of alcoholism and certain social factors. Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables and the prevalence of the alcoholism. Chi-square test and p-value were calculated to see the association between alcoholism and social factors. A total of 157 adult male were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 37.20 years. The prevalence of alcoholism among the study participants was 35.7%. Among them only 4.5% who presented with symptoms of chronic alcoholism had taken treatment. Reasons for not taking treatment for alcoholism among study population were mainly due to their family problems (55.2%). Although alcohol consumption has existed for many centuries, the quantity, usage pattern, and resultant problems have undergone substantial changes over the past 20 years. These developments have raised concerns about the public health and social

  3. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels. PMID:28212346

  5. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  6. Large and forgotten in rural Australia: assessment, attitudes and possible approaches to losing weight in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Kumara; Forster, Tanya; Paxton, Karen; Hyland, Karen; Yelverton, Jason; McLean, Rick; Canalese, Joseph; Brown, Anthony; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2014-03-11

    Young Adult Males (YAMs) in rural Australia are poorly studied with respect to overweight and obesity. Firstly, we explored the feasibility of recruiting 17-25 year old YAMs to obtain baseline data on overweight and obesity rates, socio-demographics, nutrition, exercise and mobile phone usage. Secondly, we explored the views of YAMs with a waist measurement over 94 cm about using mobile phone text messages to promote weight loss and incentives to promote healthy lifestyles. A two-staged, mixed-methods approach was used to study obesity and overweight issues in Dubbo, a regional city in New South Wales, Australia. In Phase I, socio-demographic, health behaviour and mobile phone usage data were collected using a questionnaire and anthropometric data collected by direct measurement. In Phase II, YAMs' views were explored by focus group discussion using a semi-structured questionnaire. Phase I (145 participants): mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 25.06±5.01; mean waist circumference 87.4±15.4 cm. In total, 39.3% were obese (12.4%) or overweight (26.9%) and 24.1% had an increased risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity. 135 (93.1%) owned a mobile phone and sent on average 17±25 text messages per day and received 18±24. Phase II (30 participants): YAMs acknowledged that overweight and obesity was a growing societal concern with many health related implications, but didn't feel this was something that affected them personally at this stage of their lives. Motivation was therefore an issue. YAMs admitted that they would only be concerned about losing weight if something drastic occurred in their lives. Text messages would encourage and motivate them to adopt a healthy lifestyle if they were individually tailored. Gym memberships, not cash payments, seem to be the most favoured incentive. There is a clear need for an effective health promotion strategy for the almost 40% overweight or obese Dubbo YAMs. The high rate of text message usage makes it feasible to

  7. Large and forgotten in rural Australia: assessment, attitudes and possible approaches to losing weight in young adult males

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young Adult Males (YAMs) in rural Australia are poorly studied with respect to overweight and obesity. Firstly, we explored the feasibility of recruiting 17–25 year old YAMs to obtain baseline data on overweight and obesity rates, socio-demographics, nutrition, exercise and mobile phone usage. Secondly, we explored the views of YAMs with a waist measurement over 94 cm about using mobile phone text messages to promote weight loss and incentives to promote healthy lifestyles. Methods A two-staged, mixed-methods approach was used to study obesity and overweight issues in Dubbo, a regional city in New South Wales, Australia. In Phase I, socio-demographic, health behaviour and mobile phone usage data were collected using a questionnaire and anthropometric data collected by direct measurement. In Phase II, YAMs’ views were explored by focus group discussion using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Phase I (145 participants): mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 25.06 ± 5.01; mean waist circumference 87.4 ± 15.4 cm. In total, 39.3% were obese (12.4%) or overweight (26.9%) and 24.1% had an increased risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity. 135 (93.1%) owned a mobile phone and sent on average 17 ± 25 text messages per day and received 18 ± 24. Phase II (30 participants): YAMs acknowledged that overweight and obesity was a growing societal concern with many health related implications, but didn’t feel this was something that affected them personally at this stage of their lives. Motivation was therefore an issue. YAMs admitted that they would only be concerned about losing weight if something drastic occurred in their lives. Text messages would encourage and motivate them to adopt a healthy lifestyle if they were individually tailored. Gym memberships, not cash payments, seem to be the most favoured incentive. Conclusion There is a clear need for an effective health promotion strategy for the almost 40% overweight or obese

  8. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). Conclusion There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour. PMID:26985272

  9. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour.

  10. Rural male suicide in Australia.

    PubMed

    Alston, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rural Adult Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Hew

    Adult education in rural areas in Australia provides a contrast both in its general mood and intentions and in its organization with that in the United States. Particularly in rural areas, there seems to be less of the compulsion to organize groups (there are usually no school boards, no chambers of commerce, no women's clubs, no youth centers)…

  12. Cross-sectional evaluation of the periapical status as related to quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a rural adult male population of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Kaan; Avsever, Hakan; Orhan, Kaan; Demirkaya, Kadriye

    2011-06-20

    To determine the prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal-treated teeth in a rural, male adult, Turkish population and to investigate the influence of the quality of root canal fillings on prevalence of periapical lesions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 552 adult male patients, 18-32 years of age, presenting consecutively as new patients seeking routine dental care at the Dental Sciences of Gulhane Military Medicine, Ankara. The radiographs of the 1014 root canal-treated teeth were evaluated. The teeth were grouped according to the radiographic quality of the root canal filling and the coronal restoration. The criteria used for the examination were slightly modified from those described by De Moor. Periapical status was assessed by the Periapical Index scores (PAI) proposed by Orstavik. The overall success rate of root canal treatment was 32.1%. The success rates of adequately root canal treatment were significantly higher than inadequately root canal treatment, regardless of the quality or presence of the coronal restoration (P < .001). In addition, the success rate of inadequate root canal treatment was also significantly affected by the quality of coronal restorations. Our results revealed a high prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal treatment, which is comparable to that reported in other methodologically compatible studies from diverse geographical locations. In addition, the results from the present study confirm the findings of other studies that found the quality of the root canal treatment to be a key factor for prognosis with or without adequate coronal restoration.

  13. Cross-sectional evaluation of the periapical status as related to quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a rural adult male population of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal-treated teeth in a rural, male adult, Turkish population and to investigate the influence of the quality of root canal fillings on prevalence of periapical lesions. Methods The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 552 adult male patients, 18-32 years of age, presenting consecutively as new patients seeking routine dental care at the Dental Sciences of Gulhane Military Medicine, Ankara. The radiographs of the 1014 root canal-treated teeth were evaluated. The teeth were grouped according to the radiographic quality of the root canal filling and the coronal restoration. The criteria used for the examination were slightly modified from those described by De Moor. Periapical status was assessed by the Periapical Index scores (PAI) proposed by Orstavik. Results The overall success rate of root canal treatment was 32.1%. The success rates of adequately root canal treatment were significantly higher than inadequately root canal treatment, regardless of the quality or presence of the coronal restoration (P < .001). In addition, the success rate of inadequate root canal treatment was also significantly affected by the quality of coronal restorations. Conclusions Our results revealed a high prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal treatment, which is comparable to that reported in other methodologically compatible studies from diverse geographical locations. In addition, the results from the present study confirm the findings of other studies that found the quality of the root canal treatment to be a key factor for prognosis with or without adequate coronal restoration. PMID:21689415

  14. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  15. The Healthy Adults Project in rural Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Eichner, June E; Fisher, Kimberly A; Moore, William E; Kobza, Cee E; Abbott, Kathryn E; Thompson, David M; Stephens, Aietah L

    2009-01-01

    Screening to identify individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease is sorely needed in rural areas of Oklahoma. The Healthy Adults Project was started as a screening program for public school employees in a rural school district in southwest Oklahoma. The screening project is a collaborative effort between the Anadarko Public School district and the University of Oklahoma Prevention Research Center. Two hundred twenty-four (224) employees participated in the screening in 2004, and 206 employees participated in 2005. Approximately 50% of females and 80% of males had two or more modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in 2004 and 2005. Worksite screening is a valuable tool to raise awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly in less densely populated areas where wages are low and few preventive services are available. Knowledge of individual risk is the first step in improving health outcomes.

  16. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  17. Comparison of Some Personality Characteristics of Male Problem Drinkers in Rural Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Harsha N.

    Sixteen hundred and thirty white male adults living in the Upper Cumberland area of rural middle Tennessee were administered the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) to classify them by their degree of alcohol abuse into alcoholics, probable alcoholics, and non-alcoholics. These respondents had been referred by the courts to an educational…

  18. Frailty among rural elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors related to frailty, by Fried criteria, in the elderly population in a rural area in the Andes Mountains, and to analyze the relationship of these with comorbidity and disability. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 1878 participants 60 years of age and older. The frailty syndrome was diagnosed based on the Fried criteria (weakness, low speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss). Variables were grouped as theoretical domains and, along with other potential confounders, were placed into five categories: (a) demographic and socioeconomic status, (b) health status, (c) self-reported functional status, (d) physical performance-based measures, and (e) psychosocial factors. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the prognostic value of frailty for the outcomes of interest. Results The prevalence of frailty was 12.2%. Factors associated with frailty were age, gender, health status variables that included self-perceived health and number of chronic conditions, functional covariate variables that included disability in activities in daily living (ADL), disabilities in instrumental ADL, chair stand time, and psychosocial variables that included depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. Higher comorbidity and disability was found in frail elderly people. Only a subset of frail elderly people (10%) reported no disease or disability. Conclusions A relevant number of elderly persons living in rural areas in the Andes Mountains are frail. The prevalence of frailty is similar to that reported in other populations in the Latin American region. Our results support the use of modified Cardiovascular Health Study criteria to measure frailty in communities other than urban settings. Frailty in this study was strongly associated with comorbidities, and frailty and comorbidity predicted disability. PMID:24405584

  19. Demonstration Program in Individualized Adult Education in Rural Areas, July 1, 1974-December 31, 1975. Final Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Div. of Continuing Education.

    The final report of a demonstration project in individualized adult education in rural areas of Arkansas, which took place during the period of July 1974 through December 1975, is presented. Program goals included: (1) to recruit and retain rural male adults who are operating at less than a fourth grade educational level, with emphasis on the…

  20. Adult Education in the Service of the Rural Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, V. S.

    1975-01-01

    The address, delivered at the 27th All India Adult Education Conference, summarizes demographic data on the rural poor, their economic and social situation, and discusses land reform, technology, employment opportunities, and adult education as ways to eliminate rural poverty. Adult education promotes leadership development and community…

  1. Informal Supports of Older Adults: A Rural-Urban Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jean Pearson; Roberto, Karen A.

    1987-01-01

    Compared rural and urban older adults on exchanges of assistance and social activities with children and friends. Found that illness prompted more giving and receiving of assistance for rural in comparison to urban informal supports. Rural widows were more actively involved in exchanges of assistance with friend networks than were urban widows.…

  2. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  3. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  4. Fournier's gangrene after adult male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Galukande, Moses; Sekavuga, Dennis Bbaale; Muganzi, Alex; Coutinho, Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the advent of mass voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for the partial prevention of HIV, previously rare adverse events associated with adult male circumcision are likely to be encountered with higher frequency. Fournier's gangrene, defined as a polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, perianal or genital areas, is one such rare and life-threatening adverse event. In this report, we present two cases that were identified in the context of a VMMC programme over a 3-year period during which approximately 100,000 adult circumcisions were performed. Case 1: A 19-year-old male who had VMMC performed using the dorsal slit technique developed pain and blisters on the scrotal skin on the sixth postoperative day. He had no co-morbidities, and serology for HIV was negative. On examination, locally he had scrotal skin necrosis with an offensive odour and was dehydrated but afebrile. Repeated aggressive debridement was done while he stayed in a hospital for 3 weeks; at which point, he had healthy granulation tissue and was free of infection. The wound had closed spontaneously and completely by the fifth month. Case 2: A 52-year-old male who had VMMC performed with the sleeve resection method developed pain and swelling of the penis and scrotum on the fourth postoperative day. He had a low-grade fever of 37.6°C. He was not diabetic or immunosuppressed and had a negative HIV serology. He was admitted and was given IV antibiotics, and repeated aggressive debridement was performed. On the third week of hospitalization, he had healthy granulation tissue and received a split skin graft on the penile shaft. At 4 months, the scrotal defect had completely closed. Fournier's gangrene is a rare occurrence after adult male circumcision with associated high morbidity. These are the first descriptions in the VMMC era.

  5. Survival strategies of male nurses in rural areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Ikue

    2011-12-01

    This study seeks to describe the survival strategies of male nurses in Japanese rural areas. Interviews were conducted with 12 male nurses who described their occupational experiences. The modified grounded theory approach was used for the data collection and analysis. The survival strategies of these male nurses can be categorized into four types: (i) giving priority to the achievement of financial security; (ii) agreeing to a dependent relationship with doctors; (iii) maintaining one's male identity through supporting the female nurses; and (iv) making an appeal to the significance of men in the female-dominated nursing profession. The survival strategies that were used by the male nurses were subtle, allowing them to influence indirectly both the female nurses and the doctors. These findings contribute to our understanding of the experiences of male nurses, a gendered minority in a female-dominated workplace, and encourage gender equality in the nursing profession. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  6. Examining Rural Older Adults' Perceptions of Cognitive Health.

    PubMed

    Bacsu, Juanita; Abonyi, Sylvia; Viger, Marc; Morgan, Debra; Johnson, Shanthi; Jeffery, Bonnie

    2017-09-01

    Existing cognitive health literature focuses on the perspectives of older adults with dementia. However, little is known about the ways in which healthy older adults without dementia understand their cognitive health. In rural communities, early dementia diagnosis may be impeded by numerous factors including transportation challenges, cultural obstacles, and inadequate access to health and support services. Based on participant observation and two waves of 42 semi-structured interviews, this study examined healthy, rural older adults' perceptions of cognitive health. By providing an innovative theoretical foundation informed by local perspectives and culture, findings reveal a complex and multidimensional view of cognitive health. Rural older adults described four key areas of cognitive health ranging from independence to social interaction. As policy makers, community leaders, and researchers work to address the cognitive health needs of the rural aging demographic, it is essential that they listen to the perspectives of rural older adults.

  7. Increased male-male courtship in ecdysone receptor deficient adult flies.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Geoffrey K; Walton, Kelsey L; Merriman, Jacob O; Salmon, Mark V; Brooks, Krista M; Maddula, Swathi; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-05-01

    Male-male courtship is infrequent among mature adult Drosophila melanogaster. After pairs of mature adult males expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene were treated at a restrictive temperature, however, they engaged in elevated levels of male-male courtship. EcR-deficient males courted wildtype males and females, but were not courted by wildtype males. These results suggest that the ecdysone steroid hormone system may have a role in courtship initiation by adult male fruit flies.

  8. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  9. Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation among Chinese Adults in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tingzhong; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Mustafa, Jabed; Chen, Bin; Feng, Xiangxian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the factors associated with smoking cessation among adult Chinese males in rural China. Methods: The data were collected by face-to-face interviews at the respondents' household using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results: The factors associated with quitting were being residents of Guiyang, having received junior…

  10. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  11. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  12. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  13. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed.

  14. Dental Care Utilization among North Carolina Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Bell, Ronny A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Reynolds, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This analysis delineates the predisposing, need, and enabling factors that are significantly associated with regular and recent dental care in a multi-ethnic sample of rural older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Almost no edentulous rural older adults received dental care. Slightly more than one-quarter (27.1%) of dentate rural older adults received regular dental care and slightly more than one-third (36.7%) received recent dental care. Predisposing (education) and enabling (regular place for dental care) factors associated with receiving regular and recent dental care among dentate participants point to greater resources being the driving force in receiving dental care. Contrary to expectations of the Behavioral Model of Health Services, those with the least need (e.g., better self-rated oral health) received regular dental care; this has been referred to as the Paradox of Dental Need. Conclusions Regular and recent dental care are infrequent among rural older adults. Those not receiving dental care are those who most need care. Community access to dental care and the ability of older adults to pay for dental care must be addressed by public health policy to improve the health and quality of life of older adults in rural communities. PMID:22536828

  15. Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…

  16. Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…

  17. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology: a cross-sectional comparison of rural and non-rural US adults.

    PubMed

    Swanoski, Michael T; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Amaro, Maria L; Akers, Michael F; Huot, Krista L

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 for a suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the U.S. Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, having a health care provider (HCP), timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment because of cost, self-defined health status and geographic locale. The weighted n for this study overall was 103,262,115 U.S. adults  > =18 years of age. Approximately 22.0% of these respondents were U.S. adults living in rural locales. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those U.S. adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR=1.218 95%CI 1.216-1.219) rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR=1.353 95%CI 1.352-1.354), >65 years of age (OR=1.369 95%CI 1.368-1.371), African American (OR=1.892 95%CI 1.889-1.894), not educated beyond high school (OR=1.400 955CI 1.399-1.402), uninsured (OR=1.308 95%CI 1.3-6-1.310), without a HCP (OR=1.216 95%CI 1.215-1.218), and living in a household with an

  18. Preventive Health Education Needs Among Rural Farm and Rural Nonfarm Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.; And Others

    Focusing on heart disease and cancer, the study compared the preventive health education needs of farm and nonfarm rural adults. During July and August 1975, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 57 men and 161 women living in Armstrong and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania. The sample included 119 commercial farm households and 99 rural nonfarm…

  19. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Gorianovas, Giedrius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Streckis, Vytautas; Brazaitis, Marius; Kamandulis, Sigitas; McHugh, Malachy P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE) protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque) in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age). The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps) drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE) (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval). The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males. PMID:23484095

  20. Older Rural- and Urban-Dwelling Appalachian Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Meghan K; Snitz, Beth E; Lingler, Jennifer H; Burke, Lora E; Novosel, Lorraine M; Sereika, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-recognized risk state for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. MCI is rapidly increasing among older adults in general and has not yet been examined in older adults within the Appalachian region. Our objective was to compare MCI symptom severity among older rural and urban Appalachian adults with MCI at an initial neuropsychological testing visit. A cross-sectional, descriptive study of older Appalachian adults with MCI was conducted using data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set. Symptom severity was conceptualized as neuropsychological composite scores across 4 cognitive domains and Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) score. For group comparisons, MANCOVA was used for cognitive domains and ANCOVA for CDR-SOB. The sample (N = 289) was about half male (54.3%), predominantly white (91.7%), and living with others (83.5%), with a mean (±SD) 74.6 ± 6.2 years of age and 15.4 ± 3.0 years of education. Rural and urban groups differed significantly in years since onset of cognitive symptoms (2.98 ± 1.91 in rural and 3.89 ± 2.70 in urban adults, t[260] = -2.23, P = .03), but they did not differ across sociodemographic features or comorbid conditions. Rural and urban participants were similar across the 4 cognitive domains and CDR-SOB (P ≥ .05). No differences were found between rural and urban Appalachian residents on MCI symptom severity. However, urban residents reported a longer time lapse from symptom identification to diagnosis than their rural counterparts. Future studies using more representative population samples of Appalachian and non-Appalachian adults will provide an important next step to identifying disparate cognitive health outcomes in this traditionally underserved region. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Lay meanings of health among rural older adults in Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Goins, R Turner; Spencer, S Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define health. Qualitative methods may help capture these lay meanings of health. The purpose of our study was to use a qualitative approach to examine what perceptions community-dwelling rural older adults have regarding their health. The study involved thirteen 90-minute focus groups and short self-administered surveys with community-dwelling persons aged 60 years or older residing in 6 rural West Virginia communities. A total of 101 participants were asked questions about their personal definitions of health. With professional transcribed tapes from the focus group discussions, we used a systematic text analysis approach. Discussions included 4 themes on the meaning of health: (1) health as a value, (2) dimensions of life, (3) holistic nature of health, and (4) health care use and adherence. Our results expand on previous studies and demonstrate that health is a subjective, multidimensional construct deeply embedded in the everyday experience of rural older adults. We found that older adults' perceptions about health contain components which most medical professionals would not take into account. Health care providers may consider supplementing traditional medical approaches with a more contextually sensitive recognition of rural elders' desired health goals and outcomes. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Commentary: Causes and consequences of male adult sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barry W

    2011-01-01

    Bullock and Beckson add to a growing body of literature on the negative consequences of adult sexual assault on male victims. There are similarities as well as important differences between male sexual assault victims and their female counterparts. Their analyses of societal contributions and myths about adult male sexual assault and of the difficulties that male victims experience in accessing and interacting with the medical and legal systems improve professional understanding of this complex subject.

  3. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child’s age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child’s age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child’s age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child’s age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  4. Emotional Wellness Needs: Older Adults in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Randall

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…

  5. Rural Youth and Adults' Knowledge of Governmental Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.; And Others

    In l976 Dane County, Wisconsin was the site of a survey to determine the knowledge of rural youth and adults as to how their government functioned. The area was chosen because its residents were thought to be more politically active than individuals in other parts of the state. Personal or telephone interviews were conducted with 112 adults and…

  6. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  7. [Association between social support and outcomes as successful smoking cessation in males from the rural areas].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Li, Huijie; Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Nan; Han, Mingkui; Jia, Chongqi

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between social support and successful smoking cessation outcomes in males from rural areas. A community-based case-control study was conducted with 642 adult male cases who appeared to be successful spontaneous smoking quitters as cases, together with other 700 adult males who failed quitting smoking to serve, as controls. Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) was used to assess the individual social support. Multiple linear method was used to evaluate the relationship between social support and the outcome of successful cessation in smoking. After adjusting the potential confounders as age, education, marital status, profession, age of initial smoking and number of pack-years on smoking, the adjusted mean of subjective social support in successful quitters was significant lower than that in the failed ones (P<0.001). The differences of adjusted means between objective social support and its utility were not statistically different in the two groups among the population who recognized that cigarettes should always be provided when people interact with each other (P=0.124; P=0.763). However, the adjusted means of social support and the related three dimensions did not show significant differences in the two groups among the population in disapproval of the above said social norms (P>0.05). Data from our research indicated that social support would negatively affect the successful spontaneous cessation of smoking among people under unhealthy smoking culture.

  8. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  9. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

    PubMed

    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  10. La Communicacion en la educacion de Adultos y el Desarrollo Rural (Adult Literacy and Rural Development). Cuadernos del CREFAL 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vejarano, Gilberto M.; And Others

    This booklet presents the ideas that came out of the Regional Meeting for Adult Literacy and Rural Development. The meeting took place in September 1981 at the Regional Center for Adult Education and Functional Literacy for Latin America (CREFAL) in Mexico. Basically, a discussion of adult literacy in the rural areas of Latin America is presented.…

  11. La Communicacion en la educacion de Adultos y el Desarrollo Rural (Adult Literacy and Rural Development). Cuadernos del CREFAL 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vejarano, Gilberto M.; And Others

    This booklet presents the ideas that came out of the Regional Meeting for Adult Literacy and Rural Development. The meeting took place in September 1981 at the Regional Center for Adult Education and Functional Literacy for Latin America (CREFAL) in Mexico. Basically, a discussion of adult literacy in the rural areas of Latin America is presented.…

  12. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating

  13. Migration of Rural Young Adults in Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, John David

    This study tried to determine the internal and external migration patterns as established by high school graduates of 1960, in rural Nebraska, and the association of educational, psychological, geographic, and economic factors with their migration and educational plans. Data for the study of the 4700 graduates were provided by almost 300…

  14. [Application prospect of adult stem cells in male infertility].

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Feng; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2013-05-01

    The study on stem cells is a hot field in biomedical science in recent years, and has furthered from laboratory to clinical application. Stem cells, according to their developmental stage and differential properties, can be divided into embryonic stem cells, induced PS cells and adult stem cells, among which, adult stem cells have already been applied to the clinical treatment of many systemic diseases. Currently, the study of spermatogonial stem cells and adult stem cells is in the front of the basic researches on the treatment of male infertility, but the time has not yet arrived for their clinical application. This paper outlines the application prospect of adult stem cells in male infertility.

  15. Cooperative knowledge-making with female and male rural doctors.

    PubMed

    Wainer, J

    2004-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to engage rural doctors in survey-based research. Rural doctors in Australia are time-poor and overworked, yet it is vital that researchers find ways to engage them because they are the holders of information that is critical to effective workforce policy and planning. To establish a cooperative research outcome with rural General Practitioners at a time when they were subject to many competing requests for contributions to various data gathering exercises. To develop and apply a knowledge-instrument for researching the practice of female doctors. The research project began with the intention of locating a partially hidden voice, that of female rural GPs, and bringing it to the forefront. This grew out of 6 years' work with doctors which identified that women had their own relationship with rural practice and that this was not widely recognised in the professional and policy context. Each step of the research process was negotiated with the doctors to ensure that their solutions were the basis of the work, and their language was the vehicle of investigation. Dephi rounds were used to develop content for a national survey of rural GPs. Thirty-five female rural and remote GPs contributed to 3 Delphi rounds to construct the central section of the questionnaire. The work of the expert panel contributed the unique questions at the heart of a questionnaire that was sent to 2000 rural GPs in Rural Remote and Metropolitan Areas (RRMA) 4-7. The sample was stratified by RRMA and randomised for women, with a matching sample of men to provide a control group, test whether issues identified by women are relevant to men too, and allow a gender analysis. Sixty-three percent of the women returned usable surveys and 54% of the men. This was a comparatively high response rate, especially for a complex, 16 page questionnaire with 79 questions, administered at a time when rural doctors had become resistant to mail surveys. Fifty-six doctors

  16. Adult male chimpanzees inherit maternal ranging patterns.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carson M; Gilby, Ian C; Mane, Sandeep V; Pusey, Anne E

    2008-01-08

    Space use often correlates with reproductive success [1, 2]. Individual site fidelity is ubiquitous across a variety of taxa, including birds, mammals, insects, and reptiles [3-9]. Individuals can benefit from using the same area because doing so affords access to known resources, including food and/or breeding sites. The majority of studies on site fidelity have focused upon strictly territorial species in which individuals range in well-defined, exclusive areas (e.g., [4, 9]). By comparison, the transient groups that define fission-fusion species allow for considerable flexibility in individual space use. Although there is evidence that individual space use can influence reproductive success [2], relatively little is known about individual ranging patterns in fission-fusion species. Here, we investigate three potential correlates of male site fidelity (age, habitat quality, and maternal space use) in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that when alone, each male preferentially concentrated his space use near the area where his mother ranged when he was dependent. We suggest that solitary ranging allows males to avoid direct competition with conspecifics and that foraging in familiar areas maximizes foraging efficiency. These results highlight the importance of male foraging strategies in a species in which male ranging is typically explained in terms of mating access to females.

  17. Empowering the Rural Adult Learner: Problems and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovel-Jarboe, Patricia

    This paper summarizes the 16 projects that have been funded by the Minnesota Extension Service to demonstrate innovative and effective uses of technology in adult education. Several of the projects are described in detail. Actual and anticipated impacts are examined, and suggested strategies that others can apply to reach and empower rural adult…

  18. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  19. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  20. Representations of Rural Lesbian Lives in Young Adult Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Wendy; Marshall, Elizabeth; Pini, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines representations of rural lesbian lives in three young adult novels. The novels analysed are "Beauty of the broken" by Tawni Waters (2014), Julie Anne Peters (2005) "Pretend you love me", and "Forgive me if you've heard this one before" by Karelia Stetz-Waters (2014). The first of the novels by…

  1. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  2. Physical Activity among Rural Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis describes physical activity levels and factors associated with physical activity in an ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) sample of rural older adults with diabetes. Method: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 701 community-dwelling…

  3. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  4. Non-Formal Training among Adults in Rural Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Abdul Razaq; Abiddin, Norhasni Zainal; Azman, Norzaini; Mustapha, Ramlee; Sail, Rahim Md; Kasa, Zakaria; Ismaill, Ismi Ariff

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the goals and challenges of adult education in Malaysia. In addition, it reports on the evaluation of two programmes--Computer Literacy and Civic Development--offered by a government agency called the Community Development Department (KEMAS) to rural communities. In both programmes, the respondents scored high in cognitive…

  5. Education and Placement Program for At-Risk Rural Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakley, Carroll B.

    This paper describes a program to provide educational and employment services to high school dropouts and unemployed adults in seven rural Tennessee counties. The program offers supplemental services and coordinates job development and placement with Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) administrative personnel. Program activities include basic…

  6. Stranger and acquaintance sexual assault of adult males.

    PubMed

    Stermac, Lana; Del Bove, Giannetta; Addison, Mary

    2004-08-01

    This study examined victim and assault characteristics and the nature and extent of coercion, violence, and physical injuries among adult male victims of sexual assaults. Client records of three groups presenting to a sexual assault care center were included: males assaulted by a stranger (n = 64), males assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 81), and females assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 106). Study results revealed that male victims of sexual assault tended to be young, single men who reported high rates of vulnerabilities such as homelessness and physical, psychiatric, and cognitive disabilities. Male stranger assailant victims were more likely to experience assaults involving weapons and physical violence. Injuries sustained by victims and services delivered at the sexual assault care center were similar for both male and female clients. The results of this study reveal new information about violence in male sexual assaults and the vulnerability of the male victims.

  7. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  8. Sigmoid-urachal-cutaneous fistula in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Coons, Benjamin J; Clark, Peter E; Maynes, Lincoln J; Terhune, Kyla P; Stokes, Myron C; Beech, Derrick J

    2009-02-01

    An infected urachal cyst is an uncommon finding in adults. We report the first case of a sigmoid-urachal-cutaneous fistula that resulted from rupture of an infected urachal cyst in an adult male. Definitive management consisted of resection of the urachus with a bladder cuff, along with removal of the affected bowel segments and bowel anastomosis.

  9. Factors that influence rural African American males' aspirations to attend college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Alesia K.

    This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial

  10. Frailty among elderly adults in a rural area of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-04-30

    The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province. A total of 168 elderly adults (≥65 years old) from 12 central villages were included in the study. The Fried Frailty Criteria was used to assess the frailty of the participants. In addition to frailty, the physical, social, and mental status of elderly adults was examined. The prevalence of frailty in this rural area of Turkey was 7.1%.The study group ranged in age from 65 to 96 years (mean 72.70±7.73 years), and 53.6% were female. Among the elderly adult group, 84.3% had not completed elementary school, and 43.29% had a monthly income of ≤500 Turkish liras ($200). No significant relationship was identified between gender and frailty. There was a statistically significant relationship between frailty and older age, lower education level, lower economic level, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric disease, arthritis, generalized pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, auditory impairment, impaired oral care, caregiver burden, impaired cognitive function, depression, or a lack of social support (social isolation). It is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the health status and needs of elderly adults in Turkey and the health problems of this population as well as to planning the development of public health and geriatric services based on regional needs.

  11. Telepsychiatry for Neurocognitive Testing in Older Rural Latino Adults.

    PubMed

    Vahia, Ipsit V; Ng, Bernardo; Camacho, Alvaro; Cardenas, Veronica; Cherner, Mariana; Depp, Colin A; Palmer, Barton W; Jeste, Dilip V; Agha, Zia

    2015-07-01

    As the population of older Latinos in the U.S. increases, availability of culturally adapted geriatric psychiatry services is becoming a growing concern. This issue is exacerbated for rural Latino populations. In this study, we assessed whether neurocognitive assessment via telepsychiatry (TP) using a Spanish-language battery would be comparable to in-person (IP) testing using the same battery in a sample of Spanish-speaking older adults in a rural setting. Patients (N = 22) received IP and TP testing 2 weeks apart. The order of IP and TP test administrations in individual subjects was determined randomly. Comparison of scores indicated that there were no significant differences between IP and TP test performance though both groups scored non-significantly higher at the second visit. This study demonstrates feasibility and utility of neurocognitive testing in Spanish using TP among older rural Latinos.

  12. Telepsychiatry for Neurocognitive Testing in Older Rural Latino Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vahia, Ipsit V.; Ng, Bernardo; Camacho, Alvaro; Cardenas, Veronica; Cherner, Mariana; Depp, Colin A.; Palmer, Barton W.; Jeste., Dilip V.; Agha, Zia

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older Latinos in the U.S. increases, availability of culturally-adapted geriatric psychiatry services is becoming a growing concern. This issue is exacerbated for rural Latino populations. In this study, we assessed whether neurocognitive assessment via telepsychiatry (TP) using a Spanish-language battery would be comparable to in-person (IP) testing using the same battery in a sample of Spanish-speaking older adults in a rural setting. Patients (N=22) received IP and TP testing 2 weeks apart. The order of IP and TP test administrations in individual subjects was determined randomly. Comparison of scores indicated that there were no significant differences between IP and TP test performance though both groups scored non-significantly higher at the second visit. This study demonstrates feasibility and utility of neurocognitive testing in Spanish using TP among older rural Latinos. PMID:25708655

  13. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology: a cross-sectional comparison of rural and non-rural US adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 for a suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the U.S. Methods Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, having a health care provider (HCP), timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment because of cost, self-defined health status and geographic locale. Results The weighted n for this study overall was 103,262,115 U.S. adults > =18 years of age. Approximately 22.0% of these respondents were U.S. adults living in rural locales. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those U.S. adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR = 1.218 95%CI 1.216-1.219) rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR = 1.353 95%CI 1.352-1.354), >65 years of age (OR = 1.369 95%CI 1.368-1.371), African American (OR = 1.892 95%CI 1.889-1.894), not educated beyond high school (OR = 1.400 955CI 1.399-1.402), uninsured (OR = 1.308 95%CI 1.3-6-1.310), without a HCP

  14. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sean D.; Rogers, Samuel; del Junco, Gerard W.; Sepulveda, Karla

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma—a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man. PMID:27186240

  15. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast.

    PubMed

    Raj, Sean D; Rogers, Samuel; Del Junco, Gerard W; Sepulveda, Karla

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma-a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man.

  16. Primary carnitine deficiency in a male adult.

    PubMed

    Karmaniolas, Konstantinos; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Liatis, Stavros; Dalamanga, Maria; Papalambros, Theoharis; Migdalis, Ilias

    2002-01-01

    The case is described of a 36 year-old man who presented with progressive proximal muscle weakness and weight loss. His serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were markedly elevated. The muscle biopsy showed lipid storage myopathy. The muscle carnitine concentration was extremely low (5.6% of normal levels), establishing the diagnosis of myopathic carnitine deficiency. The disorder was considered as primary because there were no indications of any other identifiable condition which could result in a secondary carnitine deficiency. The patient was treated with oral L-carnitine (2 g per day) and showed rapid improvement. Primary myopathic carnitine deficiency is a curable disorder and therefore it should always be considered as a potential diagnosis in cases of myopathy in young adults.

  17. Comparison of contraceptive choices of rural and urban US adults aged 18-55 years: an analysis of 2004 behavioral risk factor surveillance survey data.

    PubMed

    Tobar, A; Lutfiyya, M N; Mabasa, Y; Meena, H; McGrath, C; Brady, S; Aguero, C; Bales, R; King, M

    2009-01-01

    Although sexually active US adults wanting to prevent pregnancy have a wide variety of birth control methods readily available, there is little research that documents the contraceptive choices of rural adults in comparison to urban adults. This study compared the contraceptive choices of rural with urban adults. The comparative analysis joins the recent dialog in population health focused on assessing health related differences to detect if these are indicative of rural health disparities. This was a cross-sectional study analyzing 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) data. Place of residence was ascertained by re-coding the state/county FIPS code as either urban or rural, based on 2003 Rural-Urban Continuum Codes from the US Office of Management and Budget (setting: US households; participants: US adults 18-55 years). characteristics and contraceptive method choice of rural adults using birth control. A multivariate regression model performed with 'use of birth control' as the dependent variable yielded that rural in comparison with urban adults 18-55 years were more likely to use female or male sterilization, non-injectable and injectable hormones for birth control. They were less likely to use: condoms, a diaphragm or NuvaRing, emergency contraception, withdrawal or rhythm methods. Additionally, in comparison with urban adults, rural persons younger than 35 years, those who had children younger than 18 years living with them, those who were partnered, males and those living in households with an income of less than US$35,000 were more likely to report using some form of contraception. There were differences in the contraception choices of urban and rural adults. How much primary care provider preferences explains the differences is not known and bears further exploration. These results should prove useful to healthcare providers as well as public health family planning programs.

  18. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

  19. Suicide risks among adolescents and young adults in rural China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-12-23

    In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.

  20. Masculinity scripts and abstinence-related beliefs of rural Nigerian male youth.

    PubMed

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke Otutubikey

    2008-01-01

    This study interrogates the direct perspectives of rural Nigerian male youth regarding the preventive practice of "abstinence until marriage." The study shows that norms of masculinity suffuse Nigerian male youth narratives surrounding the benefits and hazards of abstinence. Key gender norms that frame male youth views of the consequences of abstention included those that cast men as strong-willed and resolute, represent sexual activity as a central marker of malehood, depict male sexuality as naturally dominant and aggressive, emphasize male sexual potency, associate maleness with power and leadership, and portray sexual activity as normal, proper, and permissible for males. Inattention to the norms and scripts that organize sexual behavior, especially among male youth, portends danger for abstinence-until-marriage programs.

  1. "Locusts are now our beef": adult mortality and household dietary use of local environmental resources in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne; Patterson, Laura

    2007-08-01

    There is currently a lack of research on the association between demographic dynamics and household use of natural resources in rural Africa. Such work is important because in rural Africa natural resources buffer households against shocks, offering both sustenance and income-generating potential. The article focuses on adult mortality as a household shock, examining use of local environmental resources as related to household dietary needs. The authors analyze two sources of data collected during May-December 2004 in the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) in rural South Africa. Quantitative analyses use survey data from 240 households, stratified by adult mortality experience. Qualitative data are based on 31 interviews with members of households having recently experienced adult mortality. The interviews provide insight into a variety of household-level mortality impacts and also suggest the importance of proximate resources in the maintenance of food security following the loss of an adult household member. Quantitatively, there are significant differences, both in patterns of usage of the natural environment and in levels of food security, between households that have lost an adult and those that have not. The association between mortality and household use of local environmental resources is further shaped by the gender of the deceased and the time elapsed since the death. Adult mortality, particularly the death of a male wage-earner, affects household food security. Time allocation is affected as resource collection responsibilities shift, and wild foods may substitute for previously purchased goods.

  2. Adequacy of diabetes care for older U.S. rural adults: a cross-sectional population based study using 2009 BRFSS data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the U.S. diabetes prevalence estimates for adults ≥ 65 years exceed 20%. Rural communities have higher proportions of older individuals and health disparities associated with rural residency place rural communities at risk for a higher burden from diabetes. This study examined the adequacy of care received by older rural adults for their diabetes to determine if older rural adults differed in the receipt of adequate diabetes care when compared to their non-rural counterparts. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were examined using bivariate and multivariate analytical techniques. Results Logistic regression analysis revealed that older rural adults with diabetes were more likely to receive less than adequate care when compared to their non-rural counterparts (OR = 1.465, 95% CI: 1.454-1.475). Older rural adults receiving less than adequate care for their diabetes were more likely to be: male, non-Caucasian, less educated, unmarried, economically poorer, inactive, a smoker. They were also more likely to: have deferred medical care because of cost, not have a personal health care provider, and not have had a routine medical check-up within the last 12 months. Conclusion There are gaps between what is recommended for diabetes management and the management that older individuals receive. Older adults with diabetes living in rural communities are at greater risk for less than adequate care when compared to their non-rural counterparts. These results suggest the need to develop strategies to improve diabetes care for older adults with diabetes and to target those at highest risk. PMID:22177279

  3. [Adult male circumcision for military men: history and future].

    PubMed

    Li, Philip Shihua; Lü, Nian-Qing; Masson, Puneet; Huang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2010-06-01

    Adult male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the transmission of HPV, HSV, and HIV significantly during vaginal intercourse. However, the benefits of adult MC for men in military service have been poorly documented. Soldiers in war time have additional challenges in maintaining good penile hygiene, rendering uncircumcised men vulnerable to inflammation and infection; these maladies not only negatively impact these individuals, but also undermine the overall military strength. Adult MC can provide some long-term benefits for these military service men. Many African countries have already taken a special interest in adult MC for their military forces, resulting in increased numbers of these surgeries among this special population of men. In this review, we discuss the history of adult MC in the military along with the current trends and economic significance.

  4. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  5. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  6. Quality of diets consumed by older rural adults.

    PubMed

    Vitolins, Mara Z; Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A; Case, L Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Older adults residing in rural communities are at risk for low dietary quality because of a variety of social, physical and environmental circumstances. Minority elders are at additional risk because of poorer health status and lower socioeconomic status. This study evaluated the food group intake of 130 older (>70 years) African American (34%), European American (36%), and Native American (30%) residents of two rural communities in central North Carolina. An interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Food items were classified into food groups similar to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide Pyramid and the National Cancer Institutes 5 A Day for Better Health program. None of the survey participants met minimum intake recommendations and most over-consumed fats, oils, sweets and snacks. African Americans and Native Americans consumed fewer servings of meats,fruits and vegetables, and fats, oils, sweets and snacks than European Americans. African American men consumed the fewest servings of fruits and vegetables of all gender/ethnic groups. Consumption of fats, oils and sweets was greatest among those 85 years and older and was more common among denture users. National strategies to educate the public about the importance of consuming a varied diet based on the recommendations presented in national nutrition education campaigns may not be reaching older adults in rural communities, particularly minority group members.

  7. Stability and Change in Female and Male Violence across Rural and Urban Counties, 1981-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Gertseva, Arina

    2010-01-01

    Two durable criminological patterns have been higher violence rates in urban compared to rural areas and by males compared to females. To derive and evaluate hypotheses related to correspondence across place and sex groups in changes in violence trends, we draw on a spatial-inequality perspective that attends to the geographic distribution of…

  8. Listening to Their Voices: What and Why Are Rural Teen Males Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, Robin Henson

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the reading habits, preferences and motivation for reading from a representative sample of high school males in rural North Carolina. Much research gives voice to what elementary students are reading, but less has been done with adolescents, one of the hardest demographics for librarians and teachers…

  9. Stability and Change in Female and Male Violence across Rural and Urban Counties, 1981-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jennifer; Gertseva, Arina

    2010-01-01

    Two durable criminological patterns have been higher violence rates in urban compared to rural areas and by males compared to females. To derive and evaluate hypotheses related to correspondence across place and sex groups in changes in violence trends, we draw on a spatial-inequality perspective that attends to the geographic distribution of…

  10. Mental Health Help-Seeking Intentions and Preferences of Rural Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P.; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate mental health help-seeking intentions and preferences of rural Chinese adults and determine predictors of the intentions. Methods A total of 2052 representative rural residents aged 18–60 completed a cross-sectional survey by face-to-face interviews. The survey included seven questions asking about respondents’ help-seeking intentions and preferences, and a series of internationally validated instruments to assess self-perceived health status, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, mental health literacy, and attitudes towards mental illness. Results Nearly 80% of respondents were willing to seek psychological help if needed, and 72.4% preferred to get help from medical organizations, yet only 12% knew of any hospitals or clinics providing such help. A multivariate analysis of help-seeking intention revealed that being female, having lower education, higher social health, higher mental health knowledge, and physical causal attribution for depression were positive predictors of help-seeking intention. Conclusion A huge gap exists between the relatively higher intention for help-seeking and significantly lower knowledge of helpful resources. Predictors of help-seeking intention for mental problems in the current study are consistent with previous studies. Interventions to increase help-seeking for mental problems by Chinese rural adults may be best served by focusing on increasing public awareness of help sources, as well as improving residents’ mental health literacy and social health, with special focus on males and those more educated. PMID:26545095

  11. Leading Causes of Unintentional Injury and Suicide Mortality in Canadian Adults Across the Urban-Rural Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the leading causes of unintentional injury and suicide mortality in adults across the urban-rural continuum. Methods Injury mortality data were drawn from a representative cohort of 2,735,152 Canadians aged ≥25 years at baseline, who were followed for mortality from 1991 to 2001. We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for urban-rural continuum and cause-specific unintentional injury (i.e., motor vehicle, falls, poisoning, drowning, suffocation, and fire/burn) and suicide (i.e., hanging, poisoning, firearm, and jumping) mortality, adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Results Rates of unintentional injury mortality were elevated in less urbanized areas for both males and females. We found an urban-rural gradient for motor vehicle, drowning, and fire/burn deaths, but not for fall, poisoning, or suffocation deaths. Urban-rural differences in suicide risk were observed for males but not females. Declining urbanization was associated with higher risks of firearm suicides and lower risks of jumping suicides, but there was no apparent trend in hanging and poisoning suicides. Conclusion Urban-rural gradients in adults were more pronounced for unintentional motor vehicle, drowning, and fire/burn deaths, as well as for firearm and jumping suicide deaths than for other causes of injury mortality. These results suggest that the degree of urbanization may be an important consideration in guiding prevention efforts for many causes of injury fatality. PMID:24179256

  12. Pubertal testosterone predicts mental rotation performance of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J

    2012-11-01

    Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability.

  13. Pubertal Testosterone Predicts Mental Rotation Performance of Young Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C. J. Peter; Rose, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21–23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r = −.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r = −.32):the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r = −.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r = −.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability. PMID:22520299

  14. Oral Health Self-Care Behaviors of Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Kohrman, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This analysis describes the dental self-care behaviors used by a multi-ethnic sample of older adults, and it delineates the associations of self-care behaviors with personal characteristics and oral health problems. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling rural adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Rural older adults engage in a variety of self-care behaviors, including the use of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicine (12.1%), OTC Dental Products (84.3%), Salt (51.0%), Prayer (6.1%), and Complementary Therapies (18.2%). Some gender and ethnic class differences are apparent, with greater use by women of OTC Medicine and Salt, and greater use by African Americans and American Indians of OTC Medicine and OTC Dental Products. Use of dental self-care behaviors appears to be driven by need. Those reporting oral pain, bleeding gums, and dry mouth have a greater odds of engaging in most of the dental self-care behaviors, including use of complementary therapies. Conclusions The major factor leading to the use of self-care behaviors is need. Although oral pain does increase the use of self-care behaviors, so do bleeding gums and dry mouth. Research and practice should address self-care behaviors used for oral health problems in addition to pain. Investigators should expand analysis of dental self-care behavior and the relationship of self-care behavior to the use of professional services. Further research also should explore the use of complementary therapies in dental self-care. PMID:19486460

  15. Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.

    PubMed

    Lee, Calvin; Loyd, Andre M; Nightingale, Roger; Myers, Barry S; Damon, Andrew; Bass, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, affecting millions of people annually. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) provide a means of understanding factors leading to TBI, potentially reducing the occurrence. Thus, there is a need to ensure that these tools accurately model humans. For example, the Hybrid III was not based on 3-dimensional human head shape data. The objective of this study is to produce average head and skull contours for an average U.S. male that can be used for ATDs and FEMs. Computed tomography (CT) scans of adult male heads were obtained from a database provided by the University of Virginia Center for Applied Biomechanics. An orthographic viewer was used to extract head and skull contours from the CT scans. Landmarks were measured graphically using HyperMesh (Altair, HyperWorks). To determine the head occipital condyle (OC) centroid, surface meshes of the OCs were made and the centroid of the surfaces was calculated. The Hybrid III contour was obtained using a MicroScribe Digitizer (Solution Technologies, Inc., Oella, MD). Comparisons of the average male and ATD contours were performed using 2 methods: (1) the midsagittal and midcoronal ATD contours relative to the OC centroid were compared to the corresponding 1 SD range of the average male contours; (2) the ATD sagittal contour was translated relative to the average male sagittal contour to minimize the area between the 2 contours. Average male head and skull contours were created. Landmark measurements were made for the dorsum sellae, nasion skin, nasion bone, infraorbital foramen, and external auditory meatus, all relative to the OC centroid. The Hybrid III midsagittal contour was outside the 1 SD range for 15.2 percent of the average male head contour but only by a maximum distance of 1.5 mm, whereas the Hybrid III midcoronal head contour was outside the 1 SD range for 12.2 percent of the average male head contour by a maximum distance

  16. Factors Associated with Tooth Loss in Older Adults in Rural Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Scarbro, Sharon; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Puma, Jini

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that are associated with tooth loss in older adults living in the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado, which is a rural and large geographical area (roughly the size of Connecticut) that has a large population age 60 years or older. Data used in this manuscript were collected as a part of the SLV Community Health Survey. The analyzed sample included 308 adults over the age of 65 years who completed the survey. Basic descriptive statistics and a series of step-wise binary logistic regression analyses were conducted; the dependent variable was the number of permanent teeth removed because of tooth decay or gum disease. Fifty-two percent of the participants were male, Hispanic participants made up 40 % of the sample and 76 % of the participants had at least a high school education. Tooth loss was significantly associated with older age (OR = 1.09; p = 0.02), lower income (OR = 0.01; p = 0.00), less than high school education (OR = 0.32; p = 0.01), being Hispanic (OR = 2.15; p = 0.05), self-reported fair-poor health status (OR 2.94; p = 0.02), consumption of one or more than one sweet beverage per day (OR = 4.52; p = 0.00), no dental insurance (OR = 4.70; p = 0.01) and length of time since last dental visit (OR = 0.21; p = 0.01). The findings of the present study suggest possible causes for tooth loss in rural adults and underscore the need for in-depth research to study the overall oral health of rural older adults living in SLV. PMID:26518778

  17. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    PubMed

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  18. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on avoidance behavior of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Fedotova, Yu O; Goncharov, N P; Sapronov, N S

    2004-07-01

    We studied the effect of repeated intraperitoneal treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone in doses of 0.1 and 0.7 mg/kg on conditioned-response activity and behavior of adult male rats. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on learning was estimated in conditioned active and passive avoidance response paradigms. Chronic administration of dehydroepiandrosterone in low and high doses had no effect on retention of conditioned passive avoidance response in adult male rats 24 h after learning. However, chronic administration of dehydroepiandrosterone in low dose impaired acquisition of the conditioned active avoidance response. It should be emphasized that chronic administration of dehydroepiandrosterone in high dose did not modulate acquisition and retention of this reaction.

  19. Group treatment of adult male inpatients abused as children.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, L Y

    1994-10-01

    Recent research indicates that childhood abuse experiences characterize a large subset of psychiatric inpatients. This paper presents a time-limited pilot group developed for adult male abuse survivors in an inpatient setting using: (1) techniques adapted from the existing literature on treatment of abuse survivors; and (2) approaches deriving from the interface of theory and current manifestations of distress. The eclectic therapeutic approach incorporated psychoeducational, cognitive, behavioral, and art therapy techniques presented below in a session-by-session format.

  20. Smokeless Tobacco Decision-Making Among Rural Adolescent Males in California.

    PubMed

    Couch, Elizabeth T; Darius, Ellen; Walsh, Margaret M; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2016-10-28

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) use among US high school males living in rural areas exceeds national levels. Subgroups at heightened risk of ST use have been identified, but less is known regarding ST decision-making within high-risk groups. The study objective was to describe rural adolescent males' perceived ST acceptability, health risks, and social implications and how those perceptions differ between ST users and never-users. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 55 male students (32 ST ever-users) at three rural California high schools. Interviews were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. Investigators collaboratively developed a codebook based on thematic content and then independently coded transcripts, reconvening frequently to achieve consensus. Coded text was systematically organized into themes following a general inductive approach. ST users and non-users shared multiple ST-related perceptions, including: that ST is a common, normative way of life in rural "country" culture among certain groups; that ST use conveys oral health risks; and that the decision to use (or not to use) is rooted in personal choice. ST users' and never-users' perceptions differed regarding the immediacy, severity, and inevitability of health risks, particularly relative to cigarette smoking. Other differences included perceived parental permissiveness and the expected social benefits of ST use, such as peer acceptance and conveying maturity. Within this population of rural male adolescents, ST users emphasized the social benefits of ST use, while acknowledging but discounting health risks. Differences and similarities in tobacco perceptions among adolescents living in similar environments may inform effective health communication.

  1. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  2. The study of elbow injury in male adult kendo players

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Shinya; Yoshida, Munehito

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Elbow injury in male adult kendo players was investigated and examined in order to obtain an indicator of prophylaxis of injury. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 22 male adult kendo players aged 25 to 60 years old, and presence or absence of pain, range of motion, and muscle strength in the elbow joints were investigated. In addition, among athletes with limited range of motion (ROM) in the elbow joints, three athletes who had received an explanation and had provided informed consent underwent CT, and the images were examined. [Result] As a result, posterior pain and decreased range of extension motion in the right elbow were noted in 86% of the subjects, and the CT images showed free bone fragments and osteophytes in the olecranon. Also, characteristics were noted that extension muscle strength was stronger than flexion muscle strength in elbow muscle strength. [Conclusion] Based on these results, characteristic disorders in male adult kendo players include an impingement disorder in the posterior region of the right elbow. PMID:28356645

  3. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.

  4. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  6. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  7. Outcomes of an HIV Prevention Peer Group Intervention for Rural Adults in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…

  8. Outcomes of an HIV Prevention Peer Group Intervention for Rural Adults in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…

  9. Extra-Individual Correlates of Physical Activity Attainment in Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…

  10. Extra-Individual Correlates of Physical Activity Attainment in Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…

  11. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  12. Increasing Rural Adults' Participation in Collegial Programs: Exemplary Programs. Proceedings of the Rural Action Conference "Programs and Activities to Overcome Barriers to Rural Adult Participation in Postsecondary Education" (Blacksburg, Virginia, June 1-3, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, W. Robert, Ed.; And Others

    Approximately 85 educators from six states participated in a regional conference designed to showcase exemplary and collaborative programs to overcome many of the barriers faced by rural adults in pursuing higher education. After the keynote address, "The Role of Adult Learning in Revitalizing Rural Communities," by Cornelia Butler Flora, the…

  13. Factors Influencing Food Choices Among Older Adults in the Rural Western USA.

    PubMed

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Haack, Sarah; Tarabochia, Dawn; Bates, Kate; Christenson, Lori

    2016-10-21

    Nutrition is an essential component in promoting health and quality of life into the older adults years. The purpose of this qualitative research is to explore how the rural food environment influences food choices of older adults. Four focus groups were conducted with 33 older adults (50 years of age and older) residing in rural Montana communities. Four major themes related to factors influencing food choices among rural older adults emerged from this study: perception of the rural community environment, support as a means of increasing food access, personal access to food sources, and dietary factors. The findings from this current study warrant further research and promotion of specifically tailored approaches that influence the food choices of older adults in the rural western USA, including the developing and expanding public transportation systems, increasing availability of local grocers with quality and affordable food options, increasing awareness and decreasing stigma surrounding community food programs, and increasing nutrition education targeting senior health issues.

  14. PS2-04: Knowledge of Heart Attack and Stroke Symptomology: A Cross-sectional Comparison of Rural and Non-rural US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Swanoski, Michael; Akers, Michael; Amaro, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims In the US heart disease is the number one cause of death and stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Early treatment, received within three-hours after a heart attack or a stroke, is critical to lowering the risk of disability and/or death. Understanding the symptoms and signs of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 as the appropriate first response to suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the US. Methods Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, health care provider (HCP), timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment, self-defined health status and geographic locale. Results Logistic regression analysis revealed that those US adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR=1.218 95%CI 1.216–1.219) rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR=1.353 95%CI 1.352–1.354), >65 years of age (OR=1.369 95%CI 1.368–1.371), African American (OR=1.892 95%CI 1.889–1.894), not educated beyond high school (OR=1.400 955CI 1.399–1

  15. Levels of five metals in male hair from urban and rural areas of Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    He, Ming-Jing; Wei, Shi-Qiang; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yang, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Deng-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals were measured by flame atomic absorption in male hair from residents in urban and rural areas in Chongqing. The median values of the Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 2.90, 23.9, 9.31, 39.3 and 203 μg/g in urban areas and 0.84, 13.4, 5.56, 14.5 and 169 μg/g in rural area, respectively. The levels of Cd, Ni and Pb both in urban and rural areas lie at the high end of the worldwide figures. The differences in heavy metal distribution pattern indicated that there were more sources of Cd and Pb in urban areas. The levels of Cd were increasing along with the growth of age except for the aged people in urban areas, and no significant relationship was observed between the levels of the heavy metal and the age. It is noticed that the hair of smokers exhibited more heavy metal levels than that of non-smokers both in urban and rural areas. In addition, the hair metal levels of the smokers and non-smokers in urban areas were significantly higher than those in rural area, respectively. Significant pairwise correlations (p < 0.01) were observed among Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in rural area and only between Cu and Ni and between Pb and Ni in urban areas, indicating the elements in these two areas might originate from different sources. The elevated levels of Cd, Pb and Ni implied that the residents both in urban and rural areas might be at high risk of toxic metal exposure, especially for the children.

  16. [Energy expenditure on different physical activities of rural adults in North China].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhimin; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhuo, Qin; Wang, Jing; Hu, Feng; Piao, Jianhua; Liu, Fenghai; Cao, Haiyi

    2012-01-01

    To test the energy metabolism of healthy adults in rural north China and to obtain the data of energy expenditure on different physical activities, in order to provide the basis for the Dietary Reference Intakes for Chinese people and the prevention and treatment of diseases related to energy and nutrition imbalance. The energy expenditures on different physical activities of 30 healthy adult men and women were investigated under strictly controlled experimental conditions by using portable cardiopulmonary function determinator k4b2 to examine the oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) during basal metabolic conditions and seven kinds of physical activities (walking, brisk walking, jogging, cycling, stair climbing, and watching TV). The content of 24-hour urine nitrogen was measured by micro Kjeldahl method. Combining with the change of body weight, the energy expenditures on different physical activities of normal adult men and women in north China were obtained. The average energy expenditure on physical activities (kJ x h(-1) x kg(-1)) were: walking 12.60 +/- 5.54 (11.46 +/- 2.19 for male and 15.47 +/- 6.97 for female), brisk walking 20.79 +/- 10.46 (15.95 +/- 3.59 for male and 25.33 +/- 12.70 for female), jogging 34.78 +/- 16.00 (30.45 +/- 5.07 for male and 38.84 +/- 21.58 for female) cycling 16.47 +/- 3.95 (14.77 +/- 2.57 for male and 18.74 +/- 4.85 for female), going up stairs 23.55 +/- 5.05 (23.61 +/- 3.43 for male and 23.49 +/- 6.41 for female) going down stairs 12.46 +/- 6.30 (10.43 +/- 1.27 for male and 14.49 +/- 8.48 for female) and watching TV 3.85 +/- 1.97 (3.56 +/- 0.86 for male and 4.16 +/- 2.79 for female). The average energy expenditure on physical activities of males was lower than that of females (P < 0.05), except of going up stairs, which was roughly equal in males and females. The average energy expenditure on various physical activities was different. Walking, watching TV and going downstairs are low-intensity physical

  17. Amodiaquine-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yan-Ru; Wei, Bing; Chen, Bi; Xu, Li-Hua; Jing, Xia; Peng, Cai-Ling; Ma, Tian-Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Amodiaquine (AQ) is routinely prescribed as an anti-malarial drug. Here, we evaluated AQ-induced toxicity in the male reproductive system. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups that received distilled water (control) or daily doses of 5 mg/kg body weight, 10 mg/kg, or 15 mg/kg AQ for 2 weeks. Testes morphology was analyzed using hematoxylin-and-eosin staining, terminal dUTP nicked-end labeling (TUNEL), and immunostaining whereas protein expression was determined by Western blotting. AQ dose-dependently led to abnormal spermatogenesis. Disruption of the blood-testis barrier and increased germ cell apoptosis were observed in all three AQ-treated groups. Interestingly, AQ-induced damage of spermatogenesis recovered over time, based on the survival of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger (PLZF)-positive, undifferentiated spermatogonia. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone, as well as testicular testosterone levels, were not significantly altered in AQ-treated groups compared with controls. Collectively, our study suggests that AQ exerts substantial acute side effects on the reproductive systems of adult male rats by inducing the apoptosis of differentiating spermatogenic cells and disruption of blood-testis barrier function.

  18. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  19. Predictors of handgrip strength among adults of a rural community in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Moy, Foong-Ming; Darus, Azlan; Hairi, Noran Naqiah

    2015-03-01

    Handgrip strength is useful for screening the nutritional status of adult population as it is strongly associated with physical disabilities and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to determine the predictors of handgrip strength among adults of a rural community in Malaysia using a cross-sectional study design with multistage sampling. All adults aged 30 years and older from 1250 households were invited to our study. Structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, occupation history, lifestyle practices, and measurements, including anthropometry and handgrip strength were taken. There were 2199 respondents with 55.2% females and majority were of Malay ethnicity. Their mean (standard deviation) age was 53.4 (13.2) years. The response rate for handgrip strength was 94.2%. Females had significantly lower handgrip strength than males (P < .05). In the multiple linear regression models, significant predictors of handgrip strength for males were age, height, job groups, and diabetes, while for females, the significant predictors were age, weight, height, and diabetes.

  20. Factors Related to Increasing Trends in Cigarette Smoking of Adolescent Males in Rural Areas of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas. Methods The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year. Results A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance. Conclusions Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea. PMID:23766872

  1. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  2. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  3. [Associated factors of impaired fasting glucose in some Korean rural adults].

    PubMed

    Yun, Hye Eun; Han, Mi-ah; Kim, Ki Soon; Park, Jong; Kang, Myeng Guen; Ryu, So Yeon

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and its related characteristics among healthy adults in some Korean rural areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the data from 1352 adults who were over the age 40 and under the age 70 and who were free of diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular diseases and other diseases and who participated in a survey conducted as part of the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study. IFG was defined as a serum fasting glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dL. The prevalence of IFG was 20.4% in men, 15.5% in women and 12.7% overall. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent risk factors for IFG were male gender, having a family history of DM, the quartiles of gamma glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein and the waist circumference. The homeostatis model assessment for insulin resistance was very strongly associated with IFG. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS components was higher in the subjects with IFG then in those with normal fasting glucose (NFG). The result of study could supply evidence to find the high risk population and to determine a strategy for treating IFG. Further research is needed to explain the causal relationship and mechanisms of IFG.

  4. Adult Basic Education Institute in Individualized Instruction for Teachers of Rural Adults. Interim Report: July 19-August 6, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, George R., Comp.

    The three-week teacher-trainer workshop concentrated on individualized diagnosis, prescription, and evaluation in Adult Basic Education (ABE) reading and mathematics for rural adults. One hundred and one participants from the 13 States in Regions 4 and 6 worked with designs provided by State directors of adult education outlining their 1971-72…

  5. Elder Mistreatment and Health Status of Rural Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan

    2015-11-01

    There is limited information on the nature of and health factors associated with elder mistreatment in rural areas. To address this gap in the literature, the current study described the nature of such mistreatment and investigated the association between different types of mistreatment and health factors among 897 randomly selected elderly persons in rural India. The results show that elder mistreatment was widely prevalent (21%). Furthermore, the higher frequency of and simultaneous occurrence of multiple types of mistreatment (83.4%) suggest that mistreatment was a continuous stressor. The presence of overall mistreatment was positively associated with depression symptoms and subjective health status. The higher levels of chronicity and multiple mistreatments further increased depression symptoms and lowered the health status of those who were mistreated. Although women, more than men, were more likely to experience mistreatment, chronic mistreatment, and multiple mistreatments, there were no significant gender differences in the mistreatment-health relationship. These findings suggest that older adults with depression symptoms and poor health should be screened for mistreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Periconceptional Undernutrition in Sheep Affects Adult Phenotype Only in Males

    PubMed Central

    Jaquiery, Anne L.; Oliver, Mark H.; Honeyfield-Ross, Maggie; Harding, Jane E.; Bloomfield, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    Periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN) in sheep alters fetal growth and metabolism and postnatal growth regulation, but effects on adult body composition are unknown. We investigated the effects of PCUN on adult phenotype. Singleton lambs of ewes fed normally (N, n = 17) or undernourished before (UN-61-0 d, n = 23), before and after (UN-61-30 d, n = 19), or after (UN-2-30d, n = 17) mating (d0) were weighed at birth, 12 weeks, and intermittently to adulthood. At the age of 3-4 years, body composition was assessed by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry followed by postmortem examination. Compared with N animals, male, but not female, offspring of all UN groups had greater % fat mass (all UN versus N: 9 ± 1 versus 2 ± 1%, P < 0.001) and perirenal fat (544 ± 36 versus 222 ± 44 g, P = 0.002), and proportionately smaller hearts (4.5 ± 0.1 versus 5.2 ± 0.2 g·kg−1), lungs (9.1 ± 0.2 versus 10.6 ± 0.5 g·kg−1), and adrenals (0.06 ± 0.002 versus 0.08 ± 0.003 g·kg−1). UN males also had larger testes (726 ± 21 versus 545 ± 32 g, P = 0.007), but UN females had smaller ovaries (2.7 ± 0.08 versus 3.4 ± 0.4 g, P = 0.01). Changes were independent of birth weight or postnatal growth velocity. Brief PCUN has sex-specific effects on adult phenotype, predominantly affecting males, which may contribute to adverse metabolic outcomes. PMID:23091706

  7. Behavioral effects of dehydroepiandrosterone in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Fedotova, Julia; Sapronov, Nikolay

    2004-09-01

    It is well-documented that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exhibits various behavioral effects in rodents, at least one of which is modulation of learning/memory processes in several test paradigms. However, little is known about the influence of DHEA on cognitive performance in the adult rodents. This work was designed to determine whether chronic DHEA administration during 10 days in the high (0.7 mg/kg, s.c.) or low (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) doses has any effect on learning/memory abilities and behavior in the adult male rats (5- to 6-month old). Effect of DHEA was estimated in active and passive avoidance tasks, behavior was registered in the elevated "plus" maze and the "open field" test. DHEA in the high dose significantly (p<0.05) increased time spent and the number of enterings in the "open" arms of the elevated "plus" maze in intact male rats as compared with the control rats. DHEA in the low dose significantly (p<0.05) decreased horizontal and vertical locomotor activity and grooming behavior, whereas DHEA in the high dose did not significantly modify behavior in intact rats as compared with control group. Results of the ANOVA on passive avoidance performance revealed no statistically significant differences among the groups receiving DHEA in the high or low doses as compared to the control. However, DHEA in the low dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of correct avoidance responses in intact rats as compared to the control rats, while in rats treated with the high dose DHEA, the active avoidance performance did not differ significantly from the control. Thus, chronic DHEA administration has a modulatory action on the learning and behavior of the adult male rats.

  8. Dorsal spinal epidural psammomatous meningioma in an adult male

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sharad; Singh, Kulwant; Sharma, Vivek; Ghosh, Amrita; Suman, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas are benign in nature and arise from the arachnoid cells. They are mostly situated in the intracranial compartment, whereas spinal meningiomas are rare. Approximately, in 10% of cases, an extradural component is seen but an exclusively extradural meningioma is quite uncommon. However, WHO Grade II (atypical) and Grade III (anaplastic) tumors can behave aggressively. We reported a case of purely extradural psammomatous meningioma in an adult male affecting the dorsal spine although uncommon meningiomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of extradural intraspinal masses. PMID:26933358

  9. Dorsal spinal epidural psammomatous meningioma in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharad; Singh, Kulwant; Sharma, Vivek; Ghosh, Amrita; Suman, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas are benign in nature and arise from the arachnoid cells. They are mostly situated in the intracranial compartment, whereas spinal meningiomas are rare. Approximately, in 10% of cases, an extradural component is seen but an exclusively extradural meningioma is quite uncommon. However, WHO Grade II (atypical) and Grade III (anaplastic) tumors can behave aggressively. We reported a case of purely extradural psammomatous meningioma in an adult male affecting the dorsal spine although uncommon meningiomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of extradural intraspinal masses.

  10. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  11. Safety, Feasibility, and Acceptability of the PrePex Device for Adult Male Circumcision in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Pamela K; Tippett Barr, Beth A; Kangʼombe, Anderson; Hofstee, Carola; Kilembe, Franklin; Galagan, Sean; Chilongozi, David; Namate, Dorothy; Machaya, Medson; Kabwere, Khuliena; Mwale, Mwawi; Msunguma, Wezi; Reed, Jason; Chimbwandira, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Nonsurgical adult male circumcision devices present an alternative to surgery where health resources are limited. This study aimed to assess the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Malawi. A prospective single-arm cohort study was conducted at 3 sites (1 urban static, 1 rural static, 1 rural tent) in Malawi. Adverse event (AE) outcomes were stratified to include/exclude pain, and confidence intervals (CIs) were corrected for clinic-level clustering. Among 935 men screened, 131 (14.0%) were not eligible, 13 (1.4%) withdrew before placement, and 791 (84.6%) received the device. Moderate and severe AEs totaled 7.1% including pain [95% CI: 3.4-14.7] and 4.0% excluding pain (95% CI: 2.6 to 6.4). Severe AEs included pain (n = 3), insufficient skin removal (n = 4), and early removal (n = 4). Among early removals, 1 had immediate surgical circumcision, 1 had surgery after 48 hours of observation, 1 declined surgery, and 1 did not return to our site although presented at a nearby clinic. More than half of men (51.9%) reported odor; however, few (2.2%) stated they would not recommend the device to others because of odor. Median levels of reported pain (scale, 1-10) were 2 (interquartile range, 2-4) during application and removal, and 0 (interquartile range, 0-2) at all other time points. Severe AEs were rare and similar to other programs. Immediate provision of surgical services after displacement or early removal proved a challenge. Cases of insufficient skin removal were linked to poor technique, suggesting provider training requires reinforcement and supervision.

  12. ‘At the hospital I learnt the truth’: diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of ‘emergent masculinities’ to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293

  13. Perception and Attitude of a Rural Community Regarding Adult Blindness in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Victoria A; Adepoju, Feyi G; Owoeye, Joshua F A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the perception and attitudes of a rural community regarding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of blindness in adults. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in a rural community in Kwara State, Nigeria using semi-structured questionnaire. All adults aged 40 years or older who were residents for a minimum of 6 months in the community were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, knowledge, attitude, perception, and use of the eye care facility. A total of 290 participants were interviewed. The male-to-female ratio was 1:2. Consumption of certain types of food was an important cause of blindness as perceived by 57.9% of the respondents, followed by supernatural forces (41.7%) and aging (19%). Sixty percent of respondents thought blindness could be prevented. Age (P = 0.04) and level of education (P =0.003) significantly affected the beliefs on the prevention of blindness. Most respondents (79.3%) preferred orthodox eye care, but only 65% would accept surgical intervention if required. The level of education significantly affected the acceptance of surgery (P = 0.04). Reasons for refusing surgery were, fear (64%), previous poor outcomes in acquaintances (31%), belief that surgery is not required (3%), and cost (2%). About 65% used one form of traditional eye medication or the other. Over half (56.6%) believed that spectacles could cure all causes of blindness. Of those who had ocular complaints, 57.1% used orthodox care without combining with either traditional or spiritual remedies. This rural Nigerian community had some beliefs that were consistent with modern knowledge. However, the overall knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of this community need to be redirected to favor the eradication of avoidable blindness. Although an eye care facility was available, use by the community was suboptimal. Age and the level of education affected their overall perception and attitudes.

  14. Perception and Attitude of a Rural Community Regarding Adult Blindness in North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olatunji, Victoria A.; Adepoju, Feyi G.; Owoeye, Joshua F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the perception and attitudes of a rural community regarding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of blindness in adults. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in a rural community in Kwara State, Nigeria using semi-structured questionnaire. All adults aged 40 years or older who were residents for a minimum of 6 months in the community were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, knowledge, attitude, perception, and use of the eye care facility. Results: A total of 290 participants were interviewed. The male-to-female ratio was 1:2. Consumption of certain types of food was an important cause of blindness as perceived by 57.9% of the respondents, followed by supernatural forces (41.7%) and aging (19%). Sixty percent of respondents thought blindness could be prevented. Age (P = 0.04) and level of education (P =0.003) significantly affected the beliefs on the prevention of blindness. Most respondents (79.3%) preferred orthodox eye care, but only 65% would accept surgical intervention if required. The level of education significantly affected the acceptance of surgery (P = 0.04). Reasons for refusing surgery were, fear (64%), previous poor outcomes in acquaintances (31%), belief that surgery is not required (3%), and cost (2%). About 65% used one form of traditional eye medication or the other. Over half (56.6%) believed that spectacles could cure all causes of blindness. Of those who had ocular complaints, 57.1% used orthodox care without combining with either traditional or spiritual remedies. Conclusion: This rural Nigerian community had some beliefs that were consistent with modern knowledge. However, the overall knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of this community need to be redirected to favor the eradication of avoidable blindness. Although an eye care facility was available, use by the community was suboptimal. Age and the level of education affected their overall perception and attitudes. PMID:26692726

  15. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  16. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of male and female adult Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong-Qiong; Ma, Guang-Xu; Korhonen, Pasi K; Luo, Yong-Li; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Luo, Yong-Fang; Gasser, Robin B; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-02-05

    Toxocariasis is an important, neglected zoonosis caused mainly by Toxocara canis. Although our knowledge of helminth molecular biology is improving through completed draft genome projects, there is limited detailed information on the molecular biology of Toxocara species. Here, transcriptomic sequencing of male and female adult T. canis and comparative analyses were conducted. For each sex, two-thirds (66-67%) of quality-filtered reads mapped to the gene set of T. canis, and at least five reads mapped to each of 16,196 (87.1%) of all 18,596 genes, and 321 genes were specifically transcribed in female and 1467 in male T. canis. Genes differentially transcribed between the two sexes were identified, enriched biological processes and pathways linked to these genes established, and molecules associated with reproduction and development predicted. In addition, small RNA pathways involved in reproduction were characterized, but there was no evidence for piwi RNA pathways in adult T. canis. The results of this transcriptomic study should provide a useful basis to support investigations of the reproductive biology of T. canis and related nematodes.(2).

  17. Rural school employees' status, awareness, and perceptions of adult vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Thornton, Eli; Beckstrand, Renea L; Macintosh, Janelle; Lakin, Richard G

    2013-08-01

    As key members of the school environment, it is important for school employees to be vaccinated. Employees are in direct contact with children in close quarters for long periods of time and such an environment can easily serve as an outbreak center for vaccine-preventable communicable diseases such as measles. Despite the fact that most school employees believe vaccines are safe and effective and many school employees report they are up-to-date with their vaccines, a closer examination reveals discrepancy between belief and behavior. This research study evaluates the vaccination status, awareness, and perceptions of school employees located in a large rural school district in Utah. As a vaccine advocate, the school nurse can be influential in providing adult vaccination education for school employees, thus increasing awareness of the importance of adult vaccines and knowing one's vaccination status. Additionally, school nurses might need to meet with school district policy makers to promote vaccine mandates for school employees and to assist in the creation of containment plans in the event of a measles outbreak at school.

  18. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P A; Grekin, E R; Mednick, S A

    1999-03-01

    Perinatal risk factors are related to persistent and violent criminal outcomes. Prenatal maternal smoking may represent an additional perinatal risk factor for adult criminal outcomes. Our study examines maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of offspring crime in the context of a prospective, longitudinal design. Subjects were a birth cohort of 4169 males born between September 1959 and December 1961 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During the third trimester of pregnancy, mothers self-reported the number of cigarettes smoked daily. When the male offspring were 34 years of age, their arrest histories were checked in the Danish National Criminal Register. Additional data were collected concerning maternal rejection, socioeconomic status, maternal age, pregnancy and delivery complications, use of drugs during pregnancy, paternal criminal history, and parental psychiatric hospitalization. Results indicate a dose-response relationship between amount of maternal prenatal smoking and arrests for nonviolent and violent crimes. Maternal prenatal smoking was particularly related to persistent criminal behavior rather than to arrests confined to adolescence. These relationships remained significant after potential demographic, parental, and perinatal risk confounds were controlled for. Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring. This relationship has not been accounted for by related parental characteristics or perinatal problems. Potential physiologic or central nervous system mediators between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminal outcomes need further study.

  19. Obesity and obesity-related behaviors among rural and urban adults in the USA.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Tushar; Liu, Jihong; Probst, Janice; Merchant, Anwar; Jhones, Sonya; Martin, Amy Block

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported a higher prevalence of obesity among rural Americans. However, it is not clear whether obesity-related behaviors can explain the higher level of obesity among rural adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in obesity-related behaviors across rural-urban adult populations in the USA. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, restricted to 14 039 participants aged 20 years or more. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height and weight, and individuals with BMI≥30 kg/m2 were categorized as obese. Physical activity recommendations were used to define participants' physical activity levels: no leisure-time physical activity, less than, meeting, and exceeding the recommended levels. Sedentary behaviors were measured by hours sitting and watching TV or videos or using a computer (outside of work). Dietary intake was assessed by one-day 24 hour dietary recall. Residence was measured at the census tract level using the Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine urban-rural differences after adjusting for sociodemographic, health, dietary, and lifestyle factors. The prevalence of obesity was higher in rural than in urban residents (35.6% vs 30.4%, p<0.01), among both men (37.7% vs. 32.5%, p<0.01) and women (33.4% vs 28.2%, p<0.01). Compared to urban adults, more rural adults reported no leisure-time physical activity (38.8% vs 31.8%, p<0.01) and fewer rural adults met or exceeded physical activity recommendations (41.5% vs 47.2%, p<0.01). Rural adults had lower intake of fiber and fruits and higher intake of sweetened beverages. After adjusting for sociodemographic, health, diet, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity, the odds of being obese among rural adults were 1.19 times higher than that among urban adults (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.34). Higher level of obesity, physical inactivity, and poor

  20. Older adult social participation and its relationship with health: Rural-urban differences.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, Eric M

    2016-11-01

    In an aging world, there is increased need to identify places and characteristics of places that promote health among older adults. This study examines whether there are rural-urban differences in older adult social participation and its relationship with health. Using the 2003 and 2011 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n=3006), I find that older adults living in rural counties are less socially active than their counterparts in more-urban counties. I also find that relationships between social participation and health vary by the type of activity and rural-urban context.

  1. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality.

  2. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  3. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  4. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene in traffic policemen, police drivers and rural outdoor male workers.

    PubMed

    Manuela, Ciarrocca; Francesco, Tomei; Tiziana, Caciari; Assunta, Capozzella; Lara, Scimitto; Nadia, Nardone; Giorgia, Andreozzi; Barbara, Scala; Maria, Fiaschetti; Carlotta, Cetica; Valeria, Di Giorgio; Pia, Schifano Maria; Gianfranco, Tomei; Angela, Sancini

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate exposure to benzene in urban and rural areas, an investigation into personal exposure to benzene in traffic policemen, police drivers and rural (roadmen) male outdoor workers was carried out. Personal samples and data acquired using fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city were used to measure personal exposure to benzene in 62 non-smoker traffic policemen, 22 police drivers and 57 roadmen. Blood benzene, urinary trans-trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) and S-phenyl-mercapturic acid (S-PMA) were measured at the end of work shift in 62 non-smoker traffic policemen, 22 police drivers and 57 roadmen and 34 smoker traffic policemen, 21 police drivers and 53 roadmen. Exposure to benzene was similar among non-smoker traffic policemen and police drivers and higher among non-smoker urban workers compared to rural workers. Blood benzene, t,t-MA and S-PMA were similar among non-smoker traffic policemen and police drivers; blood benzene and t,t-MA were significantly higher in non-smoker urban workers compared to rural workers. Significant increases in t,t-MA were found in smokers vs. non-smokers. In non-smoker urban workers airborne benzene and blood benzene, and t,t-MA and S-PMA were significantly correlated. This study gives an evaluation of the exposure to benzene in an urban area, comparing people working in the street or in cars, to people working in a rural area. Benzene is a certain carcinogen for humans. The results we showed should lead to more in-depth studies about the effects on health of these categories of workers.

  5. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  6. Do painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin" for rural adults with high levels of psychosocial stress?

    PubMed

    Black, Pamela; Hendy, Helen M

    2017-07-05

    Nonmedical use of painkillers has increased in recent years, with some authors suggesting that painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin": a drug chosen by rural adults to cope with psychosocial stresses in their lives. The present study compared rural and urban adults for their reported use of 5 drugs during the past year (painkillers, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin) and for associations between these 5 drugs and their reported psychosocial stressors. This study conducted secondary analyses of anonymous survey data provided by the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health with responses from 8,699 rural and 18,481 urban adults. The survey included demographics (gender, age, race, education, marital status, family income), reports of whether participants had used each of 5 illicit drugs during the past year, and measures of psychological distress and social functioning problems. Controlling for demographics, rural adults showed no greater prevalence of painkiller use than urban adults, but rural adults were more likely than urban adults to use methamphetamine and less likely to use marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Controlling for demographics, rural adults showed no associations between psychological or social stressors and the use of painkillers, but such stressors were significantly associated with the use of marijuana, methamphetamine, and heroin. Urban adults showed significant associations of psychological and social stressors with the use of painkillers, as well as with the use of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Results suggest that painkillers are unlikely to serve as "hillbilly heroin" for rural adults, but they may serve as "big-city heroin" for urban adults.

  7. Timing and Impact of Hearing Healthcare in Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients: A Rural-Urban Comparison.

    PubMed

    Hixon, Brian; Chan, Stephen; Adkins, Margaret; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the timing and impact of hearing healthcare of rural and urban adults with severe hearing loss who use cochlear implants (CI). Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Tertiary referral center. Adult cochlear implant recipients. Data collected included county of residence, socioeconomic information, impact of hearing loss on education/employment, and timing of hearing loss treatment. The benefits obtained from cochlear implantation were also evaluated. There were 91 participants (32 from urban counties, 26 from moderately rural counties, and 33 for extremely rural counties). Rural participants have a longer commute time to the CI center (p < 0.001), lower income (p < 0.001), and higher percentage of Medicaid coverage (p = 0.004). Compared with urban-metro participants, rural participants with gradually progressive hearing loss had a greater time interval from the onset of hearing loss to obtaining hearing aid amplification (10 yr versus 5 yr, p = 0.04). There was also a greater time interval from onset of hearing loss to the time of cochlear implantation in rural participants (p = 0.04). Reported job loss was higher in rural participants than in urban participants (p = 0.05). Both groups reported comparable benefit from cochlear implantation. Rural CI recipients differ from urban residents in socioeconomic characteristics and may be delayed in timely treatment of hearing loss. Further efforts to expand access to hearing healthcare services may benefit rural adult patients.

  8. Adult female hamsters avoid interspecific mating after exposure to heterospecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; McPhee, M. E.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    When females mate with a heterospecific male, they do not usually produce viable offspring. Thus, there is a selective pressure for females to avoid interspecific mating. In many species, females innately avoid heterospecific males; females can also imprint on their parents to avoid later sexual interactions with heterospecific males. However, it was previously unknown whether adult females can learn to discriminate against heterospecific males. We tested the hypothesis that adult females previously unable to avoid interspecific mating learn to avoid such mating after being exposed to heterospecific males. Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females not previously exposed to Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) males can discriminate between odors of conspecific and heterospecific males, but they mate with either type of male. However, when we exposed adult females to both a conspecific male and a heterospecific male through wire-mesh barriers for 8 days, and then paired them sequentially with the two males, females were more receptive to conspecific males and more aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the heterospecific male first and the conspecific male second, no female was receptive and all were aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the conspecific male first, only 43% of females were then aggressive toward the heterospecific male. That is, interactions with conspecific males may decrease a female’s ability to properly avoid heterospecific males. Our study clearly shows for the first time that females can learn during adulthood to avoid interspecific mating just by being exposed to stimuli from heterospecific males. PMID:20676390

  9. Targeted Transition Assessment Leading to Job Placement for Young Adults with Disabilities in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert L.; Openshaw, Kristi P.

    2011-01-01

    In rural areas, transition planning for young adults with disabilities presents considerable challenges, including linkage to employment upon completion of special education services. Two assessment programs, described in this article, work in concert to assist transition teachers and youth with disabilities in rural areas and include: (a)…

  10. Reproductive health needs of adolescent males in rural Pakistan: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moazzam; Bhatti, Mohammad Ayaz; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2004-09-01

    This is the first study done to explore reproductive health needs of adolescent males in Pakistan. The purpose of this exploratory study was to obtain qualitative information on existing knowledge and perceptions on puberty and reproductive health needs and to identify effective communication channels for imparting reproductive health education to adolescent males. Seventy-eight unmarried adolescent males participated in the survey, conducted through in-depth interviews by a semi-structured questionnaire using purposive sampling, in eight rural districts in Pakistan. The study pointed out that there existed misconceptions and gaps in knowledge regarding puberty and reproductive health. These young men also have poor knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases dynamics. The communication between parents or siblings on the said issues was found to be poor and they mainly get information from friends followed by the media. The majority showed interest in getting quality information. Multiple entry points and settings can be used to enhance access to information and services. In-school adolescents could be effectively approached through teachers and peer group. Out-of-school adolescents could be reached via media and local health care providers. The results imply that there is a dire need for reproductive health education for adolescent males and suggestions from this study might be utilized when initiating any reproductive health educational service for male adolescents in rural areas in Pakistan. Future efforts should thus focus on assuring access to timely, comprehensive and high-quality reproductive health education for all teenagers and reducing gaps in access related to gender and school attendance.

  11. Dying in their prime: determinants and space-time risk of adult mortality in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A.; Sartorius, Kurt; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal dataset was used to investigate adult mortality in rural South Africa in order to determine location, trends, high impact determinants and policy implications. Adult (15-59 years) mortality data for the period 1993-2010 were extracted from the health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in the rural sub-district of Agincourt. A Bayesian geostatistical frailty survival model was used to quantify significant associations between adult mortality and various multilevel (individual, household and community) variables. It was found that adult mortality significantly increased over time with a reduction observed late in the study period. Non-communicable disease mortality appeared to increase and decrease in parallel with communicable mortality, whilst deaths due to external causes remained constant. Male gender, unemployment, circular (labour) migrant status, age and gender of household heads, partner and/or other household death, low education and low household socioeconomic status (SES) were identified as significant and highly attributable determinants of adult mortality. Health facility remoteness was also a risk for adult mortality and households falling outside a critical buffering zone were identified. Spatial foci of higher adult mortality risk were observed indicating a strong non-random pattern. Communicable diseases differed from non-communicable diseases with respect to spatial distribution of mortality. Areas with significant excess mortality risk (hotspots) were found to be part of a complex interaction of highly attributable factors that continues to drive differential space-time risk patterns of communicable (HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis) mortality in Agincourt. The impact of HIV mortality and its subsequent lowering due to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was found to be clearly evident in this rural population. PMID:23733287

  12. Dying in their prime: determinants and space-time risk of adult mortality in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Sartorius, Kurt; Tollman, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    A longitudinal dataset was used to investigate adult mortality in rural South Africa in order to determine location, trends, high impact determinants and policy implications. Adult (15-59 years) mortality data for the period 1993-2010 were extracted from the health and demographic surveillance system in the rural sub-district of Agincourt. A Bayesian geostatistical frailty survival model was used to quantify significant associations between adult mortality and various multilevel (individual, household and community) variables. It was found that adult mortality significantly increased over time with a reduction observed late in the study period. Non-communicable disease mortality appeared to increase and decrease in parallel with communicable mortality, whilst deaths due to external causes remained constant. Male gender, unemployment, circular (labour) migrant status, age and gender of household heads, partner and/or other household death, low education and low household socio-economic status were identified as significant and highly attributable determinants of adult mortality. Health facility remoteness was a risk for adult mortality and households falling outside a critical buffering zone were identified. Spatial foci of higher adult mortality risk were observed, indicating a strong non-random pattern. Communicable diseases differed from non-communicable diseases with respect to spatial distribution of mortality. Areas with significant excess mortality risk (hot spots) were found to be part of a complex interaction of highly attributable factors that continues to drive differential space-time risk patterns of communicable (HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) mortality in Agincourt. The impact of HIV mortality and its subsequent lowering due to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy was found to be clearly evident in this rural population.

  13. Extra-marital sexual partnerships and male friendships in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Extra-marital sexual partnerships (EMSPs) are a major route of HIV/AIDS transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we investigate the roles of two types of male friendships – best friends and friends with whom they talk about AIDS – in determining whether men have EMSPs. Using data from men in rural Malawi, we find that men's current extra-marital sexual behavior is most closely correlated with their best friends', but that the behaviors of both types of friends are associated with men's subsequent EMSPs. These findings suggest that men's friendships could be used to help combat the AIDS epidemic. PMID:20531977

  14. Factors Associated with Tooth Loss in Older Adults in Rural Colorado.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Scarbro, Sharon; Bryant, Lucinda L; Puma, Jini

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that are associated with tooth loss in older adults living in the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado, which is a rural and large geographical area (roughly the size of Connecticut) that has a large population age 60 years or older. Data used in this manuscript were collected as a part of the SLV Community Health Survey. The analyzed sample included 308 adults over the age of 65 years who completed the survey. Basic descriptive statistics and a series of step-wise binary logistic regression analyses were conducted; the dependent variable was the number of permanent teeth removed because of tooth decay or gum disease. Fifty-two percent of the participants were male, Hispanic participants made up 40 % of the sample and 76 % of the participants had at least a high school education. Tooth loss was significantly associated with older age (OR = 1.09; p = 0.02), lower income (OR = 0.01; p = 0.00), less than high school education (OR = 0.32; p = 0.01), being Hispanic (OR = 2.15; p = 0.05), self-reported fair-poor health status (OR 2.94; p = 0.02), consumption of one or more than one sweet beverage per day (OR = 4.52; p = 0.00), no dental insurance (OR = 4.70; p = 0.01) and length of time since last dental visit (OR = 0.21; p = 0.01). The findings of the present study suggest possible causes for tooth loss in rural adults and underscore the need for in-depth research to study the overall oral health of rural older adults living in SLV.

  15. Rural Residence and Prescription Medication Use by Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grymonpre, Ruby E.; Hawranik, Pamela G.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Due to various barriers to health care access in the rural setting, there is concern that rural older adults might have lower access to prescribed medications than their urban counterparts. Purpose: To review published research reports to determine prevalence and mean medication use in rural, noninstitutionalized older adults and assess…

  16. Rural Residence and Prescription Medication Use by Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grymonpre, Ruby E.; Hawranik, Pamela G.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Due to various barriers to health care access in the rural setting, there is concern that rural older adults might have lower access to prescribed medications than their urban counterparts. Purpose: To review published research reports to determine prevalence and mean medication use in rural, noninstitutionalized older adults and assess…

  17. Adolescent and adult perceptions of traditional and novel smokeless tobacco products and packaging in rural Ohio.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sherry T; Nemeth, Julianna M; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2014-05-01

    As smokeless tobacco (ST) marketing increases and new products emerge on the market, very little is known about consumer perceptions of ST products. To inform development of future ST counter-marketing approaches, this qualitative study examined consumer perceptions of traditional and novel ST products and packaging. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were held with adolescent (n=23; mean age of 17 years) and adult (n=38; mean age of 29 years) male ST users from rural Ohio counties. Participants were shown a variety of traditional (eg, Copenhagen, Timber Wolf) and novel (eg, Camel Snus, Orbs) ST products and asked about perceptions of these products and their packaging. Transcriptions were coded independently for common themes by two individuals. Adolescents and adults generally had similar beliefs and reactions about ST products. While participants were familiar with a variety of traditional ST products, Copenhagen was the most frequently used product. Perceptions of quality and price of traditional products were closely tied to product taste and packaging material. Colours, design and size of ST packaging appealed to participants and influenced decisions to purchase. Adults believed novel ST products had a weak taste and were targeted at untraditional ST users. While the vast majority was unfamiliar with dissolvable tobacco, adolescents noted that they would be more convenient to use during school than traditional ST. Packaging has a significant role in shaping perceptions of ST and consumer behaviour. Regulation of product packaging such as shape, size and images should be part of comprehensive tobacco control.

  18. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  19. Phytoestrogens are partial estrogen agonists in the adult male mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, S; Santti, R; Salo, L; McLachlan, J A

    1995-01-01

    The intake, as well as serum and urinary concentrations, of phytoestrogens is high in countries where incidence of prostate cancer is low, suggesting a chemopreventive role for phytoestrogens. Their significance could be explained by the ability to antagonize the action of more potent endogenous estrogens in initiation or promotion of tumor formation. We have studied estrogenicity and antiestrogenicity of dietary soy and two phytoestrogens, coumestrol and daidzein, in our neoDES mouse model for the study or prostatic neoplasia. Soy was chosen because it is rich in phytoestrogens, is widely used in Oriental diets, and has antiestrogenic and anticarcinogenic properties in the neoDES mouse when given from fertilization onward. In short-term tests with adult animals, no evidence for estrogenicity or antiestrogenicity (capability to antagonize the action of 17 beta-estradiol) of soy was found when development of epithelial metaplasia and expression of c-fos protooncogene in prostate were used as end points of estrogen action. Estrogenic activity of coumestrol and daidzein on c-fos expression was subtle. Coumestrol, either given alone or in combination with 17 beta-estradiol, had no effect on development of epithelial metaplasia. These marginal or missing effects in adult males could be interpreted by assuming that the neonatal period is more critical for estrogenic or antiestrogenic action of soy and phytoestrogens. Once initiated, estrogen-related lesions would develop spontaneously. Alternatively, the chemopreventive action of soy is not due to antiestrogenicity of soy-derived phytoestrogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8593857

  20. Adult Pornography and Violence Against Women in the Heartland: Results From a Rural Southeast Ohio Study.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Hall-Sanchez, Amanda

    2016-05-22

    Many rural parts of the United States are now "pornified." There is growing quantitative evidence revealing that rural women are at higher risk of being victimized by intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. In-depth interviews with 55 rural southeast Ohio women who wanted to leave, were trying to leave, or were in the process of leaving, or who have left their male marital/cohabiting partners reveal that pornography is a major component of the problem of rural woman abuse. The main objective of this article is twofold: (a) to present the results of our qualitative study, and (b) to suggest future directions in theoretical and empirical work.

  1. A secular trend toward earlier male sexual maturity: evidence from shifting ages of male young adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua R

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows new evidence of a steady long-term decline in age of male sexual maturity since at least the mid-eighteenth century. A method for measuring the timing of male maturity is developed based on the age at which male young adult mortality accelerates. The method is applied to mortality data from Sweden, Denmark, Norway, the United Kingdom, and Italy. The secular trend toward earlier male sexual maturity parallels the trend toward earlier menarche for females, suggesting that common environmental cues influence the speed of both males' and females' sexual maturation.

  2. A Secular Trend toward Earlier Male Sexual Maturity: Evidence from Shifting Ages of Male Young Adult Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows new evidence of a steady long-term decline in age of male sexual maturity since at least the mid-eighteenth century. A method for measuring the timing of male maturity is developed based on the age at which male young adult mortality accelerates. The method is applied to mortality data from Sweden, Denmark, Norway, the United Kingdom, and Italy. The secular trend toward earlier male sexual maturity parallels the trend toward earlier menarche for females, suggesting that common environmental cues influence the speed of both males' and females' sexual maturation. PMID:21857893

  3. Male influence on infant feeding in rural Guatemala and implications for child nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Chary, Anita N; Messmer, Sarah E; Rohloff, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    Guatemala has one of the highest rates of child stunting in the world, which especially impacts rural indigenous agricultural communities. Despite decades of intensive nutrition research and interventions, only rarely have nutrition programs successfully lowered the rate of stunting in these settings. The bulk of nutritional interventions in Guatemala are targeted at the education of female caregivers. However, women's ability to implement best practices in infant breastfeeding and complementary feeding are often constrained by external factors. This study evaluated the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of female caregivers, as well as the attitudes of fathers, toward breastfeeding and infant feeding in a rural Guatemalan village. Clinical work, participant-observation, surveys, interviews, and focus groups were conducted in a rural Guatemalan village in conjunction with a child feeding program from August 2008 to January 2011. Male employment status, mental health, and attitudes towards child rearing and parenting responsibilities are often principal factors in infant growth failure. Successful child feeding programs must include educational elements for men and should consider structural elements that provide a safety net for unexpected changes in domestic finances.

  4. Urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengbo; Chi, Iris; Zhang, Xu; Cheng, Zhaowen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong

    2015-01-01

    This study compared urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older adults in mainland China. Study data were extracted at random from 10% of the Sample Survey on Aged Population in urban/rural China in 2006 for 1980 participants aged 60 and older, including 997 from urban cities and 983 from rural villages. In this study, 54.6% of urban older adults and 44.1% of rural older adults reported satisfaction with their lives. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services were significantly associated with life satisfaction for both urban and rural participants, but age and financial exchange with children were only associated with life satisfaction among urban older adults. Findings are consistent with some previous studies that indicated the importance of financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services to life satisfaction among the older adults in both urban and rural areas. This study also demonstrated the importance of age and family financial exchange to the life satisfaction of urban older adults.

  5. Exploring beliefs around physical activity among older adults in rural Canada

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laurie; Rempel, Gwen; Murray, Terra C.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh; Vallance, Jeff K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective As physical activity can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease, it is important to understand the contributing factors to physical activity engagement among older adults, particularly those living in rural communities to assist in remaining active and healthy as long as possible. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the socio-ecological factors that influence or contribute to physical activity among rural-dwelling older adults in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods This qualitative description explored the perceptions of physical activity among older adults living in two rural communities in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults aged 69–94. Using content analysis techniques, transcribed interview data were coded and categorized. Results Participants identified socio-ecological elements facilitating physical activity such as improved health, independence, and mobility as well as social cohesion and having opportunities for physical activity. The most common perceived environmental barrier to engaging in physical activity was the fear of falling, particularly on the ice during the winter months. Participants also cited adverse weather conditions, aging (e.g., arthritis), and family members (e.g., encouraged to “take it easy”) as barriers to physical activity. Conclusion Hearing directly from older adults who reside in rural Saskatchewan was determined to have the potential to improve awareness of physical activity in rural communities to support the implementation of programs and practices that will facilitate active lifestyles for older adults. PMID:27834180

  6. Tooth loss among adult rural and urban inhabitants of the Lublin Region.

    PubMed

    Panasiuk, Lech; Kosiniak-Kamysz, Władysław; Horoch, Andrzej; Paprzycki, Piotr; Karwat, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Dental diseases and tooth loss result in various health, psychological, and even social problems. The objective of the study was determination of the number of missing teeth among adult rural and urban inhabitants of the Lublin Region, and whether or not there is a relationship between missing teeth and place of residence, and other socio-economic factors, such as: gender, age, education level and the occupation performed (farmer/non-farmer). Data concerning the number of missing teeth were collected from 3,388 individuals. The mean number of missing teeth among the respondents in the study was 13.6. This mean value was significantly higher among the rural than urban inhabitants. Tooth loss was significantly more often found among females than males, this relationship being statistically significant only in the subpopulation of rural inhabitants. According to expectations, the largest number of missing teeth was found in respondents aged over 60, among those aged 31-60 this number was nearly 2.5-fold smaller, while the smallest number of missing teeth was observed among respondents aged 18-30. The largest number of missing teeth was noted among respondents who possessed incomplete elementary or elementary education, followed by those with elementary vocational and secondary school/post-secondary school education, whereas this number was the smallest among respondents who had university education level. Farmers had a significantly larger number of missing teeth, compared to respondents who performed non-agricultural occupations. Using an analysis of regression, the relationship was confirmed between the number of missing teeth, and the respondents' gender, age, education level, place of residence, and occupation performed. Discrimination analysis was applied to show the relationship between the occurrence of total edentulism and the respondents' age, gender, education level and place of residence. It was observed that age was the variable which most strongly

  7. Racial differences in rural adults' attitudes toward issues of adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D; Kolasa, K M; Irons, T G; Wilson, K

    1994-01-01

    This study, based on a random sample of adults in a rural North Carolina county, demonstrates racial differences in rural adults' attitudes relating to adolescent sexual issues. Blacks were 50% more likely than Whites to indicate that public schools should provide general health care services, including pregnancy testing and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, to teenagers; however, they were only half as likely as Whites to approve of sexual experimentation by adolescents. The local community's attitudes must be considered in the implementation of rural adolescent health programs, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome education. PMID:8129065

  8. Factors affecting the mental health of older adults in rural and urban communities: an exploration.

    PubMed

    McGee, Phyllis; Tuokko, Holly; Maccourt, Penny; Donnelly, Martha

    2004-01-01

    Stakeholders in rural and mid-size urban communities were asked to share their views concerning factors that affect the mental health of older adults, and indicate how, and how well, these factors were addressed in their community. The identified factors clustered into six categories: clinical, physical, organizational, educational, psychosocial, and spiritual. Additional factors impacting care providers and caregivers and their ability to support the mental health of older adults also emerged. Similarities and distinct differences between rural and urban communities were reported and call for innovative strategies to meet the needs of seniors, particularly those living in rural areas.

  9. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Butler County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.; Taranto, Angelo A.

    In July and August 1975, 17 men and 63 women living in rural areas in Butler County, Pennsylvania were interviewed as to their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 12% of all adults living on commercial farms and 5% of all rural nonfarm adults in the county. A…

  10. The influence of male care givers on child health in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Devin, R B; Erickson, P I

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between a woman's workload and the health of her pre-school children aged 24-59 months. The role of gender of alternate care givers when the woman is away from home is the specific focus of the research. Interviews were conducted with 106 women in rural Haiti, 44% of whom had malnourished children. Factors which significantly discriminated between normal and malnourished nutritional status were birth space between the index child and its next oldest sibling, number of children in the home, roof type (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and having a male substitute care giver. Further multivariate analysis produced a model which demonstrated that having a male care giver exacerbated the effect of birth space on nutrition status. Further research is necessary to determine characteristics of substitute care givers and their impact on nutritional status and child health in less developed countries. This is particularly important in light of the increased economic pressure on Third World rural women to work outside the home in order to meet the basic needs of their families.

  11. Health Care Provider Mobility Counseling Provision to Older Adults: A Rural/Urban Comparison.

    PubMed

    Huseth-Zosel, Andrea L; Sanders, Gregory; O'Connor, Melissa; Fuller-Iglesias, Heather; Langley, Linda

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined rural-urban differences in health care provider (HCP) perceptions, attitudes, and practices related to driving safety/cessation-related anticipatory guidance provision to older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with HCPs in several north central states. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine dimensions of HCP perceptions and attitudes related to mobility counseling. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if HCP rurality was significantly predictive of HPC provision of mobility counseling by age. Rural HCPs were less likely than urban HCPs to provide mobility counseling to their patients aged 75 or older. Rural HCPs were less likely to refer patients to a driving fitness evaluation resource if they had questions related to driving issues, and were less likely to perceive there were adequate resources to help with driving issues. Rural-urban differences in HCP mobility counseling provision may contribute to potential health disparities between urban and rural patients. Both rural and urban HCPs need training about older driver issues, so they may educate their patients about driving safety/cessation. Future research should examine the association between rural-urban differences in HCP mobility counseling provision and rural older adult overrepresentation in motor vehicle injuries and fatalities statistics.

  12. Intracranial Capillary Hemangioma in the Posterior Fossa of an Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial capillary hemangioma (ICH) is a rare entity, with approximately 24 reported cases in the literature. There are only three reported cases of ICH in an adult male. In this case report, we describe the fourth documented case of ICH in an adult male and, to the best of our knowledge, the first ever documented case of ICH in the posterior fossa of an adult male. We also discuss its imaging appearance and differential diagnosis. PMID:27747124

  13. [Factors associated with quitting intention among male daily smokers in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Liu, Y X; Wang, J; Jia, C Q

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To study the intention on quitting smoking and related factors, so as to provide evidence on related important determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 villages in Shandong, China. A total of 1 287 male daily smokers were interviewed, face-to-face. Multiple logistic regression method was used to assess the factors associated with quitting intention among male daily smokers. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative contribution of determinants on quitting intention which were identified in the multiple logistic regression model. Results: Among 1 287 male daily smokers, 24.7% expressed quitting intention within the next 6 months. Four determinants for quitting intention were identified in the multiple logistic regression model, including previous experience of quitting attempt (OR=1.691, 95% CI:1.458-1.962), lower level of smoking intensity (OR=0.751, 95%CI: 0.639-0.884), extensive knowledge on specific health effects of smoking (OR=1.038, 95% CI: 1.001-1.077) and presence of chronic disease (OR=1.765, 95% CI: 1.013-3.075). Results from the dominance analysis showed that 'previous quitting attempt experience' was the most important determinant regarding quitting intention, followed by low smoking intensity, knowledge of the specific health effects of smoking, and the presence of chronic disease. Conclusion: The rate of quitting intention on cigarette smoking among rural male smokers remained low. Quitting intention was associated with previous quit attempt experience.

  14. Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanyangala, Mathew A; Mayombana, Charles; Urassa, Honorathy; Charles, Jensen; Mahutanga, Chrizostom; Abdullah, Salim; Nathan, Rose

    2010-09-27

    Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15-1.50). Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.

  15. Regular blood donation improves endothelial function in adult males.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Hasan; Zorlu, Ali; Kaya, Hakkı; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, secondary to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, is known to play a major role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It is hypothesized that the lower incidence of coronary artery disease in the premenopausal period in females when compared with males is associated with regular menstrual blood loss. We investigated whether regular blood donation (BD) is associated with improved endothelial function in healthy adult males. Fifty young healthy male volunteers volunteers with a mean age of 30 ± 6 years without overt cardiovascular disease were enrolled to participate in serial consecutive BDs. Serum iron levels as oxidative stress parameters, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) for endothelial function, 24-h mean diastolic blood pressure for peripheral vascular resistance identification, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels as systemic inflammatory markers were evaluated before and after BD. This study used a prospective observational cohort design. Patients with cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases were excluded. BD was found to improve FMD steadily and significantly when compared with the baseline (mean ± SD: 9.9% ± 3.8%, 10.44% ± 3.9%, 10.65% ± 3.9%, and 10.75 ± 3.9%, respectively, p=0.15, p=0.02, p=0.006 as compared with the baseline). A steady decrease was identified in hs-CRP levels after serial BDs, although this decrease was not statistically significant in the all phases (2.96 ± 3.3 mg/L, 2.26 ± 1.5 mg/L, and 2.12 ± 1.5 mg/L, respectively, p=0.829, p=0.558). The 24-h mean diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower in the chronic phase (77 ± 9 mm Hg, 75 ± 7 mm Hg, and 72 ± 8 mm Hg, respectively, p=0.50, p=0.003), whereas there was no significant change in iron levels in the acute and chronic phases (66 ± 32 mg/dL, 72 ± 43 mg/dL, and 68 ± 33 mg/dL, respectively, p=1.000, p=1.000). The results of the study indicate that regular BD improves endothelial function.

  16. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.

  17. Nutritional status and its health-related factors among older adults in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To compare health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban counties of Taiwan. The older adult population of Taiwan is increasing. Furthermore, older people living in rural areas have shorter life expectancy and more chronic diseases than their urban counterparts. However, little is known about the health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban areas of Taiwan, limiting nurses' ability to identify and care for older adults at risk of poor nutritional health. Cross-sectional, comparative. Older adults were randomly selected from names of residents of an adjacent rural and urban area of northern Taiwan and having completing the 2009 health evaluation. From March-July 2010, older adult participants (N = 366) provided data on demographic and health-related information, nutritional self-efficacy, health locus of control and nutritional status. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and compared using chi-square and t-test. Older rural participants had significantly lower educational level, less adequate income, higher medication use, lower scores on self-rated health status and researcher-rated health status and lower self-rated healthy eating status than their urban counterparts. Moreover, rural participants had significantly lower nutritional self-efficacy, higher chance health locus of control and poorer nutritional status than their urban counterparts. Our results suggest that nurses should assess older adults living in rural areas for nutritional health and nutrition knowledge. Based on this assessment, nurses should develop easy, practical and accessible nutritional programmes for this population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Social determinants of eyeblinks in adult male macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Mosher, Clayton P.; Szep, Jeno; Fischl, Kate D.; Gothard, Katalin M.

    2016-01-01

    Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos. The temporal synchrony of blinking, however, increased in response to segments depicting appeasing or aggressive facial expressions directed at the viewer. Two of the four monkeys, who systematically reciprocated the direct gaze of the stimulus monkeys, also showed eyeblink entrainment, a temporal coordination of blinking between social partners engaged in dyadic interactions. Together, our results suggest that in macaques, as in humans, blinking depends not only on the physiological imperative to protect the eyes and spread a film of tears over the cornea, but also on several socio-emotional factors. PMID:27922101

  19. GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

  20. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-07

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  1. Interpretation of multiple isolate urine cultures in adult male patients.

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, M. A.; Abdoh, A. A.; Silva, F. G.; Flournoy, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective analytical study examined the records of 220 adult males (mean age 64.9 years) to determine the relative probability that multiple urine culture isolates (MUI) represent urinary tract infection (UTI) versus contamination or colonization. Nonculture laboratory data were used to determine the likelihood of UTI. Patients were classified into three categories: group 1 (those with single isolate cultures; n = 110), group 2 (those with MUI and either symptomatic UTI or an underlying pathologic condition; n = 71) and group 3 (those with MUI and either surgically altered urinary passages or absence of UTI symptoms; n = 39). Nonculture laboratory data suggested UTI in 48.2% of patients in group 1, 46.5% in group 2, and 23.1% in group 3. Patients in groups 1 or 2 with cultures yielding isolate counts of 10(5) colony forming units/mL were 6.2 times more likely to be classified as having a UTI (by nonculture laboratory data) compared with patients having only one or more of these two criteria. This study proposes a more objective approach to interpretation of MUI cultures using the results of nonculture laboratory data, clinical profiles, and colony counts. PMID:7897687

  2. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  3. E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Venn, Alison; Squibb, Kathryn; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. Methods In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges), road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software. Findings While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern), or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics). Conclusions The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies. PMID:26554376

  5. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Venn, Alison; Squibb, Kathryn; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges), road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software. While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern), or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics). The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies.

  6. Environmental barriers and enablers to physical activity participation among rural adults: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Squibb, Kathryn; Venn, Alison; Ball, Kylie

    2015-08-01

    Social-ecological models of health behaviour acknowledge environmental influences, but research examining how the environment shapes physical activity in rural settings is limited. This study aimed to explore the environmental factors that act as barriers or facilitators to physical activity participation among rural adults. Forty-nine adults from three regions of rural Tasmania, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews that explored features of the environment that supported or hindered physical activity. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Four key themes emerged: functionality, diversity, spaces and places for all and realistic expectations. 'Functionality' included connectivity with other destinations, distance, safety, continuity, supporting infrastructure and surfacing. While there was limited 'diversity' of structured activities and recreational facilities, the importance of easy and convenient access to a natural environment that accommodated physical activity was highlighted. 'Spaces and places for all' highlighted the importance of shared-use areas, particularly those that were family- and dog-friendly. Despite desires for more physical activity opportunities, many participants had 'realistic expectations' of what was feasible in rural settings. Functionality, diversity, spaces and places for all and realistic expectations were identified as considerations important for physical activity among rural adults. Further research using quantitative approaches in larger samples is needed to confirm these findings. SO WHAT? Urban-centric views of environmental influences on physical activity are unlikely to be entirely appropriate for rural areas. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for creating new or modifying existing infrastructure to support active living in rural settings.

  7. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hock Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Cheong Chee; Lim, Kuay Kuang; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Huey Chien; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi Mohd; Kaur, Gurpreet; Zain, Zarihah Mohd; Mohamad, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Salleh, Sallehuddin

    2013-01-07

    Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986-2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5-47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21-30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67-2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65-2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63-2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22-2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98-2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05-1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46-2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15-1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18-20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90-2.94); 20-29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82-3.89; 31-40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47-3.28); 41-50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69-2.20) ; 51-60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15-1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03-1.22)) urban as reference. The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality

  8. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  9. Fluctuating asymmetry and human male life-history traits in rural Belize.

    PubMed Central

    Waynforth, D

    1998-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), used as a measure of phenotypic quality, has proven to be a useful predictor of human life-history variation, but nothing is known about its effects in humans living in higher fecundity and mortality conditions, typical before industrialization and the demographic transition. In this research, I analyse data on male life histories for a relatively isolated population in rural Belize. Some of the 56 subjects practise subsistence-level slash-and-burn farming, and others are involved in the cash economy. Fecundity levels are quite high in this population, with men over the age of 40 averaging over eight children. Low FA successfully predicted lower morbidity and more offspring fathered, and was marginally associated with a lower age at first reproduction and more lifetime sex partners. These results indicate that FA may be important in predicting human performance in fecundity and morbidity in predemographic transition conditions. PMID:9744105

  10. Developing Navigation Competencies to Care for Older Rural Adults with Advanced Illness.

    PubMed

    Duggleby, Wendy; Robinson, Carole A; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Pesut, Barbara; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; MacLeod, Roderick; Keating, Norah C; Santos Salas, Anna; Hallstrom, Lars K; Fraser, Kimberly D; Williams, Allison; Struthers-Montford, Kelly; Swindle, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Navigators help rural older adults with advanced illness and their families connect to needed resources, information, and people to improve their quality of life. This article describes the process used to engage experts - in rural aging, rural palliative care, and navigation - as well as rural community stakeholders to develop a conceptual definition of navigation and delineate navigation competencies for the care of this population. A discussion paper on the important considerations for navigation in this population was developed followed by a four-phased Delphi process with 30 expert panel members. Study results culminated in five general navigation competencies for health care providers caring for older rural persons and their families at end of life: provide patient/family screening; advocate for the patient/family; facilitate community connections; coordinate access to services and resources; and promote active engagement. Specific competencies were also developed. These competencies provide the foundation for research and curriculum development in navigation.

  11. Factors contributing to the low uptake of medical male circumcision in Mutare Rural District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Chiringa, Irene O.; Mashau, Ntsieni S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model. Purpose The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC. Methods The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15–29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data. Results Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%), shameful (30%) and are tainted as promiscuous (20%), psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%), being ashamed and dehumanised (58%), stigmatised and discriminated (40.2%) and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7%) whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58%) and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%). Conclusion Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services. PMID:27380850

  12. Factors contributing to the low uptake of medical male circumcision in Mutare Rural District, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chiringa, Irene O; Ramathuba, Dorah U; Mashau, Ntsieni S

    2016-05-31

    Medical male circumcision (MMC) has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model. The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC. The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15-29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data. Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%), shameful (30%) and are tainted as promiscuous (20%), psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%), being ashamed and dehumanised (58%), stigmatised and discriminated (40.2%) and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7%) whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58%) and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%). Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services.

  13. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Rural Nepal: A Community Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Manandhar, K

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world and is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. It is important to detect and manage prehypertension and hypertension to reduce the risk of correlated complications especially cardiovascular diseases. Objective The objective of the study was to find the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the adults in rural Nepal. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 648 respondents. The information was obtained using pre-tested questionnaire which included demographic information of individuals and other risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity and diet preference. Height, weight and blood pressure were recorded and hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) VII guidelines. Result The overall prevalence of hypertension was 20.5 % and pre-hypertension was 46.6%. The males had higher prevalence of hypertension (30.6%) compared to females (13.8%). Bivariate analysis showed male gender, smoking and non vegetarian diet have association with hypertension. Male gender [OR 2.50 (1.68 - 3.74)] and non vegetarian diet [OR 0.11 (0.01 - 0.85)] were found to be significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was high in the study population. In absence of life style modification and risk reduction the individuals categorized as prehypertension have great risk of developing hypertension in the future which may pose a great challenge in the future. Hence, there is a big scope for screening and primary prevention strategies to curb the epidemic of hypertension.

  14. Village characteristics and health of rural Chinese older adults: examining the CHARLS Pilot Study of a rich and poor province.

    PubMed

    Yeatts, Dale E; Pei, Xiaomei; Cready, Cynthia M; Shen, Yuying; Luo, Hao; Tan, Junxin

    2013-12-01

    Community (or village) characteristics have received growing attention as researchers have sought factors affecting health. This study examines the association between a variety of environmental, economic, and social village characteristics and health of Chinese older rural adults with health measured in terms of physical limitations. The Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) Pilot Study data were used. Older villagers from a low-income province (Gansu) and a relatively wealthy province (Zhejiang) were surveyed between July and September, 2008. The sample included 1267 respondents in 73 villages age 45 and older. The relationship between a variety of village characteristics and physical limitations of older adults was examined using negative binomial regression (NBR) with standard errors adjusted to account for non-independence of respondents in a village. A comparison of means/percentages shows that Gansu and Zhejiang were significantly different on the dependent and most independent variables. The NBR models show that at the personal-level, decreased risk of physical limitations was associated with being male, less than 60 years old, married, higher in education, and higher in household expenditures (proxy for income). At the village-level, decreased risk of limitations was associated with a continuous supply of electricity, not using coal in the household, the existence of a sewage system, low cost of electricity, and village wealth. Decreased risk of physical limitations was also associated with various characteristics of China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), an insurance program for rural older adults. Policy implications for improved health of rural older adults include: (1) continued use of China's NCMS, (2) establishment of village sewage systems, (3) ending the use of coal in the home, and (4) increased educational opportunities focused on health.

  15. Back to the Land? Service and Self-Interest in Adult Education in Rural England, 1920-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Bernard; Thompson, Lynne

    Between the World Wars, a strong current of thought saw "the rural" as a reservoir of the spiritual capital of the nation, a view that stimulated back-to-the-land movements across western Europe. But the inter-war period also saw growing encounters of the urban and rural worlds, one of the interfaces being rural adult education. This…

  16. Adolescent and adult perceptions of traditional and novel smokeless tobacco products and packaging in rural Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sherry T.; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective As smokeless tobacco (ST) marketing increases and new products emerge on the market, very little is known about consumer perceptions of ST products. To inform development of future ST counter-marketing approaches, this qualitative study examined consumer perceptions of traditional and novel ST products and packaging. Methods Focus groups and qualitative interviews were held with adolescent (n=23; mean age of 17 years) and adult (n=38; mean age of 29 years) male ST users from rural Ohio counties. Participants were shown a variety of traditional (e.g., Copenhagen®, Timber Wolf®) and novel (e.g., Camel Snus®, Orbs®) ST products and asked about perceptions of these products and their packaging. Transcriptions were coded independently for common themes by two individuals. Findings Adolescents and adults generally had similar beliefs and reactions about ST products. While participants were familiar with a variety of traditional ST products, Copenhagen® was the most frequently used product. Perceptions of quality and price of traditional products were closely tied to product taste and packaging material. Colors, design, and size of ST packaging appealed to participants and influenced decisions to purchase. Adults believed novel ST products had a weak taste and were targeted to untraditional ST users. While the vast majority was unfamiliar with dissolvable tobacco, adolescents noted that they would be more convenient to use during school than traditional ST. Conclusions Packaging has a significant role in shaping perceptions of ST and consumer behavior. Regulation of product packaging such as shape, size, and images should be part of comprehensive tobacco control. PMID:23047885

  17. Rurality and determinants of hearing healthcare in adult hearing aid recipients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephen; Hixon, Brian; Adkins, Margaret; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the timing of hearing aid (HA) acquisition between adults in rural and urban communities. We hypothesized that time of acquisition of HA after onset of hearing loss is greater in rural adults compared with urban adults. Secondary objectives included assessment of socioeconomic/educational status and impact of hearing loss and hearing rehabilitation of urban and rural HA recipients. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. We assessed demographics, timing of HA fitting from onset of hearing loss, and impact of hearing impairment in 336 adult HA recipients (273 urban, 63 rural) from a tertiary referral center. Amplification benefit was assessed using the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI). The time to HA acquisition was greater for rural participants compared to urban participants (19.1 vs. 25.7 years, P = 0.024) for those with untreated hearing loss for at least 8 years. Age at hearing loss onset was correlated with time to HA acquisition (P = -0.54, P < 0.001). Rural HA participants experienced longer commutes to hearing specialists (68 vs. 32 minutes, P < 0.001), were less likely to achieve a degree beyond high school (P < 0.001), and were more likely to possess Medicaid coverage (P = 0.012) compared to urban participants. Hearing impairment caused job performance difficulty in 60% of all participants. Rural adults are at risk for delayed HA acquisition, which may be related to distance to hearing specialists. Further research is indicated to investigate barriers to care and expand access for vulnerable populations. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2362-2367, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, Bolutife A; Ashaye, Adeyinka O; Owoaje, Eme T; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M; Ajayi, Benedictus G

    2016-01-01

    To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 had sought eye care. Characteristics associated with previous utilization of eye care services were age of =70 years (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 1.7, P = 0.02); male gender (OR = 1.5, P = 0.04); literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001). Blind respondents were three times more likely to seek eye care (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that factors associated with increased likelihood of utilization of eye care services included age ≥ 70 years; literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa.

  19. Epidemiology of dental caries among adults in a rural area in India.

    PubMed

    Maru, Ami M; Narendran, Sena

    2012-05-01

    Data on epidemiology of dental caries of adults in rural India appear to be sparse. The purpose of the study was to assess the oral health status and dental treatment needs of a rural Indian population. The study population consisted of 189 volunteer subjects with a mean age of 34.9 ± 14.2 years and 54% males. Decayed, missing due to caries and filled teeth (DMFT) and tooth surfaces (DMFS) assessed the dental caries experience. Structured interviews collected data on perception of health including oral health, oral hygiene practices and snacking habits. While only 38.1% perceived themselves to be in good or very good dental health, nearly 85% felt the same about general health. The most common sugar exposure was sweetened tea; 75% consumed the beverage at least once a day. More than 80% of the subjects had untreated caries with mean DMFT and DMFS scores of 5.1 ± 3.9 and 13.8 ± 17.8, which lacked any gender differences. Dental treatment needs ranged from 16.9% two-surface fillings to 60.8% one-surface fillings; 23.8% crowns or bridges and 37.6% extractions. Those who perceived themselves to be in better oral health had significantly lower DMFT (4.0 ± 3.2 vs 5.9 ± 4.1) and DMFS (8.4 ± 11.7 vs 17.1 ± 20.0) scores (p < 0.05). A similar trend was observed between perception of general health and DMFT (4.8 ± 3.4 vs 7.0 ± 5.6) and DMFS (11.9 ± 13.7 vs 24.1 ± 30.7) scores. Results indicate high levels of dental caries as well as dental treatment needs among the study participants.

  20. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolutife A.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Owoaje, Eme T.; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M.; Ajayi, Benedictus G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. Results: The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 had sought eye care. Characteristics associated with previous utilization of eye care services were age of =70 years (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 1.7, P = 0.02); male gender (OR = 1.5, P = 0.04); literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001). Blind respondents were three times more likely to seek eye care (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that factors associated with increased likelihood of utilization of eye care services included age ≥70 years; literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa. PMID:26957847

  1. A Consideration of the Impacts of Two Intensive Rural Leadership Development Programs on Male and Female Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Robert E.; Cook, Annabel Kirschner

    The comparative impact of 2 intensive rural leadership development programs on male and female participants in Montana and Pennsylvania was examined. One goal of the one to three year programs (to increase the participants' involvement in public affairs organization) was tested by analysis of pre- and posttest data regarding participants…

  2. Adult Education Life Coping Skills Participants: A Rural Maine Case Study of Adult Needs, Interests and Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Deborah Krichels

    A project ascertained needs and interests of adults in the community in the area of life coping skills by conducting an evaluation of former students at H.O.M.E. Learning Center in Orland, Maine. Forty completers and forty drop-outs from a low income, rural sample were interviewed using a non-directive interview approach that focused on past needs…

  3. Older Adults in Rural Appalachia: Preference and Expectations for Future Care.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Raven H; Roberto, Karen A; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about how rural-dwelling older adults anticipate and plan for future care needs. Using a mixed-method explanatory design, structural equation modeling ( n = 535) revealed significant associations between concerns about using services on preference for type of help; preference was associated with likelihood of using future services. Content analysis of interview data from 19 older adults who needed but were not receiving help revealed how they conceptualize their need for assistance and anticipated future care arrangements. Nine older adults were not thinking about future care needs. While most older adults articulated preferences for informal help, they indicated some openness to formal assistance. Preferences did not always align with expectations for the future. Rather, concerns about burdening family and friends outweighed concerns about community services and influenced expectations of using formal services. Understanding rural older adults' expectations for future care arrangements is necessary for advancing policy and implementing successful services options.

  4. Environmental influences on physical activity in rural Midwestern adults: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults.

  5. Health services access and use among older adults in North Carolina: urban vs rural residents.

    PubMed Central

    Blazer, D G; Landerman, L R; Fillenbaum, G; Horner, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study compared health service use and satisfaction with health care among older adults living in urban vs rural counties in North Carolina. METHODS. A stratified random sample of 4162 residents of one urban and four rural counties of North Carolina was surveyed to determine urban/rural variation in inpatient and outpatient health service use, continuity of care and satisfaction with care, and barriers (transportation, cost) to care. RESULTS. Inpatient and outpatient service use did not vary by residence in controlled analyses. Continuity of care was more frequent in rural counties. Transportation was not perceived as a barrier to health care more frequently in rural than in urban counties, but cost was a greater barrier to care among rural elderly people. CONCLUSIONS. In this sample, older persons living in rural counties within reasonable driving distance of urban counties with major medical centers used health services as frequently and were as satisfied with their health care as persons in urban counties. Cost of care, however, was a significant and persistent barrier among rural elderly people, despite Medicare coverage. PMID:7573622

  6. Aetiologies of diarrhoea in adults from urban and rural treatment facilities in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; Farzana, F D; Das, J; Malek, M A; Das, S K; Salam, M A; Faruque, A S G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of our analysis was to describe the aetiology, clinical features, and socio-demographic background of adults with diarrhoea attending different urban and rural diarrhoeal disease hospitals in Bangladesh. Between January 2010 and December 2011, a total of 5054 adult diarrhoeal patients aged ⩾20 years were enrolled into the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance Systems at four different hospitals (two rural and two urban) of Bangladesh. Middle-aged [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·23-0·35, P < 0·001] and elderly (aOR 0·15, 95% CI 0·11-0·20, P < 0·001) patients were more likely to present to rural diarrhoeal disease facilities than urban ones. Vibrio cholerae was the most commonly isolated pathogen (16%) of the four pathogens tested followed by rotavirus (5%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (4%), and Shigella (4%). Of these pathogens, V. cholerae (19% vs. 11%, P < 0·001), ETEC (9% vs. 4%, P < 0·001), and rotavirus (5% vs. 3%, P = 0·013) were more commonly detected from patients presenting to urban hospitals than rural hospitals, but Shigella was more frequently isolated from patients presenting to rural hospitals than urban hospitals (7% vs. 2%, P < 0·001). The isolation rate of Shigella was higher in the elderly than in younger adults (8% vs. 3%, P < 0·001). Some or severe dehydration was higher in urban adults than rural adults (P < 0·001). Our findings indicate that despite economic and other progress made, conditions facilitating transmission of V. cholerae and Shigella prevail in adults with diarrhoea in Bangladesh and further efforts are needed to control these infections.

  7. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    psoriasis. The ED risk was not increased in men with mild AD (0.85; 0.63-1.14) or severe AD (0.97; 0.76-1.24) but was significantly increased in men with mild psoriasis (1.13; 1.09-1.20) and severe psoriasis (1.17; 1.04-1.32). We found an increased prevalence and risk of ED in men with psoriasis, whereas the risk was comparable to (and even slightly lower than) the general population for men with AD. Egeberg A, Hansen PR, Gislason GH, et al. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis. J Sex Med 2017;14:380-386. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Primary Care for the Oral Health of Rural and Urban Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Julia T; Lee, Haena; Cagney, Kathleen A

    2017-09-01

    Rural populations often have restricted access to dental care and poor oral health. These problems may disproportionately affect older blacks in rural areas. Little is known about how access to primary health care may improve the oral health of rural seniors. This study examines whether the relationship between having a usual source of health care and oral health varies for white and black older adults in rural and urban areas in the United States. We draw on cross-sectional data of adults (50 years+) from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (n = 15,473). Multivariate logistic regression examined the role of a usual source of health care in conditioning racial differences in complete tooth loss and a dental visit in the past 2 years. A usual source of health care is a place, not including an emergency room, where a person goes when he or she is sick or needs health advice. In rural areas, blacks had high rates of tooth loss (28%) and low rates of dental visits (34%). Having a usual source of health care was associated with higher odds of a dental visit for all adults. In rural areas, the association between a usual source of health care and tooth loss varied by race (P < .001); blacks had more tooth loss than whites even with a usual source of health care. Access to primary health care was associated with improved oral health outcomes, but it did not close the gap between whites and blacks in rural areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  9. Urban-rural disparities in hypertension prevalence, detection, and medication use among Chinese Adults from 1993 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Shi, Leiyu; Li, Shixue; Xu, Lingzhong; Qin, Wen; Wang, Heng

    2017-03-14

    China has experienced a rapid increase in hypertension over the past decade, especially in rural. Therefore, the aim of this research is to examine the dynamic trends in urban-rural disparities in hypertension prevalence, detection, and medication use among Chinese adults from 1993 to 2011. Data were extracted from the seven latest waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). We used the hukou system to distinguish between urban and rural residents. Chi-square tests were performed to examine urban-rural gaps in hypertension prevalence, detection and medication use. Multiple logistic regressions were used to confirm these disparities and to explore whether the urban-rural gaps have narrowed or widened from 1993 to 2011, after controlling for health-related behaviors, BMI, demographic variables and socioeconomic characteristics. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique was also used to calculate the extent to which urban-rural disparities reflect an endowments effect or a coefficients effect. Hypertension prevalence, detection, and medication use among rural adults were significantly lower than urban adults, with the significant level at p < 0.001. The urban-rural gaps in hypertension prevalence and medication use gradually narrowed during the period 1993-2011, whereas the gaps in hypertension detection grew wider. After controlling for confounding variables, urban adults were about 24.5, 49.4, and 89.5% more likely to be hypertensive, detected, and medicated than their rural counterparts (p < 0.01), respectively. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition suggested that approximately 22 and 26% of the urban-rural gap in hypertension detection and medication use could be attributed to coefficient difference, respectively. Although hypertension prevalence among rural adults was comparable to that of urban adults, hypertension detection and medication use of rural adults were still suboptimal. Unusually large urban-rural gaps and an expanding trend in

  10. Community health workers can improve male involvement in maternal health: evidence from rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B.; Mpembeni, Rose; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Male involvement in maternal health is recommended as one of the interventions to improve maternal and newborn health. There have been challenges in realising this action, partly due to the position of men in society and partly due to health system challenges in accommodating men. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of Home Based Life Saving Skills training by community health workers on improving male involvement in maternal health in terms of knowledge of danger signs, joint decision-making, birth preparedness, and escorting wives to antenatal and delivery care in a rural community in Tanzania. Design A community-based intervention consisting of educating the community in Home Based Life Saving Skills by community health workers was implemented using one district as the intervention district and another as comparison district. A pre-/post-intervention using quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of Home Based Life Saving Skills training on male involvement and place of delivery for their partners. The effect of the intervention was determined using difference in differences analysis between the intervention and comparison data at baseline and end line. Results The results show there was improvement in male involvement (39.2% vs. 80.9%) with a net intervention effect of 41.1% (confidence interval [CI]: 28.5–53.8; p <0.0001). There was improvement in the knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum periods. The proportion of men accompanying their wives to antenatal and delivery also improved. Shared decision-making for place of delivery improved markedly (46.8% vs. 86.7%), showing a net effect of 38.5% (CI: 28.0–49.1; p <0.0001). Although facility delivery for spouses of the participants improved in the intervention district, this did not show statistical significance when compared to the comparison district with a net intervention effect of 12.2% (95% CI: −2.8–27.1: p=0

  11. Adult male replacement and subsequent infant care by male and siblings in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Juárez, Cecilia Paola; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) are small, territorial, socially monogamous primates that show intense infant care by the adult male in the group. It has been hypothesized that male care may be adaptive because it increases offspring survival and/or reduces the metabolic costs to the female of raising the offspring. Alternatively, males may provide care even when they are not related to the infants to increase future reproductive opportunities. We describe changes in infant care patterns that took place after the eviction of the resident male by a solitary male in an owl monkey population in the Argentinean Chaco. The resident male and mother provided all infant care during the first month of life of the infant, until the male was evicted. During the three-day male replacement event, care of the infant was shared among the mother, a four-year-old sister, and a one-year-old brother. The new male began contributing to infant care soon after entering the group, carrying, and interacting socially with the infant in much the same way as any male regularly does. However, despite receiving biparental care from both the original and new resident males, the infant disappeared at the age of four months and was presumed dead. These are the first reports of care by sibling and by non-putative fathers in wild owl monkeys. Given the significant amount of time that new pairs of owl monkeys spend before reproducing, it is possible that male care in owl monkeys functions as mating effort as much as or more than parenting effort.

  12. Factors associated with adults' perceived need to vaccinate against hepatitis B in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lijie; Wang, Jian; Wangen, Knut R; Chen, Ruohan; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen

    2016-05-03

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public-health issue in China. While the hepatitis B vaccine is effective in preventing HBV infection, the HBV vaccination coverage rates among Chinese adults remain low. From a survey of rural adults from 7 provinces in China, we identified a unique HBV at-risk group: rural adults who had no history of HBV vaccination and had no plan to HBV vaccinate in the future. We divided this 'no history-no plan' group into those who identified No-need to vaccinate and those that perceived a Need to vaccinate (even if they had no plan to do so). We found age, marital status, health status, perceived HBV infection environment, perceived HBV infection risk and perceived HBV infection severity explained differences between the 'No-need' and 'Need" to HBV vaccinate groups. Education, occupation and knowledge of hepatitis B and HBV transmission were not associated with HBV vaccination need. Our results showed that free HBV vaccinations and reimbursement for vaccinating could significantly increase the HBV vaccinate take-up rate for both Need and No-need rural adults. A tailored public health HBV campaign, especially targeting the No-need subgroup, would increase vaccination rates by better informing rural adults about HBV transmission routes, the dangers of HBV infection, the effectiveness of HBV vaccinations and the safety of HBV vaccinations.

  13. Anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure measures among rural elderly adults of Asian Indian origin: the Santiniketan aging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Bala, Sanjib Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The number of older adults is increasing in industrialized and in developing countries. The present community-based cross sectional work was undertaken to study the anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure characteristics of rural-dwelling elderly adults of Asian Indian origin. A total of 300 individuals (Male = 157 and Female = 143) from the Bolpur-Sriniketan area of West Bengal, India, took part in the study. Participants were divided into four age-groups: Group I, 55-59 years (Male:Female = 55:61); Group II, 60-64 years (Male:Female = 41:33); Group III, 65-69 years (Male:Female = 27:21); Group IV, 70 years and older (Male:Female = 34:28). Anthropometric measures were taken using standard techniques. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and the sum of four skin folds were subsequently computed. Body composition measures, namely percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area, were calculated accordingly. Left-arm systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were also measured, and mean arterial pressure was subsequently calculated. Overall observations in the study population indicate a predominance of body weights below the normal body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). More than half the subjects reported the lack of adequate sanitation facilities and education levels were generally low. Rates of smoking (65.6%) and habitual consumption of alcohol (38.9%) were high in male participants. Upon comparison across the four age groups, results revealed decreases in percent body fat, fat mass, and mid upper arm muscle circumference for Groups III and IV versus Group I for men and for Group IV versus I for women. The overall trend for both SBP and DBP was for small increases with age in men in contrast to slight decreases with age in women. Our findings of generally low body weights, detrimental age-related changes in body composition, and a number of other health-related concerns highlight

  14. Effects of the built environment on physical activity of adults living in rural settings.

    PubMed

    Frost, Stephanie S; Goins, R Turner; Hunter, Rebecca H; Hooker, Steven P; Bryant, Lucinda L; Kruger, Judy; Pluto, Delores

    2010-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature to examine the influence of the built environment (BE) on the physical activity (PA) of adults in rural settings. Key word searches of Academic Search Premier, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Sport Discus were conducted. Studies published prior to June 2008 were included if they assessed one or more elements of the BE, examined relationships between the BE and PA, and focused on rural locales. Studies only reporting descriptive statistics or assessing the reliability of measures were excluded. Objective(s), sample size, sampling technique, geographic location, and definition of rural were extracted from each study. Methods of assessment and outcomes were extracted from the quantitative literature, and overarching themes were identified from the qualitative literature. Key characteristics and findings from the data are summarized in Tables 1 through 3. Twenty studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Positive associations were found among pleasant aesthetics, trails, safety/crime, parks, and walkable destinations. Research in this area is limited. Associations among elements of the BE and PA among adults appear to differ between rural and urban areas. Considerations for future studies include identifying parameters used to define rural, longitudinal research, and more diverse geographic sampling. Development and refinement of BE assessment tools specific to rural locations are also warranted.

  15. Impact of Rural Residence on Survival of Male Veterans Affairs Patients after Age 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Todd A.; Wallace, Amy E.; Weeks, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: More than 1 in 5 Veterans Affairs (VA) users lives in a rural setting. Rural veterans face different barriers to health care than their urban counterparts, but their risk of death relative to their urban counterparts is unknown. The objective of our study was to compare survival between rural and urban VA users. Methods: We linked the…

  16. Serum levels of Cu, Se, and Zn in adult rural/urban residents in Ghana: paradigm shift?

    PubMed

    Asare, George A; Nani, Albert

    2010-11-01

    Deficiencies in Cu, Se, and Zn impair one or more biochemical functions, and excess are associated with toxicity. Baseline studies on the Ghanaian population are scanty. The study was undertaken to determine whether significant rural/urban differences in the serum levels of Cu, Se, and Zn did exist. Forty males/60 females from rural and 50 males/50 females from urban Ghanaian communities were sampled. Serum Cu, Se, and Zn were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu level for rural and urban subjects was 997 +/- 333 and 979 +/- 290 microg/L, respectively (p = 0.68). However, Cu levels were significantly higher in the rural females (1,063 +/- 367 microg/L) than the rural males (898 +/- 249 microg/L; p = 0.0085). Se levels for rural/urban subjects were 97 +/- 36 and 87 +/- 31 microg/L, respectively (p = 0.03). Zn levels in the rural/urban subjects were 312 +/- 218 and 150 +/- 102 microg/L, respectively (p = 0.002). Additionally, Zn was significantly higher in rural females (428 +/- 204 microg/L) than the urban females (166 +/- 103 microg/L; p = 0.0002). Finally, Zn was significantly higher in rural females (428 +/- 204 microg/L) than males (172 +/- 116 microg/L; p = 0.0028). In conclusion, Cu, Se, and Zn were higher in the rural group compared to the urban group, and the generally low Zn levels were confirmed in another cohort follow-up study.

  17. Ethnic variation in oral health and social integration among older rural adults.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R; Anderson, Andrea M; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-04-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, White) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do White older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, whereas the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian, and White elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted.

  18. Ethnic Variation in Oral Health and Social Integration among Older Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted. PMID:23788829

  19. Eating Behaviors and Social Capital are Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cassandra M.; Dean, Wesley R.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in rural areas. This study examined the relationship between demographics, socioeconomic status, social capital, eating behaviors, and fruit and vegetable intake for a large rural sample. Data from 1220 rural adults participating in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment Survey were used. Multivariable regression results demonstrated eating a regular breakfast (p-value ≤ 0.001) was positively and drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (p-value = 0.010) was negatively associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Being female, older, and having higher levels of education and social capital were associated with consuming more fruit and vegetables. This analysis provides evidence that contextual aspects are important for understanding fruit and vegetable intake in rural areas. PMID:21116465

  20. Patient satisfaction of young adults in rural clinics: policy implications for nurse practitioner practice.

    PubMed

    Lemley, Kathryn B; Marks, Beth

    2009-05-01

    In an effort to increase primary care services to Medicare and Medicaid patients, the Rural Health Clinics Services Act of 1977 required collaborative practices to include mid-level providers such as nurse practitioners (NPs). As a result, NPs have increased access to primary care in many rural and underserved areas. Now, in an effort to improve quality of health care, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) initiated public reporting of health care quality indicators. Although patient satisfaction is recognized as a quality indicator, few researchers have investigated patient satisfaction with NPs in rural family practice. A patient satisfaction survey (PSS) was distributed to a convenience sample of 213 young adult patients seen by five nurse practitioners in two rural family practice clinics. Survey results are analyzed and discussed within the framework of current CMS policy initiatives such as performance measures, pay for performance (P4P), transparency, and public reporting.

  1. Differential proteomics analysis of female and male adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Zengmei; Huang, Huicong; Tan, Feng; Zhang, Erpeng; Hu, Jianwen; Pan, Changwang

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we identified the differentially expressed proteins of female and male adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis through differential proteomics. We extracted and purified total proteins from male and female adults, separated proteins by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in pH 4-7, analyzed the gel images by DeCyder 7.0 software, and sacrificed the infected rats to count the number of male and female adults. It was found 28 protein spots that were differentially expressed; seven protein spots were then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Five proteins were up-regulated and two proteins down-regulated in male adults compared with female adults. Three of the five up-regulated proteins with known functions ascribed to them were identified as galectin-1, proteasome alpha subunit and peroxiredoxin. The two down-regulated proteins were identified as indoleamine dioxygenase like-myoglobin and galectin. Furthermore, the female was significantly greater than male adults (P<0.01) in the rats. The findings demonstrate the differences in protein expression profiles and the ability to survive in the final host between female and male adults of A. cantonensis, and may provide a theoretical basis to study their developmental biology further.

  2. Survey methods and response rates among rural community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Linda S; Yang, Rumei; Guymon, Maughan; Olson, Lenora M

    2013-01-01

    Rural older adults are not often targeted for surveys, and little is known about survey response rates in this population. Because overall numbers of rural older adults are small, it is important to consider techniques to improve their survey response rates. The purpose of this study was to work with community partners to determine whether rural older adults participating in a rural county home-delivered meals program were more likely to respond to an injury risk survey hand-delivered via the postal service or hand-delivered by the home-delivered meals drivers. All home-delivered meals clients older than 65 years old were randomized to one of two groups. One group (n = 70) received the following via the postal service: a prenotice letter, a survey packet containing a description of the survey, the survey, a stamped and addressed return envelope, and a reminder/thank-you card. Older adults in the other group (n = 69) were personally handed the survey packet by the home-delivered meals driver. The overall survey response rate was 43.9%. Older adults who were handed the survey packets by the home-delivered meals drivers were older and significantly more likely to return the survey (57%) compared with those who received survey materials in the mail (31%). Only 27% of respondents agreed to be contacted regarding participation in future face-to-face interviews. When taking into account response rates, postage costs alone were over five times higher for the postal-delivered surveys compared with the hand-delivered surveys. By working with community partners, we were able to determine that older adults in a rural community were more likely to respond to surveys personally handed to them by someone they knew.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of elevated blood pressure, overweight, and dyslipidemia in adolescent and young adults in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christine P; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee S F; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; West, Keith P

    2013-10-01

    Chronic disease begins early in life, yet population data are sparse on potential causal factors in children and young adults in South Asia. We assessed risk factors for chronic disease in two population cohorts, aged 9-23 years, in rural Nepal. Assessed variables included short height (less than -2 z), high body mass index (BMI) (z>0.42), waist circumference (WC) >90 cm (male) or 80 cm (female) or age-adjusted child cutoff], high blood pressure (>120/80 mmHg), fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (>7%), blood lipids [triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol], diet, smoking, alcohol, and socioeconomic status (SES) factors. The population was stunted (46%) and few were overweight (∼2%-4% with high BMI or WC). Twelve percent had high blood pressure. Plasma hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL) affected ∼8.5%, and 78% had low HDL-C concentrations <40 mg/dL (male) or <50 mg/dL (female)], while few (≤3%) had elevated total cholesterol (≥180 mg/dL), glucose, and HbA1c. Females were at higher risk than males for high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.3] and overweight (4.2; 3.0-5.8), but had lower risk of dyslipidemia (0.7; 0.6-0.9). Ethnic plains Madheshi were less likely to be overweight (0.3; 0.2-0.4), but had greater risk of dyslipidemia (1.4; 1.1-1.7) versus those of Hill origin. Some dietary factors were significantly associated with high blood pressure or dyslipidemia, but not overweight. Dyslipidemia and high blood pressure are emerging health concerns among young adults in rural Nepal.

  4. Caries experience and use of dental services in rural and urban adults and older adults from central Chile.

    PubMed

    Quinteros, Maria E; Cáceres, Dante D; Soto, Alex; Mariño, Rodrigo J; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between the use of dental services and caries experience in adults and older adults from central Chile. A sample of 453 adults, 35-44 years of age, and 438 older adults, 65-74 years of age, was interviewed and examined using World Health Organisation (WHO) methods. Sociodemographic variables were also registered. Caries experience was assessed using the Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth (DMFT) index. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether there was an association between the independent variables and caries experience. Caries prevalence was 99.6% for adults [DMFT score = 14.89 (±6.16)] and 99.8% for older adults [DMFT score = 25.68 (±6.49)]. Less than half of the population - 41.7% of adults and 31.5% of older adults - received dental care. Regardless of the age group, there were no differences in the DMFT score between those who received and those who did not receive attention (P > 0.05). When the DMFT findings were analysed in greater detail, people who received dental care and urban participants had more fillings (P < 0.05) than did those who were not provided with attention or lived in rural areas, who, in turn, had more missing teeth (P < 0.05). A higher educational level was associated with a decrease of 1.15 DMFT points (P = 0.003) in the group of older adults. Adults and older adults from the Maule Region showed severe dental damage from caries. Although rurality and use of services do not seem to affect caries experience, they are associated with differences in fillings and missing teeth. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Male Reproductive Health: A village based study of camp attenders in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kate M; Das, Susmita; Das, Rumeli

    2004-01-01

    Background A paucity of information about male reproductive health and a perceived interest in involvement among local men provided the impetus for carrying out a village based male reproductive health camp. The aim was to investigate men's willingness to participate in such camps, and to describe reproductive health problems in men. Methods Structured interviews were carried out with 120 men attending a reproductive health check-up in a village in rural West Bengal, India. General information, details of family planning methods used and data on reproductive health complaints were collected. Clinical examinations were also carried out. Socio-demographic characteristics were compared for men with and without reproductive health and urinary complaints. Results Three quarters of the married men were using contraception, but the majority stated that their wives were responsible for it. The most common reproductive health complaint was urinary problems; 28% had burning on urination, and 22% reported frequent and/or difficult urination. There were few social or demographic differences between men with and without problems. Seventeen percent of the men had clinically diagnosed reproductive health problems, the most common being urethral discharge. None of the men with diagnosed problems were using condoms. Conclusions This study highlights the interest of men in their reproductive health, but also highlights the high proportion of men with problems. In addition, a number of men with clinically diagnosed problems had not reported them in the interviews, illustrating either the reticence to report or the lack of knowledge about symptoms of reproductive health problems. Recommendations for future programmes and research in this field are given. PMID:15555073

  6. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates the accumulation of translatable yolk polypeptide gene transcript in adult male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shirk, P D; Minoo, P; Postlethwait, J H

    1983-01-01

    Yolk polypeptide (YP) synthesis is hormonally stimulated during maturation of adult female Drosophila melanogaster. Synthesis of the three YPs is sex specific and occurs in fat body cells and follicle cells of adult females. However, males have been shown to produce YPs when treated with the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). By using a cell-free translation system as an assay for YP mRNA, we found that 20-HE also causes the accumulation of translatable YP message in males. In addition, hybridization of cloned copies of genes for both YP1 and YP3 to total RNA from males showed that 20-HE caused the appearance of YP gene transcripts in males. Eight hours after treatment of males with 20-HE, YP gene transcript levels had increased at least 25-fold to approximately 2.7 x 10(6) copies of YP1 gene transcript per adult male fly. In normal adult females, there were 42 x 10(6) copies per fly by 24 hr. There was neither detectable YP synthesis nor translatable YP gene transcript in either normal 1- to 3-day-old males or 24-hr-old males treated with a juvenile hormone analogue. This evidence shows that 20-HE acts to regulate the levels of translatable YP mRNA in male Drosophila.

  7. Barriers and motivators to exercise for older adults: a focus on those living in rural and remote areas of Australia.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Jackie; Franklin, Richard C; Newitt, Rose; McFarlane, Kathryn; Grant, Tonya; Kurkowski, Barbra

    2013-06-01

    To identify the barriers and facilitators for exercise in older adults (50 years or over) specific to those living in rural and remote areas in Australia and to identify how this relates to falls prevention exercise programs in these areas. Literature review. Search of the databases of Medline, Scopus and Social Sciences Citation Index. Rural and remote areas. Searching identified 56 articles relating to barriers or facilitators to exercise in older adults in general, of which 25 are discussed in the article. Five of these articles specifically related to rural and remote areas, of which all were from studies in the United States. No literature specifically relating to rural and remote Australia was identified. Therefore, articles included in the final review were from three different domains - world literature (excluding those specific to rural and remote areas of Australia), rural and remote literature (note not Australian), and Australian literature to enable a comparison between the different populations to occur. There are similarities and differences between the barriers and facilitators in various populations, and no one factor alone will enable exercise in older adults. Research needs to be conducted on the barriers and facilitators to exercise in older adults living in rural and remote areas in Australia. Falls prevention exercise programs need to be tailored to suit the unique needs of the rural and remote older population. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  8. Food Insecurity and Food Choices in Rural Older Adults with Diabetes Receiving Nutrition Education via Telemedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homenko, Daria R.; Morin, Philip C.; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Weinstock, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate differences between rural older adults with diabetes reporting the presence or absence of food insecurity with respect to meal planning, preparation, shopping, obesity, and glycemic control after receiving nutrition counseling through telemedicine. Methods: Food insecurity data were obtained by telephone survey (n = 74).…

  9. Food Insecurity and Food Choices in Rural Older Adults with Diabetes Receiving Nutrition Education via Telemedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homenko, Daria R.; Morin, Philip C.; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Weinstock, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate differences between rural older adults with diabetes reporting the presence or absence of food insecurity with respect to meal planning, preparation, shopping, obesity, and glycemic control after receiving nutrition counseling through telemedicine. Methods: Food insecurity data were obtained by telephone survey (n = 74).…

  10. Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

  11. Receptivity toward Immigrants in Rural Pennsylvania: Perceptions of Adult English as Second Language Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    This article uses interview and questionnaire data to examine how adult English as a second language (ESL) providers in rural Pennsylvania perceive community receptivity toward immigrants and the factors they believe foster or hinder receptivity and immigrants' integration. ESL providers' depictions of local responses to immigrants ranged from…

  12. Social Reproduction in Non-Formal Adult Education: The Case of Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Using fieldnotes from the non-formal adult education classes run by a non-profit international education with ground operations in rural Mozambique, this article documents how the comments made by class facilitators and class participants in those classes reflect inherent power inequalities between non-profit staff and local participants. These…

  13. A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

    2013-01-01

    Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

  14. Rural Older Adults' Access Barriers to In-Home and Community-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong

    2006-01-01

    This study identified specific access barriers to seven commonly used in-home and community-based services (CBS) and examined factors that were related to barriers to these services. The data used in this study were extracted from the 1999 National Long Term Care Survey and included 283 dyads of rural older adults and their caregivers. The CBS to…

  15. The Importance of Emotional and Social Isolation to Loneliness among Very Old Rural Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, Elizabeth; Kivett, Vira R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relative importance of emotional and social isolation to loneliness among very old rural adults (n=119). Found that emotional isolation, specifically loss of spouse, accounted for more loneliness than did social isolation. Hearing acuity and visits with siblings (social isolation variables) also were significant predictors of loneliness.…

  16. Television as a Means of Training Rural Young-Adult Apprentices in Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.; Keaton, Laurie

    Using television as a means of delivery for an educational program in rural areas and looking at the media preferences of young adults, this study was conducted in a non-metropolitan area of northwestern New Mexico to examine the effectiveness of television and videotape to provide basic principles of solar energy to 15 young apprentices in a…

  17. Social Reproduction in Non-Formal Adult Education: The Case of Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Using fieldnotes from the non-formal adult education classes run by a non-profit international education with ground operations in rural Mozambique, this article documents how the comments made by class facilitators and class participants in those classes reflect inherent power inequalities between non-profit staff and local participants. These…

  18. Rural Adult Education and the Health Transformation of Pastoral Women of Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, politics of education in Nigeria have shifted from urban to rural literacy, which led to the development of programmes such as the nomadic women's adult education programme. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the programme's implementation strategies, and the extent to which the health educational…

  19. A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

    2013-01-01

    Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

  20. Rural Adult Education and the Role of Mass Media: A Comparative Analysis of Four Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenglet, Frans; McAnany, Emile G.

    Rural adult education projects using television in Tanzania, the Ivory Coast, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala are described and compared with special attention given to objectives, organization, selection and recruitment of supervisors, monitors and participants, use of communication media, feedback and evaluation systems impact, and…

  1. The Rural Economy: Implications for Further, Higher and Adult Education. An FEU View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This study presents an overview of how the further, higher, and adult education (FHE) system in England should support the rural economy. It is meant to relate to the changing agricultural scene, its diversification, the movement of people, and the well-being of the community. The first seven chapters of the booklet describe the nature of the…

  2. Television as a Means of Training Rural Young-Adult Apprentices in Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.; Keaton, Laurie

    Using television as a means of delivery for an educational program in rural areas and looking at the media preferences of young adults, this study was conducted in a non-metropolitan area of northwestern New Mexico to examine the effectiveness of television and videotape to provide basic principles of solar energy to 15 young apprentices in a…

  3. Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

  4. Digital Storytelling in Adult Education and Family Literacy: A Case Study from Rural Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on digital storytelling (DST) has focused chiefly on children and youth, but we know little about how it is used in non-formal adult education. This article analyzes a DST class in rural Ireland, which was organized by a family literacy program and offered for parents at an elementary school. Data sources included fieldnotes,…

  5. The Northeast Texas Adult Education Rural Workplace Literacy Program. Annual Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sue; Burns, Kathryn; Bowers, Jana; Pruitt, Jeanni; Pate, Sally

    The Northeast Texas Adult Education Rural Education Workplace Literacy Program, which is a partnership between Northeast Texas Community College and area businesses, offers workplace literacy instruction designed around job-specific basic skills. Training is offered in the following: applied workplace technology; applied math skills; measurements…

  6. Body Composition and Anthropometric Correlates of Isokinetic Leg Extension Strength of Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Thorland, William G.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of body size and composition as determinants of differences in isokinetic leg extensor strength in young adult males performing at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  7. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  8. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  9. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision.

  10. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Holden, Alan E C; Shain, Rochelle N; Perdue, Sondra T

    2009-12-01

    We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls of age 15 to 19 years, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women of age 20 to 41 years, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone, a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (P < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was "really important" for the teen to have their baby (P = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (P = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.

  11. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Croft, James L.; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Methods Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Results Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Conclusions Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies. PMID:26083689

  12. Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Young Male *

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Stephen L.; Kliger, Alan; Smith, G.J. Walker

    1982-01-01

    Infection with pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus was found in a young male suspected of having miliary tuberculosis. Problems of diagnosis and predisposing factors for these infections in the patient are discussed. The patient's clinical course and management are reviewed. Autopsy findings are presented. Alternative modes of therapy are considered. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:6305041

  13. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Croft, James L; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies.

  14. Effect of Eight-Week Exercise Program on Social Physique Anxiety Conditions in Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyüz, Öznur

    2017-01-01

    Physiological changes occurring with physical activity have played role in appearance of a different field of study. Thus, examination of the effect of eight-week exercise program on SPA in adult males forms the purpose of the study. 20 sedentary males aged 18-25 voluntarily participated in the research. Volunteers were applied resistance exercise…

  15. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  16. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  17. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  18. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Fox, Elliott C.; Larsen, Gregory D.; Batson, Christopher G.; Wagner, Benjamin A.; Maher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats’ strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. PMID:23597827

  19. Does productive role occupancy prevent depression among older rural Chinese adults? A latent difference score analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hsin-Yi; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2014-01-01

    Depression has been reported as common among older rural Chinese adults, who often face limited access to healthcare services and resources. Empirical studies conducted in the West have shown beneficial effects of productive engagement on psychological well-being. However, the mechanisms by which engagement in productive activities leads to and results from improved mental health remain unclear. Utilizing role enhancement and social resource theories, the present study investigated the relationship between productive role occupancy and depression among older Chinese adults in rural areas over 8 years. Using four waves of data from the Well-Being of Elderly in Anhui Province of China study, we employed bivariate latent different score analysis to examine the temporal sequence of productive role occupancy and depression among 1696 older adults. Findings indicated that trajectories of productive role occupancy and depression rose across the four waves. There is evidence for self-feedback effects in productive role occupancy and depression. Depression had a significant effect on subsequent changes in productive role occupancy (β = -0.042, p = 0.000), whereas productive role occupancy had no significant effect on subsequent changes in depression. The mental well-being of participants worsened over time. Engaging in productive activities had no effect on mental health status, and rural older adults with poor mental health were less likely to engage in productive activities over time. Findings suggest that psychological well-being as a personal resource significantly affects how productively Chinese adults age in late life.

  20. Increasing Access to Postsecondary Education for Adults in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, W. Robert; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study of the barriers to adult participation in postsecondary education in the Appalachian regions of six southern states. Discusses policy-related, dispositional, situational, and institutional barriers to enrollment, and offers recommendations for reducing the obstacles. (DMM)

  1. Increasing Access to Postsecondary Education for Adults in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, W. Robert; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study of the barriers to adult participation in postsecondary education in the Appalachian regions of six southern states. Discusses policy-related, dispositional, situational, and institutional barriers to enrollment, and offers recommendations for reducing the obstacles. (DMM)

  2. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  3. Social and Psychiatric Influences on Urban-Rural Differentials in Australian Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard; Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Harrison, James; Carter, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate urban-rural differentials in Australian suicide rates, and to examine influences that previously have remained largely speculative. Suicide rates for males (all ages and young adults) were significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. Urban-rural suicide rate differences in males were…

  4. Falls in rural and remote community dwelling older adults: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Jackie; Franklin, Richard C; King, Jemma C

    2014-08-01

    Falls in older adults represent a significant challenge in Australia; however, the focus is often on urban-dwelling older adults. The aim of this review was to explore the literature on falls epidemiology and falls prevention interventions (FPI). A literature review was conducted searching Medline, Scopus, Social Sciences Citation Index, Google Scholar, Google and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare publication catalogue. Rural and remote Australia. Rural and remote community dwelling Australians aged 50 years and older. Literature review. Falls epidemiology and effective falls prevention interventions. Twenty references were identified: 14 related to falls epidemiology and 7 to FPI. No significant differences were found between rural, remote and major cities residents in relation to falls hospitalisation, falls mortality or fall-related injuries sustained. There are a wide assortment of health professionals and non-health professionals who are involved in providing FPI in rural and remote Australia. However, there was limited information on the effectiveness of these interventions in influencing falls outcomes. Few studies explored falls and their prevention in rural and remote Australia. The limited literature on the topic suggests that a change in focus to one that utilises existing services and resources will be required to create sustainable outcomes. Four areas are proposed for concentrated effort to reduce the impact of fall-related injury in rural and remote Australia: integration and collaboration among health professionals, promotion of physical activity across the lifespan, community involvement and ownership of interventions, and evaluation and publication of findings. © 2014 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. “Locusts are now our beef”: Adult mortality and household dietary use of local environmental resources in rural South Africa1

    PubMed Central

    HUNTER, LORI M.; TWINE, WAYNE; PATTERSON, LAURA

    2010-01-01

    There is currently a lack of research on the association between demographic dynamics and household use of natural resources in rural Africa. Such work is important because in rural Africa natural resources buffer households against shocks, offering both sustenance and income-generating potential. Aims: The article focuses on adult mortality as a household shock, examining use of local environmental resources as related to household dietary needs. Methods: The authors analyze two sources of data collected during May–December 2004 in the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) in rural South Africa. Quantitative analyses use survey data from 240 households, stratified by adult mortality experience. Qualitative data are based on 31 interviews with members of households having recently experienced adult mortality. Results: The interviews provide insight into a variety of household-level mortality impacts and also suggest the importance of proximate resources in the maintenance of food security following the loss of an adult household member. Quantitatively, there are significant differences, both in patterns of usage of the natural environment and in levels of food security, between households that have lost an adult and those that have not. The association between mortality and household use of local environmental resources is further shaped by the gender of the deceased and the time elapsed since the death. Conclusions: Adult mortality, particularly the death of a male wage-earner, affects household food security. Time allocation is affected as resource collection responsibilities shift, and wild foods may substitute for previously purchased goods. PMID:17676519

  6. Elderly parent health and the migration decisions of adult children: evidence from rural China.

    PubMed

    Giles, John; Mu, Ren

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has shown that participation in migrant labor markets has led to substantial increases in income for families in rural China. This article addresses the question of how participation is affected by elderly parent health. We find that younger adults are less likely to work as migrants when a parent is ill. Poor health of an elderly parent has less impact on the probability of employment as a migrant when an adult child has siblings who may be available to provide care. We also highlight the potential importance of including information on nonresident family members when studying how parent illness and elder care requirements influence the labor supply decisions of adult children.

  7. Sources of Older Parents’ Ambivalent Feelings Toward Their Adult Children: The Case of Rural China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Relying on the concept of sociological ambivalence, this study investigated the sources of intergenerational ambivalence in rural China, a traditional society that undergoes dramatic demographic, economic, and social changes. Methods. Data were derived from a survey of 1,162 older adults and their 4,396 children in rural Anhui province. Two-level mixed-effects model was carried out to predict ambivalent feelings reported by the older parents toward their adult children. Results. The findings yielded both similar and distinctive predictors of intergenerational ambivalence among the Chinese elderly population compared with their Western counterparts. The Chinese elderly population reported greater ambivalence toward sons than toward daughters. Adult children’s higher socioeconomic status, represented by a more prestigious job and an urban household registry status (hukou), was associated with reduced ambivalence among parents. Parents’ monetary support to children and assistance with childcare, which is common in rural China due to the massive out-migration, were also associated with higher levels of ambivalent feelings. Discussion. We interpreted the findings in the larger social context of strong son preference, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and rigid rural–urban division in China due to the household registration system. Our findings demonstrate that individual feelings of ambivalence are culturally structured and are determined within complex social environment. PMID:23591570

  8. Male out-migration: a factor for the spread of HIV infection among married men and women in rural India.

    PubMed

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Sabarwal, Shrutika; Ghosh, Subash; Johri, Aradhana

    2012-01-01

    Thus far, the reasons for increasing HIV prevalence in northern and eastern Indian states are unknown. We investigated the role of male out-migration in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through a case-control study in rural India. Currently married men and women were recruited from HIV testing and treatment centers across seven selected districts with high rates of male out-migration in eastern and northern India in 2010 using a case-control study design. Case subjects (men: 595, women: 609) were people who tested HIV seropositive and control subjects (men: 611, women: 600) were those tested HIV seronegative. For each gender, we obtained adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and population attributable risks (PARs) for migration, and behavioral factors. For men, the prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among those with a migration history (AOR, 4.4); for women, the prevalence of HIV was higher among those with migrant husbands (AOR, 2·3). For both genders, the returned male migration (men: AOR, 3·7; women: AOR, 28) was significantly associated with higher prevalence of HIV infection. The PAR associated with male migration was higher for men (54.5%-68.6%) than for women (32·7%-56·9%) across the study areas. Male out-migration is the most important risk factor influencing the spread of HIV infection in rural areas with high out-migration rates, thereby emphasizing the need for interventions, particularly, for returned migrants and spouses of those migrants.

  9. Exploring the reasons urban and rural-dwelling older adults participate in memory research.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Amanda; Sarles, C Elizabeth; Rosen, Daniel; Lingler, Jennifer H; Johnson, Marla Bonacile; Morrow, Lisa; Saxton, Judith

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how underrepresented older urban and rural-dwelling individuals conceptualize participation in cognitive impairment studies. Nine focus groups were held with urban and rural-dwelling older adults who had participated in a community-based memory screening study. Expected and experienced benefits of research participation were motivators for study participation in all focus groups. Results indicate that participation in memory research was believed to lead to an understanding of memory function. Focus group participants expressed an active interest in research on dementia, and viewed research participation as a way to address memory concerns and provide a benefit to society.

  10. Factors influencing Internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berner, Jessica; Rennemark, Mikael; Jogréus, Claes; Anderberg, Peter; Sköldunger, Anders; Wahlberg, Maria; Elmståhl, Sölve; Berglund, Johan

    2015-09-01

    Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption; a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-care solutions. Older adults' Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. The sample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated with age, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living. Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts. Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well as living with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid the exclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The relationship between relative deprivation and adult nutritional status in rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Cole, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    To explore statistically the relationship between adult short-run nutritional status [body mass index (BMI)] and a measure of relative deprivation [subjective socioeconomic status (SES)] using panel data collected in a developing country where there is a high degree of poverty and a very uneven distribution of income. Study participants included men and women from a random sample of households located in a rural setting in Zambia. The data were collected during two waves of survey interviews in 2009. A multilevel model was used to estimate the relationship between subjective SES and adult BMI and controlled for individual absolute income as well as other correlates of adult health. The sample size included 254 observations. A positive relationship was established between individual absolute income and adult BMI at the 1% level. A negative and statistically significant association was found at the 1% level between lower subjective SES and adult BMI. Lower perception of place within the socioeconomic hierarchy was on average associated with a 0.44 decrease in adult BMI. This study found that, independent of individual absolute income, lower subjective SES was negatively related with adult BMI in rural Zambia. The result provides evidence that lower perception of place within the local socioeconomic hierarchy matters to health. Future studies should continue exploring the relationship between subjective and objective measures of relative deprivation and health in developing countries, where the bulk of the research focuses on material not relative deprivation as a key determinant of individual health. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Associations between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults aged 55-65 years: does urban-rural area of residence matter?

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P < .05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.

  13. Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects

    PubMed Central

    Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; Jørgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

  14. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Julie L; Moeller, Morten E; Jørgensen, Anne F; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Bordoy, Anna M; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  15. Effects of thyroidectomy or thiouracil treatment on copulatory behavior in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    1998-03-01

    Male copulatory behavior and the function of the hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in hypothyroid male rats were investigated in the present study. Hypothyroidism was induced by thyroidectomy or thiouracil. In male copulatory behavior test, intromission latencies in hypothyroid rats were significantly longer than those in euthyroid rats and ejaculation frequencies were reduced in hypothyroid male rats compared to control rats without reduction of plasma concentrations of testosterone. These changes in copulatory behavior in hypothyroid male rats were restored to control levels by administration of T4 (5 micrograms/rat). Hypothyroidism decreased adrenal weights, and basal and peak concentrations of corticosterone during diurnal variation, whereas it increased peak concentrations of ACTH in adult male rats. These results indicate that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction directly and results in hypersecretion of ACTH. The adrenal disturbance observed in hypothyroid rats may affect male copulatory behavior.

  16. Breeding season influxes and the behaviour of adult male samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis).

    PubMed

    Henzi, S P; Lawes, M

    1987-01-01

    Troops comprising a high density population of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in Natal province, South Africa, experienced an influx of adult males during the breeding season. Observation of one troop revealed that these males competed with one another and with two resident males for access to receptive females. Although both sexes initiated copulation, attempts to do so were more often successful if female-initiated. Males did not interact with non-receptive females and there were no recorded attempts at infanticide. Male-male interactions were agonistic in the presence of receptive females and neutral at other times. No ritualized displays of dominance and subordinance were seen. The significance of these observations for male reproductive strategies is discussed.

  17. Unique Mechanism of Chance Fracture in a Young Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23599852

  18. Unique mechanism of chance fracture in a young adult male.

    PubMed

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  19. Loneliness and nursing home admission among rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W; Cutrona, C E; de la Mora, A; Wallace, R B

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the authors tested the relation between loneliness and subsequent admission to a nursing home over a 4-year time period in a sample of approximately 3,000 rural older Iowans. Higher levels of loneliness were found to increase the likelihood of nursing home admission and to decrease the time until nursing home admission. The influence of extremely high loneliness on nursing home admission remained statistically significant after controlling for other variables, such as age, education, income, mental status, physical health, morale, and social contact, that were also predictive of nursing home admission. Several mechanisms are proposed to explain the link between extreme loneliness and nursing home admission. These include loneliness as a precipitant of declines in mental and physical health and nursing home placement as a strategy to gain social contact with others. Implications for preventative interventions are discussed.

  20. Deaths ascribed to non-communicable diseases among rural Kenyan adults are proportionately increasing: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Laserson, Kayla F; Amek, Nyaguara; Beynon, Caryl M; Angell, Sonia Y; Khagayi, Sammy; Byass, Peter; Hamel, Mary J; van Eijk, Anne M; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Slutsker, Laurence; De Cock, Kevin M; Vulule, John; Odhiambo, Frank O

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) result in more deaths globally than other causes. Monitoring systems require strengthening to attribute the NCD burden and deaths in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Data from health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) can contribute towards this goal. Between 2003 and 2010, 15,228 deaths in adults aged 15 years (y) and older were identified retrospectively using the HDSS census and verbal autopsy in rural western Kenya, attributed into broad categories using InterVA-4 computer algorithms; 37% were ascribed to NCDs, 60% to communicable diseases (CDs), 3% to injuries, and <1% maternal causes. Median age at death for NCDs was 66y and 71y for females and males, respectively, with 43% (39% male, 48% female) of NCD deaths occurring prematurely among adults aged below 65y. NCD deaths were mainly attributed to cancers (35%) and cardio-vascular diseases (CVDs; 29%). The proportionate mortality from NCDs rose from 35% in 2003 to 45% in 2010 (χ2 linear trend 93.4; p<0.001). While overall annual mortality rates (MRs) for NCDs fell, cancer-specific MRs rose from 200 to 262 per 100,000 population, mainly due to increasing deaths in adults aged 65y and older, and to respiratory neoplasms in all age groups. The substantial fall in CD MRs resulted in similar MRs for CDs and NCDs among all adult females by 2010. NCD MRs for adults aged 15y to <65y fell from 409 to 183 per 100,000 among females and from 517 to 283 per 100,000 population among males. NCD MRs were higher among males than females aged both below, and at or above, 65y. NCDs constitute a significant proportion of deaths in rural western Kenya. Evidence of the increasing contribution of NCDs to overall mortality supports international recommendations to introduce or enhance prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment programmes in LMICs.

  1. Use of computer and cellular phone technology by older rural adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Tara Renee; Treiber, Frank; Jenkins, Carolyn; Mercier, Angela

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the use of computer and cellular phone technology among older adults living in the rural Appalachian region of North Carolina. A 21-item questionnaire on access to and use of computer and cellular phone technology was administered to 43 older adults, using dichotomous and frequency-rated questions. The sample was recruited from two rural senior centers in the Appalachian region of North Carolina. Forty percent of the participants earned $20 000 or less annually. The majority owned a cellular phone (79.9%), and nearly half had a desktop computer (44.2%). High-speed Internet coverage was the most frequent type (42%) of in-home coverage. This study provides insights into the needs and challenges of older rural Appalachians with regard to technology. Computer technology may be more accessible and have fewer barriers by older adults than other forms of technology. Future research should explore the levels of computer literacy of older adults.

  2. Psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult males

    PubMed Central

    Aydogmus, Yasin; Semiz, Murat; Er, Okan; Bas, Okan; Atay, Irfan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult men, and analyze these changes following circumcision. Methods: We included 37 adults who applied to our clinic for circumcision and who did not have any psychiatric or urologic disorders and age-matched 30 controls in our study. Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were applied to the study group twice, once before and once three months after circumcision, and only once in the control group. Also, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was noted and premature ejaculation (PE) evaluation was done. Intra- and intergroup comparisons were performed. Results: The two groups were similar with regard to demographic data. Comparison of preoperative BCS and LSAS scores with the scores of the control group showed significant differences (p=0.003, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). However, postoperative scores were similar to the scores obtained in the control group (p=0.768, p>0.05, and p>0.05, respectively). Scores of all scales showed significant improvements postoperatively. Also, PEDT scores and IELT changes before and after circumcision were significant in the study group, but not when compared to the control group. Conclusions: Our results indicated that social anxiety and anxiety levels decreased after circumcision in adult Turkish men, and their body gratification increased. We found that not being circumcised might negatively affect individuals in adulthood when it comes to body image and sexual satisfaction, however, both improve after circumcision. PMID:27790295

  3. Handedness and cerebral anatomical asymmetries in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Crivello, Fabrice; Perchey, Guy; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2006-02-15

    Using voxel-based morphometry, we measured the cerebral anatomical asymmetries in a sample of 56 young right-handed males and then compared voxelwise asymmetry indices of these subjects to those of 56 young left-handed males. In the right-handed, the clusters of grey matter asymmetry corresponding to the leftward occipital petalia and planum temporale asymmetries were retrieved. Strong rightward temporo-parietal asymmetries were also observed, but the rightward grey matter asymmetry in the frontal lobe was less massive than previously described. Group comparisons of left- and right-handed subjects' asymmetry maps, performed at a statistical threshold not corrected for multiple comparisons, revealed significant effects of handedness on this pattern of anatomical asymmetry in frontal regions, notably in the lower central and precentral sulci, and also in the planum temporale, with right-handed subjects being more leftward asymmetric. Concerning white matter, although almost no focal differences between left- and right-handed subjects were detected, volumetric analyses at the hemispheric level revealed a leftward asymmetry, which happened to be significantly less marked in the left-handed. This latter result, together with the pattern of leftward white matter asymmetries, suggested that anatomical correlates of the left hemispheric specialization for language would exist in white matter. In the population we studied, differences in anatomical asymmetry between left- and right-handed subjects provided structural arguments for a greater functional ambilaterality in left-handed subjects.

  4. [Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rural population of 65-80 year-old males].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Jódar, L; Alcázar Carmona, P; Tenías Burillo, J M; García Tejada, R

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of aortic aneurysm (AAA) is reported to be 3.55%-4% in men over 65. But it is not known if this prevalence, resulting from ultrasound measurements made by Family Physicians, can be extrapolated to a rural population. To estimate the prevalence of AAA in a rural population of males aged 65-80 years, using abdominal ultrasound by family physicians, and to identify its association with different cardiovascular risk factors. A cross sectional study was conducted that included males of 65-80 years (n=320) in a rural population of the province of Ciudad Real, Spain. The dependent variable was the presence or not of AAA using ultrasound measurements of the aorta. Those with a diameter greater than or equal to 3cm were considered positive. Explanatory variables were measured; ankle/brachial index (ABI), body mass index (BMI), medical history of high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidaemia (DLP), ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), and smoking habits. A bivariate and multivariate analysis of the prevalences was performed, as well as a study of the agreement between observers. The prevalence of AAA in the population was 3.3% (95% CI: 1.1-5.5%. DM and DLP were significantly associated with AAA. The agreement between observers was 0.96 (95% CI; 0.91-0.98). The high prevalence of different cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) was particularly noteworthy. The prevalence of AAA in 65-80 year-old males in a rural population is similar to that found in the literature. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study, CVRFs such as hypertension or CVA were not associated with the AAA. A screening program for the early detection of AAA could be introduced into Primary Health Care by family physicians. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Do adult eastern bluebird Sialia sialis males recognize juvenile-specific traits?

    PubMed Central

    LIGON, RUSSELL A.; HILL, GEOFFREY E.

    2009-01-01

    Juveniles of many avian species possess spotted or mottled plumage that is distinct from the plumage of adults. Such plumage has typically been assumed to aid in camouflaging vulnerable immature birds. Here, we propose that spotty plumage signals juvenile status, thereby decreasing aggression from territorial adults. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the aggressive responses of adult eastern bluebird males to different combinations of simultaneously presented taxidermic mounts. We found that territorial males attacked adult models significantly more than juvenile models, and that they attacked adult models with orange breasts (typical of adults) more frequently than they attacked adult models with spotty breasts (typical of juveniles). We found no difference in attack rates when models with white breasts (a novel trait) were presented with models possessing spotty breasts. These observations indicate that breast colour is a cue used by territorial adults when identifying conspecific intruders, but that adults do not recognize juvenile-specific plumage as such. Adults respond aggressively only to orange-breasted intruders. PMID:20161226

  6. Major depressive disorder symptoms in male and female young adults.

    PubMed

    Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24 years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n = 1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n = 137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women.

  7. Rural-to-Urban Migration and Changes in Health Among Young Adults in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nauman, Elizabeth; VanLandingham, Mark; Anglewicz, Philip; Patthavanit, Umaporn; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the impacts of rural-to-urban migration on the health of young adult migrants. A key methodological challenge involves the potentially confounding effects of selection on the relationship between migration and health. Our study addresses this challenge in two ways. To control for potential effects of prior health status on post-migration health outcomes, we employ a longitudinal approach. To control for static unobserved characteristics that can affect migration propensity as well as health outcomes, we use fixed-effects analyses. Data were collected in 2005 and 2007 for a cohort of young adults in rural Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand. The migrant sample includes individuals who subsequently moved to urban destinations where they were reinterviewed in 2007. Return migrants were interviewed in rural Kanchanaburi in both years but moved to an urban area and returned in the meantime. A rural comparison group comprises respondents who remained in the origin villages. An urban comparison sample includes longer-term residents of the urban destination communities. Physical and mental health measures are based on the SF-36 health survey. Findings support the "healthy migrant hypothesis." Migrants are physically healthier than their nonmigrant counterparts both before and after moving to the city. We did not find an effect of migration on physical health. Rural-to-urban migrants who stayed at destination experienced a significant improvement in mental health status. Fixed-effects analyses indicate that rural-to-urban migration positively affects mental health. Return migrants do not fare as well as migrants who stayed at destination on both physical and mental health status--evidence of selective return migration.

  8. Seronegative Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy in a Male Traveler

    PubMed Central

    Alli-Akintade, Latifat; Stondell, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is rare but damaging. The lack of consistent objective findings makes diagnosis a challenge. A 45-year-old male developed noninfectious diarrhea with significant weight loss and electrolyte abnormalities. Computed tomography delineated enteritis. Colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed villous atrophy, chronic inflammation, and ulceration of the terminal ileum and cecum. Pathology showed cryptitis with apoptosis and abscesses throughout the small and large bowel and absent goblet cells. Steroids rapidly improved symptoms. Anti-enterocyte antibody serologies were negative. Management can be challenging, and, in this case, the patient initially improved with budesonide and infliximab but required alternative anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy after relapsing. This is an unusual presentation of seronegative AIE, which should be considered in cases of persistent severe diarrhea. PMID:28184376

  9. Seronegative Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy in a Male Traveler.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Patrick; Alli-Akintade, Latifat; Stondell, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is rare but damaging. The lack of consistent objective findings makes diagnosis a challenge. A 45-year-old male developed noninfectious diarrhea with significant weight loss and electrolyte abnormalities. Computed tomography delineated enteritis. Colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed villous atrophy, chronic inflammation, and ulceration of the terminal ileum and cecum. Pathology showed cryptitis with apoptosis and abscesses throughout the small and large bowel and absent goblet cells. Steroids rapidly improved symptoms. Anti-enterocyte antibody serologies were negative. Management can be challenging, and, in this case, the patient initially improved with budesonide and infliximab but required alternative anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy after relapsing. This is an unusual presentation of seronegative AIE, which should be considered in cases of persistent severe diarrhea.

  10. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  11. Are Rural Women Powerless When it Comes to HIV & AIDS Risk? Implications for Adult Education Programmes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Castle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for fresh approaches to HIV & AIDS education for adults and youth in South Africa, particularly for those marginalised by society, such as rural black women. In this article we explore the factors which affect awareness, condom use and HIV & AIDS risk among a group of women who attend classes in a rural Adult…

  12. Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  13. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  14. Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  15. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  16. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  17. The acceptability of male circumcision as an HIV intervention among a rural Zulu population, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, B E; Weiss, H A; Viljoen, J I

    2005-04-01

    Epidemiological and biological studies provide compelling evidence for the protective effect of male circumcision against the acquisition of HIV. Three randomized controlled trials are currently underway to assess the impact of male circumcision as an HIV intervention in traditionally non-circumcising areas with high levels of heterosexually-transmitted infection. This study explores the acceptability of male circumcision among the rural Zulu around Hlabisa and Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 100 men and 44 women was surveyed, and two male focus groups held, to ascertain circumcision preferences within the population. Four in-depth interviews with service providers assessed the feasibility of promoting male circumcision. Fifty-one per cent of uncircumcised men and 68% of women favoured male circumcision of themselves or their partners; while 50% of men and 73% of women would circumcise their sons. For men, the main predictors of circumcision preference pertained to beliefs surrounding sexual pain and pleasure; for women, knowledge about the relationship between male circumcision status and STI acquisition was the key indicator for circumcision preference. Among both sexes the main barrier to circumcision was fear of pain and death. The greatest logistical barrier was that circumcision can presently only be carried out by trained hospital doctors.

  18. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Humayra; Adnan, Saleh; Morelli, Renata; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2017-01-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT), whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT), whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such ‘male replacement’ requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or ‘Qfly’) to raspberry ketone (RK) mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages. PMID:28859132

  19. Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass in an Immunocompromised Young Male Adult

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mónica; Martinez, José Hernán; Palermo, Coromoto; Figueroa, Carlos; Torres, Oberto; Trinidad, Rafael; Gonzalez, Eva; Miranda, Maria de Lourdes; Garcia, Miosotis; Villamarzo, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 20-year-old man diagnosed with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), admitted to our hospital due to pancytopenia and fever of undetermined origin after myelosuppression with chemotherapy. Disseminated aspergillosis (DIA) was suspected when he developed skin and lung involvement. A rapidly growing mass was detected on the left neck area, during hospitalization. A thyroid ultrasound reported a 3.7 × 2.5 × 2.9 cm oval heterogeneous structure, suggestive of an abscess versus a hematoma. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid revealed invasion of aspergillosis. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence. Thyroid fungal infection is difficult to diagnose; for this reason it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. To our knowledge, this is the 10th case reported in the literature in an adult where the diagnosis of fungal invasion to the thyroid was able to be corroborated antemortem by fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:23936688

  20. Connecting Socially Isolated Older Rural Adults with Older Volunteers through Expressive Arts.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation.

  1. The relationship between stigma and self-reported willingness to use mental health services among rural and urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Hannah; Jameson, John Paul; Curtin, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    The large number of rural older adults suffering from untreated psychiatric illnesses suggests that stigma may be a significant barrier to the utilization of mental health services in this population. The current study examines self-stigma, public stigma, and attitudes toward specialty mental health care in a community sample of older adults living in a geographically isolated rural area, a rural area adjacent to a metropolitan area, and an urban area. One hundred and 29 older adults age 60 and above from the 3 geographic areas completed self-report measures of these constructs, and differences on the measures were assessed among the groups. Results indicated that older adults living in isolated rural counties demonstrated higher levels of public and self-stigma and lower levels of psychological openness than older adults in urban areas even after accounting for education, employment, and income. However, no differences emerged in reported willingness to use specialized mental health care in the event of significant distress. Results are discussed in the context of rural values, beliefs, and community structural factors. We further suggest that conventional binary rural/urban distinctions are not sufficient to understand the relationship between rurality and stigma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Facial soft-tissue thicknesses in the adult male Zulu.

    PubMed

    Aulsebrook, W A; Becker, P J; Işcan, M Y

    1996-05-31

    The morphometric method of forensic facial reconstruction rests heavily on the use of facial soft tissue depth measurements. In reconstructing the Negroid face, much use has been made of the tables of soft tissue thickness of American Negroid cadavers. However, the genetic complexities of American blacks are well known. In addition it is felt that measurements made on the living are of more value than those made on the dead. In view of this it was decided to set up a table of norms for facial soft tissue depths of the living Zulu, an African Negroid who has remained relatively free from genetic admixture with other populations. The tightly controlled sample consisted of 55 healthy male Zulus, aged 20 to 35. Tissue depths at established landmarks were measured from lateral and oblique cephalometric radiographs. These were then combined with ultrasonic readings at other landmarks on the subject's face to yield a comprehensive set of tissue depth data. This paper presents a set of average facial soft tissue depth measurements from the Zulu face that results in the development of a new profile. It also provides a method for linking two systems of measurement.

  3. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult males

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Joseph L.; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 international units of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured via the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min prior and 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indicator of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson’s r = 0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  4. Economic impact of kidney stones in white male adults.

    PubMed

    Shuster, J; Scheaffer, R L

    1984-10-01

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountain states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approximate cost of various types of surgery, number of days hospitalized, and room rates. Work force costs were estimated from information on work days lost and income categories. Estimated recurrence rates for this disease are used to approximate the total cost, due to stones, for the next year for a current stone case. Each incident of stone disease costs, on the average, approximately $2,000, exclusive of recurrences. Hospital stays average four to five days. The average annual cost of recurrence for a current stone case is conservatively estimated to be in the $300 to $400 range. A conservative projection of these costs to the entire national population of white males in the age range of eighteen to sixty years yields an annual cost due to kidney stones approaching $315,000,000.

  5. Developmental androgen excess disrupts reproduction and energy homeostasis in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Kazunari; Liu, Suhuan; Meyers, Matthew S; Waget, Aurélie; Ferron, Mathieu; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder in females of reproductive age and is believed to have a developmental origin in which gestational androgenization programs reproductive and metabolic abnormalities in offspring. During gestation, both male and female fetuses are exposed to potential androgen excess. In this study, we determined the consequences of developmental androgenization in male mice exposed to neonatal testosterone (NTM). Adult NTM displayed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with decreased serum testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations. Hypothalamic KiSS1 neurons are believed to be critical to the onset of puberty and are the target of leptin. Adult NTM exhibited lower hypothalamic Kiss1 expression and a failure of leptin to upregulate Kiss1 expression. NTM displayed an early reduction in lean mass, decreased locomotor activity, and decreased energy expenditure. They displayed a delayed increase in subcutaneous white adipose tissue amounts. Thus, excessive neonatal androgenization disrupts reproduction and energy homeostasis and predisposes to hypogonadism and obesity in adult male mice.

  6. ELECTRON ABSORBED FRACTIONS IN AN IMAGE-BASED MICROSCOPIC SKELETAL DOSIMETRY MODEL OF CHINESE ADULT MALE.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shenshen; Ren, Li; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Li, Junli

    2017-01-10

    Based on the Chinese reference adult male voxel model, a set of microscopic skeletal models of Chinese adult male is constructed through the processes of computed tomography (CT) imaging, bone coring, micro-CT imaging, image segmentation, merging into macroscopic bone model and implementation in Geant4. At the step of image segmentation, a new bone endosteum (BE) segmentation method is realized by sampling. The set of model contains 32 spongiosa samples with voxel size of 19 μm cubes. The microscopic spongiosa bone data for Chinese adult male are provided. Electron absorbed fractions in red bone marrow (RBM) and BE are calculated. Source tissues include the bone marrow (red and yellow), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes) and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Target tissues include RBM and BE. Electron energies range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. Additionally, comparison of the result with other investigations is provided.

  7. The Effects of Expanding Public Insurance to Rural Low-Income Childless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Marguerite E; Dague, Laura; DeLeire, Thomas; Dorsch, Mary; Friedsam, Donna; Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne; Palmucci, Gaston; Schmelzer, John; Voskuil, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study measures the change in health care use after enrollment into a new public insurance program for low-income childless adults. Data Sources/Study Setting The data sources include claims from a large integrated health system in rural Wisconsin and Medicaid enrollment files, January 2007–September 2012. Study Design We employ a regression discontinuity design to measure the causal effect of public insurance enrollment on counts of outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient events for 2 years following enrollment for a sample of previously uninsured low-income adults in rural Wisconsin. Principal Findings Public insurance enrollment led to substantial increases in outpatient visits including preventive visits, but not mental health visits. Public insurance enrollment also led to increases in inpatient stays, but the study is inconclusive on whether it led to an increase in ED visits. Conclusions Public insurance expansions to childless adults have the potential to impact the use of health care. The large increase in Medicaid coverage and reduction in rates of uninsurance anticipated to result from the Affordable Care Act should increase the use of inpatient and outpatient services, but they will have an uncertain impact on the use of ED among rural populations. PMID:25262774

  8. Use of a Wearable Activity Device in Rural Older Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Batsis, John A.; Naslund, John A.; Gill, Lydia E.; Masutani, Rebecca K.; Agarwal, Nayan; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the feasibility and acceptability of Fitbit for supporting behavioral change in rural, older adults with obesity. Method: Eight adults aged ≥65 with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m2 were recruited from a rural practice and provided a Fitbit Zip device for 30 days. Participants completed validated questionnaires/interviews. Results: Mean age was 73.4 ± 4.0 years (50% female) with a mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.5kg/m2. We observed reductions in exercise confidence (sticking to it: 34.5 ± 3.3 to 30.9 ± 4.3, p = .04; making time: 18.9 ± 1.3 to 17.0 ± 2.6, p = .03) but no changes in patient activation (45.4 ± 4.3 vs. 45.0 ± 3.9). All reported high satisfaction, seven (87.5%) found Fitbit easy to use, and five (62.5%) found the feedback useful. The majority (n = 6 [75.0%]) were mostly/very satisfied with the intervention. Consistent themes emerged regarding the benefit of self-monitoring and participant motivation. Common concerns included finding time to exercise and lack of a peer group. Conclusion: Use of Fitbit is feasible/acceptable for use among older rural obese adults but may lead to reduced confidence. PMID:28138502

  9. Use of a Wearable Activity Device in Rural Older Obese Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Naslund, John A; Gill, Lydia E; Masutani, Rebecca K; Agarwal, Nayan; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the feasibility and acceptability of Fitbit for supporting behavioral change in rural, older adults with obesity. Method: Eight adults aged ≥65 with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m(2) were recruited from a rural practice and provided a Fitbit Zip device for 30 days. Participants completed validated questionnaires/interviews. Results: Mean age was 73.4 ± 4.0 years (50% female) with a mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.5kg/m(2). We observed reductions in exercise confidence (sticking to it: 34.5 ± 3.3 to 30.9 ± 4.3, p = .04; making time: 18.9 ± 1.3 to 17.0 ± 2.6, p = .03) but no changes in patient activation (45.4 ± 4.3 vs. 45.0 ± 3.9). All reported high satisfaction, seven (87.5%) found Fitbit easy to use, and five (62.5%) found the feedback useful. The majority (n = 6 [75.0%]) were mostly/very satisfied with the intervention. Consistent themes emerged regarding the benefit of self-monitoring and participant motivation. Common concerns included finding time to exercise and lack of a peer group. Conclusion: Use of Fitbit is feasible/acceptable for use among older rural obese adults but may lead to reduced confidence.

  10. Sleep complaints are associated with frailty in Mexican older adults in a rural setting.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Tamayo, Karla; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Pérez-Moreno, Alejandro; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón

    2017-06-28

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sleep complaints and frailty status in a cohort of older adults from rural Mexico, and determine if this association varies according to sex. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a total of 591 community-dwelling adults aged ≥70 years in rural settings of Mexico. Sleep complaints were based on self-reported sleep problems. Frailty status was assessed according to the Fried et al. proposal, as well as general health measurements taken from participants. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between sleep complaints and frailty. Frail participants accounted for 10.7% of the study sample. After adjusting for potential confounders, sleep complaints were associated with increased odds of frailty in women (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.34-7.84), but not in men (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.23-2.51). In this cohort of rural Mexican older adults, sleep complaints were associated with frailty in older women. Because sleep quality is potentially remediable, future frailty prevention interventions should take sleep complaints into account. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. "Friendships" between new mothers and adult males: adaptive benefits and determinants in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga; Van Horn, Russell C; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2009-07-01

    Close associations between adult males and lactating females and their dependent infants are not commonly described in non-monogamous mammals. However, such associations [sometimes called "friendships" (Smuts 1985)] are regularly observed in several primate species in which females mate with multiple males during the fertile period. The absence of mating exclusivity among "friends" suggests that males should invest little in infant care, raising questions about the adaptive significance of friendship bonds. Using data from genetic paternity analyses, patterns of behavior, and long-term demographic and reproductive records, we evaluated the extent to which friendships in four multi-male, multi-female yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) groups in Amboseli, Kenya represent joint parental care of offspring or male mating effort. We found evidence that mothers and infants benefited directly from friendships; friendships provided mother-infant dyads protection from harassment from other adult and immature females. In addition, nearly half of all male friends were the genetic fathers of offspring and had been observed mating with mothers during the days of most likely conception for those offspring. In contrast, nearly all friends who were not fathers were also not observed to consort with the mother during the days of most likely conception, suggesting that friendships between mothers and non-fathers did not result from paternity confusion. Finally, we found no evidence that prior friendship increased a male's chances of mating with a female in future reproductive cycles. Our results suggest that, for many male-female pairs at Amboseli, friendships represented a form of biparental care of offspring. Males in the remaining friendship dyads may be trading protection of infants in exchange for some resources or services not yet identified. Our study is the first to find evidence that female primates gain social benefits from their early associations with adult males.

  12. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress.

  13. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  14. Rural Homelessness in Northwest Ohio: Reasons, Patterns, Statistics, and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlin, Georgette A.

    Rural homelessness in America is difficult to define, to count, and to see. This article reports the findings of a 1993 county-wide study of rural homelessness. During a one year survey, 118 homeless households were interviewed. Of those surveyed, 25.8 percent were male adults, 30.9 percent were female adults, and 43.2 percent were children.…

  15. Gender and Socio-economic Differences in Daily Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among Adult Residents in a Greek Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Birmpili, Evangelia; Katsiki, Niki; Malhotra, Aseem; Dimopoulou, Evelina; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Tsiligiroglou-Fachantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-known health risks, smoking is still highly prevalent worldwide. Greece has the highest level of adult smoking rate (40%) across the European Union. We investigated gender and socio-economic differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation among Greek adults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October and November 2009 in 434 adults residing in a Greek rural area. Data were collected with the use of the World Health Organization Global Adult Tobacco Survey (WHO GATS) Core Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into smokers (if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and continued to smoke) or non-smokers. Overall, 58.1% (n=252) were smokers (58.5% male, n=127 and 57.8% female, n=125); 51.2% (n=222) were younger than 18 years-old when they started smoking. Men tended to start smoking at a younger age, to smoke more cigarettes/day and to have smoked a greater average of cigarettes during the last 5 days. Overall, 82.5% of smokers attempted to stop smoking a year prior to the study, with women having a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. The main source of information on smoking was the mass media (73.5%) and books (53.7%), whereas doctors and other health professionals were the least listed source of relative information (27.7 and 8.1%, respectively). Smoking rates among Greek adults were high, but a considerable number of individuals who smoked, wished to quit and had attempted to do so. Smoking cessation clinics are not perceived as a valuable support in quitting effort. PMID:22435078

  16. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  17. Testosterone and Adult Male Bone: Actions Independent of 5α-Reductase and Aromatase.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2015-10-01

    Androgens and estrogens influence skeletal development and maintenance in males. However, the relative contributions of the circulating sex steroid hormones that originate from testicular/adrenal secretion versus those produced locally in bone via intracrine action require further elucidation. Our novel hypothesis is that testosterone exerts direct protective effects on the adult male skeleton independently of the actions of 5α-reductase or aromatase.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale with adult male sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Tatman, Anthony W; Swogger, Marc T; Love, Keisha; Cook, Michelle D

    2009-03-01

    This research project investigates the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) when used with a sample of convicted, adult male sexual offenders. Results confirm the two-factor structure (Denial and Attribution) originally proposed by the authors (Study 1, n = 247). Results also reveal that the full-scale MCSDS has strong internal consistency estimates (Study 1), discriminant and convergent validity (Study 2, n = 91), and test-retest reliability over a 3-week period (Study 3, n = 74). Information is provided to aid evaluators' interpretation of MCSDS full-scale and factor scores when used with male adult sexual offenders.

  19. A rare case of secretory breast carcinoma in a male adult with axillary lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jinhua; Jiang, Li; Gan, Yongli; Wu, Weizhu

    2015-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is a rare tumor originally described in children but occurring equally in adult population, especially in women. This unusual subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases even death. So far, merely ten cases of secretory breast carcinoma with metastatic axillary lymph node in male were reported. Here, we describe the eleventh case, a 24-years-old male who presented with a painless mass in the right breast was diagnosed to be “secretary breast carcinoma”, and subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26045861

  20. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    SciTech Connect

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients.

  1. The importance of males: larval diet and adult sugar feeding influences reproduction in Culex molestus.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Culex molestus is an obligatory autogenous mosquito that is closely associated with subterranean habitats in urban areas. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of larval and adult nutrition on the role of males in determining the expression of autogeny in Cx. molestus. Mosquitoes raised at low and high larval diets had sex ratio, wing length, mating rates, autogenous egg raft size, and hatching rates recorded. There was a higher ratio of males to females when raised at a low larval diet. Mean wing lengths of both males and females were significantly greater when raised at the high larval diet regime. Regardless of larval or adult diet, males mated with only a single female. Mosquitoes raised at the higher larval diet regimes developed significantly more autogenous eggs. However, the egg raft size was reduced when adult females were denied access to sugar. The results of this study indicate that the performance of males in the reproductive process is influenced by both larval diet and adult sugar feeding.

  2. Seasonal androgen cycles in adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of two primary plasma androgens, testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), were assessed in adult male alligators from the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Samples were collected monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2007 and 2010. Plasma T concentrations peaked in April, coincident with breeding and courtship, and declined rapidly throughout the summer. Seasonal plasma T patterns in smaller though reproductively active adult males differed from those in their larger counterparts during the breeding season. Both size classes showed significant increases in plasma T concentration from February to March, at the beginning of the breeding season. However, smaller adults did not experience the peak in plasma T concentrations in April that were observed in larger adults, and their concentrations were significantly lower than those of larger males for the remainder of the breeding season. Plasma DHEA concentrations peaked in May and were significantly reduced by June. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of DHEA in a crocodilian, and the high plasma DHEA concentrations that paralleled the animals' reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role in adult male alligators. Similar to androgen variations in some birds, plasma DHEA concentrations in the alligators were considerably higher than T concentrations during the nonbreeding season, suggesting a potential role in maintaining nonbreeding seasonal aggression.

  3. Characteristics of males who father babies born to adolescents versus older adult women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Chou, P

    2001-06-01

    To identify characteristics of males who father babies born to adolescent mothers in southern Taiwan. This was a population-based cross-sectional study of male partners of 1,145 primigravidas (555 adolescent primigravidas and 590 adults) in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, which compared their reports of their male partners' characteristics. Data were collected by a questionnaire that included demographic characteristics, health behavior problems, and attitudes toward the pregnancy. In multiple logistic regression analyses, the males who father babies born to adolescent primigravidas achieved a lower level of education; a greater age discrepancy between themselves and the mothers; a greater unemployment rate; less financial independence; more smoking, drinking, and drug abuse; less supportive attitude toward pregnancy; poorer attendance at childbirth; less provision of postpartum care for mothers and infants; and greater domestic violence than adult primigravidas (p < .05). These negative findings persist even after stratification by age discrepancy. Male partners of the adolescent mothers with an age difference of 5 years or more were more likely to report drug abuse and domestic violence than those of adult primigravidas. Males who father babies born to adolescent primigravidas were found to have many negative characteristics that place their partners and offspring at risk. Questions asked of or about the father of the baby during prenatal visits may help identify pregnant adolescents who need support during pregnancy and after delivery.

  4. Estimating cause of adult (15+ years) death using InterVA-4 in a rural district of southern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Awini, Elizabeth; Sarpong, Doris; Adjei, Alexander; Manyeh, Alfred Kwesi; Amu, Alberta; Akweongo, Patricia; Adongo, Philip; Kukula, Vida; Odonkor, Gabriel; Narh, Solomon; Gyapong, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background Data needed to estimate causes of death and the pattern of these deaths are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Such data are very important for targeting, monitoring, and evaluating health interventions. Objective To estimate the mortality rate and determine causes of death among adults (aged 15 years and older) in a rural district of southern Ghana, using the InterVA-4 model. Design Data used were generated from verbal autopsies conducted for registered adult members of the Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance System who died between 2006 and 2010. The InterVA-4 model was used to assign the cause of death. Results Overall, the mortality rate for the period under review was 7.5/1,000 person-years (py) for the general population and 10.4/1,000 py for those aged 15 and older. The leading cause of death was communicable diseases (CDs), with a malaria-specific mortality rate of 1.06/1,000 py. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)-specific mortality rate was the next highest (1.01/1,000 py). HIV/AIDS attributed deaths were lower among males than females. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) contributed to 28.3% of the deaths with cause-specific mortality rate of 2.93/1,000 py. Stroke topped the list with cause-specific mortality rate of 0.69/1,000 py. As expected, young males (15–49 years) contributed to more road traffic accident (RTA) deaths; they had a lower RTA cause-specific mortality rate than older males (50–64 years). Conclusions Data indicate that CDs (e.g. malaria and TB) remain the major cause of death with NCDs (e.g. stroke) following closely behind. Verbal autopsy data can provide the causes of mortality in poorly resourced settings where access to timely and accurate data is scarce. PMID:25377337

  5. Nutritional Status of Rural Older Adults Is Linked to Physical and Emotional Health.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Eun; Bishop, Alex J; Kim, Minjung; Hermann, Janice; Kim, Giyeon; Lawrence, Jeannine

    2017-06-01

    Although nutritional status is influenced by multidimensional aspects encompassing physical and emotional well-being, there is limited research on this complex relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between indicators of physical health (perceived health status and self-care capacity) and emotional well-being (depressive affect and loneliness) on rural older adults' nutritional status. The cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2007, to June 1, 2008. A total of 171 community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 years and older, residing within nonmetro rural communities in the United States participated in this study. Participants completed validated instruments measuring self-care capacity, perceived health status, loneliness, depressive affect, and nutritional status. Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the complex interplay of physical and emotional health status with nutritional status among rural older adults. The χ(2) test, comparative fit index, root mean square error of approximation, and standardized root mean square residual were used to assess model fit. The χ(2) test and the other model fit indexes showed the hypothesized structural equation model provided a good fit to the data (χ(2) (2)=2.15; P=0.34; comparative fit index=1.00; root mean square error of approximation=0.02; and standardized root mean square residual=0.03). Self-care capacity was significantly related with depressive affect (γ=-0.11; P=0.03), whereas self-care capacity was not significantly related with loneliness. Perceived health status had a significant negative relationship with both loneliness (γ=-0.16; P=0.03) and depressive affect (γ=-0.22; P=0.03). Although loneliness showed no significant direct relationship with nutritional status, it showed a significant direct relationship with depressive affect (β=.4; P<0.01). Finally, the results demonstrated that depressive affect had a significant negative relationship with

  6. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-10-18

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  7. Together we have fun: native-place networks and sexual risk behaviours among Chinese male rural-urban migrants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001) and condomless sex with sex workers (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001), while general friendship network ties reduce such risks (OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; OR = 0.84, p < 0.01) even after controlling for demographic background, housing conditions, length of stay, health beliefs and behaviours, and spousal companionship. Our findings suggest that native-place networks among Chinese male rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ.

  8. Perceived Influences on Physical Activity and Diet in Low-income Adults from Two Rural Counties

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Betty L.; Brown, Roger L.; Baumann, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the increased use of ecological models in health behavior research, multilevel influences on health behaviors in rural, low-income people, an aggregate at high risk for sedentary behavior and inadequate diets, have been examined in few studies. Objective To describe influences on physical activity and diet in low-income, rural adults. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted using face-to-face interviews in a convenience sample of 137 low-income Anglo and Latino adults recruited from two rural Wisconsin counties. The survey included questions on health behaviors, self-efficacy, barriers, social support, and community environments. Self-report data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were categorized into outcome variables of meets recommendation or does not meet recommendation. Latent class cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of participants with similar influences on health behaviors, and cluster membership was used as an independent variable in logistic regression of physical activity and diet outcomes. Results Fifty-two percent of participants met a recommendation for physical activity, but only 8% met their MyPyramid recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake. Participants in the Moderate Self-Efficacy/High Safety cluster were significantly more likely than those in the Low Self-Efficacy/Moderate Safety cluster to meet a recommendation for physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.65). For healthy diet, participants in the Low Barriers cluster were significantly more likely to eat more fruits and vegetables (OR = 4.13) than those in the High Barriers cluster. Discussion People with healthier behaviors were distinguished from those with less healthy behaviors by higher levels of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community supports. Results support the importance of multilevel approaches to promoting healthy lifestyles in rural, low-income adults. PMID:20010047

  9. Ethnic Disparities in Glycemic Control Among Rural Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Glycemic control is a predictor of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about how well older adults in rural communities, with limited access to self-care resources and specialty care practitioners, control their diabetes. Even less is known about whether minority, older, rural adults are at increased risk for poor glycemic control. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected older (≥65 years) adults with type 2 diabetes in rural North Carolina. Participants (N=693) were men and women from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. Capillary blood samples were collected for HbA1C analysis. HbA1C levels (<7%, 7%–<8%, and ≥8%) were compared across ethnic and gender groups. Two multiple logistic regression models (model 1: personal characteristics; model 2: personal and health characteristics) were used to evaluate potential predictors of HbA1C ≥7%. Overall, 36.4% had HbA1C ≥7%. Native Americans and African-American men had the highest proportion at levels of poor glycemic control (≥7%), and African-American women and White men had the lowest. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, living arrangements, use of medications for diabetes, having a diabetes-related healthcare visit in the past year, and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with glycemic control. In multivariate analysis (model 1), being Native American, having low income without Medicaid, and being married were associated with poor glycemic control. Adding health characteristics (model 2), longer diabetes duration and diabetes medication therapy were significant predictors. These data indicate that older ethnic minorities in rural communities are at increased risk for diabetes complications and need diabetes management strategies to improve glycemic control. PMID:16259490

  10. "Too blessed to be stressed": a rural faith community's views of African-American males and depression.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary S

    2014-06-01

    Among African-Americans, the faith community has a long history of providing support to its members. Because African-American men tend to delay and decline traditional depression treatment, the faith community may be an effective source of support. The aim of this study was to determine how a rural African-American faith community describes and perceives experiences of depression among African-American males. A convenience sample of 24 men and women participated in focus groups and interview. Four themes were identified: defining depression, etiology of depression, denial of depression, and effect of masculine roles on depression experience.

  11. Effect of amphetamine on adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, Romana; Macúchová, Eva; Nohejlová, Kateryna; Štofková, Andrea; Jurčovičová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP) treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed) were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg) in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras), active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP), spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), and levels of corticosterone (CORT) were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled) regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing) only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  12. Knowledge of food production methods informs attitudes toward food but not food choice in adults residing in socioeconomically deprived rural areas within the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J

    2011-01-01

    Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content analyzed. Attitudes to food and health were influenced by knowledge of food production and processing. Healthful foods were considered those which were fresh and unprocessed, and taste was taken as an indicator of how the food had been produced. Despite negative views of food production, processed foods were consumed. Explanations for this tension between what people wanted to eat (unprocessed food) and what they actually chose to eat (processed food) were attributed to lifestyle compression. Dietary health promotion initiatives targeted at deprived rural dwellers should consider perceived issues regarding food production and processing that may influence views on food. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trajectories of Health and Behavioral Health Services Use among Community Corrections–Involved Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mowbray, Orion; McBeath, Bowen; Bank, Lew; Newell, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to establish time-based trajectories of health and behavioral health services utilization for community corrections–involved (CCI) adults and to examine demographic and clinical correlates associated with these trajectories. To accomplish this aim, the authors applied a latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to services use data from a sample of rural CCI adults who reported their medical, mental health, and substance use treatment utilization behavior every 60 days for 1.5 years. LCGA established 1.5-year trajectories and demographic correlates of health services among rural CCI adults. For medical services, three classes emerged (stable-low users, 13%; stable-intermediate users, 40%; and stable-high users, 47%). For mental health and substance use services, three classes emerged (stable-low, 69% and 61%, respectively; low-baseline-increase, 10% and 12%, respectively; high-baseline decline, 21% and 28%, respectively). Employment, gender, medication usage, and depression severity predicted membership across all services. Results underscore the importance of social workers and other community services providers aligning health services access with the needs of the CCI population, and highlight CCI adults as being at risk of underservice in critical prevention and intervention domains. PMID:27257353

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Elevated Blood Pressure, Overweight, and Dyslipidemia in Adolescent and Young Adults in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Christine P.; Wu, Lee S.F.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; West, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic disease begins early in life, yet population data are sparse on potential causal factors in children and young adults in South Asia. Methods We assessed risk factors for chronic disease in two population cohorts, aged 9–23 years, in rural Nepal. Assessed variables included short height (less than −2 z), high body mass index (BMI) (z>0.42), waist circumference (WC) >90 cm (male) or 80 cm (female) or age-adjusted child cutoff], high blood pressure (>120/80 mmHg), fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (>7%), blood lipids [triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol], diet, smoking, alcohol, and socioeconomic status (SES) factors. Results The population was stunted (46%) and few were overweight (∼2%–4% with high BMI or WC). Twelve percent had high blood pressure. Plasma hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL) affected ∼8.5%, and 78% had low HDL-C concentrations <40 mg/dL (male) or <50 mg/dL (female)], while few (≤3%) had elevated total cholesterol (≥180 mg/dL), glucose, and HbA1c. Females were at higher risk than males for high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–2.3] and overweight (4.2; 3.0–5.8), but had lower risk of dyslipidemia (0.7; 0.6–0.9). Ethnic plains Madheshi were less likely to be overweight (0.3; 0.2–0.4), but had greater risk of dyslipidemia (1.4; 1.1–1.7) versus those of Hill origin. Some dietary factors were significantly associated with high blood pressure or dyslipidemia, but not overweight. Conclusions Dyslipidemia and high blood pressure are emerging health concerns among young adults in rural Nepal. PMID:23682595

  15. The role of testicular hormones and luteinizing hormone in spatial memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Sarah E A; Alla, Juliet; Wheat, Elizabeth; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce; Thornton, Janice E

    2012-04-01

    Attempts to determine the influence of testicular hormones on learning and memory in males have yielded contradictory results. The present studies examined whether testicular hormones are important for maximal levels of spatial memory in young adult male rats. To minimize any effect of stress, we used the Object Location Task which is a spatial working memory task that does not involve food or water deprivation or aversive stimuli for motivation. In Experiment 1 sham gonadectomized male rats demonstrated robust spatial memory, but gonadectomized males showed diminished spatial memory. In Experiment 2 subcutaneous testosterone (T) capsules restored spatial memory performance in gonadectomized male rats, while rats with blank capsules demonstrated compromised spatial memory. In Experiment 3, gonadectomized male rats implanted with blank capsules again showed compromised spatial memory, while those with T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol (E) capsules demonstrated robust spatial memory, indicating that T's effects may be mediated by its conversion to E or to DHT. Gonadectomized male rats injected with Antide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist which lowers luteinizing hormone levels, also demonstrated spatial memory, comparable to that shown by T-, E-, or DHT-treated males. These data indicate that testicular androgens are important for maximal levels of spatial working memory in male rats, that testosterone may be converted to E and/or DHT to exert its effects, and that some of the effects of these steroid hormones may occur via negative feedback effects on LH.

  16. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  17. Causes of Death of Adults and Elderly and Healthcare-seeking before Death in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Hafizur Rahman; Bhuiyan, Monirul Alam; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2010-01-01

    The health system of a country needs to be adjusted to patterns of morbidity and mortality to mitigate the income-erosion consequences of prolonged ill-health and premature death of adults. Population-based data on mortality by cause are a key to modifying the health system. However, these data are scarce, particularly for rural populations in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the burdens of health due to major causes of death obtained from verbal autopsy of adults and the elderly and their healthcare-seeking patterns before death in a well-defined rural population. There were 2,397 deaths—613 were among adults aged 15-59 years and 1,784 among the elderly aged 60+ years—during 2003-2004 in the health and demographic surveillance area in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Trained interviewers interviewed close relatives of the deceased using a structured verbal-autopsy questionnaire to record signs and symptoms of diseases/conditions that led to death and medical consultations before death. Two physicians independently assigned the underlying causes of deaths with disagreements resolved by a third physician. The physicians were able to assign a specific cause in 91% of the cases. Rates and proportions were used for estimating the burden of diseases by cause. Of all deaths of adults and the elderly, communicable diseases accounted for 18% and non-communicable diseases for 66%, with the proportion of non-communicable diseases increasing with age. Leading non-communicable diseases were diseases of the circulatory system (35%), neoplasms (11%), diseases of the respiratory system (10%), diseases of the digestive system (6%), and endocrine and metabolic disorders (6%), all of which accounted for 68% of deaths. Injury and other external causes accounted for another 5% of the deaths. During terminal illness, 31% of the adults and 25% of the elderly sought treatment from medical doctors, and 14% of the adults and 4% of the elderly died

  18. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  19. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use as Health Self-Management: Rural Older Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This study describes complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among rural older adults with diabetes, delineates the relationship of health self-management predictors to CAM therapy use, and furthers conceptual development of CAM use within a health self-management framework. Methods Survey interview data were collected from a random sample of 701 community dwelling African American, Native American, and White elders residing in two rural North Carolina counties. We summarize CAM use for general use and for diabetes care and use multiple logistic modeling to estimate the effects of health self-management predictors on use of CAM therapies. Results The majority of respondents used some form of CAM for general purpose, whereas far fewer used CAM for diabetes care. The most widely used CAM categories were food home remedies, other home remedies, and vitamins. The following health self-management predictors were related to the use of different categories of CAM therapies: personal characteristics (ethnicity), health status (number of health conditions), personal resources (education), and financial resources (economic status). Discussion CAM is a widely used component of health self-management among rural among older adults with diabetes. Research on CAM use will benefit from theory that considers the specific behavior and cognitive characteristics of CAM therapies. PMID:16497962

  1. Reward anticipation and outcomes in adult males with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas; Stoy, Meline; Wrase, Jana; Schwarzer, Steffi; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Huss, Michael; Hein, Jakob; Nedderhut, Anke; Neumann, Britta; Gregor, Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Knutson, Brian; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Bauer, Michael; Heinz, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested to involve deficits in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the neural responses to reward anticipation and outcomes in 10 adults with ADHD and 10 controls as they played a monetary incentive delay task. Adults with ADHD were unmedicated, and groups were matched for age, verbal IQ and smoking habits. Adults with ADHD showed decreased activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of gain, but increased activation of the orbitofrontal cortex in response to gain outcomes. Ventral striatal activation in adults with ADHD during gain anticipation was negatively correlated with self-rated symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity. These findings suggest that male adults with ADHD show neural signs of abnormal reward processing. Future studies will have to investigate whether these dysfunctional patterns might be normalized by treatment.

  2. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  3. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  4. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  5. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  6. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  8. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  9. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  10. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  11. Are Males and Females Sexually Abused as Children Socially Anxious Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N.

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…

  12. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  13. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  14. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  15. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  16. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  17. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  18. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  19. A Case of Giant Cowper's Gland Syringocele in an Adult Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Surana, Santosh; Elshazly, Mohamed; Allam, Adel; Jayappa, Sateesh; AlRefai, Deena

    2015-01-01

    Cowper's gland syringocele is an uncommon, underdiagnosed cystic dilatation of Cowper's gland ducts showing various radiological patterns. Herein we report a rare case of giant Cowper's gland syringocele in an adult male patient, with description of MRI findings and management outcome. PMID:26413368

  20. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  2. Electrocardiographic changes announcing the rapid development of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Freites, Alfonso; Canovas, Ester; Rubio, J

    2015-07-01

    We presented the case of an adult male without structural heart disease, who in the period of 3 years developed apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ECG changes preceded the development of ventricular hypertrophy. We discussed the appearance of ventricular enlargement during adulthood, in some cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), and how the ECG abnormalities may precede the onset of ventricular hypertrophy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  4. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  5. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  6. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  7. A Role for the Adult Fat Body in Drosophila Male Courtship Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lazareva, Anna A; Roman, Gregg; Mattox, William; Hardin, Paul E; Dauwalder, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein. PMID:17257054

  8. Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Young Adult Male Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mednick, Birgitte; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between divorce and young adult male crime, controlling for two factors; socioeconomic status and paternal criminality. The subjects were drawn from the subject pool of a Danish longitudinal study. The initial significant effects of divorce disappeared when the controlling factors were introduced through…

  9. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = -0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults.

  10. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = −0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults. PMID:28382004

  11. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  12. [Influence of sexual activity on longevity in adult male Drosophilia melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Giess, M C

    1977-07-18

    Ageing in Drosophilia is modified according to their physiological state. Adult longevity is decreased by sexual activity: in both sexes the life span of virgins is higher. For the same physiological state male longevity is always lower than that of females.

  13. Season of birth is not associated with risk of early adult death in rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Simondon, Kirsten B; Elguero, Eric; Marra, Adama; Diallo, Aldiouma; Aaby, Peter; Simondon, François

    2004-02-01

    In a rural area of the Gambia, West Africa, young adults born in the 'hungry' season had a high excess of deaths (mortality ratios (MR): 3.7 from 14.5 years and 10.3 from 25 years, P < 0.0001). Among several potential causal factors, fetal undernutrition was considered the most plausible. This study is a similar analysis of children and young adults living in rural Senegal, close to the Gambia. A cohort of 9192 subjects born 1962-2001 with prospectively collected dates of birth and death was analysed. MR by season of birth (July-December/January-June) was estimated using Cox's proportional hazards analysis. The nutritional status of non-pregnant women was analysed at monthly intervals 1990-1996. MR by season of birth was slightly greater than 1 during infancy, and close to 1 from 1-5 years and from 5-14.5 years. From 14.5 years old the MR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.25, P = 0.29), compared with 0.53 (95% CI: 0.28, 1.02, P = 0.056) from 20 years and 0.33 (95% CI: 0.09, 1.25, P = 0.10) from 25 years. The weight of women varied strongly by season: means were 3.0-3.9 kg lower at the end of the rainy season (September-November) than during the dry season (February-May, P < 0.001 for each year). This study found no increased risk of death among young adults born during the hungry season in a rural West African area despite large seasonal variations in women's nutritional status. The strongly increased risk in adult Gambians is probably not explained by fetal undernutrition.

  14. Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

    A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

  15. Personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural south-west England: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the health risks, physical inactivity is common. Identifying the correlates of physical activity to inform the design of interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with physical inactivity is a public health imperative. Rural adults have a unique set of characteristics influencing their activity behaviour, and are typically understudied, especially in England. The aim of this study was to identify the personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural villages. Methods The study used baseline data from 2415 adults (response rate: 37.7%) participating in the first time period of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, conducted in 128 rural villages from south-west England. Data collected included demographic characteristics, social factors, perception of the local environment, village level factors (percentage male, mean age, population density, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and sport market segmentation), and physical activity behaviour. Random effects (“multilevel”) logistic regression models were fitted to the binary outcome whether individuals met physical activity guidelines, and random effects linear regression models were fitted to the continuous outcome MET-minutes per week leisure time physical activity, using the personal, social, environmental, and village-level factors as predictors. Results The following factors both increased the odds of meeting the recommended activity guidelines and were associated with more leisure-time physical activity: being male (p = 0.002), in good health (p < 0.001), greater commitment to being more active (p = 0.002), favourable activity social norms (p = 0.004), greater physical activity habit (p < 0.001), and recent use of recreational facilities (p = 0.01). In addition, there was evidence (p < 0.05) that younger age, lower body mass index, having a physical occupation, dog ownership, inconvenience of public

  16. Personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural south-west England: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Emma; Rees, Tim; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Metcalf, Brad; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2013-11-21

    Despite the health risks, physical inactivity is common. Identifying the correlates of physical activity to inform the design of interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with physical inactivity is a public health imperative. Rural adults have a unique set of characteristics influencing their activity behaviour, and are typically understudied, especially in England. The aim of this study was to identify the personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural villages. The study used baseline data from 2415 adults (response rate: 37.7%) participating in the first time period of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, conducted in 128 rural villages from south-west England. Data collected included demographic characteristics, social factors, perception of the local environment, village level factors (percentage male, mean age, population density, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and sport market segmentation), and physical activity behaviour. Random effects ("multilevel") logistic regression models were fitted to the binary outcome whether individuals met physical activity guidelines, and random effects linear regression models were fitted to the continuous outcome MET-minutes per week leisure time physical activity, using the personal, social, environmental, and village-level factors as predictors. The following factors both increased the odds of meeting the recommended activity guidelines and were associated with more leisure-time physical activity: being male (p = 0.002), in good health (p < 0.001), greater commitment to being more active (p = 0.002), favourable activity social norms (p = 0.004), greater physical activity habit (p < 0.001), and recent use of recreational facilities (p = 0.01). In addition, there was evidence (p < 0.05) that younger age, lower body mass index, having a physical occupation, dog ownership, inconvenience of public transport, and using recreational facilities outside the local

  17. Factors associated with physical inactivity among female and male rural adolescents in Borneo - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Helmy, Hazmi; Chang, Ching Thon

    2014-01-01

    Rural communities have shown marked increase in metabolic syndrome among young people, with physical inactivity as one of the main contributing factors. This study aimed to determine factors associated with physical inactivity among male and female rural adolescents in a sample of schools in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 145 students aged 13-15 years. Data on socio-demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, social influences) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurement was taken to generate body mass index (BMI)-for-age, while physical activity (PA) level was assessed using pedometers. The mean steps per day was 6251.37 (SD=3085.31) with males reported as being more active. About 27% of the respondents were either overweight or obese, with more females in this group. There was no significant difference in steps among males and females (p=0.212), and nutritional status (BMI-for-age) (p=0.439). Females consistently scored higher in most items under perceived barriers, but had significantly lower scores in self-efficacy's items. Males were more influenced by peers in terms of PA (p<0.001) and were more satisfied with their body parts (p=0.047). A significantly higher body size discrepancy score was found among females (p=0.034, CI -0.639, -0.026). PA level was low and almost one-third of the respondents were overweight and obese. Female students faced more barriers and had lower self-efficacy with regards PA. Based on the findings, it is recommended that interventions focus on reducing barriers while increasing support for PA. This is particularly important in improving the health status of the youth, especially among the females.

  18. Determinants of morbidity associated with infant male circumcision: community-level population-based study in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Thomas; McAuley, Kimberley; Strobel, Natalie A; Shannon, Caitlin; Newton, Sam; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-03-01

    Male circumcision services have expanded throughout Africa as part of a long-term HIV prevention strategy. We assessed the effect of type of service provider (formal and informal) and hygiene practices on circumcision-related morbidities in rural Ghana. Population-based, cross-sectional study conducted between May and December 2012 involving 2850 circumcised infant males aged under 12 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, income, birthweight and site of circumcision. A total of 2850 (90.7%) infant males were circumcised. Overall, the risk of experiencing a morbidity (defined as complications occurring during or after the circumcision procedure as reported by the primary caregiver) was 8.1% (230). Risk was not significantly increased if the circumcision was performed by informal providers (121, 7.2%) vs. formal health service providers (109, 9.8%) [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.11, 95% CI 0.80-1.47, P = 0.456]. Poor hygiene practices were associated with significantly increased risk of morbidity: no handwashing [148 (11.7%)] (aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.52, P = 0.001); not cleaning circumcision instruments [174 (10.6%)] (aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.27-2.54, P = 0.001); and uncleaned penile area [190 (10.0%)] (aOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.25-2.70, P = 0.002). The risk of morbidity after infant male circumcision in rural Ghana is high, chiefly due to poor hygiene practices. Governmental and non-governmental organisations need to improve training of circumcision providers in hygiene practices in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.; Taranto, Angelo A.

    In July and August 1975, 138 rural residents of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania were interviewed as to their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes regarding the prevention of cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents were selected by interviewing an adult living on a commercial farm (a farm that either sold $10,000 or more produce per year or the…

  20. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  1. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  2. Educating Out and Giving Back: Adults' Conceptions of Successful Outcomes of African American High School Students from Impoverished Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Dadisman, Kimberly; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Thompson, Jana; Irvin, Matthew J.; Zhang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    This study examined community adults' conceptions of successful early adult outcomes for rural African American adolescents from 2 low-resource communities in the Deep South. Focus groups were conducted with parents, teachers, and community leaders. Parents also completed semistructured phone interviews. The focus groups identified 2 general types…

  3. Nicholls State University: Adult Basic Education Institute for Teachers, Administrators, and Paraprofessionals of Rural ABE Programs: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls State Univ., Thibodaux, LA. Graduate School.

    The report is a final evaluation of a three-week Adult Basic Education (ABE) institute emphasizing rural ABE, and of the research phase of the project conducted July 1971--May 1972. Throughout the institute, participants were requested to compile a list of areas of adult education research based on the presentations and discussions during the…

  4. Cardiovascular disease and risk factors among 345 adults in rural India--the Andhra Pradesh Rural Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clara; Cardona, Magnolia; Raju, P Krishnam; Iyengar, Srinivas; Sukumar, Akamshetty; Raju, Ravi; Colman, Sam; Madhav, P; Raju, Rama; Reddy, K Srinath; Celermajer, David; Neal, Bruce

    2007-03-20

    Heart attack and stroke are problems already faced by some urban populations of India, but less is known about cardiovascular disease and risk factors in rural areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels and management of major cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in two villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional survey was done by selecting a random sample stratified by age and gender from each village using census lists compiled in 2002. For each individual, trained study staff administered a Telugu-translation of a structured questionnaire, performed a brief physical examination and collected a fasting venous blood sample. Weighted estimates of mean (or percentages with) risk factor levels in the population were calculated and are reported with confidence intervals unless otherwise specified. Data was collected from 345 adults aged 20 to 90. The average household size was 4.2 and the mean combined household income was about Indian Rupees 25,454 (580 US dollars) per year. The mean systolic blood pressure was 116 (114-117) mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure 73 (114-120) mm Hg, total cholesterol 4.6 (4.5-4.7) mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol 0.8 (0.8-0.9) mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol 3.2 (3.1-3.3) mmol/L and triglyceride 1.3 (1.2-1.4) mmol/L. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.9% (15.4-24.4%), hypertension 20.3% (16.2-24.4%), diabetes 3.7% (1.8-5.5%), overweight 16.9% (12.3-21.5%) and obesity 4.4% (1.9-6.8%). A medical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (previous heart attack, stroke or angina) was reported by 2.5% (1.1-3.9%) and a further 1.1% (0.1-2.1%) had angina by the 'Rose' classification. The possibility of increasing cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of vascular disease in areas of rural India represent a public health concern. Larger and repeated epidemiological studies focusing on chronic diseases are required to inform treatment and prevention strategies suitable for use in these areas and

  5. Semen preservation in male adolescents and young adults with cancer: one institution's experience.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa

    2007-06-01

    Semen preservation is a feasible procedure for male adolescents and young adults who may become infertile as a result of cancer therapy. Treatment for several pediatric malignancies puts adolescents and young adults at a significant risk for fertility dysfunction. Eligible male adolescents and young adults (N = 32) treated from January 2004 to June 2005 at Cook Children's Medical Center were offered semen preservation at the time of diagnosis or presentation to the center for treatment. Fifteen (47%) young men were successful in semen preservation. Two (6%) adolescents did not participate because of parental refusal. Seven (22%) were too ill, and eight (25%) failed to produce an adequate sample. Several patients were not successful because of time constraints, lack of counseling, and parental anxiety. Efforts for success in semen preservation should include private discussions between nurses and adolescents. In addition, information on infertility needs to be given to families early in the diagnostic phase to provide them with an opportunity to ask questions.

  6. Health-Related Lifestyle Behaviors among Male and Female Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; He, Fang; Wang, Tianhao; Liu, Yao; Shen, Yao; Gong, Jian; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jie; Tu, Yimin; Wang, Tianying; Shen, Lei; Wu, Yumiao; Xia, Xiuping; Xu, Donghao; Pan, Zhigang; Zhu, Shanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Lifestyle behaviors significantly impact health, yet remain poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. Methods In a cross-sectional study of health-related behaviors of 5484 rural-to-urban migrants who had worked in Shanghai for at least six months, we assessed the contribution of demographics and physical and mental health to lifestyle behaviors in male and female participants by multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression. Results Respondents were 51.3% male. 9.9% exhibited abnormal blood pressure; 27.0% were overweight or obese; 11.2% reported abnormal mental health; 36.9% reported healthy lifestyle. Multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression indicated that men working in manufacturing reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in hospitality (cumulative odds ratio (COR) = 1.806, 95%CI 1.275–2.559) or recreation/leisure (COR = 3.248, 95%CI 2.379–4.435); and women working in manufacturing and construction reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in all other sectors. Unhealthy lifestyle was associated with small workplaces for men (COR = 1.422, 95%CI 1.154–1.752), working more than 8 or 11 hours per day for women and men, respectively, and earning over 3500 RMB in women (COR = 1.618, 95%CI 1.137–2.303). Single women and women who had previously resided in three or more cities were more likely to report unhealthy lifestyle (COR = 2.023, 95%CI 1.664–2.461, and COR = 1.311, 95%CI 1.072–1.602, respectively). Abnormal mental status was also correlated with unhealthy lifestyle in men (COR = 3.105, 95%CI 2.454–3.930) and women (COR = 2.566, 95%CI 2.024–3.252). Conclusions There were different risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle score in male and female rural-to-urban migrants, especially in number of cities experienced, salary, marital status, work place scale. Several demographic groups: employment sectors (e.g. hospitality and recreation/leisure), working conditions (e.g. long hours) and abnormal mental

  7. Ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni juvenile and adult male worms after in vitro incubation with primaquine

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Reem Osama A; Bayaumy, Fatma El-Zahraa Anwar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Praziquantel has been cited as the only drug for treating schistosomiasis. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for novel drug leads. The antimalarial drug primaquine possesses interesting anti-schistosmal properties. OBJECTIVES This study is the first to document the potential role of primaquine as a schistosomicide and the ultrastructural changes induced by primaquine on juvenile or adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni. METHODS Ultrastructural alterations in the tegumental surface of 21-day-old juvenile and adult male worms of S. mansoni were demonstrated following primaquine treatment at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/mL) and incubation periods (1, 3, 6, 24, and 48 h) in vitro, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. FINDINGS At low concentrations (2, 5, and 10 µg/mL) both juvenile and adult male worms were alive after 24 h of incubation, whereas contraction, paralysis, and death of all worms were observed after 24 h of drug exposure at 20 µg/mL. The tegument of juvenile and adult male worms treated with primaquine exhibited erosion, peeling, and sloughing. Furthermore, extensive damage of both tegumental and subtegumental layers included embedded spines, and shrinkage of muscles with vacuoles. The in vitro results confirmed that primaquine has dose-dependent effects with 20 µg/mL as the most effective concentration in a short incubation period. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The schistosomicidal activity of primaquine indicates that this drug possesses moderate in vitro activity against juvenile and adult male worms, since it caused high mortality and tegumental alterations. This study confirmed that the antimalarial drug primaquine possesses anti-schistosomal activity. Further investigation is needed to elucidate its mechanism of action. PMID:28327785

  8. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  9. SEXUAL INTERACTIONS WITH UNFAMILIAR FEMALES REDUCE HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AMONG ADULT MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Curtis, Molly G.; DeLoach, Julia P.; Maher, Jack; Shulman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of BrdU (200 mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30 min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohisotchemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. There were no differences in the amount of sexual behavior (mounts, intromissions, ejaculations, or contact time) that the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in, indicating that the differences in neurogenesis were not due to the relative amounts of sexual activity. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect

  10. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex. Results The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively), whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83). The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively). The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS. Conclusions MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS. PMID:24614618

  12. A qualitative examination of home and neighborhood environments for obesity prevention in rural adults.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Escoffery, Cam; Alcantara, Iris; Ballard, Denise; Glanz, Karen

    2008-12-10

    The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability of healthy foods, and family support for physical activity and maintaining an ideal body weight. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 African American and White adults over 50 years of age in two rural counties in Southwest Georgia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two members of the research team using standard methods of qualitative analysis. Themes were then identified and data matrices were used to identify patterns by gender or race. Neighborhood features that supported physical activity were plenty of land, minimal traffic and living in a safe and friendly neighborhood. The major barrier was lack of recreational facilities. The majority of participants were not physically active with their family members due to schedule conflicts and lack of time. Family member-initiated efforts to encourage physical activity met with mixed results, with refusals, procrastination, and increased activity all reported. Participants generally reported it was easy to get healthy foods, although cost barriers and the need to drive to a larger town for a supermarket with good variety were noted as obstacles. Family conversations about weight had occurred for about half of the participants, with reactions ranging from agreement about the need to lose weight to frustration. This study suggests that successful environmental change strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating in rural neighborhoods may differ from those used in urban neighborhoods. The findings also

  13. Patterns of Complementary Therapy Use for Symptom Management for Older Rural Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Lang, Wei; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on complementary therapy use among adults with diabetes are limited by crude use measures and lack of specificity of use for treating diabetes. Data are from a study including baseline and repeated 3-day assessments of complementary therapy use among rural African American and White older (age ≥64) adults (n=71). Most commonly used complementary therapies for diabetes at baseline included prayer (88.7%), food/beverages (50.7%), herbs (11.3%) and home remedies (9.9%). In repeated measures (1131 interviews), prayer was used on 57.2% of days, followed by food/beverages (12.7%), herbs (3.4%) and home remedies (2.7%). 56.3% who reported praying did so on ≥5 reporting periods; other complementary therapy use was sporadic. These data show, with the exception of prayer and food/beverages, limited complementary therapy use for diabetes treatment among rural older adults, and less inconsistent use patterns of most complementary therapies. Further research is needed to understand the motivations and patterns of complementary therapy use for diabetes patients. PMID:24244893

  14. Telemedicine and primary care obesity management in rural areas - innovative approach for older adults?

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Pletcher, Sarah N; Stahl, James E

    2017-01-05

    The growing prevalence of obesity is paralleling a rise in the older adult population creating an increased risk of functional impairment, nursing home placement and early mortality. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid recognized the importance of treating obesity and instituted a benefit in primary care settings to encourage intensive behavioral therapy in beneficiaries by primary care clinicians. This benefit covers frequent, brief, clinic visits designed to address older adult obesity. We describe the challenges in the implementation and delivery into real-world settings. The challenges in rural settings that have the fastest growing elderly population, high obesity rates, but also workforce shortages and lack of specialized services are emphasized. The use of Telemedicine has successfully been implemented in other specialties and could be a useful modality in delivering much needed intensive behavioral therapy, particularly in distant, under-resourced environments. This review outlines some of the challenges with the current benefit and proposed solutions in overcoming rural primary care barriers to implementation, including changes in staffing models. Recommendations to extend the benefit's coverage to be more inclusive of non-physician team members is needed but also for improvement in reimbursement for telemedicine services for older adults with obesity.

  15. Perceptions of, attitudes towards and barriers to male involvement in newborn care in rural Ghana, West Africa: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dumbaugh, Mari; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Manu, Alexander; ten Asbroek, Guus Ha; Kirkwood, Betty; Hill, Zelee

    2014-08-12

    Male involvement in various health practices is recognized as an important factor in improving maternal and child health outcomes. Male involvement interventions involve men in a variety of ways, at varying levels of inclusion and use a range of outcome measures. There is little agreement on how male involvement should be measured and some authors contend that male involvement may actually be detrimental to women's empowerment and autonomy. Few studies explore the realities, perceptions, determinants and efficacy of male involvement in newborn care, especially in African contexts. Birth narratives of recent mothers (n = 25), in-depth interviews with recent fathers (n = 12) and two focus group discussions with fathers (n = 22) were conducted during the formative research phase of a community-based newborn care trial. Secondary analysis of this qualitative data identified emergent themes and established overall associations related to male involvement, newborn care and household roles in a rural African setting. Data revealed that gender dictates many of the perceptions and politics surrounding newborn care in this context. The influence of mother-in-laws and generational power dynamics were also identified as significant. Women alone perform almost all tasks related to newborn care whereas men take on the traditional responsibilities of economic providers and decision makers, especially concerning their wives' and children's health. Most men were interested in being more involved in newborn care but identified barriers to increased involvement, many of which related to gendered and generational divisions of labour and space. Men defined involvement in a variety of ways, even if they were not physically involved in carrying out newborn care tasks. Some participant comments revealed potential risks of increasing male involvement suggesting that male involvement alone should not be an outcome in future interventions. Rather, the effect of male involvement on women

  16. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R

    2011-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban=734 and rural=1,144), who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake), and household food insecurity. The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day) was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home), frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  17. The C. elegans adult male germline: stem cells and sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Dyan E.; Crittenden, Sarah L.; Kimble, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The hermaphrodite C. elegans germline has become a classic model for stem cell regulation, but the male C. elegans germline has been largely neglected. This work provides a cellular analysis of the adult C. elegans male germline, focusing on its predicted stem cell region in the distal gonad. The goals of this study were two-fold: to establish the C. elegans male germline as a stem cell model and to identify sex-specific traits of potential relevance to the sperm/oocyte decision. Our results support two major conclusions. First, adult males do indeed possess a population of germline stem cells (GSCs) with properties similar to those of hermaphrodite GSCs (lack of cell cycle quiescence, lack of reproducibly oriented divisions). Second, germ cells in the mitotic region, including those most distal within the niche, exhibit sex-specific behaviors (e.g. cell cycle length) and therefore have acquired sexual identity. Previous studies demonstrated that some germ cells are not committed to a sperm or oocyte cell fate, even in adults. We propose that germ cells can acquire sexual identity without being committed to a sperm or oocyte cell fate. PMID:20659446

  18. Description of the larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, with remarks on the adult male genital morphology (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxytelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Makranczy, György; Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The previously unknown larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, is described and illustrated. Adult male terminalia and genitalia are illustrated with line drawings. Adults of this species exhibit little difference in size or external morphology between males and females. PMID:27110170

  19. Maternal undernutrition programs the apelinergic system of adipose tissue in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lecoutre, S; Marousez, L; Drougard, A; Knauf, C; Guinez, C; Eberlé, D; Laborie, C; Vieau, D; Lesage, J; Breton, C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease concept, maternal undernutrition has been shown to sensitize adult offspring to metabolic pathologies such as obesity. Using a model of maternal 70% food restriction in pregnant female rats throughout gestation (called FR30), we previously reported that obesity-prone adult male rat offspring displayed hyperleptinemia with modifications in leptin and leptin receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in white adipose tissue (WAT). Apelin is a member of the adipokine family that regulates various aspects of energy metabolism and WAT functionality. We investigated whether apelin and its receptor APJ could be a target of maternal undernutrition. Adult male rat offspring from FR30 dams showed increased plasma apelin levels and apelin gene expression in WAT. Post-weaning high-fat diet led to marked increase in APJ mRNA and protein levels in offspring's WAT. We demonstrate that maternal undernutrition and post-weaning diet have long-term consequences on the apelinergic system of adult male rat offspring.

  20. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  3. Body composition by a three compartment model in adult Indian male and female subjects.

    PubMed

    Borgonha, S; Kuriyan, R; Shetty, P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Kurpad, A V

    1997-07-01

    The body composition of 10 adult Indian male and female subjects was investigated by a three compartment model, using measurements of Total Body Water (TBW) by deuterium dilution, and of body density by hydrodensitometry. The three compartment model yielded significantly different (P < 0.005) estimates of percent body fat of 15.9+/-3.8 and 19.7+/-4.2% and of the Fat Free Mass (FFM) of 41+/-3.3 kg and 33.9+/-4.1 kg in the male and female subjects respectively. The hydration of the FFM was 0.704+/-0.032 in the males and 0.719+/-0.024 in the females; this difference was not signifcant between groups. The density of the FFM, measured from estimates of percent body fat by the 3 compartment approach and of body density by hydrodensitometry, was 1.107+/-0.014 in the males and 1.101+/-0.001 in the females with no significant differences between the groups. This study demonstrates differences in body composition between BMI matched healthy adult male and female subjects. Although there are significant differences for % Fat and FFM between the sexes, there are no significant differences in the hydration fraction and the density of the FFM.

  4. Female and male antisocial trajectories: from childhood origins to adult outcomes.

    PubMed

    Odgers, Candice L; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Dickson, Nigel; Hancox, Robert J; Harrington, Honalee; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the childhood origins and adult outcomes of female versus male antisocial behavior trajectories in the Dunedin longitudinal study. Four antisocial behavior trajectory groups were identified among females and males using general growth mixture modeling and included life-course persistent (LCP), adolescent-onset, childhood-limited, and low trajectory groups. During childhood, both LCP females and males were characterized by social, familial and neurodevelopmental risk factors, whereas those on the adolescent-onset pathway were not. At age 32, women and men on the LCP pathway were engaging in serious violence and experiencing significant mental health, physical health, and economic problems. Females and males on the adolescent-onset pathway were also experiencing difficulties at age 32, although to a lesser extent. Although more males than females followed the LCP trajectory, findings support similarities across gender with respect to developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior and their associated childhood origins and adult consequences. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.

  5. Comparisons of prevalence and related factors of depression in middle-aged adults between urban and rural populations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujise, Noboru; Abe, Yasuhisa; Fukunaga, Ryuta; Nakagawa, Youichi; Nishi, Yoshitomo; Koyama, Asuka; Ikeda, Manabu

    2016-01-15

    Findings of urban-rural differences in the prevalence of depression have been controversial, and few reports have directly compared the related factors of depression between urban and rural areas. The present study aimed to investigate differences between urban and rural areas in Japan with regards to the prevalence of and related factors of depression in middle-aged adults, in order to further understanding of the features of depression in this demographic. We used a multistage, random sampling procedure and mailing method. In total, 5000 participants were recruited from urban and rural areas in Kumamoto Prefecture (2500 in each area). Participants were aged from 40 to 64 years. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). The prevalence of middle-aged depression was not different between the urban and rural areas. Logistic regression analysis found that being female, living alone, and having a chronic illness were significantly associated with depression in urban-dwelling middle-aged adults. Younger age, sleep disturbance, and financial strain were significantly associated with depression in both urban and rural areas. The definition of depression was based on CES-D scores, without corroborating clinical evaluation. We found no marked differences in the prevalence of middle-aged depression between the urban and rural areas. Some related factors of depression in middle-aged adults differed between urban and rural areas in Japan. Effective intervention programs for middle-aged adults with depression should consider regional differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible interaction of the adrenal-gonadal systems on brain catecholamines of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Leret, M L; Tranque, P; González, I; Calvo, J C

    1987-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory showed that gonadectomy (GDX) alters biogenic amines concentrations in diencephalon during the first 40 days. While the GDX females maintain the differences at day 60, the differences are eliminated in males at that time. In the present work, we have studied in three cerebral regions the adrenal involvement in the mechanism responsible for this normalization of catecholamine concentration in long-term castrated adult male rats. A hypersecretion of adrenal steroids seems to compensate for the lack of gonadal effect when the orchidectomized rats reach adulthood only for diencephalic dopamine.

  7. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection.

  8. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities among adult male hardcore smokers in Vietnam: 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Kien, Vu Duy; Jat, Tej Ram; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Phan Thi Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-07-14

    Despite male smokers being dominant in Vietnam, scarce evidence on trends in socioeconomics inequalities among the hardcore male smokers is available in the country. In this study, we aimed at assessing the trends in socioeconomics inequalities among the hardcore smokers in adult male population in Vietnam over a five-year period from 2010 to 2015. We used data from two rounds of the Vietnam Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2010 and 2015. We included only men aged 25 years and above in the analysis. We measured socioeconomic inequalities among hardcore smokers by calculating the concentration index. We conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with hardcore smoking among men aged 25 years and above. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of male hardcore smokers aged 25 years and above in Vietnam was 9.5% in 2010 which increased to 13.1% in 2015. The prevalence of male hardcore smokers declined in the richest group from the 2010 level whereas it increased in the middle, poor and poorest groups. All values of weighted concentration indices indicated that the prevalence of male hardcore smokers occurred more among the poor men in Vietnam in both 2010 and 2015. The socioeconomic inequalities in hardcore smokers increased during 2010 and 2015. Residence in urban areas was significantly associated with higher adult male hardcore smoking in our study. Belonging to the age groups between 40 and 59 years, attaining primary and lower education, being self-employed, belonging to the poorest household group, smoking being allowed at home and no rule for smoking at home were associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker among adult males in Vietnam. We found increased trends in socioeconomic inequalities in hardcore smoking among the study population. Our study results indicate that existing smoking secession and tobacco control policy and interventions need to be modified or new policies and

  9. Molecular subtypification of human papillomavirus in male adult individuals with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, Carmen S; Akaki-Caballero, Matsuharu; Saavedra-Mendoza, Ana G; Guzmán-Romero, Ana K; Canto, Patricia; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the isotype of human papillomavirus (HPV) in fresh tissue samples of 35 male adults with adult recurrent adult respiratory papillomatosis which may be important to define the precise etiology of the disease, and determine the therapeutic and prophylactic measures. A total of 35 adult male patients diagnosed with active RRP who have been treated for several years were included in the study. DNA of patients was extracted from fresh biological samples and analyzed by PCR and a Linear Array® HPV Genotyping system. Most cases (95%) corresponded to adult-onset of RRP. A questionnaire was applied to obtain demographic and clinical data. Using a PCR-based detection system all patients showed the presence of HPV; 80% were positive for HPV-6, 8% for HPV-11 and one for HPV-16. Most patients presented HPV-6 and consequently it was not feasible to correlate clinical and demographic characteristics with viral type. Besides, co-infections were not evident. This knowledge may be relevant to delineate therapeutic and preventive measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood Attachment and Adult Attachment in Incarcerated Adult Male Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallbone, Stephen W.; Dadds, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-eight incarcerated sex offenders were compared with 16 property offenders and 16 nonoffenders on self-report measures of childhood maternal and paternal attachment and adult attachment. Results suggest that insecure childhood attachments may be related to offending behavior generally and that certain combinations of childhood attachment…

  11. Blood pressure in rural and urban adult healthy females of Jat Sikh community in Punjab, North India: an epidemiologic profile.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, S; Badaruddoza; Kaur, A

    2004-06-01

    Blood pressure readings were collected from 1042 adult females of rural and urban Jat Sikh community of Punjab, a north Indian State. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight and skinfold thickness were also collected. The difference between rural and urban females in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure was found to be statistically significant. All anthropometric variables and age have a significant positive association with blood pressure. The effects of anthropometric variables on blood pressure were assessed simultaneously through stepwise multiple regression analysis. All 'F' ratios have been found highly significant (p < 0.001) among both rural and urban female population.

  12. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-10-15

    Social proficiency requires making appropriate behavioral adaptations as a result of social experience. For example, male rodents become sexually proficient with experience as demonstrated by a reduction in ectopic (misdirected) mounts, mount-to-intromission ratio, and latency to ejaculation. We previously found that over a series of timed tests with a receptive female, male hamsters deprived of testosterone specifically during puberty (NoT@P) have overall lower levels of sexual behavior and continue to display high levels of ectopic mounts, compared with males that experienced endogenous testosterone during puberty (T@P). These results suggested that pubertal testosterone programs sexual proficiency in adulthood, but because NoT@P males engaged in less sexual behavior than T@P males in these tests, the amount of sexual experience may have been insufficient to improve sexual proficiency. To more rigorously test the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is necessary for social proficiency in adulthood, the present study compared the behavior of NoT@P and T@P males in a series of 4 trials with a 48-h interval between each trial. Sexual experience was equated by limiting each trial to 5 intromissions. Sexually-naïve males were either gonadectomized prepubertally (NoT@P) or in adulthood (T@P) and received subcutaneous testosterone capsules four weeks later. Two weeks after testosterone replacement, these groups and a group of adult gonad-intact controls began sexual behavior testing. We found that NoT@P males had more ectopic mounts/min across all four tests compared to gonad-intact and T@P males. Moreover, both gonad-intact and T@P males, but not NoT@P males, showed an increase in the number of mounts and intromissions/min between trials 1 and 3. Unexpectedly, both gonad-intact and T@P, but not NoT@P, males showed a decrease in sexual behaviors during trial 4. Thus, T@P males display multiple behavioral adaptations to sexual experience that are not observed in No

  13. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed.

  14. Aripiprazole-Induced Hypoprolactinemia in an Adult Male with First-Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Propst, Alanna J; Jarvis, G Eric; Margolese, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. Compared to other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole has less metabolic side effects and is less likely to increase prolactin. Moreover, it has been shown to have a unique prolactin lowering effect. While aripiprazole has been associated with subnormal prolactin levels in children, no documented cases of hypoprolactinemia in adults exist thus far. Here we report a case of aripiprazole-induced hypoprolactinemia in an adult male with first-episode psychosis, and the possible effects of abnormally low prolactin are discussed.

  15. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  16. Protective Effects of Adolescent-Adult Connection on Male Youth in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Culyba, Alison J; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Fein, Joel A; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-02-01

    Positive adult connection has been linked with protective effects among U.S. adolescents. Less is known about the impact of adult connection across multiple health domains for youth in low-resource urban environments. We examined the associations between adult connection and school performance, substance use, and violence exposure among youth in low-resource neighborhoods. We recruited a population-based random sample of 283 male adolescents in Philadelphia. Age-adjusted logistic regression tested whether positive adult connection promoted school performance and protected against substance use and violence exposure. Youth with a positive adult connection had significantly higher odds of good school performance (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; p < .05), and lower odds of alcohol use (OR, .4; p < .05), violence involvement (OR, .3-.4; p < .05), and violence witnessing (OR, .3; p < .05). Promoting adult connection may help safeguard youth in urban contexts. Youth-serving professionals should consider assessing adult connection as part of a strengths-based approach to health promotion for youth in low-resource neighborhoods. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Effects of Adolescent-Adult Connection on Male Youth in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Culyba, Alison J.; Ginsburg, Kenneth R.; Fein, Joel A.; Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Positive adult connection has been linked with protective effects among U.S. adolescents. Less is known about the impact of adult connection across multiple health domains for youth in low-resource urban environments. We examined the associations between adult connection and school performance, substance use, and violence exposure among youth in low resource neighborhoods. Methods We recruited a population-based random sample of 283 male adolescents in Philadelphia. Age-adjusted logistic regression tested whether positive adult connection promoted school performance and protected against substance use and violence exposure. Results Youth with a positive adult connection had significantly higher odds of good school performance (OR=2.8;p<0.05), and lower odds of alcohol use (OR=0.4;p<0.05), violence involvement (ORs=0.3–0.4;p<0.05), and violence witnessing (OR=0.3;p<0.05). Conclusions Promoting adult connection may help safeguard youth in urban contexts. Youth-serving professionals should consider assessing adult connection as part of a strengths-based approach to health promotion for youth in low-resource neighborhoods. PMID:26802994

  18. Staying healthy: the salience and meaning of health maintenance behaviors among rural older adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; Bell, R A

    2001-12-01

    Beliefs about what constitutes health promoting behaviors vary by culture and class, and knowing how an older adult interprets a specific health behavior can improve health education and medical compliance. Ethnomedical approaches have investigated how people define disease and the therapies used to return to a state of health. However, little research has addressed how individuals define health, or the behaviors they use to maintain health. We analyze the behaviors elders state are needed to stay healthy, and their meanings for these behaviors. Narratives collected through in-depth interviews with 145 male and female rural North Carolina residents aged 70 and older, including African Americans, Native Americans and European Americans are analyzed using systematic text analysis. The participants' narratives include seven salient health maintenance domains: (1) Eating Right, (2) Drinking Water, (3) "Taking" Exercise, (4) Staying Busy, (5) Being with People, (6) Trusting in God and Participating in Church, and (7) Taking Care of Yourself. Several of these domains are multi-dimensional in the meanings the elders ascribe to them. There is also overlap in the content of some of the domains; they are not discrete in the minds of the elders and a specific health behavior can reflect more than one domain. Four themes cross-cut the domains: "balance and moderation", "the holistic view of health", "social integration", and "personal responsibility". Elders in these rural communities hold a definition of health that overlaps with, but is not synonymous with a biomedical model. These elders' concept of health seamlessly integrates physical, mental, spiritual, and social aspects of health, reflecting how health is embedded in the everyday experience of these elders. Staying healthy is maintaining the ability to function in a community. These results indicate that providers cannot assume that older patients will share their interpretation of general health promotion advice.

  19. Improving quality of life in diverse rural older adults: a randomized trial of a psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Scogin, Forrest; Morthland, Martin; Kaufman, Allan; Burgio, Louis; Chaplin, William; Kong, Grace

    2007-12-01

    The efficacy of home-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving quality of life and reducing psychological symptoms in older adults was examined in this study. One hundred thirty-four participants, predominately African American and characterized as primarily rural, low resource, and physically frail, were randomly assigned to either CBT or a minimal support control condition. Results indicate that CBT participants evidenced significantly greater improvements in quality of life and reductions in psychological symptoms. Mediation of treatment through cognitive and behavioral variables was not found despite the acceptable delivery of CBT by research therapists. These data suggest that treatment can be effective with a disadvantaged sample of older adults and extend efficacy findings to quality of life domains. Creating access to evidence-based treatments through nontraditional delivery is an important continuing goal for geriatric health care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kolla, Nathan J; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated whether the previously observed association of pedophilia with lower IQs is an artifact of heterogeneity in referral source. The subjects were 832 adult male patients referred to a specialty clinic for evaluation of their sexual behavior. The patients' erotic preferences for prepubescent, pubescent, or adult partners were assessed with phallometric testing. Full scale IQ was estimated using six subtests from the WAIS-R. The results showed that the relations between pedophilia and lower IQ, lesser education, and increased rates of non-right-handedness were the same in homogeneous groups referred by lawyers or parole and probation officers as they were in a heterogeneous group referred by a miscellany of other sources. Those results, along with secondary analyses in the study, supported the conclusion that the relation between pedophilia and cognitive function is genuine and not artifactual. The findings were interpreted as evidence for the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations increase the risk of pedophilia in males.

  1. Transgender identity development as represented by a group of female-to-male transgendered adults.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah W; Stevens, Patricia E

    2008-06-01

    This article represents work done in the discipline of nursing to raise awareness about the lives and experiences of transgendered persons, who receive little coverage in our nursing textbooks, professional journals, or student clinical experiences. The findings presented here are from a larger qualitative examination of the lives and experiences of a group of 11 transgendered adults that examined four broad areas: transgender identity recognition, acknowledgement, and development; bodily experiences; relationships with others; and health care experiences. The focus of this article is the relevant findings related to four participants in the study who identified as female-to-male (FTM), meaning they were born female-bodied, but identify as male. The highlight here is on the recognition, acknowledgement, and development of transgender identity. Our intention is to expose uninformed people to first-hand accounts by FTM transgendered persons about their life trajectories, particularly during childhood, adolescence, and the early adult years.

  2. Asthma, smoking and chronic cough in rural and urban adult communities in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Walraven, G E; Nyan, O A; Van Der Sande, M A; Banya, W A; Ceesay, S M; Milligan, P J; McAdam, K P

    2001-11-01

    Asthma is reported to be rare in traditional rural communities, but is thought to be increasing as lifestyles become more urbanized or 'western'. A community-based survey of non-communicable diseases was conducted from October 1996 to June 1997, and included comparison of the prevalence of asthma, smoking and chronic cough in rural and urban Gambia. A cluster sample survey was conducted in a random sample of rural and urban adults (> or = 15 years of age). Subjects were asked about respiratory symptoms using a locally adapted version based on the IULTD questionnaire. Spirometry (basal, methacholine provocation and reversibility with a bronchodilator) and skin prick tests were performed on a randomly selected subsample of all subjects and those who, when interviewed, said they wheezed or had been diagnosed as asthmatic by a doctor. Out of 2166 participants in the urban population, 4.1% reported having had wheezing or whistling in the chest in the previous 12 months, 3.6% reported doctor-diagnosed asthma, and 0.6% chronic cough. In the rural population with 3223 participants these figures were 3.3%, 0.7% and 1.2%, respectively. Wheeze was more common in women, cough for 3 months of the year was more common in the age-groups 45+. Those who reported that they currently smoked accounted for 34% in urban and 42% in rural men. Figures were much lower for women (1.5% and 6.0%). Seven out of 574 randomly selected subjects (1.4%) exhibited bronchial hyper-responsiveness to methacholine challenge. Four of 133 (3.0%) people with self-reported wheeze and 3/69 (4.3%) participants with doctor-diagnosed asthma reacted positively on bronchial provocation with methacholine. There was a remarkably high prevalence of positive skin prick tests to aeroallergens: 38% in participants with a history of wheeze and 27% in those without. The prevalence of wheeze (particularly in association with bronchial hyper-responsiveness) was low in both rural and urban Gambia. This is in contrast to the

  3. Loneliness and Quality of Life in Chronically Ill Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Loneliness is a contributing factor to various health problems in older adults, including complex chronic illness, functional decline, and increased risk of mortality. Objectives A pilot study was conducted to learn more about the prevalence of loneliness in rural older adults with chronic illness and how it affects their quality of life. The purposes of the data analysis reported here were twofold: to describe loneliness, chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, prescription medication use, and quality of life in a sample of rural older adults; and to examine the relationships among these elements. Methods A convenience sample of 60 chronically ill older adults who were community dwelling and living in Appalachia was assessed during face-to-face interviews for loneliness and quality of life, using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (version 3) and the CASP-12 quality of life scale. Chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, and medication use data were collected through review of participants’ electronic medical records. Results Overall mean loneliness scores indicated significant loneliness. Participants with a mood disorder such as anxiety or depression had the highest mean loneliness scores, followed by those with lung disease and those with heart disease. Furthermore, participants with mood disorders, lung disease, or heart disease had significantly higher loneliness scores than those without these conditions. Loneliness was significantly related to total number of chronic illnesses and use of benzodiazepines. Use of benzodiazepines, diuretics, nitrates, and bronchodilators were each associated with a lower quality of life. Conclusions Nurses should assess for loneliness as part of their comprehensive assessment of patients with chronic illness. Further research is needed to design and test interventions for loneliness. PMID:23958674

  4. Loneliness and quality of life in chronically ill rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Theeke, Laurie A; Mallow, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Loneliness is a contributing factor to various health problems in older adults, including complex chronic illness, functional decline, and increased risk of mortality. A pilot study was conducted to learn more about the prevalence of loneliness in rural older adults with chronic illness and how it affects their quality of life. The purposes of the data analysis reported here were twofold: to describe loneliness, chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, prescription medication use, and quality of life in a sample of rural older adults; and to examine the relationships among these elements. A convenience sample of 60 chronically ill older adults who were community dwelling and living in Appalachia was assessed during face-to-face interviews for loneliness and quality of life, using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (version 3) and the CASP-12 quality of life scale. Chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, and medication use data were collected through review of participants' electronic medical records. Overall mean loneliness scores indicated significant loneliness. Participants with a mood disorder such as anxiety or depression had the highest mean loneliness scores, followed by those with lung disease and those with heart disease. Furthermore, participants with mood disorders, lung disease, or heart disease had significantly higher loneliness scores than those without these conditions. Loneliness was significantly related to total number of chronic illnesses and use of benzodiazepines. Use of benzodiazepines, diuretics, nitrates, and bronchodilators were each associated with a lower quality of life. Nurses should assess for loneliness as part of their comprehensive assessment of patients with chronic illness. Further research is needed to design and test interventions for loneliness.

  5. Dietary patterns of rural older adults are associated with weight and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Mitchell, Diane C; Miller, Carla K; Jensen, Gordon L

    2004-04-01

    To characterize dietary patterns of rural older adults and relate patterns to weight and nutritional status. Cross-sectional. Rural Pennsylvania. One hundred seventy-nine community-dwelling adults aged 66 to 87 years. A home visit was conducted to collect demographic, health behavior, and anthropometric data and a blood sample. Five 24-hour dietary recall were administered. Cluster analysis classified participants into dietary patterns using food subgroup servings. Chi-square, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression were used to assess differences across clusters. A low-nutrient-dense cluster (n=107), with higher intake of breads, sweet breads/desserts, dairy desserts, processed meats, eggs, and fats/oils, and a high-nutrient-dense cluster (n=72) with higher intake of cereals, dark green/yellow vegetables, other vegetables, citrus/melons/berries, fruit juices, other fruits, milks, poultry, fish, and beans, were identified. Those in the high-nutrient-dense cluster had lower energy intake; higher energy-adjusted intake of fiber, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamins B(6), B(12), and D; higher Healthy Eating Index scores; higher plasma vitamin B(12) levels; and a lower waist circumference. Those with a low-nutrient-dense dietary pattern were twice as likely to be obese, twice as likely to have low plasma vitamin B(12) levels, and three to 17 times more likely to have low nutrient intake. This study provides support for recommending a high-nutrient-dense dietary pattern for older adults. Behavioral interventions encouraging diets characterized by high-nutrient-dense foods may improve weight and nutritional status of older adults.

  6. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J.; Wang, Duolao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors. Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P < 0.001) and 65.7% (82.0% in men vs 49.1% in women, P < 0.001) of the participants had intermediate and poor cardiovascular health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P < 0.001 for trend). Participants fulfilled, on average, 4.4 (95% confidence interval: 4.2–4.7) of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health. The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly

  7. CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sutapa; Guha, Debjani

    2008-03-01

    Treatment with Spinacia oleracea extract (SO; 400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole induced seizure status in Holtzman strain adult male albino rats. SO increased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain and pons and medulla. Result suggests that SO exerts its CNS depressive effect in PTZ induced seizure by modulating the monoamines in different brain areas.

  8. Influenza and tetanus immunization. Are adults up-to-date in rural Alberta?

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To discover what proportion of adults residing within the boundaries of a rural health district were up-to-date with influenza and tetanus vaccinations. METHODS: A directory-seeded, random digit dial telephone survey of health knowledge, attitudes, and practices was conducted in summer 1993. Eligible subjects were aged 16 or older, lived within health district boundaries, and spoke English. RESULTS: Just over half (57.5%) of people aged 65 and older had received influenza vaccine in the previous 12 months, and 55.4% of people 16 years and older had received tetanus vaccine in the last 10 years (93% of people aged 16 to 24 were covered, but only 20.5% of people aged 65 or older). Most (89.8%) of those 65 and older knew that influenza vaccine was recommended for people their age. Only 59% of respondents knew that influenza vaccine was recommended for people with chronic health conditions, regardless of age. CONCLUSION: Among adults, coverage with influenza and tetanus vaccines varies with age, but is generally unsatisfactory. Rates in this rural area of Alberta were similar to Canadian rates for tetanus vaccine coverage but higher for influenza vaccine coverage. PMID:9626423

  9. Calling the Doctor: A Qualitative Study of Patient-Initiated Physician Consultation among rural older adults

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Chapman, Christine; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Guided by Leventhal’s Self-regulatory Model and Cockerham’s theory of health lifestyles, we explore 2 questions regarding physician consultation among elderly rural adults: What symptom characteristics prompt patient-initiated physician consultation? Do participants’ accounts of responses to symptoms, including the decision to consult a physician, incorporate descriptions of change over time? Methods We analyze data from semi-structured in-depth interviews with 62 older rural adults. Results Accounts of decisions to initiate contact with physicians support prior research. Some symptoms encouraged immediate consultation; others prompted periods of monitoring and lay management. Physicians were most often contacted if changes were new, unusually severe, persisted or worsened, or failed to respond to lay treatment. Discussion We characterize participants’ responses to symptoms as bricolages to highlight their construction from available materials. Incorporating the integrating concept of bricolage and Cockerham’s emphasis on both general dispositions and symptom-specific responses represents an important extension of Leventhal’s conceptualization of illness behavior, including patient-initiated physician consultation. PMID:21311048

  10. Rural adults' perspectives on school food in a North Carolina county.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Thayer, Linden M; Hennink-Kaminski, Heidi; Noar, Seth M

    2015-04-23

    To address alarming rates of youth obesity, multiple stakeholder perspectives must be understood and considered when developing nutrition interventions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine adults' perceptions of school food in rural North Carolina and their opinions about potential changes to encourage students to eat more fruits and vegetables in school meals. We conducted semistructured key informant interviews by telephone from February through March 2013 to determine adult opinions regarding elementary school food and child health. Participants included parents, teachers, school administrators, and a cafeteria staff member. Interview transcripts were thematically analyzed using Dedoose qualitative analysis software. Four themes emerged from key informant interviews regarding school meals and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption: 1) schools are an appropriate place for nutritious food, 2) current school food is bland and unappealing, 3) school cafeterias can use simple strategies to increase fruit and vegetable intake, and 4) federal school meal guidelines are perceived as barriers to increased fruit and vegetable intake during school meals. Study findings suggest that training and support for cafeteria staff on healthy food preparation and presentation are critical and that there should be a "meeting in the middle" between child appeal and health. Nutritious and appealing school food options may have the potential to greatly increase fruit and vegetable consumption in rural elementary schools in North Carolina.

  11. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity: effects of neonatal stress in freely moving adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, M; Bronzino, J D; Pizzuti, G P

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of neonatal isolation on hippocampal LTP in adult male rats. Changes in dentate granule cell population measures, i.e., EPSP slope and population spike amplitude (PSA), evoked by tetanization of the medial perforant pathway were used to assess the effects of neonatal isolation on LTP over a period of 96 h. Following tetanization significant group differences were obtained for input/output (I/O) response measures of EPSP slope and PSA, with isolated males showing consistently higher values than in the other two groups. Comparisons made at 1 h post-tetanization (establishment of LTP) indicated that isolated males showed significantly greater enhancement than any other group. At 96 h (maintenance of LTP), however, neonatally isolated males showed significantly greater enhancement than either non-isolated siblings or unhandled controls. Additionally, isolation resulted in prolonging the duration of enhancement obtained from males. Thus, males show different enhancement profiles with respect to both the magnitude and duration of LTP and neonatal isolation alters these profiles in profound manner.

  12. Awareness of health warnings and factors predicting awareness and perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco products among adults in rural Puducherry, India.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Anindo; Kumar, S Ganesh; Selvaraj, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    Limited information exists in India about the awareness and perception of the people regarding pictorial health warnings (PHWs) and text warnings on tobacco products, more so from rural areas. Objectives were to report the awareness of these warnings, factors predicting awareness and perceived effectiveness of PHWs, and understanding of their content in a rural population. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two villages (chosen randomly out of total four) in the rural field practice area of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry. Households were selected by systematic random sampling. All persons ≥18 years and residing in the area for at least 6 months were included. Data regarding awareness and perception of participants was collected through a semi-structured interview schedule. A total of 428 participants were recruited; 197 (46%) were male, and 231 (54%) were female. The mean age of the participants was 38.9 (standard deviation 15.0) years. Awareness of PHWs and text warnings was 39.5% (169/428) and 21% (90/428), respectively. Only 11.2% participants perceived PHWs as effective. Most (45%) of the participants had a vague understanding of the content of PHWs. On multivariate logistic regression, male gender, current tobacco use, and better education emerged as predictors of greater awareness of PHWs. Extended family predicted greater perceived effectiveness of PHWs, whereas, high socioeconomic class and middle school completion predicted lower perceived effectiveness of PHWs. Awareness and perceived effectiveness of adults in rural Puducherry regarding PHWs were low. There is a need to create awareness through education and using meaningful, larger pictures.

  13. Awareness of health warnings and factors predicting awareness and perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco products among adults in rural Puducherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Anindo; Kumar, S. Ganesh; Selvaraj, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited information exists in India about the awareness and perception of the people regarding pictorial health warnings (PHWs) and text warnings on tobacco products, more so from rural areas. Objectives were to report the awareness of these warnings, factors predicting awareness and perceived effectiveness of PHWs, and understanding of their content in a rural population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two villages (chosen randomly out of total four) in the rural field practice area of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry. Households were selected by systematic random sampling. All persons ≥18 years and residing in the area for at least 6 months were included. Data regarding awareness and perception of participants was collected through a semi-structured interview schedule. RESULTS: A total of 428 participants were recruited; 197 (46%) were male, and 231 (54%) were female. The mean age of the participants was 38.9 (standard deviation 15.0) years. Awareness of PHWs and text warnings was 39.5% (169/428) and 21% (90/428), respectively. Only 11.2% participants perceived PHWs as effective. Most (45%) of the participants had a vague understanding of the content of PHWs. On multivariate logistic regression, male gender, current tobacco use, and better education emerged as predictors of greater awareness of PHWs. Extended family predicted greater perceived effectiveness of PHWs, whereas, high socioeconomic class and middle school completion predicted lower perceived effectiveness of PHWs. CONCLUSION: Awareness and perceived effectiveness of adults in rural Puducherry regarding PHWs were low. There is a need to create awareness through education and using meaningful, larger pictures. PMID:28584823

  14. Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex.

  15. Ultrasound imaging of the inguinal region of adult male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Pease, Anthony; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Rostal, David; Owens, David; Segars, Al

    2010-03-01

    The biology and reproductive anatomy of male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) have been difficult to study. The principle method for evaluation of the coelomic cavity in both adult and juvenile male sea turtles is celioscopy. The purpose of this study was to describe the technique and structures seen when scanning the inguinal region of live, wild-caught, adult male loggerhead sea turtles and to compare these findings to those resulting from celioscopy and necropsy. Twenty-one adult male loggerhead sea turtles were collected by trawling in the Cape Canaveral shipping channel in April 2007. All turtles were placed in dorsal recumbency and imaged with a Sonosite 180 Vet Plus (Sonosite, Inc., Bothell, Washington 98021, USA) and a microconvex, 4-7-MHz curvilinear array probe. The inguinal region was divided into four quadrants: cranial, lateral, medial, and caudal. Celioscopy was performed on 13 turtles, and biopsies were obtained of the testes and the epididymides to confirm correct identification of the structures. In the cranial aspect of the inguinal region, the urinary bladder and large and small intestines were identified. In the lateral inguinal region, the lung and kidney were seen. In the medial aspect of the inguinal region, the testis and epididymis were routinely identified. In the caudal aspect of the inguinal region, the coxofemoral joint was seen. A small learning curve was required; however, correlation with celioscopy and biopsy showed that consistent, repeatable identification of caudal coelomic structures was easily achieved. Ultrasound provided an inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive method to evaluate the reproductive anatomy of live-captured, male loggerhead sea turtles.

  16. Intake of soy foods and soy isoflavones by rural adult women in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoping; Li, Wenxian; Sun, Jing; Liu, Chenghong; Zeng, Qiang; Huang, Jian; Yu, Bo; Huo, Junsheng

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the intake of soy foods and soy isoflavones by rural adult women and potential determinant factors. Soy food consumption and information on age, education and medical history were collected on 1,188 subjects in Gansu Province and Hebei Province, China using a food frequency questionnaire to gather data on food intake over the past year. Weight and height were simultaneously measured. The results showed that 1139 (95.9%) rural women consumed soy foods in the past year. The average intake of soy foods and isoflavones was 38.7 +/- 58.2 (median = 23.5) g/d and 17.7 +/- 26.6 (median= 8.9) mg/d, respectively. Tofu accounted for the most contribution to their intake. The soy isoflavone intake ranged between 0-35 mg/day in 89.2% of subjects. Gansu women had higher intakes of soy foods and isoflavones than Henbei women (P< 0.05). Women aged 41-50 years consumed less soy foods and isoflavones than the 20-30-year olds and 31-40 year olds(P < 0.05). The intake of soy foods (P< 0.01) and isoflavones (P< 0.01) by women who experienced secondary education or above was significantly higher than illiterate women. Women without a medical history had a higher soy isoflavone intake than women with a medical history, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that the intake of soy isoflavones by Chinese rural adult women was much higher than women in Western countries. The distribution of intake was skewed to the right and varied among women in regard to region, age group and education level.

  17. Bone health measured using quantitative ultrasonography in adult males with muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Morse, C.I.; Smith, J.; Denny, A.; Tweedale, J.; Searle, N.D.; Winwood, K.; Onambele-Pearson, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare muscle and bone health markers in adult males (aged 20-59 yrs) with and without muscular dystrophy (MD). Methods: Participants included 11 Fascioscapulohumeral (FSH), 11 Becker’s (Be), 9 limb girdle (LG), 11 Duchenne (DMD), and 14 non-dystrophic controls (CTRL). Physical activity was assessed using Bone (BPAQ) and disability specific (PASIPD) questionnaires. Bone QUS provided T- and Z scores from the Distal Radius (DR) and Mid-shaft tibia (MST). Tibialis anterior cross sectional area (TAACSA) was measured using B-mode ultrasound. Grip strength was measured in all but DMD. Results: Physical activity was lower in DMD, FSH and BeMD than CTRL (P<0.05), and lower in DMD than other MDs (P<0.01). T and Z scores were lower in DMD and Be than CTRL (DR, P<0.05); and lower in DMD than CTRL, LG, and FSH (MST, P<0.01). TAACSA and grip strength was 35-59% and 50-58% smaller in MD than CTRL, respectively (P<0.01). Within MD, BPAQ correlated with bone QUS measures (r=0.42-0.38, P<0.01). PASIPD correlated with grip strength (r=0.65, P<0.01) and TAACSA (r=0.46, P<0.01). Conclusion: Muscle size, strength, and bone health was lower in adult males with MD compared to adult males without MD, the extent of this is partially determined by physical activity. PMID:27973386

  18. An In-Depth Comparison of the Male Pediatric and Adult Urinary Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, John W.; Vaezzadeh, Ali R.; Kirchner, Marc; Briscoe, Andrew C.; Hofmann, Oliver; Hide, Winston; Steen, Hanno; Lee, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the male pediatric infant urinary proteome by parallel proteomic analysis of normal healthy adult (n =6) and infant (n =6) males and comparison to available published data. A total of 1584 protein groups were identified. Of these, 708 proteins were identified in samples from both cohorts. Although present in both cohorts, 136 of these common proteins were significantly enriched in urine from adults and 94 proteins were significantly enriched in urine from infants. Using Gene Ontology, we found that the infant-enriched or specific subproteome (743 proteins) had an overrepresentation of proteins that are involved in translation and transcription, cellular growth and metabolic processes. In contrast, the adult enriched or specific subproteome (364 proteins) showed an overexpression of proteins involved in immune response and cell adhesion. This study demonstrates that the non-diseased male urinary proteome is quantitatively affected by age, has age-specific subproteomes, and identifies a common subproteome with no age-dependent abundance variations. These findings highlight the importance of age-matching in urinary proteomics. PMID:23707565

  19. Gestational exercise protects adult male offspring from high-fat diet induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ryan D.; Blaize, A. Nicole; Fletcher, Justin A.; Pearson, Kevin J.; Donkin, Shawn; Newcomer, Sean C.; Rector, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Mounting evidence indicates that maternal exercise confers protection to adult offspring against various diseases. Here we hypothesized that maternal exercise during gestation would reduce high fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in adult rat offspring. Methods Following conception, pregnant dams were divided into either voluntary wheel running exercise (GE) or wheel-locked sedentary (GS) groups throughout gestation (days 4-21). Post-weaning, offspring received either normal chow diet (ND; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat, 35% carbohydrate, and 20% protein) until sacrifice at 4-or 8-months of age. Results GE did not affect offspring birth weight or litter size. HFD feeding in offspring increased weight gain, % body fat, and glucose tolerance test area under the curve (GTT-AUC). Male offspring from GE dams had reduced % body fat across all ages (p < 0.05). In addition, 8-mo male offspring from GE dams were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, which was associated with increased markers of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and TFAM), autophagic potential (ATG12:ATG5 conjugation) and hepatic triacylglycerol secretion (MTTP). Conclusions The current study provides the first evidence that gestational exercise can reduce susceptibility to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis in adult male offspring. PMID:26325536

  20. Effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on reproductive parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Jaafar, H; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats.

  1. Obtaining a male circumcision prevalence rate of 80% among adults in a short time

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Taljaard, Dirk; Hlatswayo, Florence; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Lissouba, Pascale; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization recommends a target for the male circumcision prevalence rate of 80%. This rate will have a substantial impact on the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. The objective of the study was to assess whether an innovative intervention can lead to an increased voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) uptake among adults in a short time. This prospective observational study of a demand generation intervention was conducted in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa) in August to November 2015. In this community male circumcision prevalence rate among adults was stable between 2010 and 2015 at 55% and 57%, despite regular VMMC campaigns at community level and the presence of a VMMC clinic that offered free VMMC. The intervention took place in a random sample of 981 households where 522 men aged 18 to 49 years accepted to participate in the study. Among the 226 uncircumcised men, 212 accepted to be enrolled in the intervention study. A personal male circumcision adviser trained in interpersonal communication skills was assigned to each uncircumcised participant. The male circumcision advisers were trained to explain the risks and benefits of VMMC, and to discuss 24 possible reasons given by men for not being circumcised. Participants were then followed for 9 weeks. Each participant had a maximum of 3 motivational interviews at home. Participants who decided to be circumcised received financial compensation for their time equivalent to 2.5 days of work at the minimum South African salary rate. Among the 212 uncircumcised men enrolled in the intervention, 69.8% (148/212; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 63.4%–75.7%) agreed to be circumcised, which defines the uptake of the intervention. The male circumcision prevalence rate of the sample increased from 56.7% (296/522) to 81.4% (425/522; 77.9%–84.6%), P < 0.001, corresponding to a relative increase of 43.6% (95% CI

  2. Social Workers as Research Psychotherapists in an Investigation of Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy among Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest; Presnell, Andrew; Morthland, Martin; Kaufman, Allan V.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the treatment fidelity of in-home cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered by a sample of clinically trained, master's-level social workers to a group of primarily rural, medically frail older adults as part of the Project to Enhance Aged Rural Living (PEARL) clinical trial. The social workers in this study received brief didactic and experiential CBT training. Audiotaped sessions were randomly selected and evaluated by independent reviewers. Results showed that the social workers adequately delivered CBT as measured by the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Older adult participants also evidenced pre- posttreatment improvements, suggesting that the social workers' delivery of CBT facilitated improvement. PMID:25949093

  3. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2016-12-23

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  4. Evaluation of the dental health of the young adult male population in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Süleyman; Açikel, Cengiz Han; Okçu, Kemal Murat; Kiliç, Selim; Tekbas, O Faruk; Ortakoğlu, Kerim

    2004-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental caries in military recruits and to assess the relation of dental caries with socioeconomic and demographic factors, and sugar consumption behavior, and to generalize the findings for the young adult male population to draw a picture of dental health status of this population segment in Turkey. In this cross-sectional study conducted between August and October 2000 in a military basic training center in Turkey, 2,766 male recruits of the age of 20 were examined by dental specialists to determine their mean number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) scores and were administered a questionnaire for capturing their demographic characteristics and sugar consumption behavior. The mean DMFT score for the 20-year-old male population in Turkey was found to be 5.97. DMFT scores were weakly correlated with income level and urbanization. Sugar consumption was strongly correlated with DMFT scores. The mean number of teeth with fillings component was strongly correlated with income level, moderately with the subject's education, and weakly with the mother's education, father's education, and urbanization. DMFT scores for the young adult male population in Turkey were strongly associated with sugar consumption behavior, whereas they were weakly or not at all associated with demographic factors such as education level, income level, and urbanization.

  5. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  6. Rapid Increase in Prevalence of Male Circumcision in Rural Tanzania in the Absence of a Promotional Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Harriet J.; Doyle, Aoife M.; Maganja, Kaballa; Changalucha, John; Weiss, Helen A.; Ross, David A.; Hayes, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of circumcision among young men in rural Mwanza, North-Western Tanzania, and document trends in circumcision prevalence over time. To investigate associations of circumcision with socio-demographic characteristics, reported sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Design A cross-sectional survey in communities which had previously participated in a cluster-randomized trial of an adolescent sexual health intervention that did not include male circumcision in 20 rural communities. Methods In 2007/08, 7300 young men (age 16–23 years) were interviewed and examined by a clinician. The prevalence of circumcision by age was compared with data collected during the trial in 1998–2002. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of circumcision with socio-demographic characteristics, reported sexual behaviours and with HIV and other STIs were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Results The prevalence of male circumcision was 40.6%, and age-specific prevalence had more than doubled since 2001/2002. Circumcised men reported less risky sexual behaviours, being more likely to report having ever used a condom (adjusted OR = 2.62, 95%CI:2.32–2.95). Men circumcised before sexual debut were at reduced risk of being HIV seropositive compared with non-circumcised men (adjusted OR = 0.50, 95%CI:0.25–0.97), and also had reduced risks of HSV-2 infection and genital ulcer syndrome in the past 12 months compared with non-circumcised men. Conclusions There was a steep increase in circumcision prevalence between 2001/02 and 2007/08 in the absence of a promotional campaign. Circumcised men reported safer sexual practices than non-circumcised men and had lower prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 infection. PMID:22792359

  7. Differences in Health and Religious Beliefs About Tobacco Use Among Waterpipe Users in the Rural Male Population of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Neergaard, Jim; Job, Jayakaran S.; El Setouhy, Maged; Israel, Ebenezer; Mohammed, Mostafa K.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Waterpipe use is a highly prevalent form of tobacco use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that is rooted in long-held cultural traditions that predate the use of cigarettes and present a particular challenge for tobacco control efforts. We did a stratified sampling of 4,994 Egyptian men from rural households of Egypt in order to conduct an interviewer-administered prevalence survey to identify differences in attitudes and beliefs toward smoking and smoking cessation between waterpipe users, cigarette smokers, mixed users (cigarette + waterpipe), and non-smokers. We found that cigarette smokers, mixed users, and/or non-smokers were (1) two- to ninefold more likely to believe that smoking decreased adult life expectancy and harmed a fetus than waterpipe users, (2) significantly more likely to believe that smoking is a sin (“haram”) than were waterpipe users. Among tobacco users, we found that cigarette smokers and/or mixed users were significantly more likely to indicate pre-contemplation, contemplation, or intention to quit tobacco than waterpipe users. Our findings from rural Egyptian men indicate that waterpipe users are distinct from cigarette smokers in their perception that their form of tobacco use is less harmful and/or less subject to religious proscription. These beliefs may explain why waterpipe users seem less inclined to quit their tobacco habit and need to be considered in the design of tobacco cessation and prevention methods in Egypt and the region. PMID:21125424

  8. Differences in health and religious beliefs about tobacco use among waterpipe users in the rural male population of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Neergaard, Jim; Job, Jayakaran S; El Setouhy, Maged; Israel, Ebenezer; Mohammed, Mostafa K; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2012-12-01

    Waterpipe use is a highly prevalent form of tobacco use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region that is rooted in long-held cultural traditions that predate the use of cigarettes and present a particular challenge for tobacco control efforts. We did a stratified sampling of 4,994 Egyptian men from rural households of Egypt in order to conduct an interviewer-administered prevalence survey to identify differences in attitudes and beliefs toward smoking and smoking cessation between waterpipe users, cigarette smokers, mixed users (cigarette + waterpipe), and non-smokers. We found that cigarette smokers, mixed users, and/or non-smokers were (1) two- to ninefold more likely to believe that smoking decreased adult life expectancy and harmed a fetus than waterpipe users, (2) significantly more likely to believe that smoking is a sin ("haram") than were waterpipe users. Among tobacco users, we found that cigarette smokers and/or mixed users were significantly more likely to indicate pre-contemplation, contemplation, or intention to quit tobacco than waterpipe users. Our findings from rural Egyptian men indicate that waterpipe users are distinct from cigarette smokers in their perception that their form of tobacco use is less harmful and/or less subject to religious proscription. These beliefs may explain why waterpipe users seem less inclined to quit their tobacco habit and need to be considered in the design of tobacco cessation and prevention methods in Egypt and the region.

  9. De novo transcriptomic analysis of the female and male adults of the blood fluke Schistosoma turkestanicum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Xu, Min-Jun; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Gao, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-11

    Schistosoma turkestanicum is a parasite of considerable veterinary importance as an agent of animal schistosomiasis in many countries, including China. The S. turkestanicum cercariae can also infect humans, causing cercarial dermatitis in many countries and regions of the world. In spite of its significance as a pathogen of animals and humans, there is little transcriptomic and genomic data in the public databases. Herein, we performed the transcriptome Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of adult males and females of S. turkestanicum and de novo transcriptome assembly. Approximately 81.1 (female) and 80.5 (male) million high-quality clean reads were obtained and then 29,526 (female) and 41,346 (male) unigenes were assembled. A total of 34,624 unigenes were produced from S. turkestanicum females and males, with an average length of 878 nucleotides (nt) and N50 of 1480 nt. Of these unigenes, 25,158 (72.7 %) were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Among these, 21,995 (63.5 %), 22,189 (64.1 %) and 13,754 (39.7 %) of the unigenes had significant similarity in the NCBI non-redundant protein (NR), non-redundant nucleotide (NT) and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. In addition, 3150 unigenes were identified to be expressed specifically in females and 1014 unigenes were identified to be expressed specifically in males. Interestingly, several pathways associated with gonadal development and sex maintenance were found, including the Wnt signaling pathway (103; 2 %) and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation (77; 1.5 %). The present study characterized and compared the transcriptomes of adult female and male blood fluke, S. turkestanicum. These results will not only serve as valuable resources for future functional genomics studies to understand the molecular aspects of S. turkestanicum, but also will provide essential information for ongoing whole genome sequencing efforts on this pathogenic blood fluke.

  10. Striving to promote male involvement in maternal health care in rural and urban settings in Malawi - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the strategies that health care providers employ in order to invite men to participate in maternal health care is very vital especially in today's dynamic cultural environment. Effective utilization of such strategies is dependent on uncovering the salient issues that facilitate male participation in maternal health care. This paper examines and describes the strategies that were used by different health care facilities to invite husbands to participate in maternal health care in rural and urban settings of southern Malawi. Methods The data was collected through in-depth interviews from sixteen of the twenty health care providers from five different health facilities in rural and urban settings of Malawi. The health facilities comprised two health centres, one district hospital, one mission hospital, one private hospital and one central hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data from health care providers with the aim of understanding strategies they used to invite men to participate in maternal health care. Results Four main strategies were used to invite men to participate in maternal health care. The strategies were; health care provider initiative, partner notification, couple initiative and community mobilization. The health care provider initiative and partner notification were at health facility level, while the couple initiative was at family level and community mobilization was at village (community) level. The community mobilization had three sub-themes namely; male peer initiative, use of incentives and community sensitization. The sustainability of each strategy to significantly influence behaviour change for male participation in maternal health care is discussed. Conclusion Strategies to invite men to participate in maternal health care were at health facility, family and community levels. The couple strategy was most appropriate but was mostly used by educated and city residents. The male peer

  11. Variables related to tobacco use among young adults: are there differences between males and females?

    PubMed

    Pederson, Linda L; Koval, John J; Chan, Stella S H; Zhang, Xiaohe

    2007-02-01

    We sought to determine the association of four categories (chunks) of variables: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) family and friends smoking and other drug use, (3) psychosocial factors and attitude, and (4) lifestyle factors to current smoking as compared to never smoking among Canadian young adults. A cohort of 1270 young adults, followed for 10 years, completed a self-administered questionnaire. In multivariable analyses, the best final model for both genders did not include the psychosocial and attitudinal categories, but did contain variables in the demographic, family and friends, and lifestyle categories. Interventions for reducing smoking among young adults may be similar for males and females, a conclusion that differs from conclusions based on findings from younger age groups.

  12. Assessing Motivation of Collegiate African American Males in a Rural Area of East Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Calvin Earl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate achievement factors of African American males on a college campus in the state of Texas, primarily a private 4-year college that serves a predominantly African American student population. The researcher used a case study approach to determine factors that affect the persistence of these college-aged…

  13. Recruitment and Retention of Kindergarten through Grade 12 African American Male Educators in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    African American male teachers represent a disproportionately low number of educators in the American public school system. This lack of representation has implications for understanding, interacting with and educating the growing population of students of African descent in public schools. In addition, all students benefit from experiencing…

  14. Assessing Motivation of Collegiate African American Males in a Rural Area of East Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Calvin Earl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate achievement factors of African American males on a college campus in the state of Texas, primarily a private 4-year college that serves a predominantly African American student population. The researcher used a case study approach to determine factors that affect the persistence of these college-aged…

  15. Recruitment and Retention of Kindergarten through Grade 12 African American Male Educators in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    African American male teachers represent a disproportionately low number of educators in the American public school system. This lack of representation has implications for understanding, interacting with and educating the growing population of students of African descent in public schools. In addition, all students benefit from experiencing…

  16. Adolescent and adult male rats habituate to repeated isolation, but only adolescents sensitize to partner unfamiliarity.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether adolescent male rats show less habituation of corticosterone release than adult male rats to acute vs repeated (16) daily one hour episodes of isolation stress, as well as the role of partner familiarity during recovery on social behavior, plasma corticosterone, and Zif268 expression in brain regions. Adolescents spent more time in social contact than did adults during the initial days of the repeated stress procedures, but both adolescents and adults that returned to an unfamiliar peer after isolation had higher social activity than rats returned to a familiar peer (p=0.002) or undisturbed control rats (p<0.001). Both ages showed evidence of habituation, with reduced corticosterone response to repeated than acute isolation (p=0.01). Adolescents, however, showed sensitized corticosterone release to repeated compared with an acute pairing with an unfamiliar peer during recovery (p=0.03), a difference not found in adults. Consistent with habituation of corticosterone release, the repeated isolation groups had lower Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus (p<0.001) and in the arcuate nucleus (p=0.002) than did the acute groups, and adolescents had higher Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus than did adults during the recovery period (p<0.001), irrespective of stress history and partner familiarity. Partner familiarity had only modest effects on Zif268 immunoreactivity, and experimental effects on plasma testosterone concentrations were only in adults. The results highlight social and endocrine factors that may underlie the greater vulnerability of the adolescent period of development.

  17. Snatch lift kinematics and bar energetics in male adolescent and adult weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Gourgoulis, V; Aggeloussis, N; Kalivas, V; Antoniou, P; Mavromatis, G

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the present study was compare linear kinematics and energy changes of the barbell, along with the angular kinematics of the leg movement during the snatch technique, between male adolescent and adult weightlifters. Two S-VHS cameras operating at 60 fields per second recorded the heaviest lifts of 14 male adolescent and 9 adult top-level weightlifters under competitive conditions. The spatial co-ordinates of selected points on the body and the barbell were calculated using the direct linear transformation procedure. A low pass digital filter with 4 Hz cut-off frequency was used for the smoothing of raw co-ordinate data. The ''t''-test for independent samples was used for the statistical treatment of data. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the adolescent and the adult weightlifters in the majority of the kinematic variables. However, adolescent weightlifters extended their knees significantly slower (t21 = 4.211, p < 0.05) during the 1st pull and their ankles during the 2nd pull (t21 = 2.440, p < 0.05) than the adult weightlifters did. Moreover, the average relative power output was significantly greater for the adult weightlifters during both the 1st (t21 = 2.303, p < 0.05) and the snd pull (t21 = 2.611, p < 0.05). These results indicate that the adolescent weightlifters were characterised from a high level of snatch technique and differentiated from the adults predominantly at the less powerful execution of the movement.

  18. Heroin self-administration and reinstatement of heroin-seeking in adolescent vs. adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2012-02-01

    Heroin abuse is prevalent among teenagers, and early onset drug use might predict long-term drug dependence. However, adolescent sensitivity to drug reinforcement has not been explored thoroughly in animal models. This study aimed to compare intravenous (i.v.) self-administration of heroin, as well as extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking, in adolescent vs. adult male rats. Adolescent (35 days old at start) and adult (86 days old at start) male Sprague-Dawley rats spontaneously acquired lever pressing maintained by i.v. heroin infusions. In experiment 1, self-administration was tested on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion), followed by within-session extinction and reinstatement tests after 1 or 12 days of abstinence. In experiment 2, self-administration was tested on a progressive ratio schedule (0.0125-0.1 mg/kg per infusion), followed 12 days later by a single test of extinction responding in the presence of cues. In experiment 1, adolescent rats self-administered more heroin than adults. After 1 or 12 days of abstinence, adolescents exhibited less heroin-seeking than adults, although levels of heroin-seeking increased over abstinence period for both age groups. In experiment 2, adolescents and adults reached the same maximal response ratio (breakpoint), although adolescents earned more infusions when response requirements were low. For extinction responding in the presence of cues, heroin-seeking was similar across ages. Lower levels of heroin-seeking suggest that younger rats are less sensitive than adults to some residual effects of heroin intake.

  19. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Andreas W; Christensen, Dirk L; Larsson, Melanie W; Eis, Jeannette; Christensen, Tue; Friis, Henrik; Mwaniki, David L; Kilonzo, Beatrice; Boit, Michael K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Tetens, Inge

    2011-09-01

    To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were assessed from the number of meals and snacks per day and from the food items and major food groups registered, and their contribution to energy intake (EI) was calculated. Anthropometric values were measured and sociodemographic data obtained using a questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. A total of 1163 (61 % women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age of 38·6 (range: 18-68) years, volunteered to participate. Dietary patterns and food groups contributing to EI differed significantly among the ethnic groups. Mean EI ranged from 5·8 to 8·6 MJ/d among women and from 7·2 to 10·5 MJ/d among men, with carbohydrates contributing between 55·7 % and 74·2 % and fat contributing between 14·5 % and 30·2 % of total EI. Mean protein intake ranged from 0·72 to 1·3 g/kg per d, and EI:BMR ratio ranged between 1·1 and 1·6 in both sexes, and was highest among the Luo. Prevalence of underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2) was 13·7 %, 20·5 % and 24·2 % in the Luo, Kamba and Maasai, respectively. The degree of food insecurity measured as a degree of undernutrition and as dietary patterns differed considerably among the ethnic groups. The Maasai and Kamba in particular were exposed to food insecurity.

  20. Clustering and combining pattern of metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of clustering and the combination pattern of three or more metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two rural communities located in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS The sample was composed of 534 adults (both sexes). Waist circumference, blood pressure and demographic, lifestyle and biochemical characteristics were assessed. The prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III. A binomial distribution equation was used to evaluate the probability of clustering of metabolic syndrome components. The statistical significance level was set at 5% (P < 0.05). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more frequent among women (23.3%) than among men (6.5%). Clustering of three or more metabolic syndrome components was greater than expected by chance. The commonest combinations of three metabolic syndrome components were: hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension; and of four metabolic syndrome components: abdominal obesity + hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION The population studied presented high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and clustering of its components greater than expected by chance, suggesting that the combination pattern was non-random.

  1. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A qualitative examination of home and neighborhood environments for obesity prevention in rural adults

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle C; Escoffery, Cam; Alcantara, Iris; Ballard, Denise; Glanz, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Background The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability of healthy foods, and family support for physical activity and maintaining an ideal body weight. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 African American and White adults over 50 years of age in two rural counties in Southwest Georgia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two members of the research team using standard methods of qualitative analysis. Themes were then identified and data matrices were used to identify patterns by gender or race. Results Neighborhood features that supported physical activity were plenty of land, minimal traffic and living in a safe and friendly neighborhood. The major barrier was lack of recreational facilities. The majority of participants were not physically active with their family members due to schedule conflicts and lack of time. Family member-initiated efforts to encourage physical activity met with mixed results, with refusals, procrastination, and increased activity all reported. Participants generally reported it was easy to get healthy foods, although cost barriers and the need to drive to a larger town for a supermarket with good variety were noted as obstacles. Family conversations about weight had occurred for about half of the participants, with reactions ranging from agreement about the need to lose weight to frustration. Conclusion This study suggests that successful environmental change strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating in rural neighborhoods may differ from those used in

  4. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  5. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-07-31

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  6. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  7. Neonatal handling alters learning in adult male and female rats in a task-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Therese A; Lee, Hongjoo J; Kim, Jeansok J

    2007-06-18

    We demonstrated that early life manipulations (neonatal isolation, neonatal handling, maternal separation) impaired fear conditioning in adult rats [Kosten, T.A., Miserendino, M.J.D., Bombace, J.C., Lee, H.J., Kim, J.J., 2005. Sex-selective effects of neonatal isolation on fear conditioning and foot shock sensitivity. Behav. Brain Res. 157, 235-244.; Kosten, T.A., Lee, H.J. and Kim, J.J., 2006. Early life stress impairs fear conditioning in adult male and female rats. Brain Res. 1087, 142-150.]. Although we found few effects on somatic responses to footshock, deficits in conditioned fear may reflect altered emotional reactivity to aversive stimuli not learning deficits. Here we test neonatal handling effects on learning and memory tasks that vary by aversive stimuli. Neonatal handling was chosen because it alters emotional reactivity in adult rats. Litters of Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to neonatal handling (15-min separation from dam and nest on postnatal days 1-21) or control (nonseparated) conditions. Adult male and female rats with or without neonatal handling experience were compared on: (1) inhibitory avoidance that involves footshock; (2) a circular maze task that involves escape from bright light; and (3) object recognition that presumably does not involve aversive stimuli. Neonatal handling impaired inhibitory avoidance but enhanced object recognition. There were no differences in circular maze performance. In addition, sex differences emerged in both the inhibitory avoidance and object recognition tasks; female rats perform better in inhibitory avoidance and worse in object recognition compared to male rats. These data suggest that neonatal handling alters learning and memory in a task-specific manner that may reflect alterations in emotional reactivity or differential effects of the manipulation on unknown neurohormonal mechanisms.

  8. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults. PMID:26761020

  9. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-08

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  10. On same-sex sexual behaviors among male bachelors in rural China: evidence from a female shortage context.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Zhang, Qunlin

    2012-03-01

    Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than 8.9% among married men with same ages, indicating that same-sex sexual behaviors could be as a compensation for the absence of female sexual partners to some extent for those marriage squeezed or forced male bachelors. Among all groups, the occurrence of unprotected sexual behaviors were reported above 60%, regardless of marital status and the genders of sexual partners; the scores obtained on knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among bachelors (AIDS knowledge = 2.85; STDs knowledge = 2.38) are much poorer than those of married men (AIDS knowledge = 3.45; STDs knowledge = 2.79), which might exert potential negative impacts on men's health.

  11. Therapeutic effects of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Shahzadi, Andleeb; Javed, Ijaz; Aslam, Bilal; Muhammad, Faqir; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme inducer) medicine which is used by epileptic patients for a long time. During the course of therapy, patients are generally caught by other diseases like urinary tract infections, upper respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection etc. To cure them, physicians commonly prescribe fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (CYP1A2 inhibitor) along with Carbamazepine (CBZ). Interactions may result without recognition which may lead to unforeseen toxicity, untoward effects or even therapeutic failure. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate the effect of Ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers. The main objective of this study was to generate new knowledge regarding CBZ and ciprofloxacin interaction for physicians and research workers dealing with these medicines. Eight healthy adult male volunteers were selected to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. After overnight fast the selected male volunteers were given CBZ orally. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals after medication. Then the same volunteers were given CBZ along with ciprofloxacin. Blood samples were again drawn at the same time intervals as done previously. Plasma was separated from the blood samples. Concentration of CBZ in the plasma samples was determined by using HPLC technique. Results of the present study indicated that ciprofloxacin significantly increased the plasma concentration of CBZ when given concurrently to the healthy adult male volunteers. Ciprofloxacin increased Cmax, AUC and t½ while it decreased the CL and Vd of CBZ when administered concurrently to the adult volunteers. Change in pharmacokinetic parameters was due to slow metabolism or elimination of CBZ when given concurrently with ciprofloxacin to the adult volunteers. This is probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 isoenzyme by ciprofloxacin which is responsible for

  12. Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parks, S; Housemann, R; Brownson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: Few studies have analysed the rates and correlates of physical activity in economically and geographically diverse populations. Objectives were to examine: (1) urban-rural differences in physical activity by several demographic, geographical, environmental, and psychosocial variables, (2) patterns in environmental and policy factors across urban-rural setting and socioeconomic groups, (3) socioeconomic differences in physical activity across the same set of variables, and (4) possible correlations of these patterns with meeting of physical activity recommendations. Design: A cross sectional study with an over sampling of lower income adults was conducted in 1999–2000. Setting: United States. Participants: 1818 United States adults. Main results: Lower income residents were less likely than higher income residents to meet physical activity recommendations. Rural residents were least likely to meet recommendations; suburban residents were most likely to meet recommendations. Suburban, higher income residents were more than twice as likely to meet recommendations than rural, lower income residents. Significant differences across income levels and urban/rural areas were found for those reporting neighbourhood streets, parks, and malls as places to exercise; fear of injury, being in poor health, or dislike as barriers to exercise and those reporting encouragement from relatives as social support for exercise. Evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between number of places to exercise and likelihood to meet recommendations for physical activity. Conclusions: Both income level and urban rural status were important predictors of adults' likelihood to meet physical activity recommendations. In addition, environmental variables vary in importance across socioeconomic status and urban-rural areas. PMID:12490645

  13. A Descriptive Study of Gambling Among Emerging Adult Males in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Alexander; Tichelli, Emmanuel; Ewering, Neil; Nunweiler-Hardegger, Sophie; Simon, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    The aims were twofold: to examine the gambling habits of emerging adult males in the French-speaking regions of Switzerland and to what extent these habits predict problem gambling within this population. We also evaluated problem gambling rates and provided data concerning variables such as gambling location, level of information about problem gambling and awareness of treatment centers. 606 Swiss male conscripts, aged 18-22 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. This was administered during their army recruitment day in 2012. Problem gambling was assessed through the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) (Ferris and Wynne 2001). 78.5% of the respondents were lifetime gamblers, 56.1% were past-year gamblers. Four out of ten past-year gamblers played in private spaces and in back rooms. The PGSI indicated that 10.8% of past-year gamblers presented with moderate gambling problems, whilst 1.4% appeared to be problem gamblers. The majority of respondents had never received information about problem gambling. Moreover, they were unaware of the existence of treatment centers for problem gambling in their region. PGSI scores were significantly predicted by the variety of games played. Problem gambling rates among young men appear to be higher than those of the general Swiss population. This confirms that emerging adult males are a particularly vulnerable population with regards to gambling addiction. The implications of this are considered for youth gambling-prevention programs.

  14. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Ruff, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA.

  15. Pubertal pair-housing facilitates adult sexual behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Molenda-Figueira, Heather A; Bell, Margaret R; De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pubertal testosterone (T) and social housing manipulations on male sexual behavior in adult rats. Prepubertal rats were castrated at 21 days of age (P21) and implanted with either blank or T-releasing pellets. At the onset of puberty, P28, half the rats in each treatment group were either single- or pair-housed with a male of the same hormone condition through P56, at which time pellets were removed and all rats were single-housed. In adulthood (P84), all rats received T replacement and were tested for sexual behavior. Rats pair-housed during adolescence showed more sexual behavior and greater improvement of sexual performance over repeated tests than single-housed rats, regardless of pubertal T status. Pubertal T, however, did facilitate the frequency of anogenital investigation. Thus, in male rats, social interactions during adolescence are more important than exposure to pubertal T in enhancing adult sexual behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  17. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  18. The implication of salience network abnormalities in young male adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Guan, Yanyan; Cheng, Jiadong; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Tian, Jie

    2016-07-20

    Studying the neural correlates of smoking behaviors in young adulthood is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes. In previous addiction studies, the important roles of the salience network (SN) in drug cue processing and cognitive control have been revealed. Unfortunately, few studies focused on the resting-state functional connectivity and structural integrity abnormalities of SN in young adult smokers, and less is known about its association with smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits. Thirty-one young male adult smokers and 30 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in this study. The structural and functional connectivity differences of SN were investigated between young adult smokers and nonsmokers by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), which were then correlated with the smoking behavioral assessments (pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)) as well as impaired cognitive control measured by the Stroop task. Within SN, reduced RSFC and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) were found between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right insula in young adult smokers relative to nonsmokers. The RSFC between the ACC and right insula was negatively correlated with the number of errors during the incongruent condition of the Stroop task in young adult smokers. Additionally, the right insula-ACC RSFC was negatively correlated with pack-years in young adult smokers. Our results revealed abnormal RSFC and structural integrity within the SN in young adult smokers, which shed new insights into the neural mechanism of nicotine dependence.

  19. Serum albumin correlates with affective prosody in adult males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Grabemann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Zimmermann, Marco; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2014-07-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum albumin, affective prosody, and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found coincidentally in a recently published study. Here, serum albumin levels were assessed as a covariate. Twenty healthy male adults (controls) and 20 adult male patients with ADHD participated in the study on two study days. Serum albumin levels and performance in an affective prosody task were assessed, and correlations were determined. Serum albumin had a significant correlation with performance on an affective prosody task on both of the 2 study days. The same correlations were not significant in the healthy control group. There was no difference in the serum albumin level between patients with ADHD and healthy controls. The association between serum albumin and affective prosody in adults with ADHD is a novel finding. However, to date, there is no clear theory that explains this association. Future research should analyze whether serum albumin influences causes changes in performance in affective prosody using experimental designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Angiotensin II and aldosterone increase with fasting in breeding adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rudy M; Crocker, Daniel E; Houser, Dorian S; Webb, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) appears to contribute significantly to osmoregulation of fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups; however, RAAS has not been characterized in fasting adult seals. Therefore, this study examined the contribution of RAAS to water turnover rates in fasting adult male northern elephant seals. Blood samples were obtained twice during their breeding fast at an interval of 6.5 wk, and water efflux rate was estimated by isotopic dilution during the same period. Serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-) and osmolality were unaltered between the two sampling periods, indicating ionic and osmotic homeostasis during the fast. Despite the lack of an increase in vasopressin, serum angiotensin II and aldosterone were increased and were significantly and positively correlated. Changes in aldosterone concentration and water efflux rate were significantly and negatively correlated, suggesting that the greater the increase in aldosterone, the smaller the loss of water. Adult male seals maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis similar to that of fasting weaned pups, and this homeostasis appears to be mediated, at least in part, by RAAS, which probably contributes to increased water retention as well. The hormonal mechanisms by which northern elephant seals maintain water and electrolyte balance during fasting conditions appear to be similar regardless of age.

  1. Maternal tobacco smoke increased visceral adiposity and serum corticosterone levels in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Lang, Brook Y; Yu, Baifeng; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Chengshe; Fitzhugh, Melanie; Dahl, Marjanna; Campbell, Michael S; Fung, Camille; Malleske, Daniel; Albertine, Kurt H; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2014-07-01

    Maternal tobacco smoke (MTS) predisposes human and rat offspring to visceral obesity in early adulthood. Glucocorticoid excess also causes visceral obesity. We hypothesized that in utero MTS would increase visceral adiposity and alter the glucocorticoid pathway in young adult rats. We developed a novel model of in utero MTS exposure in pregnant rats by exposing them to cigarette smoke from E11.5 to term. Neonatal rats were cross-fostered to control dams and weaned to standard rat chow through young adulthood (postnatal day 60). We demonstrated increased visceral adiposity (193%)*, increased visceral adipose 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 mRNA (204%)*, increased serum corticosterone (147%)*, and no change in glucocorticoid receptor protein in adult male MTS rat offspring. Female rats exposed to MTS in utero demonstrated no change in visceral or subcutaneous adiposity, decreased serum corticosterone (60%)*, and decreased adipose glucocorticoid receptor protein (66%)*. *P < 0.05. We conclude that in utero MTS exposure increased visceral adiposity and altered in the glucocorticoid pathway in a sex-specific manner. We speculate that in utero MTS exposure programs adipose dysfunction in adult male rat offspring via alteration in the glucocorticoid pathway.

  2. Handling alters cocaine-induced activity in adolescent but not adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Antoniette M.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    The developmental period of adolescence is one that is characterized by increased levels of stress and vulnerability to drugs. Pre-test handling is an experimental manipulation that is used to acclimate animals prior to behavioral testing and exposure to a novel environment. Therefore, the present study was conducted in order to address the issue of pre-test handling of adolescent and adult male rats on subsequent cocaine-induced locomotor activity upon presentation to a novel environment. On days one through four, postnatal day (PND) 41–44 or PND 56–59, respectively, animals were handled b.i.d. for three minutes. On the fifth day, PND 45 or PND 60, animals were administered 30 mg/kg/ip cocaine or saline and immediately placed in a novel environment where locomotor activity was measured for 30 minutes. Cocaine increased locomotor activity similarly in all non-handled animals, regardless of age. Interestingly, adolescent animals expressed a differential effect when handled prior to an acute cocaine administration. Specifically, handling increased cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent but not adult animals. These findings indicate that adolescent males that have been acclimated to the handling procedure experience significantly more behavioral reactivity than do adults to a high dose of cocaine upon exposure to a novel environment. PMID:15708784

  3. The relationship between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation in rural older adults in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Shen, Min; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Tao; Cao, Zhongqiang; Xiang, Huiyun; Wang, Youjie

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of elder mistreatment subtypes and suicidal ideation in adults age 60 years and older residing in a Chinese rural community. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in 2010 and 2,039 adults age 60 and older, living in Macheng city of Hubei province, China, were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent effect of elder mistreatment to suicidal ideation among older adults. Older adults who endorsed mistreatment had a significantly higher rate of suicidal ideation than those without elder mistreatment both in men (17.4% versus 2.4%; χ(2) = 58.04, p <0.01) and women (15.8% versus 4.0%; χ(2) = 50.24, p <0.01). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, psychological mistreatment (OR: 5.0; 95% CI: 2.5-9.8) and financial mistreatment (OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.2-14.7) were positively associated with suicidal ideation. Among men, psychological mistreatment (OR: 5.4; 95% CI: 2.6-11.2) and financial mistreatment (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.1-16.2) were positively associated with suicidal ideation. Among women, physical mistreatment (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.2-9.2) and psychological mistreatment (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.5-4.4) were positively associated with suicidal ideation. This is the first study that demonstrates that elder adults who experienced mistreatment are at increased risk for suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that clinicians need to consider mistreatment exposure in older patients who have suicidal ideation. Victims of elder mistreatment should be the targets for suicide monitoring and prevention programs. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome Risks Following the Great Recession in Rural Black Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2017-09-06

    Some of the country's highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease are found in lower-income black communities in the rural Southeast. Research suggests these disparities originate in the early decades of life, and partly reflect the influence of broader socioeconomic forces acting on behavioral and biological processes that accelerate cardiovascular disease progression. However, this hypothesis has not been tested explicitly. Here, we examine metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rural black young adults as a function of their family's economic conditions before and after the Great Recession. In an ongoing prospective study, we followed 328 black youth from rural Georgia, who were 16 to 17 years old when the Great Recession began. When youth were 25, we assessed MetS prevalence using the International Diabetes Federation's guidelines. The sample's overall MetS prevalence was 18.6%, but rates varied depending on family economic trajectory from before to after the Great Recession. MetS prevalence was lowest (10.4%) among youth whose families maintained stable low-income conditions across the Recession. It was intermediate (21.8%) among downwardly mobile youth (ie, those whose families were lower income before the Recession, but slipped into poverty). The highest MetS rates (27.5%) were among youth whose families began the Recession in poverty, and sank into more meager conditions afterwards. The same patterns were observed with 3 alternative MetS definitions. These patterns suggest that broader economic forces shape cardiometabolic risk in young blacks, and may exacerbate disparities already present in this community. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liping; Liang, Yuanbo; Qiu, Bo; Wang, Fenghua; Duan, Xinrong; Yang, Xiaohui; Huang, Wen; Wang, Ningli

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in a rural adult population in Northern China. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study. A total of 5,105 subjects aged >or=30 years were included in this analysis. Spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was determined. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated with the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. CKD was defined by the guidelines proposed by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. The associations between age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney damage were examined. Albuminuria and reduced renal function were detected in 16.8 and 0.4% of subjects, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of albuminuria, reduced renal function and CKD was 14.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-15.9), 0.38% (95% CI 0.21-0.55) and 15.2% (95% CI 14.2-16.2), respectively. The prevalence of CKD was greater in women than in men (16.7 vs. 12.9%, respectively, p < 0.001). The increased prevalence of CKD with increasing age was observed in both genders. Older age, female gender, diabetes and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Older age was independently associated with reduced renal function. The prevalence of CKD in the rural Chinese population is relatively high. Factors associated with CKD are similar to those of urban areas in China and developed countries. CKD is a major public health problem in rural China. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The influence of socioeconomic factors on choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana; a community level population based study.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Thomas; McAuley, Kimberley; Strobel, Natalie; Newton, Sam; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Edmond, Karen

    2017-08-29

    The influence of socio-economic determinants on choice of infant male circumcision provider is not known in areas with high population coverage such as rural Africa. The overall aim of this study was to determine the key socio-economic factors which influence the choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana. The study investigated the effect of family income, distance to health facility, and cost of the circumcision on choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana. Data from 2847 circumcised infant males aged under 12 weeks and their families were analysed in a population-based cross-sectional study conducted from May to December 2012 in rural Ghana. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for income status, distance to health facility, cost of circumcision, religion, maternal education, and maternal age. Infants from the lowest income households (325, 84.0%) were more likely to receive circumcision from an informal provider compared to infants from the highest income households (260, 42.4%) even after adjusting for religious affiliation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.42, 95% CI 3.12-6.27 p = <0.001). There appeared to be a dose response with increasing risk of receiving a circumcision from an informal provider as distance to a health facility increased (aOR 1.25, 95 CI 1.30-1.38 P = <0.001). Only 9.0% (34) of families in the lowest socio-economic quintile received free circumcision services compared to 27.9% (171) of the highest income families. The Government of Ghana and Non-Government Organisations should consider additional support to poor families so they can access high quality free infant male circumcision in rural Ghana.

  7. How Multiple Roles Influence Adult College Women's Online Student Experiences in a Rural Community College Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how adult college women attending rural community colleges experience being an online student. A study of this nature was warranted as enrollment in online courses continues to increase (Allen & Seaman, 2010) and as women are more likely to enroll in online courses (Kramarae, 2001; van…

  8. Adult Learners in Higher Education: A Rural-Urban Analysis of Pennsylvania FAFSA Applicants' Educational, Demographic, and Financial Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy; Campbell, Kimeka

    2015-01-01

    This article paints a comprehensive portrait of the demographic, financial, and educational characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students who are adult learners, and identifies rural-urban differences within this group. The study analyzed data from the 2010-11 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (n = 610,925), supplemented by…

  9. Adult Learners in Higher Education: A Rural-Urban Analysis of Pennsylvania FAFSA Applicants' Educational, Demographic, and Financial Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy; Campbell, Kimeka

    2015-01-01

    This article paints a comprehensive portrait of the demographic, financial, and educational characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students who are adult learners, and identifies rural-urban differences within this group. The study analyzed data from the 2010-11 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (n = 610,925), supplemented by…

  10. Sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors in rural Thai adolescents and young adults: support for sex- and age-specific interventions.

    PubMed

    Latimore, Amanda D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14-29 years) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents, and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men.

  11. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  12. Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained

    PubMed Central

    Lensu, Sanna; Ahtiainen, Juha P.; Johansson, Petra P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Key points Aerobic exercise, such as running, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in rodents.Little is known about the effects of high‐intensity interval training (HIT) or of purely anaerobic resistance training on AHN.Here, compared with a sedentary lifestyle, we report a very modest effect of HIT and no effect of resistance training on AHN in adult male rats.We found the most AHN in rats that were selectively bred for an innately high response to aerobic exercise that also run voluntarily and increase maximal running capacity.Our results confirm that sustained aerobic exercise is key in improving AHN. Abstract Aerobic exercise, such as running, has positive effects on brain structure and function, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and learning. Whether high‐intensity interval training (HIT), referring to alternating short bouts of very intense anaerobic exercise with recovery periods, or anaerobic resistance training (RT) has similar effects on AHN is unclear. In addition, individual genetic variation in the overall response to physical exercise is likely to play a part in the effects of exercise on AHN but is less well studied. Recently, we developed polygenic rat models that gain differentially for running capacity in response to aerobic treadmill training. Here, we subjected these low‐response trainer (LRT) and high‐response trainer (HRT) adult male rats to various forms of physical exercise for 6–8 weeks and examined the effects on AHN. Compared with sedentary animals, the highest number of doublecortin‐positive hippocampal cells was observed in HRT rats that ran voluntarily on a running wheel, whereas HIT on the treadmill had a smaller, statistically non‐significant effect on AHN. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was elevated in both LRT and HRT rats that underwent endurance training on a treadmill compared with those that performed RT by climbing a vertical ladder with weights, despite their significant gain in strength

  13. Stressors, Coping Resources, and Depressive Symptoms among Rural American Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lawler, Michael J; Martin, James I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of physical health stressors and coping resources with depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults age 50 years or older. The study used a convenience sample of 227 rural American Indian older adults. A hierarchical multiple regression tested three sets of predictors on depressive symptoms: (a) sociodemographics, (b) physical health stressors (functional disability and chronic medical conditions), and (c) coping resources (social support and spirituality). Most participants reported little difficulty in performing daily activities (e.g., eating, dressing, traveling, and managing money), while presenting over two types of chronic medical conditions. Depressive symptoms were predicted by higher scores on perceived social support and lower scores on functional disability; women and those having no health insurance also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that social work practitioners should engage family and community support, advocate for access to adequate health care, and attend to women's unique circumstances and needs when working with American Indian older adults.

  14. Vulnerable but feeling safe: HIV risk among male rural-to-urban migrant workers in Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Morrow, M; Kermode, M

    2007-11-01

    HIV prevalence is increasing in China. The proportion of infection attributable to heterosexual sex in China is also on the rise. The scale of internal migration for work is likely to be one of the factors contributing to these changing patterns, but little is known about HIV-related knowledge, perceptions and risk behaviours of China's migrant workers. This study aimed to investigate HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours of male rural-to-urban migrant workers in Chengdu and to identify factors associated with risk behaviours. In 2005, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was completed by 163 male construction- and factory-based migrant workers aged 18-35 years. With a mean age of 26 years, just 30% had completed senior middle school and 47% were currently married. Respondents were highly mobile, worked long hours and were relatively poorly paid. As migrants, their access to urban services and benefits was restricted, making it difficult for family members to join them. Knowledge of HIV transmission was generally poor and discriminatory attitudes towards people with HIV were commonplace. Seventy-five percent were sexually experienced, among whom 88% had had sexual relations in the last 12 months. Of these, 30% had had two or more partners and 20% had paid for sex. Just 36% had used a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with a sex worker. Around 70% thought it was 'impossible' for them to become infected, yet a significant sub-group were engaging in sexual behaviours that place them at risk of infection with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Logistic Regression found a significant association between having multiple sexual partners and both education level and marital status. Education was also found to be significantly associated with purchasing sex. Targeted HIV-prevention programs for male migrant workers in Chengdu, especially for those who are single and less educated, are urgently needed.

  15. Males in rural Bangladeshi communities are more susceptible to chronic arsenic poisoning than females: analyses based on urinary arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, C; Inaoka, T; Kadono, T; Nagano, M; Nakamura, S; Ushijima, K; Murayama, N; Miyazaki, K; Ohtsuka, R

    2001-01-01

    Spot urine samples were collected from the inhabitants of two rural communities in northwestern Bangladesh. We compared arsenic levels in the urine samples ([As](u); n = 346) with those in water from tube wells ([As](tw); range < 1-535 microg/L; n = 86) on an individual basis. The small variation of [As](u) within subjects and highly positive correlation with [As](tw) indicate that [As](u) is a useful indicator of exposure. Analyses of [As](u) showed that creatinine correction was necessary, that [As](u) only reflected recent exposure, and that there were substantial interindividual differences for a given [As](tw) level. To evaluate the toxic effects of arsenic exposure, we constructed a system for rating skin manifestations, which revealed distinct sex-related differences. Comparison of males and females in the same households confirmed that skin manifestations were more severe in the males, and in the males of one community a dose-response relationship between [As](u) and the degree of skin manifestation was evident. The results of this study indicate that [As](u) in spot urine samples can be used as an exposure indicator for As. They suggest that there might be sex-related, and perhaps community-related, differences in the relationship between [As](u) and skin manifestations, although several confounding factors, including sunlight exposure and smoking habits, might contribute to the observed sex difference. The existence of such differences should be further confirmed and examined in other populations to identify the subpopulations sensitive to chronic arsenic toxicity. PMID:11748034

  16. Adiposity and blood pressure among 55 000 relatively lean rural adults in southwest of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Du, H; Zhang, J; Chen, X; Luo, G; Que, X; Zhang, N; Bian, Z; Guo, Y; Li, L; Chen, Z; Wu, X

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a strong determinant of blood pressure. Uncertainty remains, however, about which indices of adiposity most strongly predict blood pressure, particularly among those who were relatively lean, such as those from rural China. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 55 ,687 (38.3% men) participants aged 30-79 years who were enrolled into the China Kadoorie Biobank from a rural county in southwest of China during 2004-2008. Measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were related to blood pressure in multivariable linear regression analyses. The overall mean values of BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 23.3 kg m(-2), 78.0 cm, 129.2 mm Hg and 77.2 mm Hg, respectively. There was a strongly positive, and apparently linear, relationship of BMI and WC with blood pressure, with 1 s.d. higher BMI associated with 4.3/2.3 mm Hg higher SBP/DBP and 1 s.d. WC associated with 3.8/2.1 mm Hg (P<0.0001). Additional adjustment for WC only slightly attenuated the association of BMI with blood pressure, whereas additional adjustment for BMI almost completely eliminated the association of WC with blood pressure. Our findings suggest that in relatively lean Chinese adults, general adiposity is more strongly assciated with blood pressure than central adiposity.

  17. Intervention of multi-modal activities for older adults with dementia translation to rural communities.

    PubMed

    La Rue, Asenath; Felten, Kristen; Turkstra, Lyn

    2015-08-01

    A Language-Enriched Exercise Plus Socialization (LEEPS) Program for older adults with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) was implemented in rural Wisconsin communities. Patterned after a university-based research intervention, (1) the LEEPS protocol entailed ongoing weekly to biweekly sessions with a trained volunteer and an individual with dementia, with exercise and language stimulation sessions interspersed with social or volunteer outings. Of 64 persons with ADRD who enrolled, 29 completed an initial follow-up assessment at an average of 10.65 months, and 8 completed a second follow-up at an average of 20.55 months. Results generally show stability in cognition, mood, and physical performance. Improvement was noted at the initial retest on 1 of the 3 physical fitness measures (arm curls; t = 2.61, P = .015), but self-rated quality of life declined slightly from baseline to the first retest (t = -2.09, P = .048). Change in the Mini-Mental State Examination at the first and second follow-ups (mean = +0.18 and -1.0, respectively) was negligible. The maintenance of function observed with LEEPS is an encouraging outcome, given the progressive nature of ADRD, but controlled investigations are needed to establish the efficacy of LEEPS. Barriers to implementation of an intensive activities-focused intervention in rural communities are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The role of interpersonal sensitivity, social support, and quality of life in rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest

    The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rural Young Adults' Lay Theories of Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Examination.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Banyard, Victoria L; Moschella, Elizabeth A; Seavey, Katherine M

    2016-12-01

    This study qualitatively examined rural emerging adults' ways of thinking (i.e., lay theories) about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and ideas on how to prevent IPV most effectively. Participants were 74 individuals (majority Caucasian, heterosexual, low income) between the ages of 18 and 24 who resided in one of 16 rural communities. Participants' perceptions of the causes of IPV included (a) individual-level pathology, stress, and lack of education; (b) intergenerational transmission of violence and early-life factors; (c) relationship stressors and challenges; and (d) community factors. Furthermore, participants felt that IPV could most effectively be prevented through (a) education and awareness; (b) victim-focused efforts (e.g., teaching self-esteem); and (c) job creation. Overall, participants identified a number of established risk factors for IPV perpetration across the social ecological model, although a number were never or rarely mentioned (e.g., peer group norms, positive bystander action, and collective efficacy). Future research should examine if and how perceptions of the causes of IPV impact IPV prevention engagement and impact. Further, prevention initiatives that take into account understandings of lay theories about IPV may be more impactful in reducing IPV than prevention initiatives that do not.

  20. Male perceptions on female sterilization: a community-based study in rural Central India.

    PubMed

    Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija

    2009-09-01

    Use of modern contraceptive methods has increased fourfold in India since the 1970s, characterized by a predominance of female sterilization. There has been considerable investigation about women's choice of female sterilization, but little from the male perspective. Seven focus group discussions were conducted among 58 men currently married to women aged 15-45, followed by a cross-sectional survey among 793 men currently married to same-aged women. Bivariate analysis was used for the survey data, and content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Men's primary source of reproductive health information was mass media, although they expressed interest in getting information through discussion with knowledgeable sources. Men understood family planning and contraception to be two separate issues: Men viewed "family planning" as synonymous with female sterilization, whereas they saw "contraception" as referring to spacing methods, knowledge of which was limited. Thirty-four percent of men reported that their wives had been sterilized; 79% of men who did not rely on any permanent method said they wanted their wives to be sterilized. In focus group discussions, most men reported themselves as their family's sole decision maker about reproductive health; however, only one-third of survey respondents did so. Men are interested in acquiring family planning information, but lack knowledge about available information sources, which hampers their ability to make informed family planning choices. Family planning service providers and program planners need to be aware of males' knowledge and perceptions pertaining to family planning, and make appropriate modifications to communication strategies.