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Sample records for adult male subantarctic

  1. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  2. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  3. Fournier's gangrene after adult male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Galukande, Moses; Sekavuga, Dennis Bbaale; Muganzi, Alex; Coutinho, Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the advent of mass voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for the partial prevention of HIV, previously rare adverse events associated with adult male circumcision are likely to be encountered with higher frequency. Fournier's gangrene, defined as a polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, perianal or genital areas, is one such rare and life-threatening adverse event. In this report, we present two cases that were identified in the context of a VMMC programme over a 3-year period during which approximately 100,000 adult circumcisions were performed. Case 1: A 19-year-old male who had VMMC performed using the dorsal slit technique developed pain and blisters on the scrotal skin on the sixth postoperative day. He had no co-morbidities, and serology for HIV was negative. On examination, locally he had scrotal skin necrosis with an offensive odour and was dehydrated but afebrile. Repeated aggressive debridement was done while he stayed in a hospital for 3 weeks; at which point, he had healthy granulation tissue and was free of infection. The wound had closed spontaneously and completely by the fifth month. Case 2: A 52-year-old male who had VMMC performed with the sleeve resection method developed pain and swelling of the penis and scrotum on the fourth postoperative day. He had a low-grade fever of 37.6°C. He was not diabetic or immunosuppressed and had a negative HIV serology. He was admitted and was given IV antibiotics, and repeated aggressive debridement was performed. On the third week of hospitalization, he had healthy granulation tissue and received a split skin graft on the penile shaft. At 4 months, the scrotal defect had completely closed. Fournier's gangrene is a rare occurrence after adult male circumcision with associated high morbidity. These are the first descriptions in the VMMC era.

  4. Increased male-male courtship in ecdysone receptor deficient adult flies.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Geoffrey K; Walton, Kelsey L; Merriman, Jacob O; Salmon, Mark V; Brooks, Krista M; Maddula, Swathi; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-05-01

    Male-male courtship is infrequent among mature adult Drosophila melanogaster. After pairs of mature adult males expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene were treated at a restrictive temperature, however, they engaged in elevated levels of male-male courtship. EcR-deficient males courted wildtype males and females, but were not courted by wildtype males. These results suggest that the ecdysone steroid hormone system may have a role in courtship initiation by adult male fruit flies.

  5. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed.

  6. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Gorianovas, Giedrius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Streckis, Vytautas; Brazaitis, Marius; Kamandulis, Sigitas; McHugh, Malachy P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE) protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque) in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age). The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps) drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE) (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval). The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males. PMID:23484095

  7. Commentary: Causes and consequences of male adult sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barry W

    2011-01-01

    Bullock and Beckson add to a growing body of literature on the negative consequences of adult sexual assault on male victims. There are similarities as well as important differences between male sexual assault victims and their female counterparts. Their analyses of societal contributions and myths about adult male sexual assault and of the difficulties that male victims experience in accessing and interacting with the medical and legal systems improve professional understanding of this complex subject.

  8. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child’s age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child’s age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child’s age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child’s age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  9. Reconsidering connectivity in the sub-Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katherine L; Chown, Steven L; Fraser, Ceridwen I

    2017-03-29

    Extreme and remote environments provide useful settings to test ideas about the ecological and evolutionary drivers of biological diversity. In the sub-Antarctic, isolation by geographic, geological and glaciological processes has long been thought to underpin patterns in the region's terrestrial and marine diversity. Molecular studies using increasingly high-resolution data are, however, challenging this perspective, demonstrating that many taxa disperse among distant sub-Antarctic landmasses. Here, we reconsider connectivity in the sub-Antarctic region, identifying which taxa are relatively isolated, which are well connected, and the scales across which this connectivity occurs in both terrestrial and marine systems. Although many organisms show evidence of occasional long-distance, trans-oceanic dispersal, these events are often insufficient to maintain gene flow across the region. Species that do show evidence of connectivity across large distances include both active dispersers and more sedentary species. Overall, connectivity patterns in the sub-Antarctic at intra- and inter-island scales are highly complex, influenced by life-history traits and local dynamics such as relative dispersal capacity and propagule pressure, natal philopatry, feeding associations, the extent of human exploitation, past climate cycles, contemporary climate, and physical barriers to movement. An increasing use of molecular data - particularly genomic data sets that can reveal fine-scale patterns - and more effective international collaboration and communication that facilitates integration of data from across the sub-Antarctic, are providing fresh insights into the processes driving patterns of diversity in the region. These insights offer a platform for assessing the ways in which changing dispersal mechanisms, such as through increasing human activity and changes to wind and ocean circulation, may alter sub-Antarctic biodiversity patterns in the future.

  10. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  11. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

    PubMed

    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  12. Iron Fertilization in the Subantarctic South Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, G.; Anderson, R. F.; Schwartz, R.; Park, J.; Pahnke, K.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Lamy, F.; Gersonde, R.

    2014-12-01

    The scarcity of iron limits marine export production and carbon uptake in about 25% of the global ocean where the concentration of major nutrients is high, yet phytoplankton growth is low. Of these, the Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems, both in the modern and in the past. Recent work in the Subantarctic South Atlantic (Martínez-Garcia et al., 2009, 2014, Anderson et al., 2014) suggests that dust-driven iron fertilization lowered atmospheric CO2 from about 225 ppm to 185 ppm in the latter half of each glacial cycle of the late Pleistocene, with the increase in Subantarctic productivity consuming a greater fraction of the surface nutrients and thus driving more storage of carbon in the ocean interior. The opposite effect, reduced iron fertilization, has been hypothesized to drive the 15-20 ppm increase during Heinrich Events in the last glacial cycle (Martínez -Garcia et al, 2014). The vast majority of the information we have so far is from observations in the Subantarctic Atlantic and therefore our current estimates of the role of the Southern Ocean in lowering CO2 rely critically on the assumed extrapolation of the results from the Atlantic Sector to the entire Southern Ocean. However, the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean not only accounts for the largest surface area of the Subantarctic Southern Ocean, but the deep Pacific Ocean also can be inferred - based on its volume - to have stored the largest fraction of carbon that was extracted from the atmosphere and from the terrestrial biosphere during glacial periods. Here we report first results from a set of cores from the Subantarctic Pacific (PS75, Lamy et al 2014), including a high-resolution sediment core (PS75/056-1) from the flank of the East Pacific Rise that allows to resolve millennial year variability over the past glacial cycle. We test how tightly dust and

  13. [Application prospect of adult stem cells in male infertility].

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Feng; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2013-05-01

    The study on stem cells is a hot field in biomedical science in recent years, and has furthered from laboratory to clinical application. Stem cells, according to their developmental stage and differential properties, can be divided into embryonic stem cells, induced PS cells and adult stem cells, among which, adult stem cells have already been applied to the clinical treatment of many systemic diseases. Currently, the study of spermatogonial stem cells and adult stem cells is in the front of the basic researches on the treatment of male infertility, but the time has not yet arrived for their clinical application. This paper outlines the application prospect of adult stem cells in male infertility.

  14. Adult male chimpanzees inherit maternal ranging patterns.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carson M; Gilby, Ian C; Mane, Sandeep V; Pusey, Anne E

    2008-01-08

    Space use often correlates with reproductive success [1, 2]. Individual site fidelity is ubiquitous across a variety of taxa, including birds, mammals, insects, and reptiles [3-9]. Individuals can benefit from using the same area because doing so affords access to known resources, including food and/or breeding sites. The majority of studies on site fidelity have focused upon strictly territorial species in which individuals range in well-defined, exclusive areas (e.g., [4, 9]). By comparison, the transient groups that define fission-fusion species allow for considerable flexibility in individual space use. Although there is evidence that individual space use can influence reproductive success [2], relatively little is known about individual ranging patterns in fission-fusion species. Here, we investigate three potential correlates of male site fidelity (age, habitat quality, and maternal space use) in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that when alone, each male preferentially concentrated his space use near the area where his mother ranged when he was dependent. We suggest that solitary ranging allows males to avoid direct competition with conspecifics and that foraging in familiar areas maximizes foraging efficiency. These results highlight the importance of male foraging strategies in a species in which male ranging is typically explained in terms of mating access to females.

  15. Stranger and acquaintance sexual assault of adult males.

    PubMed

    Stermac, Lana; Del Bove, Giannetta; Addison, Mary

    2004-08-01

    This study examined victim and assault characteristics and the nature and extent of coercion, violence, and physical injuries among adult male victims of sexual assaults. Client records of three groups presenting to a sexual assault care center were included: males assaulted by a stranger (n = 64), males assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 81), and females assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 106). Study results revealed that male victims of sexual assault tended to be young, single men who reported high rates of vulnerabilities such as homelessness and physical, psychiatric, and cognitive disabilities. Male stranger assailant victims were more likely to experience assaults involving weapons and physical violence. Injuries sustained by victims and services delivered at the sexual assault care center were similar for both male and female clients. The results of this study reveal new information about violence in male sexual assaults and the vulnerability of the male victims.

  16. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  17. Sigmoid-urachal-cutaneous fistula in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Coons, Benjamin J; Clark, Peter E; Maynes, Lincoln J; Terhune, Kyla P; Stokes, Myron C; Beech, Derrick J

    2009-02-01

    An infected urachal cyst is an uncommon finding in adults. We report the first case of a sigmoid-urachal-cutaneous fistula that resulted from rupture of an infected urachal cyst in an adult male. Definitive management consisted of resection of the urachus with a bladder cuff, along with removal of the affected bowel segments and bowel anastomosis.

  18. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sean D.; Rogers, Samuel; del Junco, Gerard W.; Sepulveda, Karla

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma—a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man. PMID:27186240

  19. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast.

    PubMed

    Raj, Sean D; Rogers, Samuel; Del Junco, Gerard W; Sepulveda, Karla

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma-a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man.

  20. Primary carnitine deficiency in a male adult.

    PubMed

    Karmaniolas, Konstantinos; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Liatis, Stavros; Dalamanga, Maria; Papalambros, Theoharis; Migdalis, Ilias

    2002-01-01

    The case is described of a 36 year-old man who presented with progressive proximal muscle weakness and weight loss. His serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were markedly elevated. The muscle biopsy showed lipid storage myopathy. The muscle carnitine concentration was extremely low (5.6% of normal levels), establishing the diagnosis of myopathic carnitine deficiency. The disorder was considered as primary because there were no indications of any other identifiable condition which could result in a secondary carnitine deficiency. The patient was treated with oral L-carnitine (2 g per day) and showed rapid improvement. Primary myopathic carnitine deficiency is a curable disorder and therefore it should always be considered as a potential diagnosis in cases of myopathy in young adults.

  1. [Adult male circumcision for military men: history and future].

    PubMed

    Li, Philip Shihua; Lü, Nian-Qing; Masson, Puneet; Huang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2010-06-01

    Adult male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the transmission of HPV, HSV, and HIV significantly during vaginal intercourse. However, the benefits of adult MC for men in military service have been poorly documented. Soldiers in war time have additional challenges in maintaining good penile hygiene, rendering uncircumcised men vulnerable to inflammation and infection; these maladies not only negatively impact these individuals, but also undermine the overall military strength. Adult MC can provide some long-term benefits for these military service men. Many African countries have already taken a special interest in adult MC for their military forces, resulting in increased numbers of these surgeries among this special population of men. In this review, we discuss the history of adult MC in the military along with the current trends and economic significance.

  2. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  3. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  4. Subantarctic mode water: distribution and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraiz-Borreguero, Laura; Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    2011-01-01

    The subduction and export of subantarctic mode water (SAMW) as part of the overturning circulation play an important role in global heat, freshwater, carbon and nutrient budgets. Here, the spatial distribution and export of SAMW is investigated using Argo profiles and a climatology. SAMW is identified by a dynamical tracer: a minimum in potential vorticity. We have found that SAMW consists of several modes with distinct properties in each oceanic basin. This conflicts with the previous view of SAMW as a continuous water mass that gradually cools and freshens to the east. The circulation paths of SAMW were determined using (modified) Montgomery streamlines on the density surfaces corresponding with potential vorticity minima. The distribution of the potential vorticity minima revealed "hotspots" where the different SAMW modes subduct north of the Subantarctic Front. The subducted SAMWs follow narrow export pathways into the subtropical gyres influenced by topography. The export of warmer, saltier modes in these "hotspots" contributes to the circumpolar evolution of mode water properties toward cooler, fresher and denser modes in the east.

  5. Pubertal testosterone predicts mental rotation performance of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J

    2012-11-01

    Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability.

  6. Pubertal Testosterone Predicts Mental Rotation Performance of Young Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C. J. Peter; Rose, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21–23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r = −.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r = −.32):the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r = −.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r = −.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability. PMID:22520299

  7. Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.

    PubMed

    Lee, Calvin; Loyd, Andre M; Nightingale, Roger; Myers, Barry S; Damon, Andrew; Bass, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, affecting millions of people annually. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) provide a means of understanding factors leading to TBI, potentially reducing the occurrence. Thus, there is a need to ensure that these tools accurately model humans. For example, the Hybrid III was not based on 3-dimensional human head shape data. The objective of this study is to produce average head and skull contours for an average U.S. male that can be used for ATDs and FEMs. Computed tomography (CT) scans of adult male heads were obtained from a database provided by the University of Virginia Center for Applied Biomechanics. An orthographic viewer was used to extract head and skull contours from the CT scans. Landmarks were measured graphically using HyperMesh (Altair, HyperWorks). To determine the head occipital condyle (OC) centroid, surface meshes of the OCs were made and the centroid of the surfaces was calculated. The Hybrid III contour was obtained using a MicroScribe Digitizer (Solution Technologies, Inc., Oella, MD). Comparisons of the average male and ATD contours were performed using 2 methods: (1) the midsagittal and midcoronal ATD contours relative to the OC centroid were compared to the corresponding 1 SD range of the average male contours; (2) the ATD sagittal contour was translated relative to the average male sagittal contour to minimize the area between the 2 contours. Average male head and skull contours were created. Landmark measurements were made for the dorsum sellae, nasion skin, nasion bone, infraorbital foramen, and external auditory meatus, all relative to the OC centroid. The Hybrid III midsagittal contour was outside the 1 SD range for 15.2 percent of the average male head contour but only by a maximum distance of 1.5 mm, whereas the Hybrid III midcoronal head contour was outside the 1 SD range for 12.2 percent of the average male head contour by a maximum distance

  8. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    PubMed

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  9. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on avoidance behavior of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Fedotova, Yu O; Goncharov, N P; Sapronov, N S

    2004-07-01

    We studied the effect of repeated intraperitoneal treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone in doses of 0.1 and 0.7 mg/kg on conditioned-response activity and behavior of adult male rats. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on learning was estimated in conditioned active and passive avoidance response paradigms. Chronic administration of dehydroepiandrosterone in low and high doses had no effect on retention of conditioned passive avoidance response in adult male rats 24 h after learning. However, chronic administration of dehydroepiandrosterone in low dose impaired acquisition of the conditioned active avoidance response. It should be emphasized that chronic administration of dehydroepiandrosterone in high dose did not modulate acquisition and retention of this reaction.

  10. Group treatment of adult male inpatients abused as children.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, L Y

    1994-10-01

    Recent research indicates that childhood abuse experiences characterize a large subset of psychiatric inpatients. This paper presents a time-limited pilot group developed for adult male abuse survivors in an inpatient setting using: (1) techniques adapted from the existing literature on treatment of abuse survivors; and (2) approaches deriving from the interface of theory and current manifestations of distress. The eclectic therapeutic approach incorporated psychoeducational, cognitive, behavioral, and art therapy techniques presented below in a session-by-session format.

  11. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  12. The study of elbow injury in male adult kendo players

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Shinya; Yoshida, Munehito

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Elbow injury in male adult kendo players was investigated and examined in order to obtain an indicator of prophylaxis of injury. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 22 male adult kendo players aged 25 to 60 years old, and presence or absence of pain, range of motion, and muscle strength in the elbow joints were investigated. In addition, among athletes with limited range of motion (ROM) in the elbow joints, three athletes who had received an explanation and had provided informed consent underwent CT, and the images were examined. [Result] As a result, posterior pain and decreased range of extension motion in the right elbow were noted in 86% of the subjects, and the CT images showed free bone fragments and osteophytes in the olecranon. Also, characteristics were noted that extension muscle strength was stronger than flexion muscle strength in elbow muscle strength. [Conclusion] Based on these results, characteristic disorders in male adult kendo players include an impingement disorder in the posterior region of the right elbow. PMID:28356645

  13. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  15. Amodiaquine-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yan-Ru; Wei, Bing; Chen, Bi; Xu, Li-Hua; Jing, Xia; Peng, Cai-Ling; Ma, Tian-Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Amodiaquine (AQ) is routinely prescribed as an anti-malarial drug. Here, we evaluated AQ-induced toxicity in the male reproductive system. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups that received distilled water (control) or daily doses of 5 mg/kg body weight, 10 mg/kg, or 15 mg/kg AQ for 2 weeks. Testes morphology was analyzed using hematoxylin-and-eosin staining, terminal dUTP nicked-end labeling (TUNEL), and immunostaining whereas protein expression was determined by Western blotting. AQ dose-dependently led to abnormal spermatogenesis. Disruption of the blood-testis barrier and increased germ cell apoptosis were observed in all three AQ-treated groups. Interestingly, AQ-induced damage of spermatogenesis recovered over time, based on the survival of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger (PLZF)-positive, undifferentiated spermatogonia. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone, as well as testicular testosterone levels, were not significantly altered in AQ-treated groups compared with controls. Collectively, our study suggests that AQ exerts substantial acute side effects on the reproductive systems of adult male rats by inducing the apoptosis of differentiating spermatogenic cells and disruption of blood-testis barrier function.

  16. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  17. Periconceptional Undernutrition in Sheep Affects Adult Phenotype Only in Males

    PubMed Central

    Jaquiery, Anne L.; Oliver, Mark H.; Honeyfield-Ross, Maggie; Harding, Jane E.; Bloomfield, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    Periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN) in sheep alters fetal growth and metabolism and postnatal growth regulation, but effects on adult body composition are unknown. We investigated the effects of PCUN on adult phenotype. Singleton lambs of ewes fed normally (N, n = 17) or undernourished before (UN-61-0 d, n = 23), before and after (UN-61-30 d, n = 19), or after (UN-2-30d, n = 17) mating (d0) were weighed at birth, 12 weeks, and intermittently to adulthood. At the age of 3-4 years, body composition was assessed by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry followed by postmortem examination. Compared with N animals, male, but not female, offspring of all UN groups had greater % fat mass (all UN versus N: 9 ± 1 versus 2 ± 1%, P < 0.001) and perirenal fat (544 ± 36 versus 222 ± 44 g, P = 0.002), and proportionately smaller hearts (4.5 ± 0.1 versus 5.2 ± 0.2 g·kg−1), lungs (9.1 ± 0.2 versus 10.6 ± 0.5 g·kg−1), and adrenals (0.06 ± 0.002 versus 0.08 ± 0.003 g·kg−1). UN males also had larger testes (726 ± 21 versus 545 ± 32 g, P = 0.007), but UN females had smaller ovaries (2.7 ± 0.08 versus 3.4 ± 0.4 g, P = 0.01). Changes were independent of birth weight or postnatal growth velocity. Brief PCUN has sex-specific effects on adult phenotype, predominantly affecting males, which may contribute to adverse metabolic outcomes. PMID:23091706

  18. Behavioral effects of dehydroepiandrosterone in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Fedotova, Julia; Sapronov, Nikolay

    2004-09-01

    It is well-documented that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exhibits various behavioral effects in rodents, at least one of which is modulation of learning/memory processes in several test paradigms. However, little is known about the influence of DHEA on cognitive performance in the adult rodents. This work was designed to determine whether chronic DHEA administration during 10 days in the high (0.7 mg/kg, s.c.) or low (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) doses has any effect on learning/memory abilities and behavior in the adult male rats (5- to 6-month old). Effect of DHEA was estimated in active and passive avoidance tasks, behavior was registered in the elevated "plus" maze and the "open field" test. DHEA in the high dose significantly (p<0.05) increased time spent and the number of enterings in the "open" arms of the elevated "plus" maze in intact male rats as compared with the control rats. DHEA in the low dose significantly (p<0.05) decreased horizontal and vertical locomotor activity and grooming behavior, whereas DHEA in the high dose did not significantly modify behavior in intact rats as compared with control group. Results of the ANOVA on passive avoidance performance revealed no statistically significant differences among the groups receiving DHEA in the high or low doses as compared to the control. However, DHEA in the low dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of correct avoidance responses in intact rats as compared to the control rats, while in rats treated with the high dose DHEA, the active avoidance performance did not differ significantly from the control. Thus, chronic DHEA administration has a modulatory action on the learning and behavior of the adult male rats.

  19. Dorsal spinal epidural psammomatous meningioma in an adult male

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sharad; Singh, Kulwant; Sharma, Vivek; Ghosh, Amrita; Suman, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas are benign in nature and arise from the arachnoid cells. They are mostly situated in the intracranial compartment, whereas spinal meningiomas are rare. Approximately, in 10% of cases, an extradural component is seen but an exclusively extradural meningioma is quite uncommon. However, WHO Grade II (atypical) and Grade III (anaplastic) tumors can behave aggressively. We reported a case of purely extradural psammomatous meningioma in an adult male affecting the dorsal spine although uncommon meningiomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of extradural intraspinal masses. PMID:26933358

  20. Dorsal spinal epidural psammomatous meningioma in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharad; Singh, Kulwant; Sharma, Vivek; Ghosh, Amrita; Suman, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas are benign in nature and arise from the arachnoid cells. They are mostly situated in the intracranial compartment, whereas spinal meningiomas are rare. Approximately, in 10% of cases, an extradural component is seen but an exclusively extradural meningioma is quite uncommon. However, WHO Grade II (atypical) and Grade III (anaplastic) tumors can behave aggressively. We reported a case of purely extradural psammomatous meningioma in an adult male affecting the dorsal spine although uncommon meningiomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of extradural intraspinal masses.

  1. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  2. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  3. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of male and female adult Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong-Qiong; Ma, Guang-Xu; Korhonen, Pasi K; Luo, Yong-Li; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Luo, Yong-Fang; Gasser, Robin B; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-02-05

    Toxocariasis is an important, neglected zoonosis caused mainly by Toxocara canis. Although our knowledge of helminth molecular biology is improving through completed draft genome projects, there is limited detailed information on the molecular biology of Toxocara species. Here, transcriptomic sequencing of male and female adult T. canis and comparative analyses were conducted. For each sex, two-thirds (66-67%) of quality-filtered reads mapped to the gene set of T. canis, and at least five reads mapped to each of 16,196 (87.1%) of all 18,596 genes, and 321 genes were specifically transcribed in female and 1467 in male T. canis. Genes differentially transcribed between the two sexes were identified, enriched biological processes and pathways linked to these genes established, and molecules associated with reproduction and development predicted. In addition, small RNA pathways involved in reproduction were characterized, but there was no evidence for piwi RNA pathways in adult T. canis. The results of this transcriptomic study should provide a useful basis to support investigations of the reproductive biology of T. canis and related nematodes.(2).

  4. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P A; Grekin, E R; Mednick, S A

    1999-03-01

    Perinatal risk factors are related to persistent and violent criminal outcomes. Prenatal maternal smoking may represent an additional perinatal risk factor for adult criminal outcomes. Our study examines maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of offspring crime in the context of a prospective, longitudinal design. Subjects were a birth cohort of 4169 males born between September 1959 and December 1961 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During the third trimester of pregnancy, mothers self-reported the number of cigarettes smoked daily. When the male offspring were 34 years of age, their arrest histories were checked in the Danish National Criminal Register. Additional data were collected concerning maternal rejection, socioeconomic status, maternal age, pregnancy and delivery complications, use of drugs during pregnancy, paternal criminal history, and parental psychiatric hospitalization. Results indicate a dose-response relationship between amount of maternal prenatal smoking and arrests for nonviolent and violent crimes. Maternal prenatal smoking was particularly related to persistent criminal behavior rather than to arrests confined to adolescence. These relationships remained significant after potential demographic, parental, and perinatal risk confounds were controlled for. Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring. This relationship has not been accounted for by related parental characteristics or perinatal problems. Potential physiologic or central nervous system mediators between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminal outcomes need further study.

  5. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality.

  6. Adult female hamsters avoid interspecific mating after exposure to heterospecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; McPhee, M. E.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    When females mate with a heterospecific male, they do not usually produce viable offspring. Thus, there is a selective pressure for females to avoid interspecific mating. In many species, females innately avoid heterospecific males; females can also imprint on their parents to avoid later sexual interactions with heterospecific males. However, it was previously unknown whether adult females can learn to discriminate against heterospecific males. We tested the hypothesis that adult females previously unable to avoid interspecific mating learn to avoid such mating after being exposed to heterospecific males. Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females not previously exposed to Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) males can discriminate between odors of conspecific and heterospecific males, but they mate with either type of male. However, when we exposed adult females to both a conspecific male and a heterospecific male through wire-mesh barriers for 8 days, and then paired them sequentially with the two males, females were more receptive to conspecific males and more aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the heterospecific male first and the conspecific male second, no female was receptive and all were aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the conspecific male first, only 43% of females were then aggressive toward the heterospecific male. That is, interactions with conspecific males may decrease a female’s ability to properly avoid heterospecific males. Our study clearly shows for the first time that females can learn during adulthood to avoid interspecific mating just by being exposed to stimuli from heterospecific males. PMID:20676390

  7. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  8. Phytoestrogens are partial estrogen agonists in the adult male mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, S; Santti, R; Salo, L; McLachlan, J A

    1995-01-01

    The intake, as well as serum and urinary concentrations, of phytoestrogens is high in countries where incidence of prostate cancer is low, suggesting a chemopreventive role for phytoestrogens. Their significance could be explained by the ability to antagonize the action of more potent endogenous estrogens in initiation or promotion of tumor formation. We have studied estrogenicity and antiestrogenicity of dietary soy and two phytoestrogens, coumestrol and daidzein, in our neoDES mouse model for the study or prostatic neoplasia. Soy was chosen because it is rich in phytoestrogens, is widely used in Oriental diets, and has antiestrogenic and anticarcinogenic properties in the neoDES mouse when given from fertilization onward. In short-term tests with adult animals, no evidence for estrogenicity or antiestrogenicity (capability to antagonize the action of 17 beta-estradiol) of soy was found when development of epithelial metaplasia and expression of c-fos protooncogene in prostate were used as end points of estrogen action. Estrogenic activity of coumestrol and daidzein on c-fos expression was subtle. Coumestrol, either given alone or in combination with 17 beta-estradiol, had no effect on development of epithelial metaplasia. These marginal or missing effects in adult males could be interpreted by assuming that the neonatal period is more critical for estrogenic or antiestrogenic action of soy and phytoestrogens. Once initiated, estrogen-related lesions would develop spontaneously. Alternatively, the chemopreventive action of soy is not due to antiestrogenicity of soy-derived phytoestrogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8593857

  9. A secular trend toward earlier male sexual maturity: evidence from shifting ages of male young adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua R

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows new evidence of a steady long-term decline in age of male sexual maturity since at least the mid-eighteenth century. A method for measuring the timing of male maturity is developed based on the age at which male young adult mortality accelerates. The method is applied to mortality data from Sweden, Denmark, Norway, the United Kingdom, and Italy. The secular trend toward earlier male sexual maturity parallels the trend toward earlier menarche for females, suggesting that common environmental cues influence the speed of both males' and females' sexual maturation.

  10. A Secular Trend toward Earlier Male Sexual Maturity: Evidence from Shifting Ages of Male Young Adult Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows new evidence of a steady long-term decline in age of male sexual maturity since at least the mid-eighteenth century. A method for measuring the timing of male maturity is developed based on the age at which male young adult mortality accelerates. The method is applied to mortality data from Sweden, Denmark, Norway, the United Kingdom, and Italy. The secular trend toward earlier male sexual maturity parallels the trend toward earlier menarche for females, suggesting that common environmental cues influence the speed of both males' and females' sexual maturation. PMID:21857893

  11. Seawater temperature effect on metal accumulation and toxicity in the subantarctic Macquarie Island isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alexander; King, Catherine K; Hill, Nicole A; Cooper, Ashley; Townsend, Ashley T; Mondon, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    Very little is currently known of subantarctic nearshore invertebrates' sensitivity to environmental metals and the role of temperature in this relationship. This study investigated Cu and Zn toxicity in the common subantarctic intertidal isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas, and the influence of temperature on Cu toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics. Adult E. gigas are insensitive to Cu and Zn at concentrations of 3200 and 7400μg/L respectively in non-renewal tests at 5.5°C (ambient subtidal temperature) over 14days. Under renewed exposures over the same temperature and time period the LC50 for copper was 2204μg/L. A 10-fold increase in Cu body burden occurred relative to zinc, indicating E. gigas has different strategies for regulating the two metals. Copper toxicity and time to mortality both increased with elevated temperature. However, temperature did not significantly affect Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constants derived from biodynamic modelling at lower Cu concentrations. These results may be attributable to E. gigas being an intertidal species with physiological mechanisms adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions. Cu concentrations required to elicit a toxicity response indicates that E. gigas would not be directly threatened by current levels of Cu or Zn present in Macquarie Island intertidal habitats, with the associated elevated temperature fluctuations. This study provides evidence that the sensitivity of this subantarctic intertidal species to metal contaminants is not as high as expected, and which has significance for the derivation of relevant guidelines specific to this distinct subpolar region of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intracranial Capillary Hemangioma in the Posterior Fossa of an Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial capillary hemangioma (ICH) is a rare entity, with approximately 24 reported cases in the literature. There are only three reported cases of ICH in an adult male. In this case report, we describe the fourth documented case of ICH in an adult male and, to the best of our knowledge, the first ever documented case of ICH in the posterior fossa of an adult male. We also discuss its imaging appearance and differential diagnosis. PMID:27747124

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Subantarctic Rhodococcus sp. Strain 1139

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony L.; Charleston, Michael A.; Britz, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of subantarctic Rhodococcus sp. strain 1139 is reported here. The genome size is 7.04 Mb with high G+C content (62.3%) and it contains a large number of genes involved in lipid synthesis. This lipid synthesis system is characteristic of oleaginous Actinobacteria, which are of interest for biofuel production. PMID:28385836

  14. Regular blood donation improves endothelial function in adult males.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Hasan; Zorlu, Ali; Kaya, Hakkı; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, secondary to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, is known to play a major role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It is hypothesized that the lower incidence of coronary artery disease in the premenopausal period in females when compared with males is associated with regular menstrual blood loss. We investigated whether regular blood donation (BD) is associated with improved endothelial function in healthy adult males. Fifty young healthy male volunteers volunteers with a mean age of 30 ± 6 years without overt cardiovascular disease were enrolled to participate in serial consecutive BDs. Serum iron levels as oxidative stress parameters, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) for endothelial function, 24-h mean diastolic blood pressure for peripheral vascular resistance identification, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels as systemic inflammatory markers were evaluated before and after BD. This study used a prospective observational cohort design. Patients with cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases were excluded. BD was found to improve FMD steadily and significantly when compared with the baseline (mean ± SD: 9.9% ± 3.8%, 10.44% ± 3.9%, 10.65% ± 3.9%, and 10.75 ± 3.9%, respectively, p=0.15, p=0.02, p=0.006 as compared with the baseline). A steady decrease was identified in hs-CRP levels after serial BDs, although this decrease was not statistically significant in the all phases (2.96 ± 3.3 mg/L, 2.26 ± 1.5 mg/L, and 2.12 ± 1.5 mg/L, respectively, p=0.829, p=0.558). The 24-h mean diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower in the chronic phase (77 ± 9 mm Hg, 75 ± 7 mm Hg, and 72 ± 8 mm Hg, respectively, p=0.50, p=0.003), whereas there was no significant change in iron levels in the acute and chronic phases (66 ± 32 mg/dL, 72 ± 43 mg/dL, and 68 ± 33 mg/dL, respectively, p=1.000, p=1.000). The results of the study indicate that regular BD improves endothelial function.

  15. Social determinants of eyeblinks in adult male macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Mosher, Clayton P.; Szep, Jeno; Fischl, Kate D.; Gothard, Katalin M.

    2016-01-01

    Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos. The temporal synchrony of blinking, however, increased in response to segments depicting appeasing or aggressive facial expressions directed at the viewer. Two of the four monkeys, who systematically reciprocated the direct gaze of the stimulus monkeys, also showed eyeblink entrainment, a temporal coordination of blinking between social partners engaged in dyadic interactions. Together, our results suggest that in macaques, as in humans, blinking depends not only on the physiological imperative to protect the eyes and spread a film of tears over the cornea, but also on several socio-emotional factors. PMID:27922101

  16. GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

  17. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  18. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-07

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  19. Interpretation of multiple isolate urine cultures in adult male patients.

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, M. A.; Abdoh, A. A.; Silva, F. G.; Flournoy, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective analytical study examined the records of 220 adult males (mean age 64.9 years) to determine the relative probability that multiple urine culture isolates (MUI) represent urinary tract infection (UTI) versus contamination or colonization. Nonculture laboratory data were used to determine the likelihood of UTI. Patients were classified into three categories: group 1 (those with single isolate cultures; n = 110), group 2 (those with MUI and either symptomatic UTI or an underlying pathologic condition; n = 71) and group 3 (those with MUI and either surgically altered urinary passages or absence of UTI symptoms; n = 39). Nonculture laboratory data suggested UTI in 48.2% of patients in group 1, 46.5% in group 2, and 23.1% in group 3. Patients in groups 1 or 2 with cultures yielding isolate counts of 10(5) colony forming units/mL were 6.2 times more likely to be classified as having a UTI (by nonculture laboratory data) compared with patients having only one or more of these two criteria. This study proposes a more objective approach to interpretation of MUI cultures using the results of nonculture laboratory data, clinical profiles, and colony counts. PMID:7897687

  20. Transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balkanski, Yves J.; Jacob, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of high Rn-222 episodes (radonic storms) observed at three islands (Crozet, Kerguelen, and Amsterdam) in the subantarctic Indian Ocean is simulated using a three-dimensional chemical tracer model. The chemical tracer model is described and the simulated time series of Rn-222 concentrations at the three islands are compared to observations. The origin, seasonal frequencies, and periodicities of the storms are examined. It is found that the storms are due to fast boundary layer advection of air from South Africa, made possible by the conjunction of a subtropical high SE of Madagascar and a midlatitudes low off the southern tip of Africa. The implications of the results for the transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean are discussed.

  1. Transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balkanski, Yves J.; Jacob, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of high Rn-222 episodes (radonic storms) observed at three islands (Crozet, Kerguelen, and Amsterdam) in the subantarctic Indian Ocean is simulated using a three-dimensional chemical tracer model. The chemical tracer model is described and the simulated time series of Rn-222 concentrations at the three islands are compared to observations. The origin, seasonal frequencies, and periodicities of the storms are examined. It is found that the storms are due to fast boundary layer advection of air from South Africa, made possible by the conjunction of a subtropical high SE of Madagascar and a midlatitudes low off the southern tip of Africa. The implications of the results for the transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean are discussed.

  2. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    psoriasis. The ED risk was not increased in men with mild AD (0.85; 0.63-1.14) or severe AD (0.97; 0.76-1.24) but was significantly increased in men with mild psoriasis (1.13; 1.09-1.20) and severe psoriasis (1.17; 1.04-1.32). We found an increased prevalence and risk of ED in men with psoriasis, whereas the risk was comparable to (and even slightly lower than) the general population for men with AD. Egeberg A, Hansen PR, Gislason GH, et al. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis. J Sex Med 2017;14:380-386. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adult male replacement and subsequent infant care by male and siblings in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Juárez, Cecilia Paola; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) are small, territorial, socially monogamous primates that show intense infant care by the adult male in the group. It has been hypothesized that male care may be adaptive because it increases offspring survival and/or reduces the metabolic costs to the female of raising the offspring. Alternatively, males may provide care even when they are not related to the infants to increase future reproductive opportunities. We describe changes in infant care patterns that took place after the eviction of the resident male by a solitary male in an owl monkey population in the Argentinean Chaco. The resident male and mother provided all infant care during the first month of life of the infant, until the male was evicted. During the three-day male replacement event, care of the infant was shared among the mother, a four-year-old sister, and a one-year-old brother. The new male began contributing to infant care soon after entering the group, carrying, and interacting socially with the infant in much the same way as any male regularly does. However, despite receiving biparental care from both the original and new resident males, the infant disappeared at the age of four months and was presumed dead. These are the first reports of care by sibling and by non-putative fathers in wild owl monkeys. Given the significant amount of time that new pairs of owl monkeys spend before reproducing, it is possible that male care in owl monkeys functions as mating effort as much as or more than parenting effort.

  4. Submesoscale processes promote seasonal restratification in the Subantarctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, M.; Swart, S.; Ansorge, I. J.; Mahadevan, A.

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, the mechanism driving the seasonal restratification of the Southern Ocean mixed layer (ML) is thought to be the onset of springtime warming. Recent developments in numerical modeling and North Atlantic observations have shown that submesoscale ML eddies (MLE) can drive a restratifying flux to shoal the deep winter ML prior to solar heating at high latitudes. The impact of submesoscale processes on the intraseasonal variability of the Subantarctic ML is still relatively unknown. We compare 5 months of glider data in the Subantarctic Zone to simulations of a 1-D mixing model to show that the magnitude of restratification of the ML cannot be explained by heat, freshwater, and momentum fluxes alone. During early spring, we estimate that periodic increases in the vertical buoyancy flux by MLEs caused small increases in stratification, despite predominantly down-front winds that promote the destruction of stratification. The timing of seasonal restratification was consistent between 1-D model estimates and the observations. However, during up-front winds, the strength of springtime stratification increased over twofold compared to the 1-D model, with a rapid shoaling of the MLD from >200 m to <100 m within a few days. The ML stratification is further modified under a negative Ekman buoyancy flux during down-front winds, resulting in the destruction of ML stratification and deepening of the MLD. These results propose the importance of submesoscale buoyancy fluxes enhancing seasonal restratification and mixing of the Subantarctic ML.

  5. Differential proteomics analysis of female and male adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Zengmei; Huang, Huicong; Tan, Feng; Zhang, Erpeng; Hu, Jianwen; Pan, Changwang

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we identified the differentially expressed proteins of female and male adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis through differential proteomics. We extracted and purified total proteins from male and female adults, separated proteins by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in pH 4-7, analyzed the gel images by DeCyder 7.0 software, and sacrificed the infected rats to count the number of male and female adults. It was found 28 protein spots that were differentially expressed; seven protein spots were then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Five proteins were up-regulated and two proteins down-regulated in male adults compared with female adults. Three of the five up-regulated proteins with known functions ascribed to them were identified as galectin-1, proteasome alpha subunit and peroxiredoxin. The two down-regulated proteins were identified as indoleamine dioxygenase like-myoglobin and galectin. Furthermore, the female was significantly greater than male adults (P<0.01) in the rats. The findings demonstrate the differences in protein expression profiles and the ability to survive in the final host between female and male adults of A. cantonensis, and may provide a theoretical basis to study their developmental biology further.

  6. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates the accumulation of translatable yolk polypeptide gene transcript in adult male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shirk, P D; Minoo, P; Postlethwait, J H

    1983-01-01

    Yolk polypeptide (YP) synthesis is hormonally stimulated during maturation of adult female Drosophila melanogaster. Synthesis of the three YPs is sex specific and occurs in fat body cells and follicle cells of adult females. However, males have been shown to produce YPs when treated with the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). By using a cell-free translation system as an assay for YP mRNA, we found that 20-HE also causes the accumulation of translatable YP message in males. In addition, hybridization of cloned copies of genes for both YP1 and YP3 to total RNA from males showed that 20-HE caused the appearance of YP gene transcripts in males. Eight hours after treatment of males with 20-HE, YP gene transcript levels had increased at least 25-fold to approximately 2.7 x 10(6) copies of YP1 gene transcript per adult male fly. In normal adult females, there were 42 x 10(6) copies per fly by 24 hr. There was neither detectable YP synthesis nor translatable YP gene transcript in either normal 1- to 3-day-old males or 24-hr-old males treated with a juvenile hormone analogue. This evidence shows that 20-HE acts to regulate the levels of translatable YP mRNA in male Drosophila.

  7. Body Composition and Anthropometric Correlates of Isokinetic Leg Extension Strength of Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Thorland, William G.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of body size and composition as determinants of differences in isokinetic leg extensor strength in young adult males performing at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  8. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  9. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  10. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Holden, Alan E C; Shain, Rochelle N; Perdue, Sondra T

    2009-12-01

    We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls of age 15 to 19 years, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women of age 20 to 41 years, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone, a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (P < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was "really important" for the teen to have their baby (P = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (P = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.

  11. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Croft, James L.; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Methods Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Results Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Conclusions Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies. PMID:26083689

  12. Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Young Male *

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Stephen L.; Kliger, Alan; Smith, G.J. Walker

    1982-01-01

    Infection with pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus was found in a young male suspected of having miliary tuberculosis. Problems of diagnosis and predisposing factors for these infections in the patient are discussed. The patient's clinical course and management are reviewed. Autopsy findings are presented. Alternative modes of therapy are considered. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:6305041

  13. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Croft, James L; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies.

  14. Effect of Eight-Week Exercise Program on Social Physique Anxiety Conditions in Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyüz, Öznur

    2017-01-01

    Physiological changes occurring with physical activity have played role in appearance of a different field of study. Thus, examination of the effect of eight-week exercise program on SPA in adult males forms the purpose of the study. 20 sedentary males aged 18-25 voluntarily participated in the research. Volunteers were applied resistance exercise…

  15. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  16. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  17. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  18. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Fox, Elliott C.; Larsen, Gregory D.; Batson, Christopher G.; Wagner, Benjamin A.; Maher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats’ strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. PMID:23597827

  19. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  20. Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects

    PubMed Central

    Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; Jørgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

  1. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Julie L; Moeller, Morten E; Jørgensen, Anne F; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Bordoy, Anna M; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  2. Effects of thyroidectomy or thiouracil treatment on copulatory behavior in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    1998-03-01

    Male copulatory behavior and the function of the hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in hypothyroid male rats were investigated in the present study. Hypothyroidism was induced by thyroidectomy or thiouracil. In male copulatory behavior test, intromission latencies in hypothyroid rats were significantly longer than those in euthyroid rats and ejaculation frequencies were reduced in hypothyroid male rats compared to control rats without reduction of plasma concentrations of testosterone. These changes in copulatory behavior in hypothyroid male rats were restored to control levels by administration of T4 (5 micrograms/rat). Hypothyroidism decreased adrenal weights, and basal and peak concentrations of corticosterone during diurnal variation, whereas it increased peak concentrations of ACTH in adult male rats. These results indicate that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction directly and results in hypersecretion of ACTH. The adrenal disturbance observed in hypothyroid rats may affect male copulatory behavior.

  3. Breeding season influxes and the behaviour of adult male samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis).

    PubMed

    Henzi, S P; Lawes, M

    1987-01-01

    Troops comprising a high density population of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in Natal province, South Africa, experienced an influx of adult males during the breeding season. Observation of one troop revealed that these males competed with one another and with two resident males for access to receptive females. Although both sexes initiated copulation, attempts to do so were more often successful if female-initiated. Males did not interact with non-receptive females and there were no recorded attempts at infanticide. Male-male interactions were agonistic in the presence of receptive females and neutral at other times. No ritualized displays of dominance and subordinance were seen. The significance of these observations for male reproductive strategies is discussed.

  4. Unique Mechanism of Chance Fracture in a Young Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23599852

  5. Unique mechanism of chance fracture in a young adult male.

    PubMed

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  6. Intersexual differences in the diving behaviour of foraging subantarctic cormorant (Phalacrocorax albiventer) and Japanese cormorant (P. filamentosus).

    PubMed

    Kato, A; Watanuki, Y; Shaughnessy, P; Le Maho, Y; Naito, Y

    1999-07-01

    Cormorants feed by feet-propelled diving. How cormorants optimize foraging is of a particular interest in relation to the understanding of the feeding strategies of diving birds, as well as within the debate about cormorants' impact on sustainable resources. Using microdata loggers that recorded diving depth, we investigated the foraging strategy of males and females of subantarctic cormorants, which inhabit cold regions, and of Japanese cormorants, which live in the northern temperate zone. For both species, males and females daily spent the same amount of time submerged, and apparently captured the same amount of fish. However, males dived deeper and longer, which could be explained by their 15-20% larger body mass and may minimize potential competition for food.

  7. Psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult males

    PubMed Central

    Aydogmus, Yasin; Semiz, Murat; Er, Okan; Bas, Okan; Atay, Irfan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult men, and analyze these changes following circumcision. Methods: We included 37 adults who applied to our clinic for circumcision and who did not have any psychiatric or urologic disorders and age-matched 30 controls in our study. Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were applied to the study group twice, once before and once three months after circumcision, and only once in the control group. Also, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was noted and premature ejaculation (PE) evaluation was done. Intra- and intergroup comparisons were performed. Results: The two groups were similar with regard to demographic data. Comparison of preoperative BCS and LSAS scores with the scores of the control group showed significant differences (p=0.003, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). However, postoperative scores were similar to the scores obtained in the control group (p=0.768, p>0.05, and p>0.05, respectively). Scores of all scales showed significant improvements postoperatively. Also, PEDT scores and IELT changes before and after circumcision were significant in the study group, but not when compared to the control group. Conclusions: Our results indicated that social anxiety and anxiety levels decreased after circumcision in adult Turkish men, and their body gratification increased. We found that not being circumcised might negatively affect individuals in adulthood when it comes to body image and sexual satisfaction, however, both improve after circumcision. PMID:27790295

  8. Handedness and cerebral anatomical asymmetries in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Crivello, Fabrice; Perchey, Guy; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2006-02-15

    Using voxel-based morphometry, we measured the cerebral anatomical asymmetries in a sample of 56 young right-handed males and then compared voxelwise asymmetry indices of these subjects to those of 56 young left-handed males. In the right-handed, the clusters of grey matter asymmetry corresponding to the leftward occipital petalia and planum temporale asymmetries were retrieved. Strong rightward temporo-parietal asymmetries were also observed, but the rightward grey matter asymmetry in the frontal lobe was less massive than previously described. Group comparisons of left- and right-handed subjects' asymmetry maps, performed at a statistical threshold not corrected for multiple comparisons, revealed significant effects of handedness on this pattern of anatomical asymmetry in frontal regions, notably in the lower central and precentral sulci, and also in the planum temporale, with right-handed subjects being more leftward asymmetric. Concerning white matter, although almost no focal differences between left- and right-handed subjects were detected, volumetric analyses at the hemispheric level revealed a leftward asymmetry, which happened to be significantly less marked in the left-handed. This latter result, together with the pattern of leftward white matter asymmetries, suggested that anatomical correlates of the left hemispheric specialization for language would exist in white matter. In the population we studied, differences in anatomical asymmetry between left- and right-handed subjects provided structural arguments for a greater functional ambilaterality in left-handed subjects.

  9. Do adult eastern bluebird Sialia sialis males recognize juvenile-specific traits?

    PubMed Central

    LIGON, RUSSELL A.; HILL, GEOFFREY E.

    2009-01-01

    Juveniles of many avian species possess spotted or mottled plumage that is distinct from the plumage of adults. Such plumage has typically been assumed to aid in camouflaging vulnerable immature birds. Here, we propose that spotty plumage signals juvenile status, thereby decreasing aggression from territorial adults. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the aggressive responses of adult eastern bluebird males to different combinations of simultaneously presented taxidermic mounts. We found that territorial males attacked adult models significantly more than juvenile models, and that they attacked adult models with orange breasts (typical of adults) more frequently than they attacked adult models with spotty breasts (typical of juveniles). We found no difference in attack rates when models with white breasts (a novel trait) were presented with models possessing spotty breasts. These observations indicate that breast colour is a cue used by territorial adults when identifying conspecific intruders, but that adults do not recognize juvenile-specific plumage as such. Adults respond aggressively only to orange-breasted intruders. PMID:20161226

  10. Major depressive disorder symptoms in male and female young adults.

    PubMed

    Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24 years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n = 1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n = 137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women.

  11. Seronegative Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy in a Male Traveler

    PubMed Central

    Alli-Akintade, Latifat; Stondell, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is rare but damaging. The lack of consistent objective findings makes diagnosis a challenge. A 45-year-old male developed noninfectious diarrhea with significant weight loss and electrolyte abnormalities. Computed tomography delineated enteritis. Colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed villous atrophy, chronic inflammation, and ulceration of the terminal ileum and cecum. Pathology showed cryptitis with apoptosis and abscesses throughout the small and large bowel and absent goblet cells. Steroids rapidly improved symptoms. Anti-enterocyte antibody serologies were negative. Management can be challenging, and, in this case, the patient initially improved with budesonide and infliximab but required alternative anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy after relapsing. This is an unusual presentation of seronegative AIE, which should be considered in cases of persistent severe diarrhea. PMID:28184376

  12. Seronegative Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy in a Male Traveler.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Patrick; Alli-Akintade, Latifat; Stondell, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is rare but damaging. The lack of consistent objective findings makes diagnosis a challenge. A 45-year-old male developed noninfectious diarrhea with significant weight loss and electrolyte abnormalities. Computed tomography delineated enteritis. Colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed villous atrophy, chronic inflammation, and ulceration of the terminal ileum and cecum. Pathology showed cryptitis with apoptosis and abscesses throughout the small and large bowel and absent goblet cells. Steroids rapidly improved symptoms. Anti-enterocyte antibody serologies were negative. Management can be challenging, and, in this case, the patient initially improved with budesonide and infliximab but required alternative anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy after relapsing. This is an unusual presentation of seronegative AIE, which should be considered in cases of persistent severe diarrhea.

  13. Suppression of cuelure attraction in male Queensland fruit flies provided raspberry ketone supplements as immature adults

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Humayra; Adnan, Saleh; Morelli, Renata; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2017-01-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are amongst the most damaging insect pests of horticulture globally. Some of the key fruit fly species are managed using the sterile insect technique (SIT), whereby millions of sterile males are released to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Male annihilation technique (MAT), whereby sex specific lures are used to attract and kill males, is often used to reduce wild male numbers before SIT programs commence, providing released sterile males an increased numerical advantage. Overall program efficacy might be improved if MAT could be deployed simultaneously with SIT, continuously depleting fertile males from pest populations and replacing them with sterile males. However, such ‘male replacement’ requires a means of suppressing attraction of released sterile males to lures used in MAT. Previous studies have found that exposure of some fruit flies to lure compounds as mature adults can suppress subsequent response to those lures, raising the possibility of pre-release treatments. However, this approach requires holding flies until after maturation for treatment and then release. The present study takes a novel approach of exposing immature adult male Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni, or ‘Qfly’) to raspberry ketone (RK) mixed in food, forcing these flies to ingest RK at ages far younger than they would naturally. After feeding on RK-supplemented food for two days after emergence, male Qflies exhibited a reduction in attraction to cuelure traps that lasted more than 20 days. This approach to RK exposure is compatible with current practises, in which Qflies are released as immature adults, and also yields advantages of accelerated reproductive development and increased mating propensity at young ages. PMID:28859132

  14. Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass in an Immunocompromised Young Male Adult

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mónica; Martinez, José Hernán; Palermo, Coromoto; Figueroa, Carlos; Torres, Oberto; Trinidad, Rafael; Gonzalez, Eva; Miranda, Maria de Lourdes; Garcia, Miosotis; Villamarzo, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 20-year-old man diagnosed with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), admitted to our hospital due to pancytopenia and fever of undetermined origin after myelosuppression with chemotherapy. Disseminated aspergillosis (DIA) was suspected when he developed skin and lung involvement. A rapidly growing mass was detected on the left neck area, during hospitalization. A thyroid ultrasound reported a 3.7 × 2.5 × 2.9 cm oval heterogeneous structure, suggestive of an abscess versus a hematoma. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid revealed invasion of aspergillosis. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence. Thyroid fungal infection is difficult to diagnose; for this reason it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. To our knowledge, this is the 10th case reported in the literature in an adult where the diagnosis of fungal invasion to the thyroid was able to be corroborated antemortem by fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:23936688

  15. Facial soft-tissue thicknesses in the adult male Zulu.

    PubMed

    Aulsebrook, W A; Becker, P J; Işcan, M Y

    1996-05-31

    The morphometric method of forensic facial reconstruction rests heavily on the use of facial soft tissue depth measurements. In reconstructing the Negroid face, much use has been made of the tables of soft tissue thickness of American Negroid cadavers. However, the genetic complexities of American blacks are well known. In addition it is felt that measurements made on the living are of more value than those made on the dead. In view of this it was decided to set up a table of norms for facial soft tissue depths of the living Zulu, an African Negroid who has remained relatively free from genetic admixture with other populations. The tightly controlled sample consisted of 55 healthy male Zulus, aged 20 to 35. Tissue depths at established landmarks were measured from lateral and oblique cephalometric radiographs. These were then combined with ultrasonic readings at other landmarks on the subject's face to yield a comprehensive set of tissue depth data. This paper presents a set of average facial soft tissue depth measurements from the Zulu face that results in the development of a new profile. It also provides a method for linking two systems of measurement.

  16. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult males

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Joseph L.; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 international units of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured via the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min prior and 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indicator of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson’s r = 0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  17. Economic impact of kidney stones in white male adults.

    PubMed

    Shuster, J; Scheaffer, R L

    1984-10-01

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountain states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approximate cost of various types of surgery, number of days hospitalized, and room rates. Work force costs were estimated from information on work days lost and income categories. Estimated recurrence rates for this disease are used to approximate the total cost, due to stones, for the next year for a current stone case. Each incident of stone disease costs, on the average, approximately $2,000, exclusive of recurrences. Hospital stays average four to five days. The average annual cost of recurrence for a current stone case is conservatively estimated to be in the $300 to $400 range. A conservative projection of these costs to the entire national population of white males in the age range of eighteen to sixty years yields an annual cost due to kidney stones approaching $315,000,000.

  18. Developmental androgen excess disrupts reproduction and energy homeostasis in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Kazunari; Liu, Suhuan; Meyers, Matthew S; Waget, Aurélie; Ferron, Mathieu; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder in females of reproductive age and is believed to have a developmental origin in which gestational androgenization programs reproductive and metabolic abnormalities in offspring. During gestation, both male and female fetuses are exposed to potential androgen excess. In this study, we determined the consequences of developmental androgenization in male mice exposed to neonatal testosterone (NTM). Adult NTM displayed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with decreased serum testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations. Hypothalamic KiSS1 neurons are believed to be critical to the onset of puberty and are the target of leptin. Adult NTM exhibited lower hypothalamic Kiss1 expression and a failure of leptin to upregulate Kiss1 expression. NTM displayed an early reduction in lean mass, decreased locomotor activity, and decreased energy expenditure. They displayed a delayed increase in subcutaneous white adipose tissue amounts. Thus, excessive neonatal androgenization disrupts reproduction and energy homeostasis and predisposes to hypogonadism and obesity in adult male mice.

  19. ELECTRON ABSORBED FRACTIONS IN AN IMAGE-BASED MICROSCOPIC SKELETAL DOSIMETRY MODEL OF CHINESE ADULT MALE.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shenshen; Ren, Li; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Li, Junli

    2017-01-10

    Based on the Chinese reference adult male voxel model, a set of microscopic skeletal models of Chinese adult male is constructed through the processes of computed tomography (CT) imaging, bone coring, micro-CT imaging, image segmentation, merging into macroscopic bone model and implementation in Geant4. At the step of image segmentation, a new bone endosteum (BE) segmentation method is realized by sampling. The set of model contains 32 spongiosa samples with voxel size of 19 μm cubes. The microscopic spongiosa bone data for Chinese adult male are provided. Electron absorbed fractions in red bone marrow (RBM) and BE are calculated. Source tissues include the bone marrow (red and yellow), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes) and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Target tissues include RBM and BE. Electron energies range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. Additionally, comparison of the result with other investigations is provided.

  20. "Friendships" between new mothers and adult males: adaptive benefits and determinants in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga; Van Horn, Russell C; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2009-07-01

    Close associations between adult males and lactating females and their dependent infants are not commonly described in non-monogamous mammals. However, such associations [sometimes called "friendships" (Smuts 1985)] are regularly observed in several primate species in which females mate with multiple males during the fertile period. The absence of mating exclusivity among "friends" suggests that males should invest little in infant care, raising questions about the adaptive significance of friendship bonds. Using data from genetic paternity analyses, patterns of behavior, and long-term demographic and reproductive records, we evaluated the extent to which friendships in four multi-male, multi-female yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) groups in Amboseli, Kenya represent joint parental care of offspring or male mating effort. We found evidence that mothers and infants benefited directly from friendships; friendships provided mother-infant dyads protection from harassment from other adult and immature females. In addition, nearly half of all male friends were the genetic fathers of offspring and had been observed mating with mothers during the days of most likely conception for those offspring. In contrast, nearly all friends who were not fathers were also not observed to consort with the mother during the days of most likely conception, suggesting that friendships between mothers and non-fathers did not result from paternity confusion. Finally, we found no evidence that prior friendship increased a male's chances of mating with a female in future reproductive cycles. Our results suggest that, for many male-female pairs at Amboseli, friendships represented a form of biparental care of offspring. Males in the remaining friendship dyads may be trading protection of infants in exchange for some resources or services not yet identified. Our study is the first to find evidence that female primates gain social benefits from their early associations with adult males.

  1. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  2. Testosterone and Adult Male Bone: Actions Independent of 5α-Reductase and Aromatase.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2015-10-01

    Androgens and estrogens influence skeletal development and maintenance in males. However, the relative contributions of the circulating sex steroid hormones that originate from testicular/adrenal secretion versus those produced locally in bone via intracrine action require further elucidation. Our novel hypothesis is that testosterone exerts direct protective effects on the adult male skeleton independently of the actions of 5α-reductase or aromatase.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale with adult male sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Tatman, Anthony W; Swogger, Marc T; Love, Keisha; Cook, Michelle D

    2009-03-01

    This research project investigates the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) when used with a sample of convicted, adult male sexual offenders. Results confirm the two-factor structure (Denial and Attribution) originally proposed by the authors (Study 1, n = 247). Results also reveal that the full-scale MCSDS has strong internal consistency estimates (Study 1), discriminant and convergent validity (Study 2, n = 91), and test-retest reliability over a 3-week period (Study 3, n = 74). Information is provided to aid evaluators' interpretation of MCSDS full-scale and factor scores when used with male adult sexual offenders.

  4. A rare case of secretory breast carcinoma in a male adult with axillary lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jinhua; Jiang, Li; Gan, Yongli; Wu, Weizhu

    2015-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is a rare tumor originally described in children but occurring equally in adult population, especially in women. This unusual subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases even death. So far, merely ten cases of secretory breast carcinoma with metastatic axillary lymph node in male were reported. Here, we describe the eleventh case, a 24-years-old male who presented with a painless mass in the right breast was diagnosed to be “secretary breast carcinoma”, and subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26045861

  5. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    SciTech Connect

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients.

  6. The importance of males: larval diet and adult sugar feeding influences reproduction in Culex molestus.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Culex molestus is an obligatory autogenous mosquito that is closely associated with subterranean habitats in urban areas. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of larval and adult nutrition on the role of males in determining the expression of autogeny in Cx. molestus. Mosquitoes raised at low and high larval diets had sex ratio, wing length, mating rates, autogenous egg raft size, and hatching rates recorded. There was a higher ratio of males to females when raised at a low larval diet. Mean wing lengths of both males and females were significantly greater when raised at the high larval diet regime. Regardless of larval or adult diet, males mated with only a single female. Mosquitoes raised at the higher larval diet regimes developed significantly more autogenous eggs. However, the egg raft size was reduced when adult females were denied access to sugar. The results of this study indicate that the performance of males in the reproductive process is influenced by both larval diet and adult sugar feeding.

  7. Seasonal androgen cycles in adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of two primary plasma androgens, testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), were assessed in adult male alligators from the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Samples were collected monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2007 and 2010. Plasma T concentrations peaked in April, coincident with breeding and courtship, and declined rapidly throughout the summer. Seasonal plasma T patterns in smaller though reproductively active adult males differed from those in their larger counterparts during the breeding season. Both size classes showed significant increases in plasma T concentration from February to March, at the beginning of the breeding season. However, smaller adults did not experience the peak in plasma T concentrations in April that were observed in larger adults, and their concentrations were significantly lower than those of larger males for the remainder of the breeding season. Plasma DHEA concentrations peaked in May and were significantly reduced by June. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of DHEA in a crocodilian, and the high plasma DHEA concentrations that paralleled the animals' reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role in adult male alligators. Similar to androgen variations in some birds, plasma DHEA concentrations in the alligators were considerably higher than T concentrations during the nonbreeding season, suggesting a potential role in maintaining nonbreeding seasonal aggression.

  8. Characteristics of males who father babies born to adolescents versus older adult women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Chou, P

    2001-06-01

    To identify characteristics of males who father babies born to adolescent mothers in southern Taiwan. This was a population-based cross-sectional study of male partners of 1,145 primigravidas (555 adolescent primigravidas and 590 adults) in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, which compared their reports of their male partners' characteristics. Data were collected by a questionnaire that included demographic characteristics, health behavior problems, and attitudes toward the pregnancy. In multiple logistic regression analyses, the males who father babies born to adolescent primigravidas achieved a lower level of education; a greater age discrepancy between themselves and the mothers; a greater unemployment rate; less financial independence; more smoking, drinking, and drug abuse; less supportive attitude toward pregnancy; poorer attendance at childbirth; less provision of postpartum care for mothers and infants; and greater domestic violence than adult primigravidas (p < .05). These negative findings persist even after stratification by age discrepancy. Male partners of the adolescent mothers with an age difference of 5 years or more were more likely to report drug abuse and domestic violence than those of adult primigravidas. Males who father babies born to adolescent primigravidas were found to have many negative characteristics that place their partners and offspring at risk. Questions asked of or about the father of the baby during prenatal visits may help identify pregnant adolescents who need support during pregnancy and after delivery.

  9. Effect of amphetamine on adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, Romana; Macúchová, Eva; Nohejlová, Kateryna; Štofková, Andrea; Jurčovičová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP) treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed) were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg) in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras), active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP), spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), and levels of corticosterone (CORT) were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled) regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing) only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  10. The role of testicular hormones and luteinizing hormone in spatial memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Sarah E A; Alla, Juliet; Wheat, Elizabeth; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce; Thornton, Janice E

    2012-04-01

    Attempts to determine the influence of testicular hormones on learning and memory in males have yielded contradictory results. The present studies examined whether testicular hormones are important for maximal levels of spatial memory in young adult male rats. To minimize any effect of stress, we used the Object Location Task which is a spatial working memory task that does not involve food or water deprivation or aversive stimuli for motivation. In Experiment 1 sham gonadectomized male rats demonstrated robust spatial memory, but gonadectomized males showed diminished spatial memory. In Experiment 2 subcutaneous testosterone (T) capsules restored spatial memory performance in gonadectomized male rats, while rats with blank capsules demonstrated compromised spatial memory. In Experiment 3, gonadectomized male rats implanted with blank capsules again showed compromised spatial memory, while those with T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol (E) capsules demonstrated robust spatial memory, indicating that T's effects may be mediated by its conversion to E or to DHT. Gonadectomized male rats injected with Antide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist which lowers luteinizing hormone levels, also demonstrated spatial memory, comparable to that shown by T-, E-, or DHT-treated males. These data indicate that testicular androgens are important for maximal levels of spatial working memory in male rats, that testosterone may be converted to E and/or DHT to exert its effects, and that some of the effects of these steroid hormones may occur via negative feedback effects on LH.

  11. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  12. Reward anticipation and outcomes in adult males with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas; Stoy, Meline; Wrase, Jana; Schwarzer, Steffi; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Huss, Michael; Hein, Jakob; Nedderhut, Anke; Neumann, Britta; Gregor, Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Knutson, Brian; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Bauer, Michael; Heinz, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested to involve deficits in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the neural responses to reward anticipation and outcomes in 10 adults with ADHD and 10 controls as they played a monetary incentive delay task. Adults with ADHD were unmedicated, and groups were matched for age, verbal IQ and smoking habits. Adults with ADHD showed decreased activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of gain, but increased activation of the orbitofrontal cortex in response to gain outcomes. Ventral striatal activation in adults with ADHD during gain anticipation was negatively correlated with self-rated symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity. These findings suggest that male adults with ADHD show neural signs of abnormal reward processing. Future studies will have to investigate whether these dysfunctional patterns might be normalized by treatment.

  13. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  14. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  15. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  16. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  17. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  19. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  20. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  1. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  2. Are Males and Females Sexually Abused as Children Socially Anxious Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N.

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…

  3. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  4. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  5. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  6. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  7. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  8. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  9. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  10. A Case of Giant Cowper's Gland Syringocele in an Adult Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Surana, Santosh; Elshazly, Mohamed; Allam, Adel; Jayappa, Sateesh; AlRefai, Deena

    2015-01-01

    Cowper's gland syringocele is an uncommon, underdiagnosed cystic dilatation of Cowper's gland ducts showing various radiological patterns. Herein we report a rare case of giant Cowper's gland syringocele in an adult male patient, with description of MRI findings and management outcome. PMID:26413368

  11. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  13. Electrocardiographic changes announcing the rapid development of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Freites, Alfonso; Canovas, Ester; Rubio, J

    2015-07-01

    We presented the case of an adult male without structural heart disease, who in the period of 3 years developed apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ECG changes preceded the development of ventricular hypertrophy. We discussed the appearance of ventricular enlargement during adulthood, in some cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), and how the ECG abnormalities may precede the onset of ventricular hypertrophy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  15. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  16. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  17. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  18. A Role for the Adult Fat Body in Drosophila Male Courtship Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lazareva, Anna A; Roman, Gregg; Mattox, William; Hardin, Paul E; Dauwalder, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein. PMID:17257054

  19. Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Young Adult Male Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mednick, Birgitte; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between divorce and young adult male crime, controlling for two factors; socioeconomic status and paternal criminality. The subjects were drawn from the subject pool of a Danish longitudinal study. The initial significant effects of divorce disappeared when the controlling factors were introduced through…

  20. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = -0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults.

  1. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = −0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults. PMID:28382004

  2. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  3. [Influence of sexual activity on longevity in adult male Drosophilia melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Giess, M C

    1977-07-18

    Ageing in Drosophilia is modified according to their physiological state. Adult longevity is decreased by sexual activity: in both sexes the life span of virgins is higher. For the same physiological state male longevity is always lower than that of females.

  4. Semen preservation in male adolescents and young adults with cancer: one institution's experience.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa

    2007-06-01

    Semen preservation is a feasible procedure for male adolescents and young adults who may become infertile as a result of cancer therapy. Treatment for several pediatric malignancies puts adolescents and young adults at a significant risk for fertility dysfunction. Eligible male adolescents and young adults (N = 32) treated from January 2004 to June 2005 at Cook Children's Medical Center were offered semen preservation at the time of diagnosis or presentation to the center for treatment. Fifteen (47%) young men were successful in semen preservation. Two (6%) adolescents did not participate because of parental refusal. Seven (22%) were too ill, and eight (25%) failed to produce an adequate sample. Several patients were not successful because of time constraints, lack of counseling, and parental anxiety. Efforts for success in semen preservation should include private discussions between nurses and adolescents. In addition, information on infertility needs to be given to families early in the diagnostic phase to provide them with an opportunity to ask questions.

  5. Ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni juvenile and adult male worms after in vitro incubation with primaquine

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Reem Osama A; Bayaumy, Fatma El-Zahraa Anwar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Praziquantel has been cited as the only drug for treating schistosomiasis. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for novel drug leads. The antimalarial drug primaquine possesses interesting anti-schistosmal properties. OBJECTIVES This study is the first to document the potential role of primaquine as a schistosomicide and the ultrastructural changes induced by primaquine on juvenile or adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni. METHODS Ultrastructural alterations in the tegumental surface of 21-day-old juvenile and adult male worms of S. mansoni were demonstrated following primaquine treatment at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/mL) and incubation periods (1, 3, 6, 24, and 48 h) in vitro, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. FINDINGS At low concentrations (2, 5, and 10 µg/mL) both juvenile and adult male worms were alive after 24 h of incubation, whereas contraction, paralysis, and death of all worms were observed after 24 h of drug exposure at 20 µg/mL. The tegument of juvenile and adult male worms treated with primaquine exhibited erosion, peeling, and sloughing. Furthermore, extensive damage of both tegumental and subtegumental layers included embedded spines, and shrinkage of muscles with vacuoles. The in vitro results confirmed that primaquine has dose-dependent effects with 20 µg/mL as the most effective concentration in a short incubation period. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The schistosomicidal activity of primaquine indicates that this drug possesses moderate in vitro activity against juvenile and adult male worms, since it caused high mortality and tegumental alterations. This study confirmed that the antimalarial drug primaquine possesses anti-schistosomal activity. Further investigation is needed to elucidate its mechanism of action. PMID:28327785

  6. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  7. SEXUAL INTERACTIONS WITH UNFAMILIAR FEMALES REDUCE HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AMONG ADULT MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Curtis, Molly G.; DeLoach, Julia P.; Maher, Jack; Shulman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of BrdU (200 mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30 min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohisotchemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. There were no differences in the amount of sexual behavior (mounts, intromissions, ejaculations, or contact time) that the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in, indicating that the differences in neurogenesis were not due to the relative amounts of sexual activity. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect

  8. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  9. The C. elegans adult male germline: stem cells and sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Dyan E.; Crittenden, Sarah L.; Kimble, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The hermaphrodite C. elegans germline has become a classic model for stem cell regulation, but the male C. elegans germline has been largely neglected. This work provides a cellular analysis of the adult C. elegans male germline, focusing on its predicted stem cell region in the distal gonad. The goals of this study were two-fold: to establish the C. elegans male germline as a stem cell model and to identify sex-specific traits of potential relevance to the sperm/oocyte decision. Our results support two major conclusions. First, adult males do indeed possess a population of germline stem cells (GSCs) with properties similar to those of hermaphrodite GSCs (lack of cell cycle quiescence, lack of reproducibly oriented divisions). Second, germ cells in the mitotic region, including those most distal within the niche, exhibit sex-specific behaviors (e.g. cell cycle length) and therefore have acquired sexual identity. Previous studies demonstrated that some germ cells are not committed to a sperm or oocyte cell fate, even in adults. We propose that germ cells can acquire sexual identity without being committed to a sperm or oocyte cell fate. PMID:20659446

  10. Description of the larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, with remarks on the adult male genital morphology (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxytelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Makranczy, György; Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The previously unknown larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, is described and illustrated. Adult male terminalia and genitalia are illustrated with line drawings. Adults of this species exhibit little difference in size or external morphology between males and females. PMID:27110170

  11. Maternal undernutrition programs the apelinergic system of adipose tissue in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lecoutre, S; Marousez, L; Drougard, A; Knauf, C; Guinez, C; Eberlé, D; Laborie, C; Vieau, D; Lesage, J; Breton, C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease concept, maternal undernutrition has been shown to sensitize adult offspring to metabolic pathologies such as obesity. Using a model of maternal 70% food restriction in pregnant female rats throughout gestation (called FR30), we previously reported that obesity-prone adult male rat offspring displayed hyperleptinemia with modifications in leptin and leptin receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in white adipose tissue (WAT). Apelin is a member of the adipokine family that regulates various aspects of energy metabolism and WAT functionality. We investigated whether apelin and its receptor APJ could be a target of maternal undernutrition. Adult male rat offspring from FR30 dams showed increased plasma apelin levels and apelin gene expression in WAT. Post-weaning high-fat diet led to marked increase in APJ mRNA and protein levels in offspring's WAT. We demonstrate that maternal undernutrition and post-weaning diet have long-term consequences on the apelinergic system of adult male rat offspring.

  12. Energy drink consumption is associated with anxiety in Australian young adult males.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-05-01

    Energy drinks are predominantly targeted to young adult consumers; however, there has been limited research into their effects on psychological functioning in this demographic group. This study examined cross-sectional associations between energy drink consumption and mental health in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-report questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption and mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. In the regression analyses, we considered associations between energy drink consumption (mL/day) and continuous DASS-21 scores, adjusting for sociodemographic variables, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and dietary intake. Our sample included 502 males and 567 females (mean age 20 ± 3 years). After adjusting for potential confounding factors and controlling for coexisting mental health problems, energy drink consumption (per 100 mL/day) was significantly associated with anxiety (but not depression or stress), and this relationship was found only in males (β = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.58). Our study found that energy drink consumption was associated with increased anxiety in young adult males. Further research into the possible contribution of energy drink use to the development of mental health problems in young adults is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Body composition by a three compartment model in adult Indian male and female subjects.

    PubMed

    Borgonha, S; Kuriyan, R; Shetty, P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Kurpad, A V

    1997-07-01

    The body composition of 10 adult Indian male and female subjects was investigated by a three compartment model, using measurements of Total Body Water (TBW) by deuterium dilution, and of body density by hydrodensitometry. The three compartment model yielded significantly different (P < 0.005) estimates of percent body fat of 15.9+/-3.8 and 19.7+/-4.2% and of the Fat Free Mass (FFM) of 41+/-3.3 kg and 33.9+/-4.1 kg in the male and female subjects respectively. The hydration of the FFM was 0.704+/-0.032 in the males and 0.719+/-0.024 in the females; this difference was not signifcant between groups. The density of the FFM, measured from estimates of percent body fat by the 3 compartment approach and of body density by hydrodensitometry, was 1.107+/-0.014 in the males and 1.101+/-0.001 in the females with no significant differences between the groups. This study demonstrates differences in body composition between BMI matched healthy adult male and female subjects. Although there are significant differences for % Fat and FFM between the sexes, there are no significant differences in the hydration fraction and the density of the FFM.

  15. Female and male antisocial trajectories: from childhood origins to adult outcomes.

    PubMed

    Odgers, Candice L; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Dickson, Nigel; Hancox, Robert J; Harrington, Honalee; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the childhood origins and adult outcomes of female versus male antisocial behavior trajectories in the Dunedin longitudinal study. Four antisocial behavior trajectory groups were identified among females and males using general growth mixture modeling and included life-course persistent (LCP), adolescent-onset, childhood-limited, and low trajectory groups. During childhood, both LCP females and males were characterized by social, familial and neurodevelopmental risk factors, whereas those on the adolescent-onset pathway were not. At age 32, women and men on the LCP pathway were engaging in serious violence and experiencing significant mental health, physical health, and economic problems. Females and males on the adolescent-onset pathway were also experiencing difficulties at age 32, although to a lesser extent. Although more males than females followed the LCP trajectory, findings support similarities across gender with respect to developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior and their associated childhood origins and adult consequences. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.

  16. Possible interaction of the adrenal-gonadal systems on brain catecholamines of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Leret, M L; Tranque, P; González, I; Calvo, J C

    1987-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory showed that gonadectomy (GDX) alters biogenic amines concentrations in diencephalon during the first 40 days. While the GDX females maintain the differences at day 60, the differences are eliminated in males at that time. In the present work, we have studied in three cerebral regions the adrenal involvement in the mechanism responsible for this normalization of catecholamine concentration in long-term castrated adult male rats. A hypersecretion of adrenal steroids seems to compensate for the lack of gonadal effect when the orchidectomized rats reach adulthood only for diencephalic dopamine.

  17. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection.

  18. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities among adult male hardcore smokers in Vietnam: 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Kien, Vu Duy; Jat, Tej Ram; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Phan Thi Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-07-14

    Despite male smokers being dominant in Vietnam, scarce evidence on trends in socioeconomics inequalities among the hardcore male smokers is available in the country. In this study, we aimed at assessing the trends in socioeconomics inequalities among the hardcore smokers in adult male population in Vietnam over a five-year period from 2010 to 2015. We used data from two rounds of the Vietnam Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2010 and 2015. We included only men aged 25 years and above in the analysis. We measured socioeconomic inequalities among hardcore smokers by calculating the concentration index. We conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with hardcore smoking among men aged 25 years and above. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of male hardcore smokers aged 25 years and above in Vietnam was 9.5% in 2010 which increased to 13.1% in 2015. The prevalence of male hardcore smokers declined in the richest group from the 2010 level whereas it increased in the middle, poor and poorest groups. All values of weighted concentration indices indicated that the prevalence of male hardcore smokers occurred more among the poor men in Vietnam in both 2010 and 2015. The socioeconomic inequalities in hardcore smokers increased during 2010 and 2015. Residence in urban areas was significantly associated with higher adult male hardcore smoking in our study. Belonging to the age groups between 40 and 59 years, attaining primary and lower education, being self-employed, belonging to the poorest household group, smoking being allowed at home and no rule for smoking at home were associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker among adult males in Vietnam. We found increased trends in socioeconomic inequalities in hardcore smoking among the study population. Our study results indicate that existing smoking secession and tobacco control policy and interventions need to be modified or new policies and

  19. Molecular subtypification of human papillomavirus in male adult individuals with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, Carmen S; Akaki-Caballero, Matsuharu; Saavedra-Mendoza, Ana G; Guzmán-Romero, Ana K; Canto, Patricia; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the isotype of human papillomavirus (HPV) in fresh tissue samples of 35 male adults with adult recurrent adult respiratory papillomatosis which may be important to define the precise etiology of the disease, and determine the therapeutic and prophylactic measures. A total of 35 adult male patients diagnosed with active RRP who have been treated for several years were included in the study. DNA of patients was extracted from fresh biological samples and analyzed by PCR and a Linear Array® HPV Genotyping system. Most cases (95%) corresponded to adult-onset of RRP. A questionnaire was applied to obtain demographic and clinical data. Using a PCR-based detection system all patients showed the presence of HPV; 80% were positive for HPV-6, 8% for HPV-11 and one for HPV-16. Most patients presented HPV-6 and consequently it was not feasible to correlate clinical and demographic characteristics with viral type. Besides, co-infections were not evident. This knowledge may be relevant to delineate therapeutic and preventive measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood Attachment and Adult Attachment in Incarcerated Adult Male Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallbone, Stephen W.; Dadds, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-eight incarcerated sex offenders were compared with 16 property offenders and 16 nonoffenders on self-report measures of childhood maternal and paternal attachment and adult attachment. Results suggest that insecure childhood attachments may be related to offending behavior generally and that certain combinations of childhood attachment…

  1. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-10-15

    Social proficiency requires making appropriate behavioral adaptations as a result of social experience. For example, male rodents become sexually proficient with experience as demonstrated by a reduction in ectopic (misdirected) mounts, mount-to-intromission ratio, and latency to ejaculation. We previously found that over a series of timed tests with a receptive female, male hamsters deprived of testosterone specifically during puberty (NoT@P) have overall lower levels of sexual behavior and continue to display high levels of ectopic mounts, compared with males that experienced endogenous testosterone during puberty (T@P). These results suggested that pubertal testosterone programs sexual proficiency in adulthood, but because NoT@P males engaged in less sexual behavior than T@P males in these tests, the amount of sexual experience may have been insufficient to improve sexual proficiency. To more rigorously test the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is necessary for social proficiency in adulthood, the present study compared the behavior of NoT@P and T@P males in a series of 4 trials with a 48-h interval between each trial. Sexual experience was equated by limiting each trial to 5 intromissions. Sexually-naïve males were either gonadectomized prepubertally (NoT@P) or in adulthood (T@P) and received subcutaneous testosterone capsules four weeks later. Two weeks after testosterone replacement, these groups and a group of adult gonad-intact controls began sexual behavior testing. We found that NoT@P males had more ectopic mounts/min across all four tests compared to gonad-intact and T@P males. Moreover, both gonad-intact and T@P males, but not NoT@P males, showed an increase in the number of mounts and intromissions/min between trials 1 and 3. Unexpectedly, both gonad-intact and T@P, but not NoT@P, males showed a decrease in sexual behaviors during trial 4. Thus, T@P males display multiple behavioral adaptations to sexual experience that are not observed in No

  2. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed.

  3. Aripiprazole-Induced Hypoprolactinemia in an Adult Male with First-Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Propst, Alanna J; Jarvis, G Eric; Margolese, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. Compared to other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole has less metabolic side effects and is less likely to increase prolactin. Moreover, it has been shown to have a unique prolactin lowering effect. While aripiprazole has been associated with subnormal prolactin levels in children, no documented cases of hypoprolactinemia in adults exist thus far. Here we report a case of aripiprazole-induced hypoprolactinemia in an adult male with first-episode psychosis, and the possible effects of abnormally low prolactin are discussed.

  4. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  5. Protective Effects of Adolescent-Adult Connection on Male Youth in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Culyba, Alison J; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Fein, Joel A; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-02-01

    Positive adult connection has been linked with protective effects among U.S. adolescents. Less is known about the impact of adult connection across multiple health domains for youth in low-resource urban environments. We examined the associations between adult connection and school performance, substance use, and violence exposure among youth in low-resource neighborhoods. We recruited a population-based random sample of 283 male adolescents in Philadelphia. Age-adjusted logistic regression tested whether positive adult connection promoted school performance and protected against substance use and violence exposure. Youth with a positive adult connection had significantly higher odds of good school performance (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; p < .05), and lower odds of alcohol use (OR, .4; p < .05), violence involvement (OR, .3-.4; p < .05), and violence witnessing (OR, .3; p < .05). Promoting adult connection may help safeguard youth in urban contexts. Youth-serving professionals should consider assessing adult connection as part of a strengths-based approach to health promotion for youth in low-resource neighborhoods. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective Effects of Adolescent-Adult Connection on Male Youth in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Culyba, Alison J.; Ginsburg, Kenneth R.; Fein, Joel A.; Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Positive adult connection has been linked with protective effects among U.S. adolescents. Less is known about the impact of adult connection across multiple health domains for youth in low-resource urban environments. We examined the associations between adult connection and school performance, substance use, and violence exposure among youth in low resource neighborhoods. Methods We recruited a population-based random sample of 283 male adolescents in Philadelphia. Age-adjusted logistic regression tested whether positive adult connection promoted school performance and protected against substance use and violence exposure. Results Youth with a positive adult connection had significantly higher odds of good school performance (OR=2.8;p<0.05), and lower odds of alcohol use (OR=0.4;p<0.05), violence involvement (ORs=0.3–0.4;p<0.05), and violence witnessing (OR=0.3;p<0.05). Conclusions Promoting adult connection may help safeguard youth in urban contexts. Youth-serving professionals should consider assessing adult connection as part of a strengths-based approach to health promotion for youth in low-resource neighborhoods. PMID:26802994

  7. Temporal and spatial variation in mercury concentrations in some albatrosses and petrels from the sub-Antarctic

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.R.; Furness, R.W.; Lewis, S.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in albatrosses and some other large procellariiforms are very much higher than found in other groups of seabirds. Analysis of mercury concentrations in feather samples collected prior to 1950 and after this date showed slight, but significant, increased in three out of ten sub-Antarctic procellariiform species. The lack of widespread and pronounced increases in mercury concentrations in procellariiforms between these periods may indicate that industrial and agricultural emissions of mercury in the southern hemisphere have been relatively minor and the high concentrations are predominantly due to natural processes. Mercury concentrations were relatively consistent between body feathers of individuals, and showed no variation related to adult age (in years). Within species, mercury concentrations tended to be highest in New Zealand populations and lowest in Falkland Island and South Georgia populations. Mercury concentrations also varied among species, but not in a way that could be related to diet. 27 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Soil Calcium Availability Influences Shell Ecophenotype Formation in the Sub-Antarctic Land Snail, Notodiscus hookeri

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Maryvonne; Marie, Arul; Guillaume, Damien; Bédouet, Laurent; Le Lannic, Joseph; Roiland, Claire; Berland, Sophie; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Le Floch, Marie; Frenot, Yves; Lebouvier, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Ecophenotypes reflect local matches between organisms and their environment, and show plasticity across generations in response to current living conditions. Plastic responses in shell morphology and shell growth have been widely studied in gastropods and are often related to environmental calcium availability, which influences shell biomineralisation. To date, all of these studies have overlooked micro-scale structure of the shell, in addition to how it is related to species responses in the context of environmental pressure. This study is the first to demonstrate that environmental factors induce a bi-modal variation in the shell micro-scale structure of a land gastropod. Notodiscus hookeri is the only native land snail present in the Crozet Archipelago (sub-Antarctic region). The adults have evolved into two ecophenotypes, which are referred to here as MS (mineral shell) and OS (organic shell). The MS-ecophenotype is characterised by a thick mineralised shell. It is primarily distributed along the coastline, and could be associated to the presence of exchangeable calcium in the clay minerals of the soils. The Os-ecophenotype is characterised by a thin organic shell. It is primarily distributed at high altitudes in the mesic and xeric fell-fields in soils with large particles that lack clay and exchangeable calcium. Snails of the Os-ecophenotype are characterised by thinner and larger shell sizes compared to snails of the MS- ecophenotype, indicating a trade-off between mineral thickness and shell size. This pattern increased along a temporal scale; whereby, older adult snails were more clearly separated into two clusters compared to the younger adult snails. The prevalence of glycine-rich proteins in the organic shell layer of N. hookeri, along with the absence of chitin, differs to the organic scaffolds of molluscan biominerals. The present study provides new insights for testing the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial and temporal

  9. IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kolla, Nathan J; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated whether the previously observed association of pedophilia with lower IQs is an artifact of heterogeneity in referral source. The subjects were 832 adult male patients referred to a specialty clinic for evaluation of their sexual behavior. The patients' erotic preferences for prepubescent, pubescent, or adult partners were assessed with phallometric testing. Full scale IQ was estimated using six subtests from the WAIS-R. The results showed that the relations between pedophilia and lower IQ, lesser education, and increased rates of non-right-handedness were the same in homogeneous groups referred by lawyers or parole and probation officers as they were in a heterogeneous group referred by a miscellany of other sources. Those results, along with secondary analyses in the study, supported the conclusion that the relation between pedophilia and cognitive function is genuine and not artifactual. The findings were interpreted as evidence for the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations increase the risk of pedophilia in males.

  10. Transgender identity development as represented by a group of female-to-male transgendered adults.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah W; Stevens, Patricia E

    2008-06-01

    This article represents work done in the discipline of nursing to raise awareness about the lives and experiences of transgendered persons, who receive little coverage in our nursing textbooks, professional journals, or student clinical experiences. The findings presented here are from a larger qualitative examination of the lives and experiences of a group of 11 transgendered adults that examined four broad areas: transgender identity recognition, acknowledgement, and development; bodily experiences; relationships with others; and health care experiences. The focus of this article is the relevant findings related to four participants in the study who identified as female-to-male (FTM), meaning they were born female-bodied, but identify as male. The highlight here is on the recognition, acknowledgement, and development of transgender identity. Our intention is to expose uninformed people to first-hand accounts by FTM transgendered persons about their life trajectories, particularly during childhood, adolescence, and the early adult years.

  11. CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sutapa; Guha, Debjani

    2008-03-01

    Treatment with Spinacia oleracea extract (SO; 400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole induced seizure status in Holtzman strain adult male albino rats. SO increased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain and pons and medulla. Result suggests that SO exerts its CNS depressive effect in PTZ induced seizure by modulating the monoamines in different brain areas.

  12. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity: effects of neonatal stress in freely moving adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, M; Bronzino, J D; Pizzuti, G P

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of neonatal isolation on hippocampal LTP in adult male rats. Changes in dentate granule cell population measures, i.e., EPSP slope and population spike amplitude (PSA), evoked by tetanization of the medial perforant pathway were used to assess the effects of neonatal isolation on LTP over a period of 96 h. Following tetanization significant group differences were obtained for input/output (I/O) response measures of EPSP slope and PSA, with isolated males showing consistently higher values than in the other two groups. Comparisons made at 1 h post-tetanization (establishment of LTP) indicated that isolated males showed significantly greater enhancement than any other group. At 96 h (maintenance of LTP), however, neonatally isolated males showed significantly greater enhancement than either non-isolated siblings or unhandled controls. Additionally, isolation resulted in prolonging the duration of enhancement obtained from males. Thus, males show different enhancement profiles with respect to both the magnitude and duration of LTP and neonatal isolation alters these profiles in profound manner.

  13. Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex.

  14. Ultrasound imaging of the inguinal region of adult male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Pease, Anthony; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Rostal, David; Owens, David; Segars, Al

    2010-03-01

    The biology and reproductive anatomy of male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) have been difficult to study. The principle method for evaluation of the coelomic cavity in both adult and juvenile male sea turtles is celioscopy. The purpose of this study was to describe the technique and structures seen when scanning the inguinal region of live, wild-caught, adult male loggerhead sea turtles and to compare these findings to those resulting from celioscopy and necropsy. Twenty-one adult male loggerhead sea turtles were collected by trawling in the Cape Canaveral shipping channel in April 2007. All turtles were placed in dorsal recumbency and imaged with a Sonosite 180 Vet Plus (Sonosite, Inc., Bothell, Washington 98021, USA) and a microconvex, 4-7-MHz curvilinear array probe. The inguinal region was divided into four quadrants: cranial, lateral, medial, and caudal. Celioscopy was performed on 13 turtles, and biopsies were obtained of the testes and the epididymides to confirm correct identification of the structures. In the cranial aspect of the inguinal region, the urinary bladder and large and small intestines were identified. In the lateral inguinal region, the lung and kidney were seen. In the medial aspect of the inguinal region, the testis and epididymis were routinely identified. In the caudal aspect of the inguinal region, the coxofemoral joint was seen. A small learning curve was required; however, correlation with celioscopy and biopsy showed that consistent, repeatable identification of caudal coelomic structures was easily achieved. Ultrasound provided an inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive method to evaluate the reproductive anatomy of live-captured, male loggerhead sea turtles.

  15. Bone health measured using quantitative ultrasonography in adult males with muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Morse, C.I.; Smith, J.; Denny, A.; Tweedale, J.; Searle, N.D.; Winwood, K.; Onambele-Pearson, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare muscle and bone health markers in adult males (aged 20-59 yrs) with and without muscular dystrophy (MD). Methods: Participants included 11 Fascioscapulohumeral (FSH), 11 Becker’s (Be), 9 limb girdle (LG), 11 Duchenne (DMD), and 14 non-dystrophic controls (CTRL). Physical activity was assessed using Bone (BPAQ) and disability specific (PASIPD) questionnaires. Bone QUS provided T- and Z scores from the Distal Radius (DR) and Mid-shaft tibia (MST). Tibialis anterior cross sectional area (TAACSA) was measured using B-mode ultrasound. Grip strength was measured in all but DMD. Results: Physical activity was lower in DMD, FSH and BeMD than CTRL (P<0.05), and lower in DMD than other MDs (P<0.01). T and Z scores were lower in DMD and Be than CTRL (DR, P<0.05); and lower in DMD than CTRL, LG, and FSH (MST, P<0.01). TAACSA and grip strength was 35-59% and 50-58% smaller in MD than CTRL, respectively (P<0.01). Within MD, BPAQ correlated with bone QUS measures (r=0.42-0.38, P<0.01). PASIPD correlated with grip strength (r=0.65, P<0.01) and TAACSA (r=0.46, P<0.01). Conclusion: Muscle size, strength, and bone health was lower in adult males with MD compared to adult males without MD, the extent of this is partially determined by physical activity. PMID:27973386

  16. An In-Depth Comparison of the Male Pediatric and Adult Urinary Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, John W.; Vaezzadeh, Ali R.; Kirchner, Marc; Briscoe, Andrew C.; Hofmann, Oliver; Hide, Winston; Steen, Hanno; Lee, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the male pediatric infant urinary proteome by parallel proteomic analysis of normal healthy adult (n =6) and infant (n =6) males and comparison to available published data. A total of 1584 protein groups were identified. Of these, 708 proteins were identified in samples from both cohorts. Although present in both cohorts, 136 of these common proteins were significantly enriched in urine from adults and 94 proteins were significantly enriched in urine from infants. Using Gene Ontology, we found that the infant-enriched or specific subproteome (743 proteins) had an overrepresentation of proteins that are involved in translation and transcription, cellular growth and metabolic processes. In contrast, the adult enriched or specific subproteome (364 proteins) showed an overexpression of proteins involved in immune response and cell adhesion. This study demonstrates that the non-diseased male urinary proteome is quantitatively affected by age, has age-specific subproteomes, and identifies a common subproteome with no age-dependent abundance variations. These findings highlight the importance of age-matching in urinary proteomics. PMID:23707565

  17. Gestational exercise protects adult male offspring from high-fat diet induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ryan D.; Blaize, A. Nicole; Fletcher, Justin A.; Pearson, Kevin J.; Donkin, Shawn; Newcomer, Sean C.; Rector, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Mounting evidence indicates that maternal exercise confers protection to adult offspring against various diseases. Here we hypothesized that maternal exercise during gestation would reduce high fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in adult rat offspring. Methods Following conception, pregnant dams were divided into either voluntary wheel running exercise (GE) or wheel-locked sedentary (GS) groups throughout gestation (days 4-21). Post-weaning, offspring received either normal chow diet (ND; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat, 35% carbohydrate, and 20% protein) until sacrifice at 4-or 8-months of age. Results GE did not affect offspring birth weight or litter size. HFD feeding in offspring increased weight gain, % body fat, and glucose tolerance test area under the curve (GTT-AUC). Male offspring from GE dams had reduced % body fat across all ages (p < 0.05). In addition, 8-mo male offspring from GE dams were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, which was associated with increased markers of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and TFAM), autophagic potential (ATG12:ATG5 conjugation) and hepatic triacylglycerol secretion (MTTP). Conclusions The current study provides the first evidence that gestational exercise can reduce susceptibility to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis in adult male offspring. PMID:26325536

  18. Effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on reproductive parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Jaafar, H; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats.

  19. Obtaining a male circumcision prevalence rate of 80% among adults in a short time

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Taljaard, Dirk; Hlatswayo, Florence; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Lissouba, Pascale; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization recommends a target for the male circumcision prevalence rate of 80%. This rate will have a substantial impact on the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. The objective of the study was to assess whether an innovative intervention can lead to an increased voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) uptake among adults in a short time. This prospective observational study of a demand generation intervention was conducted in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa) in August to November 2015. In this community male circumcision prevalence rate among adults was stable between 2010 and 2015 at 55% and 57%, despite regular VMMC campaigns at community level and the presence of a VMMC clinic that offered free VMMC. The intervention took place in a random sample of 981 households where 522 men aged 18 to 49 years accepted to participate in the study. Among the 226 uncircumcised men, 212 accepted to be enrolled in the intervention study. A personal male circumcision adviser trained in interpersonal communication skills was assigned to each uncircumcised participant. The male circumcision advisers were trained to explain the risks and benefits of VMMC, and to discuss 24 possible reasons given by men for not being circumcised. Participants were then followed for 9 weeks. Each participant had a maximum of 3 motivational interviews at home. Participants who decided to be circumcised received financial compensation for their time equivalent to 2.5 days of work at the minimum South African salary rate. Among the 212 uncircumcised men enrolled in the intervention, 69.8% (148/212; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 63.4%–75.7%) agreed to be circumcised, which defines the uptake of the intervention. The male circumcision prevalence rate of the sample increased from 56.7% (296/522) to 81.4% (425/522; 77.9%–84.6%), P < 0.001, corresponding to a relative increase of 43.6% (95% CI

  20. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2016-12-23

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  1. Evaluation of the dental health of the young adult male population in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Süleyman; Açikel, Cengiz Han; Okçu, Kemal Murat; Kiliç, Selim; Tekbas, O Faruk; Ortakoğlu, Kerim

    2004-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental caries in military recruits and to assess the relation of dental caries with socioeconomic and demographic factors, and sugar consumption behavior, and to generalize the findings for the young adult male population to draw a picture of dental health status of this population segment in Turkey. In this cross-sectional study conducted between August and October 2000 in a military basic training center in Turkey, 2,766 male recruits of the age of 20 were examined by dental specialists to determine their mean number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) scores and were administered a questionnaire for capturing their demographic characteristics and sugar consumption behavior. The mean DMFT score for the 20-year-old male population in Turkey was found to be 5.97. DMFT scores were weakly correlated with income level and urbanization. Sugar consumption was strongly correlated with DMFT scores. The mean number of teeth with fillings component was strongly correlated with income level, moderately with the subject's education, and weakly with the mother's education, father's education, and urbanization. DMFT scores for the young adult male population in Turkey were strongly associated with sugar consumption behavior, whereas they were weakly or not at all associated with demographic factors such as education level, income level, and urbanization.

  2. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  3. De novo transcriptomic analysis of the female and male adults of the blood fluke Schistosoma turkestanicum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Xu, Min-Jun; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Gao, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-11

    Schistosoma turkestanicum is a parasite of considerable veterinary importance as an agent of animal schistosomiasis in many countries, including China. The S. turkestanicum cercariae can also infect humans, causing cercarial dermatitis in many countries and regions of the world. In spite of its significance as a pathogen of animals and humans, there is little transcriptomic and genomic data in the public databases. Herein, we performed the transcriptome Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of adult males and females of S. turkestanicum and de novo transcriptome assembly. Approximately 81.1 (female) and 80.5 (male) million high-quality clean reads were obtained and then 29,526 (female) and 41,346 (male) unigenes were assembled. A total of 34,624 unigenes were produced from S. turkestanicum females and males, with an average length of 878 nucleotides (nt) and N50 of 1480 nt. Of these unigenes, 25,158 (72.7 %) were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Among these, 21,995 (63.5 %), 22,189 (64.1 %) and 13,754 (39.7 %) of the unigenes had significant similarity in the NCBI non-redundant protein (NR), non-redundant nucleotide (NT) and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. In addition, 3150 unigenes were identified to be expressed specifically in females and 1014 unigenes were identified to be expressed specifically in males. Interestingly, several pathways associated with gonadal development and sex maintenance were found, including the Wnt signaling pathway (103; 2 %) and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation (77; 1.5 %). The present study characterized and compared the transcriptomes of adult female and male blood fluke, S. turkestanicum. These results will not only serve as valuable resources for future functional genomics studies to understand the molecular aspects of S. turkestanicum, but also will provide essential information for ongoing whole genome sequencing efforts on this pathogenic blood fluke.

  4. Variables related to tobacco use among young adults: are there differences between males and females?

    PubMed

    Pederson, Linda L; Koval, John J; Chan, Stella S H; Zhang, Xiaohe

    2007-02-01

    We sought to determine the association of four categories (chunks) of variables: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) family and friends smoking and other drug use, (3) psychosocial factors and attitude, and (4) lifestyle factors to current smoking as compared to never smoking among Canadian young adults. A cohort of 1270 young adults, followed for 10 years, completed a self-administered questionnaire. In multivariable analyses, the best final model for both genders did not include the psychosocial and attitudinal categories, but did contain variables in the demographic, family and friends, and lifestyle categories. Interventions for reducing smoking among young adults may be similar for males and females, a conclusion that differs from conclusions based on findings from younger age groups.

  5. Adolescent and adult male rats habituate to repeated isolation, but only adolescents sensitize to partner unfamiliarity.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether adolescent male rats show less habituation of corticosterone release than adult male rats to acute vs repeated (16) daily one hour episodes of isolation stress, as well as the role of partner familiarity during recovery on social behavior, plasma corticosterone, and Zif268 expression in brain regions. Adolescents spent more time in social contact than did adults during the initial days of the repeated stress procedures, but both adolescents and adults that returned to an unfamiliar peer after isolation had higher social activity than rats returned to a familiar peer (p=0.002) or undisturbed control rats (p<0.001). Both ages showed evidence of habituation, with reduced corticosterone response to repeated than acute isolation (p=0.01). Adolescents, however, showed sensitized corticosterone release to repeated compared with an acute pairing with an unfamiliar peer during recovery (p=0.03), a difference not found in adults. Consistent with habituation of corticosterone release, the repeated isolation groups had lower Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus (p<0.001) and in the arcuate nucleus (p=0.002) than did the acute groups, and adolescents had higher Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus than did adults during the recovery period (p<0.001), irrespective of stress history and partner familiarity. Partner familiarity had only modest effects on Zif268 immunoreactivity, and experimental effects on plasma testosterone concentrations were only in adults. The results highlight social and endocrine factors that may underlie the greater vulnerability of the adolescent period of development.

  6. Snatch lift kinematics and bar energetics in male adolescent and adult weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Gourgoulis, V; Aggeloussis, N; Kalivas, V; Antoniou, P; Mavromatis, G

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the present study was compare linear kinematics and energy changes of the barbell, along with the angular kinematics of the leg movement during the snatch technique, between male adolescent and adult weightlifters. Two S-VHS cameras operating at 60 fields per second recorded the heaviest lifts of 14 male adolescent and 9 adult top-level weightlifters under competitive conditions. The spatial co-ordinates of selected points on the body and the barbell were calculated using the direct linear transformation procedure. A low pass digital filter with 4 Hz cut-off frequency was used for the smoothing of raw co-ordinate data. The ''t''-test for independent samples was used for the statistical treatment of data. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the adolescent and the adult weightlifters in the majority of the kinematic variables. However, adolescent weightlifters extended their knees significantly slower (t21 = 4.211, p < 0.05) during the 1st pull and their ankles during the 2nd pull (t21 = 2.440, p < 0.05) than the adult weightlifters did. Moreover, the average relative power output was significantly greater for the adult weightlifters during both the 1st (t21 = 2.303, p < 0.05) and the snd pull (t21 = 2.611, p < 0.05). These results indicate that the adolescent weightlifters were characterised from a high level of snatch technique and differentiated from the adults predominantly at the less powerful execution of the movement.

  7. Heroin self-administration and reinstatement of heroin-seeking in adolescent vs. adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2012-02-01

    Heroin abuse is prevalent among teenagers, and early onset drug use might predict long-term drug dependence. However, adolescent sensitivity to drug reinforcement has not been explored thoroughly in animal models. This study aimed to compare intravenous (i.v.) self-administration of heroin, as well as extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking, in adolescent vs. adult male rats. Adolescent (35 days old at start) and adult (86 days old at start) male Sprague-Dawley rats spontaneously acquired lever pressing maintained by i.v. heroin infusions. In experiment 1, self-administration was tested on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion), followed by within-session extinction and reinstatement tests after 1 or 12 days of abstinence. In experiment 2, self-administration was tested on a progressive ratio schedule (0.0125-0.1 mg/kg per infusion), followed 12 days later by a single test of extinction responding in the presence of cues. In experiment 1, adolescent rats self-administered more heroin than adults. After 1 or 12 days of abstinence, adolescents exhibited less heroin-seeking than adults, although levels of heroin-seeking increased over abstinence period for both age groups. In experiment 2, adolescents and adults reached the same maximal response ratio (breakpoint), although adolescents earned more infusions when response requirements were low. For extinction responding in the presence of cues, heroin-seeking was similar across ages. Lower levels of heroin-seeking suggest that younger rats are less sensitive than adults to some residual effects of heroin intake.

  8. Kelp genes reveal effects of subantarctic sea ice during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Nikula, Raisa; Spencer, Hamish G; Waters, Jonathan M

    2009-03-03

    The end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) dramatically reshaped temperate ecosystems, with many species moving poleward as temperatures rose and ice receded. Whereas reinvading terrestrial taxa tracked melting glaciers, marine biota recolonized ocean habitats freed by retreating sea ice. The extent of sea ice in the Southern Hemisphere during the LGM has, however, yet to be fully resolved, with most palaeogeographic studies suggesting only minimal or patchy ice cover in subantarctic waters. Here, through population genetic analyses of the widespread Southern Bull Kelp (Durvillaea antarctica), we present evidence for persistent ice scour affecting subantarctic islands during the LGM. Using mitochondrial and chloroplast genetic markers (COI; rbcL) to genetically characterize some 300 kelp samples from 45 Southern Ocean localities, we reveal a remarkable pattern of recent recolonization in the subantarctic. Specifically, in contrast to the marked phylogeographic structure observed across coastal New Zealand and Chile (10- to 100-km scales), subantarctic samples show striking genetic homogeneity over vast distances (10,000-km scales), with a single widespread haplotype observed for each marker. From these results, we suggest that sea ice expanded further and ice scour during the LGM impacted shallow-water subantarctic marine ecosystems more extensively than previously suggested.

  9. Kelp genes reveal effects of subantarctic sea ice during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Nikula, Raisa; Spencer, Hamish G.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    The end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) dramatically reshaped temperate ecosystems, with many species moving poleward as temperatures rose and ice receded. Whereas reinvading terrestrial taxa tracked melting glaciers, marine biota recolonized ocean habitats freed by retreating sea ice. The extent of sea ice in the Southern Hemisphere during the LGM has, however, yet to be fully resolved, with most palaeogeographic studies suggesting only minimal or patchy ice cover in subantarctic waters. Here, through population genetic analyses of the widespread Southern Bull Kelp (Durvillaea antarctica), we present evidence for persistent ice scour affecting subantarctic islands during the LGM. Using mitochondrial and chloroplast genetic markers (COI; rbcL) to genetically characterize some 300 kelp samples from 45 Southern Ocean localities, we reveal a remarkable pattern of recent recolonization in the subantarctic. Specifically, in contrast to the marked phylogeographic structure observed across coastal New Zealand and Chile (10- to 100-km scales), subantarctic samples show striking genetic homogeneity over vast distances (10,000-km scales), with a single widespread haplotype observed for each marker. From these results, we suggest that sea ice expanded further and ice scour during the LGM impacted shallow-water subantarctic marine ecosystems more extensively than previously suggested. PMID:19204277

  10. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. At-sea distribution and habitat use in king penguins at sub-Antarctic Marion Island.

    PubMed

    Pistorius, Pierre; Hindell, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Makhado, Azwianewi; Dyer, Bruce; Reisinger, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    King penguins make up the bulk of avian biomass on a number of sub-Antarctic islands where they have a large functional effect on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The same applies at Marion Island where a substantial proportion of the world population breeds. In spite of their obvious ecological importance, the at-sea distribution and behavior of this population has until recently remained entirely unknown. In addressing this information deficiency, we deployed satellite-linked tracking instruments on 15 adult king penguins over 2 years, April 2008 and 2013, to study their post-guard foraging distribution and habitat preferences. Uniquely among adult king penguins, individuals by and large headed out against the prevailing Antarctic Circumpolar Current, foraging to the west and southwest of the island. On average, individuals ventured a maximum distance of 1,600 km from the colony, with three individuals foraging close to, or beyond, 3,500 km west of the colony. Birds were mostly foraging south of the Antarctic Polar Front and north of the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Habitat preferences were assessed using boosted regression tree models which indicated sea surface temperate, depth, and chorophyll a concentration to be the most important predictors of habitat selection. Interestingly, king penguins rapidly transited the eddy-rich area to the west of Marion Island, associated with the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, which has been shown to be important for foraging in other marine top predators. In accordance with this, the king penguins generally avoided areas with high eddy kinetic energy. The results from this first study into the behavioral ecology and at-sea distribution of king penguins at Marion Island contribute to our broader understanding of this species.

  13. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  14. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-07-31

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  15. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  16. Neonatal handling alters learning in adult male and female rats in a task-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Therese A; Lee, Hongjoo J; Kim, Jeansok J

    2007-06-18

    We demonstrated that early life manipulations (neonatal isolation, neonatal handling, maternal separation) impaired fear conditioning in adult rats [Kosten, T.A., Miserendino, M.J.D., Bombace, J.C., Lee, H.J., Kim, J.J., 2005. Sex-selective effects of neonatal isolation on fear conditioning and foot shock sensitivity. Behav. Brain Res. 157, 235-244.; Kosten, T.A., Lee, H.J. and Kim, J.J., 2006. Early life stress impairs fear conditioning in adult male and female rats. Brain Res. 1087, 142-150.]. Although we found few effects on somatic responses to footshock, deficits in conditioned fear may reflect altered emotional reactivity to aversive stimuli not learning deficits. Here we test neonatal handling effects on learning and memory tasks that vary by aversive stimuli. Neonatal handling was chosen because it alters emotional reactivity in adult rats. Litters of Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to neonatal handling (15-min separation from dam and nest on postnatal days 1-21) or control (nonseparated) conditions. Adult male and female rats with or without neonatal handling experience were compared on: (1) inhibitory avoidance that involves footshock; (2) a circular maze task that involves escape from bright light; and (3) object recognition that presumably does not involve aversive stimuli. Neonatal handling impaired inhibitory avoidance but enhanced object recognition. There were no differences in circular maze performance. In addition, sex differences emerged in both the inhibitory avoidance and object recognition tasks; female rats perform better in inhibitory avoidance and worse in object recognition compared to male rats. These data suggest that neonatal handling alters learning and memory in a task-specific manner that may reflect alterations in emotional reactivity or differential effects of the manipulation on unknown neurohormonal mechanisms.

  17. Therapeutic effects of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Shahzadi, Andleeb; Javed, Ijaz; Aslam, Bilal; Muhammad, Faqir; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme inducer) medicine which is used by epileptic patients for a long time. During the course of therapy, patients are generally caught by other diseases like urinary tract infections, upper respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection etc. To cure them, physicians commonly prescribe fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (CYP1A2 inhibitor) along with Carbamazepine (CBZ). Interactions may result without recognition which may lead to unforeseen toxicity, untoward effects or even therapeutic failure. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate the effect of Ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers. The main objective of this study was to generate new knowledge regarding CBZ and ciprofloxacin interaction for physicians and research workers dealing with these medicines. Eight healthy adult male volunteers were selected to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. After overnight fast the selected male volunteers were given CBZ orally. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals after medication. Then the same volunteers were given CBZ along with ciprofloxacin. Blood samples were again drawn at the same time intervals as done previously. Plasma was separated from the blood samples. Concentration of CBZ in the plasma samples was determined by using HPLC technique. Results of the present study indicated that ciprofloxacin significantly increased the plasma concentration of CBZ when given concurrently to the healthy adult male volunteers. Ciprofloxacin increased Cmax, AUC and t½ while it decreased the CL and Vd of CBZ when administered concurrently to the adult volunteers. Change in pharmacokinetic parameters was due to slow metabolism or elimination of CBZ when given concurrently with ciprofloxacin to the adult volunteers. This is probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 isoenzyme by ciprofloxacin which is responsible for

  18. A Descriptive Study of Gambling Among Emerging Adult Males in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Alexander; Tichelli, Emmanuel; Ewering, Neil; Nunweiler-Hardegger, Sophie; Simon, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    The aims were twofold: to examine the gambling habits of emerging adult males in the French-speaking regions of Switzerland and to what extent these habits predict problem gambling within this population. We also evaluated problem gambling rates and provided data concerning variables such as gambling location, level of information about problem gambling and awareness of treatment centers. 606 Swiss male conscripts, aged 18-22 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. This was administered during their army recruitment day in 2012. Problem gambling was assessed through the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) (Ferris and Wynne 2001). 78.5% of the respondents were lifetime gamblers, 56.1% were past-year gamblers. Four out of ten past-year gamblers played in private spaces and in back rooms. The PGSI indicated that 10.8% of past-year gamblers presented with moderate gambling problems, whilst 1.4% appeared to be problem gamblers. The majority of respondents had never received information about problem gambling. Moreover, they were unaware of the existence of treatment centers for problem gambling in their region. PGSI scores were significantly predicted by the variety of games played. Problem gambling rates among young men appear to be higher than those of the general Swiss population. This confirms that emerging adult males are a particularly vulnerable population with regards to gambling addiction. The implications of this are considered for youth gambling-prevention programs.

  19. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Ruff, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA.

  20. Pubertal pair-housing facilitates adult sexual behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Molenda-Figueira, Heather A; Bell, Margaret R; De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pubertal testosterone (T) and social housing manipulations on male sexual behavior in adult rats. Prepubertal rats were castrated at 21 days of age (P21) and implanted with either blank or T-releasing pellets. At the onset of puberty, P28, half the rats in each treatment group were either single- or pair-housed with a male of the same hormone condition through P56, at which time pellets were removed and all rats were single-housed. In adulthood (P84), all rats received T replacement and were tested for sexual behavior. Rats pair-housed during adolescence showed more sexual behavior and greater improvement of sexual performance over repeated tests than single-housed rats, regardless of pubertal T status. Pubertal T, however, did facilitate the frequency of anogenital investigation. Thus, in male rats, social interactions during adolescence are more important than exposure to pubertal T in enhancing adult sexual behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  2. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  3. The implication of salience network abnormalities in young male adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Guan, Yanyan; Cheng, Jiadong; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Tian, Jie

    2016-07-20

    Studying the neural correlates of smoking behaviors in young adulthood is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes. In previous addiction studies, the important roles of the salience network (SN) in drug cue processing and cognitive control have been revealed. Unfortunately, few studies focused on the resting-state functional connectivity and structural integrity abnormalities of SN in young adult smokers, and less is known about its association with smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits. Thirty-one young male adult smokers and 30 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in this study. The structural and functional connectivity differences of SN were investigated between young adult smokers and nonsmokers by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), which were then correlated with the smoking behavioral assessments (pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)) as well as impaired cognitive control measured by the Stroop task. Within SN, reduced RSFC and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) were found between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right insula in young adult smokers relative to nonsmokers. The RSFC between the ACC and right insula was negatively correlated with the number of errors during the incongruent condition of the Stroop task in young adult smokers. Additionally, the right insula-ACC RSFC was negatively correlated with pack-years in young adult smokers. Our results revealed abnormal RSFC and structural integrity within the SN in young adult smokers, which shed new insights into the neural mechanism of nicotine dependence.

  4. Serum albumin correlates with affective prosody in adult males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Grabemann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Zimmermann, Marco; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2014-07-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum albumin, affective prosody, and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found coincidentally in a recently published study. Here, serum albumin levels were assessed as a covariate. Twenty healthy male adults (controls) and 20 adult male patients with ADHD participated in the study on two study days. Serum albumin levels and performance in an affective prosody task were assessed, and correlations were determined. Serum albumin had a significant correlation with performance on an affective prosody task on both of the 2 study days. The same correlations were not significant in the healthy control group. There was no difference in the serum albumin level between patients with ADHD and healthy controls. The association between serum albumin and affective prosody in adults with ADHD is a novel finding. However, to date, there is no clear theory that explains this association. Future research should analyze whether serum albumin influences causes changes in performance in affective prosody using experimental designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Angiotensin II and aldosterone increase with fasting in breeding adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rudy M; Crocker, Daniel E; Houser, Dorian S; Webb, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) appears to contribute significantly to osmoregulation of fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups; however, RAAS has not been characterized in fasting adult seals. Therefore, this study examined the contribution of RAAS to water turnover rates in fasting adult male northern elephant seals. Blood samples were obtained twice during their breeding fast at an interval of 6.5 wk, and water efflux rate was estimated by isotopic dilution during the same period. Serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-) and osmolality were unaltered between the two sampling periods, indicating ionic and osmotic homeostasis during the fast. Despite the lack of an increase in vasopressin, serum angiotensin II and aldosterone were increased and were significantly and positively correlated. Changes in aldosterone concentration and water efflux rate were significantly and negatively correlated, suggesting that the greater the increase in aldosterone, the smaller the loss of water. Adult male seals maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis similar to that of fasting weaned pups, and this homeostasis appears to be mediated, at least in part, by RAAS, which probably contributes to increased water retention as well. The hormonal mechanisms by which northern elephant seals maintain water and electrolyte balance during fasting conditions appear to be similar regardless of age.

  6. Maternal tobacco smoke increased visceral adiposity and serum corticosterone levels in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Lang, Brook Y; Yu, Baifeng; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Chengshe; Fitzhugh, Melanie; Dahl, Marjanna; Campbell, Michael S; Fung, Camille; Malleske, Daniel; Albertine, Kurt H; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2014-07-01

    Maternal tobacco smoke (MTS) predisposes human and rat offspring to visceral obesity in early adulthood. Glucocorticoid excess also causes visceral obesity. We hypothesized that in utero MTS would increase visceral adiposity and alter the glucocorticoid pathway in young adult rats. We developed a novel model of in utero MTS exposure in pregnant rats by exposing them to cigarette smoke from E11.5 to term. Neonatal rats were cross-fostered to control dams and weaned to standard rat chow through young adulthood (postnatal day 60). We demonstrated increased visceral adiposity (193%)*, increased visceral adipose 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 mRNA (204%)*, increased serum corticosterone (147%)*, and no change in glucocorticoid receptor protein in adult male MTS rat offspring. Female rats exposed to MTS in utero demonstrated no change in visceral or subcutaneous adiposity, decreased serum corticosterone (60%)*, and decreased adipose glucocorticoid receptor protein (66%)*. *P < 0.05. We conclude that in utero MTS exposure increased visceral adiposity and altered in the glucocorticoid pathway in a sex-specific manner. We speculate that in utero MTS exposure programs adipose dysfunction in adult male rat offspring via alteration in the glucocorticoid pathway.

  7. Handling alters cocaine-induced activity in adolescent but not adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Antoniette M.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    The developmental period of adolescence is one that is characterized by increased levels of stress and vulnerability to drugs. Pre-test handling is an experimental manipulation that is used to acclimate animals prior to behavioral testing and exposure to a novel environment. Therefore, the present study was conducted in order to address the issue of pre-test handling of adolescent and adult male rats on subsequent cocaine-induced locomotor activity upon presentation to a novel environment. On days one through four, postnatal day (PND) 41–44 or PND 56–59, respectively, animals were handled b.i.d. for three minutes. On the fifth day, PND 45 or PND 60, animals were administered 30 mg/kg/ip cocaine or saline and immediately placed in a novel environment where locomotor activity was measured for 30 minutes. Cocaine increased locomotor activity similarly in all non-handled animals, regardless of age. Interestingly, adolescent animals expressed a differential effect when handled prior to an acute cocaine administration. Specifically, handling increased cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent but not adult animals. These findings indicate that adolescent males that have been acclimated to the handling procedure experience significantly more behavioral reactivity than do adults to a high dose of cocaine upon exposure to a novel environment. PMID:15708784

  8. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  9. Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained

    PubMed Central

    Lensu, Sanna; Ahtiainen, Juha P.; Johansson, Petra P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Key points Aerobic exercise, such as running, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in rodents.Little is known about the effects of high‐intensity interval training (HIT) or of purely anaerobic resistance training on AHN.Here, compared with a sedentary lifestyle, we report a very modest effect of HIT and no effect of resistance training on AHN in adult male rats.We found the most AHN in rats that were selectively bred for an innately high response to aerobic exercise that also run voluntarily and increase maximal running capacity.Our results confirm that sustained aerobic exercise is key in improving AHN. Abstract Aerobic exercise, such as running, has positive effects on brain structure and function, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and learning. Whether high‐intensity interval training (HIT), referring to alternating short bouts of very intense anaerobic exercise with recovery periods, or anaerobic resistance training (RT) has similar effects on AHN is unclear. In addition, individual genetic variation in the overall response to physical exercise is likely to play a part in the effects of exercise on AHN but is less well studied. Recently, we developed polygenic rat models that gain differentially for running capacity in response to aerobic treadmill training. Here, we subjected these low‐response trainer (LRT) and high‐response trainer (HRT) adult male rats to various forms of physical exercise for 6–8 weeks and examined the effects on AHN. Compared with sedentary animals, the highest number of doublecortin‐positive hippocampal cells was observed in HRT rats that ran voluntarily on a running wheel, whereas HIT on the treadmill had a smaller, statistically non‐significant effect on AHN. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was elevated in both LRT and HRT rats that underwent endurance training on a treadmill compared with those that performed RT by climbing a vertical ladder with weights, despite their significant gain in strength

  10. Climatic change and its ecological implications at a subantarctic island.

    PubMed

    Smith, V R; Steenkamp, Marianna

    1990-11-01

    Marion Island (47°S, 38°E) has one of the most oceanic climates on earth, with consistently low air temperatures, high precipitation, constantly high humidity, and low incident radiation. Since 1968 mean surface air temperature has increased significantly, by 0.025° C year(-1). This was strongly associated with corresponding changes in sea surface temperature but only weakly, or not at all, with variations in radiation and precipitation. We suggest that changing sealevel (atmospheric and oceanic) circulation patterns in the region underlie all of these changes. Sub-Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by being species-poor and having a simple trophic structure. Marion Island is no exception and a scenario is presented of the implications of climatic change for the structure and functioning of its ecosystem. Primary production on the island is high and consequently the vegetation has a large annual requirement for nutrients. There are no macroherbivores and even the insects play only a small role as herbivores, so most of the energy and nutrients incorporated in primary production go through a detritus, rather than grazing, cycle. Ameliorating temperatures and increasing CO2 levels are expected to increase productivity and nutrient demand even further. However, most of the plant communities occur on soils which have especially low available levels of nutrients and nutrient mineralization from organic reserves is the main bottleneck in nutrient cycling and primary production. Increasing temperatures will not significantly enhance microbially-mediated mineralization rates since soil microbiological processes on the island are strongly limited by waterlogging, rather than by temperature. The island supports large numbers of soil macro-arthropods, which are responsible for most of the nutrient release from peat and litter. The activities of these animals are strongly temperature dependent and increasing temperature will result in enhanced nutrient

  11. Description of Pseudingolfiella possessionis n. sp. (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from sub-Antarctic Île de La Possession, Crozet archipelago: the second freshwater amphipod known from the Antarctic biome, a human introduction of Gondwanan ancestry?

    PubMed

    Smet, Willem H De

    2015-03-31

    A new species of freshwater amphipod, Pseudingolfiella possessionis n. sp. (Senticaudata, Pseudingolfiellidae), is described from the submerged moss vegetation of small brooklets at sub-Antarctic Île de La Possession, Crozet archipelago. It constitutes the second freshwater amphipod species known for the sub-Antarctic and Antarctic region, and the fourth member of the genus. The main characters distinguishing it from all congeners are: the spine on the posterior margin of the dactylus, incisor and lamina mobilis of mandible each with 5 teeth, the setation of the maxilliped, the vestigial second article of pleopod 3 in the female, the undulate and laterally notched posterolateral margin of the external ramus of uropods 1 and 2 in the male, the spinulate dorsomedian projection of the telson.

  12. How does Subantarctic Mode Water ventilate the Southern Hemisphere subtropics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel C.; Meijers, Andrew J. S.; Shuckburgh, Emily; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Haynes, Peter; McAufield, Ewa K.; Mazloff, Matthew R.

    2016-09-01

    In several regions north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), deep wintertime convection refreshes pools of weakly stratified subsurface water collectively referred to as Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW). SAMW ventilates the subtropical thermocline on decadal timescales, providing nutrients for low-latitude productivity and potentially trapping anthropogenic carbon in the deep ocean interior for centuries. In this work, we investigate the spatial structure and timescales of mode water export and associated thermocline ventilation. We use passive tracers in an eddy-permitting, observationally-informed Southern Ocean model to identify the pathways followed by mode waters between their formation regions and the areas where they first enter the subtropics. We find that the pathways followed by the mode water tracers are largely set by the mean geostrophic circulation. Export from the Indian and Central Pacific mode water pools is primarily driven by large-scale gyre circulation, whereas export from the Australian and Atlantic pools is heavily influenced by the ACC. Export from the Eastern Pacific mode water pool is driven by a combination of deep boundary currents and subtropical gyre circulation. More than 50% of each mode water tracer reaches the subtropical thermocline within 50 years, with significant variability between pools. The Eastern Pacific pathway is especially efficient, with roughly 80% entering the subtropical thermocline within 50 years. The time required for 50% of the mode water tracers to leave the Southern Ocean domain varies significantly between mode water pools, from 9 years for the Indian mode water pool to roughly 40 years for the Central Pacific mode water pool.

  13. Normal isometric and isokinetic peak torques of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in young adult Saudi males.

    PubMed

    Alangari, Abdulrahman S; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2004-07-01

    To provide reference data for peak isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in young adult Saudi males. The strength of left and right quadriceps and hamstrings leg muscles was assessed in 132 college-male students in the campus of King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the year 2002 using a Cybex machine and a standardized protocol at the following velocities: 0, 60, 180, and 300 degrees/sec. Isometric strength (0 degrees/sec) was assessed at 65 degrees angle of knee flexion. Isometric flexion strength was 9.3% higher in the right leg compared to the left (p < 0.01), while there was no significant difference between the 2 legs in extension. In isokinetic strength, there was a decrease in both extension and flexion strength with increasing velocity. However, only in flexion strength a significant right-left difference was observed. Flexion/extension peak concentric torque ratio relative to angular velocity varied from 59.9-63.3% in the right leg and from 55.8-59.9% in the left leg, with significant difference (p < 0.02) between the 2 legs. In addition, the angle of peak torque decreased with increasing velocity at knee extension but increased at knee flexion. Young Saudi males appeared to have similar isometric peak strength in the knee extensors but not in the flexors when compared to previously published research. Isokinetic extension strength at 60 degrees/sec in the Saudi males is lower than values reported for untrained males elsewhere. Furthermore, the hamstrings/quadriceps ratio in Saudi males seems to be within the recommended range of appropriate muscle function.

  14. Environment and activity affect skin temperature in breeding adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Norris, A L; Houser, D S; Crocker, D E

    2010-12-15

    The large body size and high rates of metabolic heat production associated with male mating success in polygynous systems creates potential thermoregulatory challenges for species breeding in warm climates. This is especially true for marine predators carrying large blubber reserves intended for thermoregulation in cold water and fuel provision during extended fasts. Thermographic images were used to measure changes in skin temperature (T(S)) in adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) over the breeding season. Environmental variables, primarily ambient temperature and solar radiation, were the principal determinants of mean and maximum T(S). When controlled for environmental variables, dominance rank significantly impacted mean T(S), being highest in alpha males. Behavioral activity significantly influenced T(S) but in a counter-intuitive way, with inactive males exhibiting the highest T(S). This was likely due to strong impacts of environmental variables on the kinds of behavior exhibited, with males being less active on warm, humid days at peak solar radiation. We classified thermal windows as areas in which T(S) was one standard deviation greater than mean T(S) for the individual seal within a thermograph. Thermal features suggest active physiological thermoregulation during and after combat and significant circulatory adaptations for heat dumping, as evidenced by recurring locations of thermal windows representing widely varying T(S) values. Frequent observations of localized T(S) above 37°C, particularly after combat, suggest the production of thermoregulatory stress during breeding behavior. Our findings demonstrate the importance of environmental drivers in shaping activity patterns during breeding and provide evidence for thermoregulatory costs of successful breeding in large polygynous males.

  15. Of Mice and Men-Warning: Intact Versus Castrated Adult Male Mice as Xenograft Hosts Are Equivalent to Hypogonadal Versus Abiraterone Treated Aging Human Males, Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Sedelaar, J.P. Michiel; Dalrymple, Susan S.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immune deficient male mice bearing human prostate cancer xenografts are used to evaluate therapeutic response to novel androgen ablation approaches and the results compared to surgical castration based upon assumption that testosterone microenvironment in intact and castrated adult male mice mimics eugonadal and castrated aging adult human males. METHODS To test these assumptions, serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were determined longitudinally in groups (n > 20) of intact versus castrated adult male nude, NOG, and immune competent C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS In adult male mice, TT and FT varies by 30- to 100-fold within the same animal providing a microenvironment that is only equivalent to hypogonadal, not eugonadal, adult human males (TT is 1.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml [5.8 ± 4.1 nM] in nude and 2.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml [8.7 ± 4.4 nM] in NOG mice versus >4.2 ng/ml [14.7 nM] in eugonadal humans). This was confirmed based upon enhanced growth of androgen dependent human prostate cancer xenografts inoculated into mice supplemented with exogenous testosterone to elevate and chronically maintain serum TT at a level (5 ng/ml [18 nM]) equivalent to a 50-year-old eugonadal human male. In castrated mice, TT and FT range from 2 to 20 pg/ml (7–70 pM) and <0.8 pg/ml (<2.6 pM), respectively, which is equivalent to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone. This was confirmed based upon the inability of another CYP17A1 inhibitor, ketoconazole, to inhibit the growth of CRPC xenografts in castrated mice. CONCLUSIONS Adult male mice supplemented with testosterone mimic eugonadal human males, while unsupplemented animals mimic standard androgen ablation and castrated animals mimic abiraterone treated patients. These studies confirm what is claimed in Robert Burns’ poem “To a Mouse” that “The best laid schemes of mice and men/often go awry. PMID:23775398

  16. Whole adult organism transcriptional profiling of acute metal exposures in male Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A convergence of technological breakthroughs in the past decade has facilitated the development of rapid screening tools for biomarkers of toxicant exposure and effect. Platforms using the whole adult organism to evaluate the genome-wide response to toxicants are especially attractive. Recent work demonstrates the feasibility of this approach in vertebrates using the experimentally robust zebrafish model. In the present study, we evaluated gene expression changes in whole adult male zebrafish following an acute 24 hr high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 hr LC20, LC40 and LC60. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal. Results Comparative analysis identified subsets of differentially expressed transcripts both overlapping and unique to each metal. Application of gene ontology (GO) and transcription factor (TF) enrichment algorithms revealed a number of key biological processes perturbed by metal poisonings and the master transcriptional regulators mediating gene expression changes. Metal poisoning differentially activated biological processes associated with ribosome biogenesis, proteosomal degradation, and p53 signaling cascades, while repressing oxygen-generating pathways associated with amino acid and lipid metabolism. Despite appreciable effects on gene regulation, nickel poisoning did not induce any morphological alterations in male zebrafish organs and tissues. Histopathological effects of cobalt remained confined to the olfactory system, while chromium targeted the gills, pharynx, and intestinal mucosa. A number of enriched transcription factors mediated the observed gene response to metal poisoning, including known targets such as p53, HIF1α, and the myc oncogene, and novel

  17. Juvenile but not adult methamphetamine exposure improves performance in the Morris Water Maze in male rats.

    PubMed

    Moenk, Michael D; Matuszewich, Leslie

    2012-06-01

    Early exposure to psychostimulants has been found to lead to long-lasting effects on cognitive processes. Our lab has previously reported that juvenile male rats administered methamphetamine showed improved performance in a spatial navigation task when tested in adulthood (McFadden and Matuszewich, 2007). What is not known, however, is if these effects are specific to the developing rat, or if a similar methamphetamine protocol given to adult rats would lead to an equally beneficial long-term change in spatial cognition. In the current study, male rats were given 1 daily injection of 2mg/kg methamphetamine or saline for 15 days during either preadolescence (PD20-34) or adulthood (PD70-84). Approximately 45 days after treatment, all rats then underwent 5 days of place training in the Morris water maze at a time when juvenile rats reached adulthood. Similar to previous findings, juvenile rats exposed to repeated methamphetamine displayed shorter latencies and distances to reach the platform throughout training compared to saline-treated rats. The juvenile rats treated with methamphetamine also swam shorter distances and had faster latencies to the hidden platform compared to adult methamphetamine-treated rats. There were no significant differences in rats treated in adulthood with methamphetamine compared to saline-treated rats. Likewise, there were no effects of prior methamphetamine treatment or age on matching-to-place trials or visible platform trials. Overall, the results show that repeated methamphetamine exposure can selectively improve spatial learning in adult male rats when administered during preadolescence, but does not significantly affect spatial learning when administered in adulthood. Furthermore, the current findings demonstrate the unique susceptibility of the developing brain to drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity, as well as the long-term behavioral impact of exposure at critical ages.

  18. Perfluorooctane sulfonate effects on the reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Pereiro, N; Moyano, R; Lafuente, A

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a neurotoxic agent and it can disrupt the endocrine system activity. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of PFOS exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in adult male rats, and to evaluate the possible morphological alterations induced by PFOS in the endocrine tissues of this axis. Adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic noradrenaline concentration increased in the anterior hypothalamus and in the median eminence, not changing in the mediobasal hypothalamus. PFOS treated rats presented a decrease of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression, increasing the mRNA levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats treated with all doses administered except with the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. PFOS also induced a raise of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gene expression in the animals exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic GnRH concentration was modified, LH and testosterone release was inhibited and FSH secretion was stimulated. Moreover, PFOS induced several histopathological alterations in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testis. The results obtained in the present study suggest in general terms that PFOS can inhibit the physiological activity of the reproductive axis in adult male rats, which could be explained, at least in part, by the structural alterations showed in the animals exposed to this chemical: very dense chromatin, condensed ribosomes and a loss of the morphology in the hypothalamus; a degeneration of the gonadotrophic cells, as well as a loss and degeneration of the spermatozoids and a very marked edema in the testis.

  19. Blood loss during extensive escharectomy and auto-microskin grafting in adult male major burn patients.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gaoxing; Fan, Hua; Sun, Wei; Peng, Yizhi; Chen, Lang; Tao, Junsheng; Li, Jun; Yang, Sisi; Li, Xianchang; Fitzgerald, Mark; Wu, Jun

    2011-08-01

    To improve the accuracy of blood loss estimation during extensive escharectomy and auto-microskin grafting on extremities in adult male major burn patients. All adult male major burn patients admitted to our center who underwent extensive escharectomy and auto-microskin graft on extremities for more than 10% TBSA during the period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 were involved in this study. The blood loss during the operation was estimated by the surgeons or calculated according to the changes in hemoglobin levels. The average burn and escharectomy areas for the 64 burn patients included in the study were 74.16 ± 16.96% and 30.27 ± 15.63% TBSA respectively. The auto-microskin donor area was 3.81% TBSA. The volumes of intra-operative calculated and estimated blood losses and transfused blood during the operation were 0.47 ml/cm2, 0.13 ml/cm2 and 0.20 ml/cm2 surgical area 77.29 ml, 20.51 ml and 32.83 ml per 1% TBSA), respectively. Within two weeks after injury surgical blood loss appeared to be greater the later the operation was carried out. Within the first week after injury the mean proportional blood loss was increased with area excised. In this study the average calculated blood loss for the operation of extensive escharectomy and microskin graft in adult male major burn patient was 0.47 ml/cm2 (77.29 ml per 1% TBSA). This result will help us to predict expected blood loss more accurately. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Whole adult organism transcriptional profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hussainzada, Naissan; Lewis, John A; Baer, Christine E; Ippolito, Danielle L; Jackson, David A; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2014-03-10

    A convergence of technological breakthroughs in the past decade has facilitated the development of rapid screening tools for biomarkers of toxicant exposure and effect. Platforms using the whole adult organism to evaluate the genome-wide response to toxicants are especially attractive. Recent work demonstrates the feasibility of this approach in vertebrates using the experimentally robust zebrafish model. In the present study, we evaluated gene expression changes in whole adult male zebrafish following an acute 24 hr high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 hr LC20, LC40 and LC60. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal. Comparative analysis identified subsets of differentially expressed transcripts both overlapping and unique to each metal. Application of gene ontology (GO) and transcription factor (TF) enrichment algorithms revealed a number of key biological processes perturbed by metal poisonings and the master transcriptional regulators mediating gene expression changes. Metal poisoning differentially activated biological processes associated with ribosome biogenesis, proteosomal degradation, and p53 signaling cascades, while repressing oxygen-generating pathways associated with amino acid and lipid metabolism. Despite appreciable effects on gene regulation, nickel poisoning did not induce any morphological alterations in male zebrafish organs and tissues. Histopathological effects of cobalt remained confined to the olfactory system, while chromium targeted the gills, pharynx, and intestinal mucosa. A number of enriched transcription factors mediated the observed gene response to metal poisoning, including known targets such as p53, HIF1α, and the myc oncogene, and novel regulatory factors

  1. Embryonic Atrazine Exposure Elicits Alterations in Genes Associated with Neuroendocrine Function in Adult Male Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Sepúlveda, Maria S.; Weber, Gregory J.; Jannasch, Amber S.; Horzmann, Katharine A.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis states that exposure to environmental stressors early in life can elicit genome and epigenome changes resulting in an increased susceptibility of a disease state during adulthood. Atrazine, a common agricultural herbicide used throughout the Midwestern United States, frequently contaminates potable water supplies and is a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. In our previous studies, zebrafish was exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (μg/l) atrazine through embryogenesis, rinsed, and allowed to mature to adulthood. A decrease in spawning was observed with morphological alterations in offspring. In addition, adult females displayed an increase in ovarian progesterone and follicular atresia, alterations in levels of a serotonin metabolite and serotonin turnover in brain tissue, and transcriptome changes in brain and ovarian tissue supporting neuroendocrine alterations. As reproductive dysfunction is also influenced by males, this study assessed testes histology, hormone levels, and transcriptomic profiles of testes and brain tissue in the adult males. The embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in no alterations in body or testes weight, gonadosomatic index, testes histology, or levels of 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. To further investigate potential alterations, transcriptomic profiles of adult male testes and brain tissue was completed. This analysis demonstrated alterations in genes associated with abnormal cell and neuronal growth and morphology; molecular transport, quantity, and production of steroid hormones; and neurotransmission with an emphasis on the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal and hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axes. Overall, this data indicate future studies should focus on additional neuroendocrine endpoints to determine potential functional impairments. PMID:27413107

  2. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    PubMed Central

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

  3. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  4. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, T; Ramachandra Reddy, P; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2004-05-01

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  5. Immunity to tetanus in male adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Aboud, S; Lyamuya, E F; Kristoffersen, E K; Matre, R

    2002-02-01

    To determine immunity to tetanus in male blood donors with previous diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT)/tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination. A cross sectional study, conducted in September 1999. Blood bank, Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Using an antigen competition ELISA technique, serum tetanus anti-toxin levels in two hundred male blood donors were determined. Vaccination history was absent in 43 (21.5%) blood donors, whereas 60 (30%) and 97 (48.5%) reported childhood DPT and TT vaccination, respectively. Tetanus anti-toxin was undetectable in 47 (23.5%) blood donors and the levels were below that considered protective (> or = 0.1 IU/ml) in 25 (12.5%). Among those with undetectable level, 43 (91.5%) had no vaccination history. Time after last DPT/TT vaccination correlated significantly with tetanus anti-toxin levels (r2=-0.331, p=0.001). In multivariate analysis, TT doses received and time after last vaccination explained 4.8% and 29.4%, respectively, of the variations in tetanus anti-toxin levels. Seventy two (36%) male blood donors were susceptible to tetanus and the susceptibility was highest from 48 years. A regular TT booster dose at 10 yearly intervals is recommended to provide adequate and long lasting immunity in male adults. Proper keeping of vaccination records is emphasised.

  6. Health promotion with adolescent and young adult males: an empowerment approach.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Bruce; Cohall, Alwyn

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent and young adult males, especially those who are economically and socially marginalized, need greater access to "male-friendly" health services. Engaging young males in health education and clinical services is challenging but feasible and is of vital importance not only for young men, but also their families, their communities, and the nation. Health and social service providers can play vital roles in promoting the health and well-being of young men by developing mutually respectful collaborations that break down the silos separating medical, educational, juvenile justice, social service, and other systems. We present the interdisciplinary clinic- and community-based initiatives developed by Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and New York-Presbyterian Hospital that connect young males to clinical and health education services and empower them to choose behaviors that promote their health. We describe our "empowerment approach" to working with young men that recognizes the powerful influence of gender on utilization of health services, emphasizes the importance of a strengths-based perspective, and reframes the context of help seeking from passive participation to active engagement.

  7. Antiandrogenic pesticides disrupt sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed Central

    Baatrup, E; Junge, M

    2001-01-01

    Environmental contaminants have been identified as endocrine disruptors through their antiandrogenic activity. Thus, as androgen receptor antagonists, the fungicide vinclozolin and the principal DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE have been demonstrated to induce demasculinization in rats. Whether this is also the case in fish remains to be demonstrated. For a period of 30 days, groups of adult male guppies were exposed to vinclozolin, p,p'-DDE, or the therapeutic antiandrogen flutamide (used as positive control) applied to the fodder at concentrations between 0.1 and 100 microg/g fodder. Subsequently, sexual characteristics of relevance to the male reproductive capacity were measured and compared with untreated control fish. All three chemicals caused profound alterations at increasing levels of biological organization, even in these fully matured males. At the cellular level, the three compounds induced a significant reduction in the number of ejaculated sperm cells. At the organ level, the sexually attractive orange-yellow coloration was reduced in area and discolored, and treated fish also had smaller testes. Further, at the organismal level, computer-aided behavior analyses demonstrated a severe disruption in male courtship behavior. We conclude that this demasculinization is consistent with an antiandrogenic action of vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE and is likely to compromise reproductive capability in this fish. PMID:11675272

  8. Development of prolactin levels in marmoset males: from adult son to first-time father.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten; Anzenberger, Gustl

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have found a clear relationship between prolactin (prl) and paternal care in various vertebrate taxa. In New World monkeys, it has been demonstrated in several species that fathers have high prolactin levels even during periods without infant rearing. In this study, we followed the reproductive careers of common marmoset males as they transitioned from being an adult son within their native family to fathering their own offspring for the first time. Specifically, we examined the first experience of elevated prolactin levels in marmoset males. Additionally, we investigated the effects of the total number of experienced births as well as of age on prolactin levels. Our results show that common marmoset males did not experience an increase in prolactin secretion after pairing or shortly before birth of their first infants. However, prolactin levels rose more than twofold after the birth of their first infants and had lowered again 2.5 months after this event. We found no correlation between prolactin levels and the number of previous births experienced or age. Our study demonstrates that further work about a possible enhancing effect of prolactin on paternal care, by means of experimentally reducing hormonal levels, should be conducted in common marmosets using first-time fathers before males experience the first paternal increase in prolactin levels.

  9. Semen quality in adult male survivors 5 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, X M; Chen, S M; Yue, H X; Lin, L; Wu, Y B; Liu, B; Jiang, M; Ma, Y X

    2016-12-01

    The influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on semen quality of adult male survivors is unclear. We investigated the semen quality included 673 male survivors from the worse-affected counties in the earthquake between Aug 2008 and July 2013. Semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility and morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences between years, and a logistic regression was used to analyse the impacts caused by earthquake on the changes of semen quality. We found the medians (5th and 95th) were 2.5 ml (0.6-5.5) for semen volume, 59.0 × 10(6)  ml(-1) [(13.0-133.0)] × 10(6)  ml(-1) for semen concentration, 46% (13-64%) for sperm progressive motility and 3.0% (0-17.5%) for normal morphology for adult male survivors. Semen concentration, the percentage of sperm progressive motility, total motility and sperm normal morphology were all decreased in the first 3 years, and the differences among years 1, 2 and 3 were significant except the percentage of sperm progressive motility (P < 0.05). The casualties and heavy housing damage caused by earthquake had a negative effect on semen quality. The main findings will provide further diagnosis and therapy basis of male fertility by data, for affected populations in the earthquake. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. A Rare Case of Primary Anterior Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor in an Elderly Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Nakhla, Sammy G.; Sundararajan, Srinath

    2016-01-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Clinically they are classified as teratomas, seminomas, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Primary mediastinal yolk sac neoplasm is an extremely rare tumor. We present here a very rare case of primary yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum in a 73-year-old male. Mediastinal germ cell tumors have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors. Chemotherapy followed by adjuvant surgery improves overall response in EGGCTs. However, comorbidities can render treatment with chemotherapy and surgery challenging in elderly patients. PMID:27144043

  11. Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia in an adult male due to a novel mutation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanda; Qing, Qi; Liu, Xuesong; Chen, Sibei; Chen, Ziyi; Niu, Xuefeng; Tan, Yaxia; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by mutation in the gene coding for Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), which impairs peripheral B cell maturation and hypogammaglobulinemia. In this report, we present a case of XLA in a 22-year-old adult male. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation located at the conserved region (c.383T>C). The patient had a history of recurrent respiratory tract infection which eventually progressed to chronic type II respiratory failure. Several pathogenic bacteria were isolated on culture of respiratory secretions obtained on bronchoscopy. The patient improved on treatment with antibiotics. PMID:27867589

  12. Bruton's agammaglobulinemia in an adult male due to a novel mutation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanda; Qing, Qi; Liu, Xuesong; Chen, Sibei; Chen, Ziyi; Niu, Xuefeng; Tan, Yaxia; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yimin; Chen, Rongchang; Chen, Ling

    2016-10-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by mutation in the gene coding for Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), which impairs peripheral B cell maturation and hypogammaglobulinemia. In this report, we present a case of XLA in a 22-year-old adult male. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation located at the conserved region (c.383T>C). The patient had a history of recurrent respiratory tract infection which eventually progressed to chronic type II respiratory failure. Several pathogenic bacteria were isolated on culture of respiratory secretions obtained on bronchoscopy. The patient improved on treatment with antibiotics.

  13. Reactions to First Postpubertal Male Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors With Peers, Minors With Adults, and Adults With Adults.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce; Welter, Max

    2016-10-01

    Rind and Welter (2014) examined first postpubertal coitus using the Kinsey sample, finding that reactions were just as positive, and no more negative, among minors with adults compared to minors with peers and adults with adults. In the present study, we examined first postpubertal male same-sex sexual experiences in the Kinsey same-sex sample (i.e., participants mostly with extensive postpubertal same-sex behavior), comparing reactions across the same age categories. These data were collected between 1938 and 1961 (M year: 1946). Minors under age 18 years with adults (M ages: 14.0 and 30.5, respectively) reacted positively (i.e., enjoyed the experience "much") often (70 %) and emotionally negatively (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret) infrequently (16 %). These rates were the same as adults with adults (M ages: 21.2 and 25.9, respectively): 68 and 16 %, respectively. Minors with peers (M ages: 13.3 and 13.8, respectively) reacted positively significantly more often (82 %) and negatively nominally less often (9 %). Minors with adults reacted positively to intercourse (oral, anal) just as often (69 %) as to outercourse (body contact, masturbation, femoral) (72 %) and reacted emotionally negatively significantly less often (9 vs. 25 %, respectively). For younger minors (≤14) with adults aged 5-19 years older, reactions were just as positive (83 %) as for minors with peers within 1 year of age (84 %) and no more emotionally negative (11 vs. 7 %, respectively). Results are discussed in relation to findings regarding first coitus in the Kinsey sample and to the cultural context particular to Kinsey's time.

  14. Stress, kappa manipulations, and aversive effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel I.; Agoglia, Abigail E.; Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated ethanol use during adolescence, a potentially stressful developmental period, is accompanied by insensitivity to many aversive effects of ethanol relative to adults. Given evidence that supports a role for stress and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system in mediating aversive properties of ethanol and other drugs, the present study assessed the role of KOR antagonism by norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in stressed (exposed to repeated restraint) and non-stressed male rats (Experiment 1), with half of the rats pretreated with nor-BNI before stressor exposure. In Experiment 2, CTA induced by the kappa agonist U62,066 was also compared in stressed and non-stressed adolescents and adults. A highly palatable solution (chocolate Boost) was used as the conditioned stimulus (CS), thereby avoiding the need for water deprivation to motivate consumption of the CS during conditioning. No effects of stress on ethanol-induced CTA were found, with all doses eliciting aversions in adolescents and adults in both stress conditions. However, among stressed subjects, adults given nor-BNI before the repeated stressor displayed blunted ethanol aversion relative to adults given saline at that time. This effect of nor-BNI was not seen in adolescents, findings that support a differential role for the KOR involvement in ethanol CTA in stressed adolescents and adults. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that all doses of U62,066 elicited aversions in non-stressed animals of both ages that were attenuated in stressed animals, findings that support a modulatory role for stress in aversive effects of KOR activation. Collectively, these results suggest that although KOR sensitivity appears to be reduced in stressed subjects, this receptor system does not appear to contribute to age differences in ethanol-induced CTA under the present test circumstances. PMID:23276674

  15. Steroidogenic Factor 1 Differentially Regulates Fetal and Adult Leydig Cell Development in Male Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Karpova, Tatiana; Ravichandiran, Kumarasamy; Insisienmay, Lovella; Rice, Daren; Agbor, Valentine; Heckert, Leslie L.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, AD4BP, NR5A1) is a key regulator of the endocrine axes and is essential for adrenal and gonad development. Partial rescue of Nr5a1−/− mice with an SF-1-expressing transgene caused a hypomorphic phenotype that revealed its roles in Leydig cell development. In contrast to controls, all male rescue mice (Nr5a1−/−;tg+/0) showed varying signs of androgen deficiency, including spermatogenic arrest, cryptorchidism, and poor virilization. Expression of various Leydig cell markers measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR indicated fetal and adult Leydig cell development were differentially impaired. Whereas fetal Leydig cell development was delayed in Nr5a1−/−;tg+/0 embryos, it recovered to control levels by birth. In contrast, Sult1e1, Vcam1, and Hsd3b6 transcript levels in adult rescue testes indicated complete blockage in adult Leydig cell development. In addition, between Postnatal Days 8 and 12, peritubular cells expressing PTCH1, SF-1, and CYP11A1 were observed in control testes but not in rescue testes, indicating SF-1 is needed for either survival or differentiation of adult Leydig cell progenitors. Cultured prepubertal rat peritubular cells also expressed SF-1 and PTCH1, but Cyp11a1 was expressed only after treatment with cAMP and retinoic acid. Together, data show SF-1 is needed for proper development of fetal and adult Leydig cells but with distinct primary functions; in fetal Leydig cells, it regulates differentiation, whereas in adult Leydig cells it regulates progenitor cell formation and/or survival. PMID:26269506

  16. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) was administered after a novel environment test, with behavior observed in the same context for 90 min thereafter. Adult rats that had been defeated in adolescence showed increased locomotion in the novel environment, but reduced amphetamine-induced locomotion relative to non-defeated age matched controls. Monoamine and corticosterone responses to amphetamine were examined following a second amphetamine injection 3 days later. In previously defeated rats, corticosterone and medial prefrontal cortex dopamine responses to amphetamine were blunted while dopamine responses in the nucleus accumbens core were elevated. Our results suggest that experience of social defeat stress during adolescent development can contribute to altered behavioral and endocrine responses to amphetamine in adulthood. Furthermore, these effects are paralleled by changes in amphetamine-induced dopamine responses in corticolimbic systems implicated in addiction disorders. PMID:20603109

  17. Adolescent TBI-induced hypopituitarism causes sexual dysfunction in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2015-02-01

    Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults.

  18. Investigating the Effects of Smoking on Young Adult Male Voice by Using Multidimensional Methods.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Dogan; Cincik, Hakan; Erkul, Evren; Gungor, Atila

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is one of the most common harmful habits in the world, especially common among young adult male population in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on the young adults' male voice using multidimensional voice assessment methods. This is a case-control study. The study included 109 young adult men, 51 nonsmokers and 58 smokers between the ages of 20 and 34 years. The voice evaluation protocol consisted of voice handicap index (VHI), maximum phonation time (MPT), and perceptual, acoustic, and videostroboscopic analyses. A statistically significant increase for physical, physiological, and total scores of VHI was found in smokers group (P < 0.05). MPT showed significantly lower values among smokers (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in perceptual analysis of voice samples between smoker and nonsmoker groups. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between smoker and nonsmoker groups. Results of videostroboscopic analysis showed significant relationships between smoking and increased vocal fold erythema (P < 0.05). In addition, significantly asymmetry, amplitude, and periodicity abnormality of vocal fold movements were observed in smoker group during phonation (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that observable signs of laryngeal irritation and disturbed phonatory physiology occur even in young adults with relatively brief smoking habits. Subjective symptoms of smoking on voice appear to occur earlier than objective findings. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistance circuit training reduced inflammatory cytokines in a cohort of male adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Ignacio; Fornieles, Gabriel; Rosety, Miguel A; Diaz, Antonio J; Rosety, Manuel; Ordonez, Francisco J

    2013-11-07

    It is widely accepted that muscle strength plays a key role on functional tasks of daily living and employability in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Recent studies have also reported resistance training may improve chronic inflammation in other clinical situations. This is the first study conducted to determine the effect of resistance circuit training on low-grade systemic inflammation in adults with DS. A total of 40 young male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities and their families. They had medical approval for physical activity participation. Twenty-four were randomly assigned to perform resistance circuit training with 6 stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Exercise intensity was based on function of the 8RM assessments. The control group included 16 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched adults with Down syndrome. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and TNF-a were assessed by commercial ELISA kits. C-reactive protein (CRP) was assessed by nephelometry. Body composition was also determined, measuring fat-free mass percentage and waist circumference (WC). This protocol was approved by our Institutional Ethics Committee. Plasma levels of leptin, TNF-a, and IL-6 were significantly decreased after the completion of the training program, as were fat-free mass and WC. No sports-related injuries or withdrawals from the program were reported during the entire study period. No changes were observed in the control group. Resistance circuit training improved low-grade systemic inflammation in male sedentary adults with DS.

  20. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  1. Adult Attachment, Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation, and Depression in Gay Males: Examining the Mediation and Moderation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen

    2006-01-01

    This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…

  2. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  3. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  4. Adult Attachment, Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation, and Depression in Gay Males: Examining the Mediation and Moderation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen

    2006-01-01

    This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…

  5. Effects of maternal stress and perinatal fluoxetine exposure on behavioral outcomes of adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Kiryanova, V; Meunier, S J; Vecchiarelli, H A; Hill, M N; Dyck, R H

    2016-04-21

    Women of child-bearing age are the population group at highest risk for depression. In pregnant women, fluoxetine (Flx) is the most widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of depression. While maternal stress, depression, and Flx exposure have been shown to effect neurodevelopment of the offspring, separately, combined effects of maternal stress and Flx exposure have not been extensively examined. The present study investigated the effects of prenatal maternal stress and perinatal exposure to the SSRI Flx on the behavior of male mice as adults. C57BL/6 dams exposed to chronic unpredictable stress from embryonic (E) day 4 to E18 and non-stressed dams were administered Flx (25 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water from E15 to postnatal day 12. A separate control group consisted of animals that were not exposed to stress or Flx. At 12 days of age, brain levels of serotonin were assessed in the male offspring. At two months of age, the male offspring of mothers exposed to prenatal stress (PS), perinatal Flx, PS and Flx, or neither PS or Flx, went through a comprehensive behavioral test battery. At the end of testing brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in the frontal cortex of the offspring. Maternal behavior was not altered by either stress or Flx treatment. Treatment of the mother with Flx led to detectible Flx and NorFlx levels and lead to a decrease in serotonin levels in pup brains. In the adult male offspring, while perinatal exposure to Flx increased aggressive behavior, prenatal maternal stress decreased aggressive behavior. Interestingly, the combined effects of stress and Flx normalized aggressive behavior. Furthermore, perinatal Flx treatment led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in male offspring. PS led to hyperactivity and a decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal cortex regardless of Flx exposure. Neither maternal stress or Flx altered offspring performance in tests of cognitive

  6. Toxicity of diesel contaminated soils to the subantarctic earthworm Microscolex macquariensis.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Thomas J; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Andrew, Nigel R

    2013-02-01

    Several fuel spills have occurred on subantarctic Macquarie Island (54°30' S 158°57' E) associated with storing fuel and generating power for the island's research station. The Australian Antarctic Division began full-scale, on-site remediation of these sites in 2009. To develop appropriate target concentrations for remediation, acute and chronic tests were developed with the endemic earthworm, Microscolex macquariensis, using avoidance, survival, and reproduction as endpoints. Uncontaminated low (3%), medium (11%), and high (38-48%) carbon content soils from Macquarie Island were used to examine the influence of soil carbon on toxicity. Soils were spiked with Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel and used either immediately to simulate a fresh spill or after four weeks to simulate an aged spill. Earthworms were sensitive to fresh SAB, with significant avoidance at 181 mg/kg; acute 14-d survival median lethal concentration (LC50) of 103 mg/kg for low carbon soil; and juvenile production median effective concentration (EC50) of 317 mg/kg for high carbon soil. Earthworms were less sensitive to aged SAB than to fresh SAB in high carbon soil for juvenile production (EC50 of 1,753 and 317 mg/kg, respectively), but were more sensitive for adult survival (LC50 of 2,322 and 1,364 mg/kg, respectively). Using M. macquariensis as a surrogate for soil quality, approximately 50 to 200 mg SAB/kg soil would be a sufficiently protective remediation target.

  7. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari

    2004-03-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.

  8. Neonatal stress alters LTP in freely moving male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, P; Bronzino, J D

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that neonatal isolation stress significantly changes measures of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in male and female juvenile rats, i.e., at 30 days of age. The changes in dentate granule population measures, i.e., excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and population spike amplitude (PSA), evoked by tetanization of the medial perforant pathway, indicated that juvenile rats exposed to neonatal isolation exhibit different enhancement profiles with respect to both the magnitude and duration of LTP in a sex-specific manner. Isolated males showed a significantly greater enhancement of LTP, while female "isolates" showed significantly longer LTP duration when compared to all other groups. The present study was designed to determine whether the effects of the neonatal isolation stress paradigm endures into adulthood. Rats isolated from their mothers for 1 h per day during postnatal days 2-9 were surgically prepared at 70-90 days of age, with stimulating and recording electrodes placed in the medial perforant pathway and the hippocampal dentate gyrus, respectively. Prior to tetanization, no significant effect of sex or treatment was obtained for baseline measures of EPSP slope or PSA. In order to rule out baseline differences in hippocampal cell excitability in female adult rats, we measured the response of dentate granule cells for one estrus cycle and found no pretetanization enhancement in the evoked response in either controls or previously stressed rats. Following tetanization, there was a significant treatment and sex effect. During the induction of LTP, PSA values were significantly enhanced in both isolated males and females and had significantly longer LTP duration when compared to the unhandled control group. Additionally, we observed that females took longer to reach baseline levels than males. Taken together, these results indicate that repeated infant isolation stress enhances LTP induction and duration in both males and

  9. Prevalence of Functional Dentition in a Group of Mexican Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Márquez-Corona, María de Lourdes; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2017-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of functional dentition and associated periodontal variables in a sample of Mexican adult males. A cross-sectional study of 161 policemen in Campeche, Mexico, was carried out. A clinical examination using an electronic probe was used to collect variables (dental plaque, periodontal pockets, gingival recession, suppuration, and bleeding on probing) on 6 periodontal sites (a maximum of 168 sites, excluding third molars). Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were collected through a self-administered survey. Functional dentition was defined as having 21 or more natural teeth. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0, using logistic regression models. Mean age was 38.3 (±10.9) years. The prevalence of having a functional dentition was 83.8% in the sample. The odds of having a functional dentition declined with age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93), having diabetes (OR = 0.27) and with having a high percentage of sites with plaque (OR = 0.77), with bleeding on probing (OR = 0.97), and with gingival recession (OR = 0.82). While a large proportion of subjects had a functional dentition in this community-dwelling sample of adult Mexican males, the likelihood of their having a functional dentition decreased with age, with their having been diagnosed with diabetes, and with assorted negative indicators of periodontal/gingival status.

  10. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-10-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language-neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity.

  11. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  12. The Effects of Inflammatory Tooth Pain on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Ebrahimnejad, Hamed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Amirkhosravi, Ladan; Raoof, Ramin; Esmaeili Mahani, Saeed; Ramazani, Mohsen; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. Methods: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test. Results: Intradental application of chemical noxious stimuli, capsaicin and formalin, significantly affected nociceptive behaviors (P<0.001). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) significantly increased the anxiety levels in rats by decrease in the duration of time spent in open arm and increase in the duration of time spent in closed arm. Rats that received capsaicin made fewer open arm entries compared to the control animals (P<0.05). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) treated rats showed more stretch attend postures compared to the control and sham operated animals. In diazepampretreated rats, capsaicin induced algesic effect was prevented (P<0.001). Conclusion: Inflammatory pulpal pain has anxiogenic effect on rats, whereas diazepam premedication showed both anxiolytic and pain reducing effects. PMID:27563419

  13. Photoperiodic regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Walton, James C; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Leuner, Benedetta; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-08-01

    Photoperiodic organisms monitor environmental day length to engage in seasonally appropriate adaptions in physiology and behavior. Among these adaptations are changes in brain volume and neurogenesis, which have been well described in multiple species of birds, yet few studies have described such changes in the brains of adult mammals. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species in which to investigate the effects of day length on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as males, in addition to having reduced hippocampal volume in short days (SD) with concomitant impairments in hippocampus-mediated behaviors, have photoperiod-dependent changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We performed the current experiment to assess the effects of photoperiod on hippocampal neurogenesis longitudinally, using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine at multiple time points across 10 weeks of SD exposure. Compared with counterparts held in long day (LD) lengths, across the first 8 weeks of SD exposure hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced. However, at 10 weeks in SD lengths neurogenic levels in the hippocampus were elevated above those levels in mice held in LD lengths. The current findings are consistent with the natural photoperiodic cycle of hippocampal function in male white-footed mice, and may help to inform research on photoperiodic plasticity in neurogenesis and provide insight into how the complex interplay among the environment, genes and adaptive responses to changing day lengths affects brain structure, function and behavior at multiple levels. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Photoperiodic Regulation of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Male White-footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus)

    PubMed Central

    Walton, James C.; Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Weil, Zachary M.; Leuner, Benedetta; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photoperiodic organisms monitor environmental day length to engage in seasonally appropriate adaptions in physiology and behavior. Among these adaptations are changes in brain volume and neurogenesis, which have been well-described in multiple species of birds, yet few studies have described such changes in the brains of adult mammals. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species in which to investigate the effects of day length on adult hippocampal neurogenesis as males, in addition to having reduced hippocampal volume in short days with concomitant impairments in hippocampus-mediated behaviors, have photoperiod-dependent changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We performed the current experiment to assess the effects of photoperiod on hippocampal neurogenesis longitudinally, using the thymidine analog BrdU at multiple time points across ten weeks of short day exposure. Compared to counterparts held in long day lengths, across the first eight weeks of short day exposure hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced. However, at ten weeks in short day lengths neurogenic levels in the hippocampus were elevated above those levels in mice held in long day lengths. The current findings are consistent with the natural photoperiodic cycle of hippocampal function in male white-footed mice, and may help to inform research on photoperiodic plasticity in neurogenesis and provide insight into how the complex interplay among the environment, genes, and adaptive responses to changing day lengths affects brain structure, function, and behavior at multiple levels. PMID:24893623

  15. Awareness of heart attack and stroke symptoms among Hispanic male adults living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Bardales, Ricardo; Bales, Robert; Aguero, Carlos; Brady, Shelly; Tobar, Adriana; McGrath, Cynthia; Zaiser, Julia; Lipsky, Martin S

    2010-10-01

    There is evidence that Hispanic men are a high risk group for treatment delay for both heart attack and stroke. More targeted research is needed to elucidate this specific population's knowledge of warning signs for these acute events. This study sought to describe within-group disparities in Hispanic men's knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze a multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Heart and Stroke module database. The data were cross-sectional and focused on health risk factors and behaviors. The research participants were U.S. male Hispanic adults aged 18-99. The main outcome measure for the study was heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded that Hispanic men aged >or=18 years who earned low scores on the composite heart attack and stroke knowledge questions (range 0-8 points) were more likely to: have less than a high school education, have deferred medical care because of cost, not have an identified health care provider, and be uninsured. There were significant within-group differences. Targeting educational efforts toward older (>or=55 years) Hispanic men with less than high school education, those who do not have an identified health care provider or health insurance, and who defer health care because of cost could be ways to improve the outcome of acute vascular events among the U.S. Hispanic adult male population.

  16. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language–neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  17. The Effect of Incarceration on Adult Male BMI Trajectories, United States, 1981-2006.

    PubMed

    Houle, Brian

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is socially patterned, with higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities, and those with lower socio-economic status. Contextual factors also affect obesity risk. However, an omitted factor has been incarceration, particularly since it disproportionately affects minorities. This study examines the effects of incarceration on adult male body mass index (BMI) in the United States over the life course, and whether effects vary by race/ethnicity and education. BMI trajectories were analyzed over age using growth curve models of men ages 18-49 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel study. BMI was based on self-reported height/weight (kg/m(2)). Being currently incarcerated increased BMI, but the effect varied by race/ethnicity and education: blacks experienced the largest increases, while effects were lowered for men with more education than a high school diploma. Cumulative exposure to prison increased BMI for all groups. These results suggest a differential effect of incarceration on adult male BMI among some racial/ethnic-education minority groups. Particularly given that these groups are most commonly imprisoned, incarceration may help structure obesity disparities and disadvantage across the life course.

  18. The Effects of Inflammatory Tooth Pain on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Raoof, Maryam; Ebrahimnejad, Hamed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Amirkhosravi, Ladan; Raoof, Ramin; Esmaeili Mahani, Saeed; Ramazani, Mohsen; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test. Intradental application of chemical noxious stimuli, capsaicin and formalin, significantly affected nociceptive behaviors (P<0.001). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) significantly increased the anxiety levels in rats by decrease in the duration of time spent in open arm and increase in the duration of time spent in closed arm. Rats that received capsaicin made fewer open arm entries compared to the control animals (P<0.05). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) treated rats showed more stretch attend postures compared to the control and sham operated animals. In diazepampretreated rats, capsaicin induced algesic effect was prevented (P<0.001). Inflammatory pulpal pain has anxiogenic effect on rats, whereas diazepam premedication showed both anxiolytic and pain reducing effects.

  19. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed. PMID:7287599

  20. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed.

  1. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ling M.; Tassone, Flora; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs) have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the FMR1 gene and are at increased risk of developing fragile x-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB) task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18–48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (n = 19) and age-matched male controls (n = 20). We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of executive working memory. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, in control participants we replicated a previously observed effect and demonstrated that it persists under more stringent theoretical constraints, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared. PMID:25698960

  2. Desvenlafaxine may accelerate neuronal maturation in the dentate gyri of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Aditya; Ball, Alan R; Laird, Christina D; Hermer, Linda; Ormerod, Brandi K

    2014-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the effects of anti-depressant drugs on behavior in rodent models of depression. To explore this link further, we tested whether the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine impacted adult hippocampal neurogenesis differently than its primary active SNRI metabolite desvenlafaxine. Adult male Long Evans rats (n = 5-6 per group) were fed vehicle, venlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg) or desvenlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg) twice daily for 16 days. Beginning the third day of drug treatment, the rats were given a daily bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) injection for 5 days to label dividing cells and then perfused 2 weeks after the first BrdU injection to confirm total new hippocampal cell numbers and their phenotypes. The high desvenlafaxine dose increased total new BrdU+ cell number and appeared to accelerate neuronal maturation because fewer BrdU+ cells expressed maturing neuronal phenotypes and more expressed mature neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyri of these versus vehicle-treated rats. While net neurogenesis was not increased in the dentate gyri of rats treated with the high desvenlafaxine dose, significantly more mature neurons were detected. Our data expand the body of literature showing that antidepressants impact adult neurogenesis by stimulating NPC proliferation and perhaps the survival of neuronal progeny and by showing that a high dose of the SNRI antidepressant desvenlafaxine, but neither a high nor low venlafaxine dose, may also accelerate neuronal maturation in the adult rat hippocampus. These data support the hypothesis that hippocampal neurogenesis may indeed serve as a biomarker of depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment, and may be informative for developing novel fast-acting antidepressant strategies.

  3. Desvenlafaxine May Accelerate Neuronal Maturation in the Dentate Gyri of Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Christina D.; Hermer, Linda; Ormerod, Brandi K.

    2014-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the effects of anti-depressant drugs on behavior in rodent models of depression. To explore this link further, we tested whether the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine impacted adult hippocampal neurogenesis differently than its primary active SNRI metabolite desvenlafaxine. Adult male Long Evans rats (n = 5–6 per group) were fed vehicle, venlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg) or desvenlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg) twice daily for 16 days. Beginning the third day of drug treatment, the rats were given a daily bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) injection for 5 days to label dividing cells and then perfused 2 weeks after the first BrdU injection to confirm total new hippocampal cell numbers and their phenotypes. The high desvenlafaxine dose increased total new BrdU+ cell number and appeared to accelerate neuronal maturation because fewer BrdU+ cells expressed maturing neuronal phenotypes and more expressed mature neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyri of these versus vehicle-treated rats. While net neurogenesis was not increased in the dentate gyri of rats treated with the high desvenlafaxine dose, significantly more mature neurons were detected. Our data expand the body of literature showing that antidepressants impact adult neurogenesis by stimulating NPC proliferation and perhaps the survival of neuronal progeny and by showing that a high dose of the SNRI antidepressant desvenlafaxine, but neither a high nor low venlafaxine dose, may also accelerate neuronal maturation in the adult rat hippocampus. These data support the hypothesis that hippocampal neurogenesis may indeed serve as a biomarker of depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment, and may be informative for developing novel fast-acting antidepressant strategies. PMID:24896246

  4. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.

  5. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-01-01

    Context:  The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. Objective:  To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. Data Sources:  We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Study Selection:  Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Data Extraction:  Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. Data Synthesis:  A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Conclusions:  Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players. PMID:27244125

  6. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced.

  7. [In vitro effect of photoactivated hypericin on anti-Schistosoma japonicum adult male worms].

    PubMed

    Cai, Ru; She, Xin-Ping; Wang, Yu; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Hui-Qin; Xia, Chao-Ming

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro effect of photoactivated hypericin on anti-Schistosoma japonicum adult male worms. Kunming mice were infected with 60-80 Schistosoma japonicum single-sex cercariae. At 6 weeks post-infection, the mice were sacrificed and adult male worms of S. japonicum were collected. The worms were incubated in DMEM medium containing different concentrations of hypericin (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 micromol/L) in the presence or absence of light. In photoactivated hypericin groups, after 6 h of dark incubation the worms were exposed to LED light irradiation (590 nm) for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, respectively, and then cultured overnight in darkness (16h). In the next morning, the parasites were washed, resuspended in drug-free medium, and incubated in the dark for 48 h. These worms were observed with stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Photoactivated hypericin showed the ability to kill Schistosoma japonicum in vitro. The death rate was 20% in 0.1 micromol/L photoactivated hypericin group under 30 min irradiation, and 100% in 2 micromol/L under 90 min irradiation and 2.5 micromol/L under 60 min irradiation, respectively. In blank control group, DMSO control group, and hypericin groups without light irradiation, worms were alive. After 60 min irradiation, the worms in 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 micromol/L photoactivated hypericin groups showed spastic paralysis characterized by reduced body length, pronounced tight curl, body stiffness, and complete cessation of movement. Surface tegumental damages of adult worms in 2.0 micromol/L photoactivated hypericin group for 60 min irradiation were observed under SEM, such as vacuole formation, erosion and peeling of the tegument, collapse of the sensory papillae, and even the normal structure disappeared completely. Both death rate and morphological damage of the worms treated by photoactivated hypericin were positively correlated with hypericin dose and light irradiation time. Photoactivated

  8. Possible Secondary Population-Level Effects of Selective Harvest of Adult Male Muskoxen

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joshua H.; Gorn, Tony S.

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6–10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002–2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4–12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8–9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and

  9. Possible secondary population-level effects of selective harvest of adult male muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Joshua H; Gorn, Tony S

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6-10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002-2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4-12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8-9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and conservation of

  10. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in pediatric and adult male patients with congenital and acquired phimosis.

    PubMed

    Jasaitiene, Daiva; Valiukeviciene, Skaidra; Vaitkiene, Daiva; Jievaltas, Mindaugas; Barauskas, Vidmantas; Gudinaviciene, Inga; Franke, Ingolf; Gollnick, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory sclerotic and atrophic disease of unknown cause that predominantly affects male and female genital skin. This study was designed to evaluate histological characteristics of congenital and acquired phimoses among pediatric (n=60) and adult (n=60) male patients who were admitted for circumcision to the Clinics of Urology and Pediatric Surgery of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital between 2000 and 2003 and to determine the rate of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and other histological diagnoses among them. This study demonstrates that 45.1% of congenital and 62.3% of acquired phimoses show histological signs of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. The rate of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus was statistically significantly higher among patients with acquired than congenital phimosis. Boys with acquired narrowing of prepuce were statistically significantly 3.9 times more likely to develop lichen sclerosus et atrophicus than those with congenital phimosis. There were no statistically significant differences between rates of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and other dermatological diagnoses among pediatric and adult male patients if the type of phimosis (acquired or congenital) was considered. Histological features of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and other histological diagnoses in boys and men with phimosis were detected with equal frequency irrespective the age of the subjects. The rate of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus was similar among all boys (56.7%) and men (53.3%) treated for phimosis. Only the type of phimosis had a statistically significant influence on the rate of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and other histological diagnoses.

  11. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  12. Effects of photoperiod on secretory patterns of growth hormone in adult male goats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Sawai, Ken; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of photoperiod on secretory patterns of growth hormone (GH) in male goats. Adult male goats were kept at 20°C with an 8-h or 16-h light photoperiod, and secretory patterns of GH secretion were compared. In addition, plasma profiles of prolactin (PRL), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and testosterone (T) were also examined to characterize GH secretion. GH was secreted in a pulsatile manner. There was no significant difference in pulse frequency between the 8-h and 16-h photoperiods. However, GH pulse amplitude tended to be greater in the group with the 16-h photoperiod (P = 0.1), and mean GH concentrations were significantly greater in the 16-h photoperiod (P < 0.05). The GH-releasing response to GH releasing hormone was greater in the 16-h than 8-h photoperiod (P < 0.05). Plasma PRL and IGF-I levels were higher in the 16-h than 8-h photoperiod (P < 0.05). In contrast, plasma T levels were lower in the 16-h photoperiod (P < 0.05). These results show that a long light photoperiod enhances the secretion of GH as well as PRL and IGF-I, but reduces plasma T concentrations in male goats.

  13. Social experience modulates ocular dominance plasticity differentially in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Balog, Jenny; Matthies, Ulrike; Naumann, Lisa; Voget, Mareike; Winter, Christine; Lehmann, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to regulate brain plasticity. We investigated the potential influence of social experience on ocular dominance plasticity. Fully adult female or male mice were monocularly deprived for four days and kept a) either alone or in pairs of the same sex and b) either in a small cage or a large, featureless arena. While mice kept alone did not show ocular dominance plasticity, no matter whether in a cage or in an arena, paired female mice in both environmental conditions displayed a shift of ocular dominance towards the open eye. Paired male mice, in contrast, showed no plasticity in the cage, but a very strong ocular dominance shift in the arena. This effect was not due to increased locomotion, since the covered distance was similar in single and paired male mice in the arena, and furnishing cages with a running wheel did not enable ocular dominance plasticity in cage-housed mice. Confirming recent results in rats, the plasticity-enhancing effect of the social environment was shown to be mediated by serotonin. Our results demonstrate that social experience has a strong effect on cortical plasticity that is sex-dependent. This has potential consequences both for animal research and for human education and rehabilitation.

  14. Prenatal nicotine exposure results in the myocardial fibrosis in the adult male offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Zheng, Aiqiang; Qian, Jin; Li, Yuexia; Wu, Lei; Yang, Jian; Gao, Xiren

    2016-09-01

    Our previous study showed that prenatal nicotine exposure could increase the heart rate of adult male offspring rats, but little is known about the mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism. Nicotine was subcutaneously administered to pregnant rats at a dose of 1.5mgkg(-1) from the gestational days 3-21; the control group received the same volume of saline by the same route. The offsprings' heart weight, ejection function, ultrastructure, and blood hormones were determined. The present study exhibited that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased the offsprings' heart and body weight at gestational day 21 and at day 15 after birth, but had no effect on the heart and body weight at 90 days after birth. The hearts were fibrosed in the nicotine exposed male offsprings, and the heart ejection functions of the nicotine male offsprings at 90 days after birth were decreased, including SV, FS and EF. In addition, prenatal nicotine exposure significantly increased the offspring's blood adrenaline and norepinephrine levels. These data suggest that the increased heart rate caused by prenatal nicotine exposure may be a result of myocardial fibrosis, which leads to heart function decreases, and these data imply a myocardial fibrosis risk of prenatal nicotine exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. [Influences of genetic and environmental factors on smoking related behaviors among male twin adults in China].

    PubMed

    Bao, Z Q; Yu, C Q; Wang, B Q; Cao, W H; Gao, W J; Lyu, J; Wang, S F; Pang, Z C; Cong, L M; Dong, Z; Wu, F; Wang, H; Wu, X P; Wang, D Z; Wang, X J; Wang, B Y; Li, L M

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the influences of genetic and environmental factors on smoking behavior, smoking cessation and onset age of smoking less than 20 years in male twin adults. A face-to-face questionnaire was conducted to collect data from 6 458 pair male twins aged ≥25 years registered in 9 provinces(municipality)in China. The heritability of three smoking related behaviors were calculated by using structural equation models. The ACE models were the best models of the three dimensions of smoking, i.e. smoking behavior, smoking cessation and onset age of smoking less than 20 years for male twins, and the corresponding heritability of these behaviors were 0.26(0.19-0.34), 0.27(0.19-0.37)and 0.05(0.00-0.14), respectively. When adjusted for area and age, the heritability of these three behaviors were 0.26(0.19-0.34), 0.31(0.00-0.74)and 0.05(0.00-0.14), respectively. All the three smoking related behaviors were affected by genetic factors, but environment factors had more effect on them. For smoking cessation, the heritability was highest, but the influence of environmental factors was lowest. Meanwhile, for onset age of smoking, the influence of environmental factors was highest.

  16. Oxytocin enhances inter-brain synchrony during social coordination in male adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yan; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent brain imaging research has revealed oxytocin (OT) effects on an individual's brain activity during social interaction but tells little about whether and how OT modulates the coherence of inter-brain activity related to two individuals' coordination behavior. We developed a new real-time coordination game that required two individuals of a dyad to synchronize with a partner (coordination task) or with a computer (control task) by counting in mind rhythmically. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously from a dyad to examine OT effects on inter-brain synchrony of neural activity during interpersonal coordination. Experiment 1 found that dyads showed smaller interpersonal time lags of counting and greater inter-brain synchrony of alpha-band neural oscillations during the coordination (vs control) task and these effects were reliably observed in female but not male dyads. Moreover, the increased alpha-band inter-brain synchrony predicted better interpersonal behavioral synchrony across all participants. Experiment 2, using a double blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, revealed that intranasal OT vs placebo administration in male dyads improved interpersonal behavioral synchrony in both the coordination and control tasks but specifically enhanced alpha-band inter-brain neural oscillations during the coordination task. Our findings provide first evidence that OT enhances inter-brain synchrony in male adults to facilitate social coordination. PMID:27510498

  17. Oxytocin enhances inter-brain synchrony during social coordination in male adults.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yan; Guo, Chunyan; Han, Shihui

    2016-12-01

    Recent brain imaging research has revealed oxytocin (OT) effects on an individual's brain activity during social interaction but tells little about whether and how OT modulates the coherence of inter-brain activity related to two individuals' coordination behavior. We developed a new real-time coordination game that required two individuals of a dyad to synchronize with a partner (coordination task) or with a computer (control task) by counting in mind rhythmically. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously from a dyad to examine OT effects on inter-brain synchrony of neural activity during interpersonal coordination. Experiment 1 found that dyads showed smaller interpersonal time lags of counting and greater inter-brain synchrony of alpha-band neural oscillations during the coordination (vs control) task and these effects were reliably observed in female but not male dyads. Moreover, the increased alpha-band inter-brain synchrony predicted better interpersonal behavioral synchrony across all participants. Experiment 2, using a double blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, revealed that intranasal OT vs placebo administration in male dyads improved interpersonal behavioral synchrony in both the coordination and control tasks but specifically enhanced alpha-band inter-brain neural oscillations during the coordination task. Our findings provide first evidence that OT enhances inter-brain synchrony in male adults to facilitate social coordination. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  19. Coverage of newborn and adult male circumcision varies among public and private US payers despite health benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah J; Kilmarx, Peter H; Kretsinger, Katrina

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that male circumcision greatly reduces the risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, infant urinary tract infections, penile cancer, and other adverse health outcomes. Given recent data regarding these health benefits and the cost-effectiveness of newborn male circumcision, national policy makers are developing new recommendations regarding circumcision for newborn, adolescent, and adult males. To investigate the implications, this study assessed insurance coverage and reimbursement for routine newborn and adult male circumcision in private and public health plans in 2009. We found that coverage varies across private and public payers. Private insurance provides far broader coverage than state Medicaid programs for routine newborn male circumcision. Specifically, Medicaid programs in seventeen states do not cover it, even though low-income populations have a higher risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases compared to higher-income groups. For adult male circumcision, coverage is generally sparse across public and private plans. Presentation of evidence-based recommendations--for example, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--may be necessary if coverage for newborn and adult male circumcision is to be expanded.

  20. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A

    2003-11-11

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.

  1. Underwater Optics in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Coastal Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Pirjo; Ramírez, Jaime; Gómez, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Understanding underwater optics in natural waters is essential in evaluating aquatic primary production and risk of UV exposure in aquatic habitats. Changing environmental conditions related with global climate change, which imply potential contrasting changes in underwater light climate further emphasize the need to gain insights into patterns related with underwater optics for more accurate future predictions. The present study evaluated penetration of solar radiation in six sub-Antarctic estuaries and fjords in Chilean North Patagonian region (39-44°S) and in an Antarctic bay (62°S). Based on vertical diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd), derived from measurements with a submersible multichannel radiometer, average summer UV penetration depth (z1%) in these water bodies ranged 2-11 m for UV-B (313 nm), 4-27 m for UV-A (395 nm), and 7-30 m for PAR (euphotic zone). UV attenuation was strongest in the shallow Quempillén estuary, while Fildes Bay (Antarctica) exhibited the highest transparency. Optically non-homogeneous water layers and seasonal variation in transparency (lower in winter) characterized Comau Fjord and Puyuhuapi Channel. In general, multivariate analysis based on Kd values of UV and PAR wavelengths discriminated strongly Quempillén estuary and Puyuhuapi Channel from other study sites. Spatial (horizontal) variation within the estuary of Valdivia river reflected stronger attenuation in zones receiving river impact, while within Fildes Bay a lower spatial variation in water transparency could in general be related to closeness of glaciers, likely due to increased turbidity through ice-driven processes. Higher transparency and deeper UV-B penetration in proportion to UV-A/visible wavelengths observed in Fildes Bay suggests a higher risk for Antarctic ecosystems reflected by e.g. altered UV-B damage vs. photorepair under UV-A/PAR. Considering that damage repair processes often slow down under cool temperatures, adverse UV impact could be further

  2. Underwater Optics in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Coastal Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Huovinen, Pirjo; Ramírez, Jaime; Gómez, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Understanding underwater optics in natural waters is essential in evaluating aquatic primary production and risk of UV exposure in aquatic habitats. Changing environmental conditions related with global climate change, which imply potential contrasting changes in underwater light climate further emphasize the need to gain insights into patterns related with underwater optics for more accurate future predictions. The present study evaluated penetration of solar radiation in six sub-Antarctic estuaries and fjords in Chilean North Patagonian region (39–44°S) and in an Antarctic bay (62°S). Based on vertical diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd), derived from measurements with a submersible multichannel radiometer, average summer UV penetration depth (z1%) in these water bodies ranged 2–11 m for UV-B (313 nm), 4–27 m for UV-A (395 nm), and 7–30 m for PAR (euphotic zone). UV attenuation was strongest in the shallow Quempillén estuary, while Fildes Bay (Antarctica) exhibited the highest transparency. Optically non-homogeneous water layers and seasonal variation in transparency (lower in winter) characterized Comau Fjord and Puyuhuapi Channel. In general, multivariate analysis based on Kd values of UV and PAR wavelengths discriminated strongly Quempillén estuary and Puyuhuapi Channel from other study sites. Spatial (horizontal) variation within the estuary of Valdivia river reflected stronger attenuation in zones receiving river impact, while within Fildes Bay a lower spatial variation in water transparency could in general be related to closeness of glaciers, likely due to increased turbidity through ice-driven processes. Higher transparency and deeper UV-B penetration in proportion to UV-A/visible wavelengths observed in Fildes Bay suggests a higher risk for Antarctic ecosystems reflected by e.g. altered UV-B damage vs. photorepair under UV-A/PAR. Considering that damage repair processes often slow down under cool temperatures, adverse UV impact could be

  3. Adult male circumcision with a circular stapler versus conventional circumcision: A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jin, X D; Lu, J J; Liu, W H; Zhou, J; Yu, R K; Yu, B; Zhang, X J; Shen, B H

    2015-06-01

    Male circumcision is the most frequently performed procedure by urologists. Safety and efficacy of the circumcision procedure requires continual improvement. In the present study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of a new male circumcision technique involving the use of a circular stapler. In total, 879 consecutive adult male patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 441 underwent stapler circumcision, and 438 underwent conventional circumcision. The operative time, pain score, blood loss volume, healing time, treatment costs, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. The operative time and blood loss volume were significantly lower in the stapler group than in the conventional group (6.8 ± 3.1 vs 24.2 ± 3.2 min and 1.8 ± 1.8 vs 9.4 ± 1.5 mL, respectively; P<0.01 for both). The intraoperative and postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in the stapler group than in the conventional group (0.8 ± 0.5 vs 2.4 ± 0.8 and 4.0 ±0.9 vs 5.8 ± 1.0, respectively; P<0.01 for both). Additionally, the stapler group had significantly fewer complications than the conventional group (2.7% vs 7.8%, respectively; P<0.01). However, the treatment costs in the stapler group were much higher than those in the conventional group (US$356.60 ± 8.20 vs US$126.50 ± 7.00, respectively; P<0.01). Most patients (388/441, 88.0%) who underwent stapler circumcision required removal of residual staple nails. Overall, the present study has shown that stapler circumcision is a time-efficient and safe male circumcision technique, although it requires further improvement.

  4. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lihong; Lephart, Edwin D

    2007-02-01

    Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free) or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600). The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 +/- 1.7%) than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 +/- 1.0%). Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir), but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite) that accounts for approximately 70-90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  5. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lihong; Lephart, Edwin D

    2007-01-01

    Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free) or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600). Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7%) than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%). Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir), but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite) that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV. PMID:17266774

  6. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    Arrant, Andrew E.; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28–34) and adult (PN67–74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α2 adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence. PMID:23721963

  7. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  8. A Population based Study on Alcoholism among Adult Males in a Rural Area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ruma; Gnanasekaran, Sruthy; Suchithra, S; Srilalitha, V; Sujitha, R; Sivaranjani, S Sowmya; Subitha, S; Dcruze, Lawrence

    2014-06-01

    India's reputation as a country with a culture of abstinence especially in matters regarding alcohol is underserved. There has been a rapid proliferation of city bars and nightclubs in recent years and people are fast shedding its inhibitions about alcohol as a lifestyle choice. This scenario has led to fears of an undocumented rise in alcohol abuse among all sections of society. Policies by the government has been laid down to regulate sales and pricing of alcohol, but not well improvised. Our aim was to find out the prevalence of alcoholism among adult males in a rural population and also to analyze its association between various factors. A cross sectional study in a rural population at Kuthampakkam village, in Poonamallee block of Tiruvallur district in Tamil Nadu, India. The study population included adult male population. Simple random sampling method was adopted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, history of alcoholism and certain social factors. Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables and the prevalence of the alcoholism. Chi-square test and p-value were calculated to see the association between alcoholism and social factors. A total of 157 adult male were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 37.20 years. The prevalence of alcoholism among the study participants was 35.7%. Among them only 4.5% who presented with symptoms of chronic alcoholism had taken treatment. Reasons for not taking treatment for alcoholism among study population were mainly due to their family problems (55.2%). Although alcohol consumption has existed for many centuries, the quantity, usage pattern, and resultant problems have undergone substantial changes over the past 20 years. These developments have raised concerns about the public health and social

  9. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist

  10. Adult testosterone treatment but not surgical disruption of vomeronasal function augments male-typical sexual behavior in female mice.

    PubMed

    Martel, Kristine L; Baum, Michael J

    2009-06-17

    It was recently reported that female mice lacking a functional vomeronasal organ (VNO) displayed male-typical sexual behavior indiscriminately toward female and male conspecifics. These results have been cited as showing that a circuit controlling male-typical sex behavior exists in both sexes, with its activation in females being tonically inhibited by VNO signaling, independent of adult sex hormones. We further assessed this hypothesis while controlling the endocrine status of female mice in which VNO function was surgically disrupted. In experiment 1, VNO-lesioned (VNOx) female mice showed no more mounting or pelvic-thrusting behavior toward an estrous female or a castrated, urine-swabbed male (presented simultaneously) than sham-operated (VNOi) females. This was true when subjects were either ovary-intact or ovariectomized and treated with estradiol, estradiol plus progesterone, or testosterone. In experiment 2, female mice given accessory olfactory bulb lesions or a sham lesion displayed equivalent frequencies of male sex behaviors when given testosterone after ovariectomy. In experiment 3, VNOx and VNOi females displayed equivalent frequencies of male sex behaviors toward an estrous female or a castrated male (presented in separate tests), again, when given testosterone after ovariectomy. Our results confirm early reports that adult testosterone can stimulate appreciable male-typical sex behavior in female mice. However, we failed to corroborate the recent claim that VNO signaling normally inhibits the activity of neural circuitry controlling the expression of male-typical mating behavior by female mice.

  11. Female-to-male transmasculine adult health: a mixed-methods community-based needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Gamarel, Kristi E; Dunham, Emilia; Hopwood, Ruben; Hwahng, Sel

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of health research about transgender people. This mixed-methods study sought to formatively investigate the health and perceived health needs of female-to-male transmasculine adults. A cross-sectional quantitative needs assessment (n = 73) and qualitative open-ended input (n = 19) were conducted in June 2011. A latent class analysis modeled six binary health indicators (depression, alcohol use, current smoking, asthma, physical inactivity, overweight status) to identify clusters of presenting health issues. Four clusters of health indicators emerged: (a) depression; (b) syndemic (all indicators); (c) alcohol use, overweight status; and (d) smoking, physical inactivity, overweight status. Transphobic discrimination in health care and avoiding care were each associated with membership in the syndemic class. Qualitative themes included personal health care needs, community needs, and resilience and protective factors. Findings fill an important gap about the health of transmasculine communities, including the need for public health efforts that holistically address concomitant health concerns.

  12. Criminal diversity and paraphilic interests among adult males convicted of sexual offenses against children.

    PubMed

    Smallbone, Stephen W; Wortley, Richard K

    2004-04-01

    Official demographic and offense history data (n = 362) and confidential self-report data on paraphilic interests and behavior (n = 221) obtained on adult males convicted of sexual offenses against children were analyzed. Considerable criminal diversity was observed, with all standard categories of offenses represented in offenders' criminal histories. Most (86%) of the offenders' previous convictions were for nonsexual offenses, and most (92%) of the recidivist offenders had previously been convicted of at least one nonsexual offense. The prevalence of diagnosable paraphilias was low, with only 5% meeting formal diagnostic criteria for multiple (two or more) paraphilias other than pedophilia. Sexual offenders' paraphilic interests were unrelated to the extent of their sexual offense convictions but were significantly related to the extent of their nonsexual offense convictions. The results are better explained by a general theory of crime than by traditional clinical conceptions linking sexual offenses specifically with sexual psychopathology.

  13. Pituitary-gonadal function in adult male rats subjected to chronic water restriction.

    PubMed

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Lopez-Calderon, A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis has been studied in adult male rats. Water restriction did not modify FSH, LH and testosterone levels. However, both LH and testosterone responses to acute noise stress were impaired by water restriction. It was unlikely that the inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal response to stress was due to an alteration of the circadian pattern of LH since no evidence for such a daily rhythm was found in either of the two experimental groups. The effects of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis appear to be at least partially a consequence of the resulting reduction in food intake, so that the pituitary-gonadal response to stress would be a more sensitive index of abnormalities induced by protein-calorie deficit than basal concentrations of LH, FSH, or T.

  14. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

    2010-05-01

    Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exogenous Testosterone, Finasteride and Castration Effects on Testosterone, Insulin, Zinc and Chromium in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousofvand, Namdar; Zarei, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although effects of trace elements on secretion of sex steroids and insulin have been studied, the effects of these hormones on serum level of trace elements have been rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium. Methods: Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8). Group 1, control; Group 2, castration, castration was done at the first day of the study; Group 3, finasteride (20 mg/kg/day, dissolved in drinking water) and Group 4, testosterone (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the end of the period of the study (35 days), serum testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium levels were determined in the blood samples collected directly from the right atrium of the heart of the animals. Results: The data indicated that the serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc were significantly increased (P<0.01) in testosterone-administrated and finasteride groups, but the level of chromium was decreased in both groups (P<0.01). Castrated group had the lowest serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc (P<0.05). Also, the levels of serum chromium in this group were increased. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that testosterone and finasteride increases insulin and zinc levels and decreases chromium levels in the serum of male adult rats. According to these data, it seems that testosterone may affect glucose cycle through effect on serum insulin levels and trace elements such as zinc and chromium. PMID:23279835

  16. Exogenous testosterone, finasteride and castration effects on testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yousofvand, Namdar; Zarei, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although effects of trace elements on secretion of sex steroids and insulin have been studied, the effects of these hormones on serum level of trace elements have been rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8). Group 1, control; Group 2, castration, castration was done at the first day of the study; Group 3, finasteride (20 mg/kg/day, dissolved in drinking water) and Group 4, testosterone (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the end of the period of the study (35 days), serum testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium levels were determined in the blood samples collected directly from the right atrium of the heart of the animals. The data indicated that the serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc were significantly increased (P<0.01) in testosterone-administrated and finasteride groups, but the level of chromium was decreased in both groups (P<0.01). Castrated group had the lowest serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc (P<0.05). Also, the levels of serum chromium in this group were increased. The study demonstrates that testosterone and finasteride increases insulin and zinc levels and decreases chromium levels in the serum of male adult rats. According to these data, it seems that testosterone may affect glucose cycle through effect on serum insulin levels and trace elements such as zinc and chromium.

  17. Effect of genetically modified corn on the jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Okasha, Ebtsam F

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups; control and GM-corn fed group administered with 30% GM-corn for 90days. Specimens from the jejunum were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Different morphometrical parameters were assessed. Specimens from GM-corn fed group showed different forms of structural changes. Focal destruction and loss of the villi leaving denuded mucosal surface alternating with stratified areas were observed, while some crypts appeared totally disrupted. Congested blood capillaries and focal infiltration with mononuclear cells were detected. Significant upregulation of PCNA expression, increase in number of goblet cells and a significant increase in both villous height and crypt depth were detected. Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes with focal loss of the microvillous border were observed. Some enterocytes had vacuolated cytoplasm, swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some cells had dark irregular nuclei with abnormally clumped chromatin. It could be concluded that consumption of GM-corn profoundly alters the jejunal histological structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Scale-dependent habitat selection and size-based dominance in adult male American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  19. Plasma riboflavin is a useful marker for studying riboflavin requirement in Chinese male adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changjiang; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Li, Lingyan

    2016-06-01

    Urinary riboflavin excretion and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient are frequently applied in determining riboflavin requirement. Previously, we found that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker in the assessment of riboflavin status in rat models. Here, we hypothesize that plasma riboflavin is a useful maker in studying riboflavin requirement. This study examines the changes of fasting plasma riboflavin and urinary riboflavin excretion in response to different riboflavin intake levels in Chinese male adults. The estimated average requirement (EAR) of riboflavin was extrapolated. Seventy-eight participants were randomly divided into the control and 5 riboflavin-supplemented groups. A 6-week riboflavin supplementation was performed at the doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, or 1.0 mg daily. The energy expenditure was 15.4 ± 1.9 MJ/d, as estimated by the 24-hour physical activity recording method. Dietary riboflavin intake was 1.0 ± 0.2 mg/d, based on chemical analysis. The fasting plasma riboflavin was increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.4 mg/d and the EAR of riboflavin was suggested to be between 1.3 and 1.5 mg/d. In addition, we found a significant increase in fasting urinary riboflavin excretion when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.6 mg/d. The critical point was calculated as 1.4 mg/d, based on the intersecting point of the 2 regression lines at lower and higher riboflavin intakes. These findings demonstrate that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker for riboflavin status, and the EAR of riboflavin for Chinese male adults is 1.4 mg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of gold nanoparticles against isoproterenol induced acute myocardial infarction in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samah M; Abdelrahman, Shaimaa Ali; Salama, Alaa Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of 50 nm diameter on isoproterenol (ISO) induced acute myocardial infarction in adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were equally divided into three groups. Control (group I) was further subdivided into three subgroups. In group II, the rats received ISO subcutaneously at a dose of 100 mg/kg for three days. In group III, rats received ISO as group II and then GNPs (400 μg/kg/day) intravenously for 14 consecutive days. Echocardiography was performed. Left ventricular specimens were prepared for H&E, van Gieson staining, immunohistochemical analysis for (eNOs and Bcl-2), and Electron microscope examination. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was also performed. Cardiac markers such as creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were measured. Group II revealed cardiomyocytes with deeply stained acidophilic cytoplasm, small dark nuclei, intracellular vacuolations, wide intercellular spaces, and extravasated red blood cells. Increased collagen fibers were observed. Electron microscope examination showed cardiomyocyte with small and irregular outlined nuclei, mitochondria with irregular cristae and others with ruptured mitochondrial membrane, abnormal alignment of myofibrils, dilated cisternae of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and disorganized intercalated discs. Group III showed that most cardiomyocytes preserved the normal architecture. Increased expression of eNOs immunoreaction and decreased Bcl-2 immunoreaction were detected in group II as compared to the control and GNP-treated groups. These findings suggested that GNPs of 50 nm diameter improved myocardial injury after ISO-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Myocardial infarction (MI), Isoproterenol (ISO), Nitric oxide (NO), Neuronal NOS (nNOs), Endothelial NOs (eNOs), Gold nanoparticle (GNPs), Diamiobenzidine (DAB), Serum

  1. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Hallahan, Brian P; Craig, Michael C; Toal, Fiona; Daly, Eileen M; Moore, Caroline J; Ambikapathy, Anita; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  3. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on induced skeletal muscle chemodenervation atrophy in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Azza S; Al-Ghonemy, Nabila M; Ahmed, Samah M; Mohamed, Samar R

    2017-04-01

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a potential therapeutic tool for improvement of skeletal muscle recovery after induced chemodenervation atrophy by repeated local injection of botulinum toxin-A in the right tibialis anterior muscle of adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were classified into control and experimental groups. Experimental group was further subdivided into 3 equal subgroups; induced atrophy, BM-MSCs treated and recovery groups. Biochemical analysis of serum LDH, CK and Real-time PCR for Bcl-2, caspase 3 and caspase 9 was measured. Skeletal muscle sections were stained with H and E, Mallory trichrome, and Immunohistochemical reaction for Bax and CD34. Improvement in the skeletal muscle histological structure was noticed in BM-MSCs treated group, however, in the recovery group, some sections showed apparent transverse striations and others still affected. Immunohistochemical reaction of Bax protein showed strong positive immunoreaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers in the induced atrophy group. BM-MSCs treated group showed weak positive reaction while the recovery group showed moderate reaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical reaction for CD34 revealed occasional positive CD34 stained cells in the induced atrophy group. In BM-MSCs treated group, multiple positive CD34 stained cells were detected. However, recovery group showed some positive CD34 stained cells at the periphery of the muscle fibers. Marked improvement in the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles after BM-MSCs therapy. Hence, stem cell therapy provides a new hope for patients suffering from myopathies and severe injuries.

  4. Safety, Feasibility, and Acceptability of the PrePex Device for Adult Male Circumcision in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Pamela K; Tippett Barr, Beth A; Kangʼombe, Anderson; Hofstee, Carola; Kilembe, Franklin; Galagan, Sean; Chilongozi, David; Namate, Dorothy; Machaya, Medson; Kabwere, Khuliena; Mwale, Mwawi; Msunguma, Wezi; Reed, Jason; Chimbwandira, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Nonsurgical adult male circumcision devices present an alternative to surgery where health resources are limited. This study aimed to assess the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Malawi. A prospective single-arm cohort study was conducted at 3 sites (1 urban static, 1 rural static, 1 rural tent) in Malawi. Adverse event (AE) outcomes were stratified to include/exclude pain, and confidence intervals (CIs) were corrected for clinic-level clustering. Among 935 men screened, 131 (14.0%) were not eligible, 13 (1.4%) withdrew before placement, and 791 (84.6%) received the device. Moderate and severe AEs totaled 7.1% including pain [95% CI: 3.4-14.7] and 4.0% excluding pain (95% CI: 2.6 to 6.4). Severe AEs included pain (n = 3), insufficient skin removal (n = 4), and early removal (n = 4). Among early removals, 1 had immediate surgical circumcision, 1 had surgery after 48 hours of observation, 1 declined surgery, and 1 did not return to our site although presented at a nearby clinic. More than half of men (51.9%) reported odor; however, few (2.2%) stated they would not recommend the device to others because of odor. Median levels of reported pain (scale, 1-10) were 2 (interquartile range, 2-4) during application and removal, and 0 (interquartile range, 0-2) at all other time points. Severe AEs were rare and similar to other programs. Immediate provision of surgical services after displacement or early removal proved a challenge. Cases of insufficient skin removal were linked to poor technique, suggesting provider training requires reinforcement and supervision.

  5. Adult emotionality and neural plasticity as a function of adolescent nutrient supplementation in male rats

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Nora; Mahadevia, Darshini; Corriveau, Jennifer A.; Glenn, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the effects of supplementing male rats with either choline, omega-3 fatty acids, or phytoestrogens, from weaning into early adulthood, on emotionality and hippocampal plasticity. Because of the neuroprotective properties of these nutrients, we hypothesized that they would positively affect both behavior and hippocampal function when compared to non-supplemented control rats. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of four nutrient conditions after weaning: 1) control (normal rat chow); 2) choline (supplemented in drinking water); 3) omega 3 fatty acids (daily oral supplements); or 4) phytoestrogens (supplemented in chow). After 4 weeks on their respective diets, a subset of rats began 3 weeks of behavioral testing, while the remaining behaviorally naïve rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks on the diets to assess numbers of adult-born hippocampal neurons using the immature neuron marker, doublecortin. The results revealed that choline supplementation affected emotional functioning; compared to rats in other diet conditions, rats in this group were less anxious in an open field and after exposure to predator odor and showed less behavioral despair after forced swimming. Similar behavioral findings were evident following supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and phytoestrogens supplementation, though not on all tests and not to the same magnitude. Histological findings followed a pattern consistent with the behavioral findings: choline supplementation, followed by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, but not phytoestrogen supplementation, significantly increased the numbers of new-born hippocampal neurons. Choline and omega −3 fatty acids have similar biological functions—affecting cell membranes, growth factor levels, and epigenetically altering gene transcription. Thus, the present findings suggest that targeting nutrients with these effects may be a viable strategy to combat adult psychopathologies

  6. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco J.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  7. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Andrea; Sansone, Massimiliano; Proietti, Marco; Ciocca, Giacomo; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Romanelli, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    health in gamers. We identified an association between PEDT and IIEF scores and videogame use; however, these findings require validation through interventional studies. Furthermore, volunteers were recruited through social networks, thus increasing the risk of recruitment bias. To our knowledge, this is the first observational study investigating the link between electronic entertainment and male sexuality, specifically for ejaculatory response and sexual desire. Sansone A, Sansone M, Proietti M, et al. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males. J Sex Med 2017;14:898-903. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  9. Alterations in hepatic metabolism of adult male rats following exposure to hydroxyprogesterone during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, T; Reddy, P Ramachandra; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the effect of in utero exposure to hydroxyprogesterone (HP) on liver metabolism in adult male albino rats. Pregnant Wistar strain albino rats were exposed to supra-normal levels (10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg) of HP on days 1, 7 and 14 of pregnancy. The male pups were maintained under controlled conditions and the rats were killed 90 days after birth. The liver tissue was immediately excised, weighed and used for biochemical assays. The activity levels of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and aminotransaminases were significantly increased in the livers of rats exposed to HP during embryonic development. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity level was significantly decreased in the liver of experimental rats. Furthermore, there was a significant elevation of activity levels of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase [GST] and catalase [CAT]) with an increased lipid peroxidation in the hepatic tissue of experimental rats compared with the control group. The results of the present study suggest that there is an increase in the oxidative metabolism, antioxidative mechanism and levels of lipid peroxidation in rats exposed to HP during embryonic development. The increased aminotransaminase activities in these rats reveal tissue damage and disruption of mitochondrial integrity.

  10. Atypically rightward cerebral asymmetry in male adults with autism stratifies individuals with and without language delay

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng‐Chuan; Auer, Tibor; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Murphy, Declan G.M.; Baron‐Cohen, Simon; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left‐hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right‐hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right‐handed adults with ASC and 69 age‐ and IQ‐matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel‐based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC. Hum Brain Mapp 37:230–253, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26493275

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls, sex steroid hormones and liver retinoids in adult male European common frogs Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Mattis; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2006-05-01

    Declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity during the last decades has called for an assessment of possible threats to these animals. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants and are found in high levels in some populations of wild living amphibians. To evaluate the endocrine disrupting potential of PCBs in adult frogs, Aroclor 1,254 were subcutaneously injected into male European common frogs Rana temporaria. The injected doses ranged from 0.01 to 100 mg/kg body mass, resulting in liver concentrations between 74 and 133,619 microg/kg ww. After 14 days, serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and hepatic retinol (R) and retinylpalmitate (RP) were easured. No dose dependent effects were found on levels of hormones or retinoids. However, a significantly higher within-group variation in the E-T ratio in the exposed groups may indicate that the sex-hormone homeostasis of male R. temporaria is affected by PCBs shortly after arousal from hibernation, but that the effects are subtle and that several different mechanisms are involved. The lack of direct effect on T, E, R and RP may be due to the timing of exposure (shortly after arousal from hibernation), or due to a relatively short exposure time to Aroclor 1,254. Based on the results, we propose that future research should focus on effects of PCBs in relation to the different physiological phases frogs experience throughout the year (hibernation, reproduction etc.).

  12. Ultrastructural features of neurons and synaptic contacts in the posterodorsal medial amygdala of adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hermel, E E S; Faccioni-Heuser, M C; Marcuzzo, S; Rasia-Filho, A A; Achaval, M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the ultrastructure of neurons (from eight animals) and to analyse the synaptic terminal distribution (from two animals) in the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD) of adult male rats. Using transmission electron microscopy, it was possible to identify many spiny and aspiny dendrites, unmyelinated axonal bundles, single axonal processes, a few myelinated axons, blood vessels and glial processes in the neuropil. Axodendritic synapses were the most frequently observed (67.5%), appearing to be of either the inhibitory or the excitatory types. The presynaptic region contained round or flattened vesicles that occurred either singly or with dense-cored vesicles (DCVs). The dendrites often received many synapses on a single shaft, and axon terminals displayed synaptic contacts with one or more postsynaptic structures. Dendritic spines showed different morphologies and the synapses on them (23.1%) formed a single and apparently excitatory synaptic contact with round, electron-lucid vesicles alone or, less frequently, with DCVs. Inhibitory and excitatory axosomatic synapses (8.2%) and excitatory axoaxonic synapses (1.2%) were also identified. The present report provides new findings relevant to the study of the MePD cellular organization and could be combined with other morphological data in order to reveal the functional activity of this area in male rats. PMID:16637879

  13. Atypically rightward cerebral asymmetry in male adults with autism stratifies individuals with and without language delay.

    PubMed

    Floris, Dorothea L; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Auer, Tibor; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J; Bullmore, Edward T; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left-hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right-hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right-handed adults with ASC and 69 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel-based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC.

  14. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P < 0.0002) while remaining euglycemic, insulin sensitive, inactive, and exhibiting metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype.

  15. Dyadic Qualitative Analysis of Condom Use Scripts Among Emerging Adult Gay Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Pawson, Mark; Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-07-26

    Sexual risk reduction among gay male couples has received increasing attention in light of evidence that primary partners account for many-and possibly most-new HIV infections. This study examined the content of condom use scripts in interviews conducted with both members of 17 HIV-negative gay male couples. In each couple, at least one partner was an emerging adult (aged 18 to 29). Three scripts were identified: romantic love, unanticipated condomless anal intercourse (CAI), and negotiated safety. Scripts varied in their emphasis on emotional factors versus HIV risk reduction, the salience of sexual agreements, and the presence of an explicit communication goal. Results indicated that condom use may vary for couples as a result of script content and from the fluid adoption of scripts across contexts. Results highlighted potential tensions between emotional closeness and HIV prevention. Condom use cessation and sexual agreements-a potential mechanism for HIV risk reduction-may also serve as expressions of intimacy. This implies interventions that facilitate direct communication about sexual and relational goals-as well as those that expand couples' repertoires for expressing emotional closeness-may enhance sexual health for gay couples, particularly during the period of emerging adulthood.

  16. The Recreational Drug Ecstasy Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Reproductive Axis in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Walker, Deena M.; Reveron, Maria E.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive function involves an interaction of three regulatory levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad. The primary drive upon this system comes from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells, which receive afferent inputs from other neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system to result in the proper coordination of reproduction and the environment. Here, we hypothesized that the recreational drug ±-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “ecstasy”), which acts through several of the neurotransmitter systems that affect GnRH neurons, suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis of male rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered saline or MDMA or saline either once (acute) or for 20 days (chronic), and were euthanized 7 days following last administration. We quantified hypothalamic GnRH mRNA, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, and serum testosterone levels, as indices of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions, respectively. The results indicate that the hypothalamic and gonadal levels of the HPG axis are significantly altered by MDMA, with GnRH mRNA and serum testosterone levels suppressed in rats administered MDMA compared to saline. Furthermore, our finding that hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels are suppressed in the context of low testosterone concentrations suggests that the central GnRH neurosecretory system may be a primary target of inhibitory regulation by MDMA usage. PMID:18309234

  17. Protective effects of Peganum harmala extracts on thiourea-induced diseases in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Hamden, Khaled; Masmoudi, Hatem; Ellouz, Feriel; ElFeki, Adelfatteh; Carreau, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Cancers and hepatoprotective prevention using traditional medicines have attracted increasing interest. The aim of our study was to characterize the putative protective effects of ethanol and chloroform extracts of Peganum harmala on thiourea-induced diseases in adult male rat. We seek to determine the effects of these plant extracts on body weight, thyroid and endocrine cancer parameters. In addition the putative hepatoprotective effect was checked by the determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the bilirubin level in the blood. Our data show that ethanol and chloroform extracts of Peganum harmala protected the animal against the carcinogenic effects induced by thiourea since neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and thyroglobulin (TG) levels were back to the normal range. In addition, the observed-hepatocytotoxicity after thiourea treatment was greatly reduced (AST and ALT activities were respectively 270 IU/l and 60 IU/l and in the same order of magnitude as in the untreated rats) as well as the bilirubin levels (6 micromol/l) especially for animals receiving the choroform preparation. Therefore we may suggest that extracts of Peganum harmala are efficient to reduce the toxicity induced by thiourea in male rat as far as the above parameters are concerned.

  18. Uncomplicated Cystitis in an Adult Male Following Influenza B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert J.; Koutsakos, Marios; Hurt, Aeron C.; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 31 Final Diagnosis: Uncomplicated cystitis Symptoms: Cough • dysuria • fever • hematuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Influenza B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness, circulating concurrently with influenza A viruses. However, virological and clinical knowledge of influenza B viruses is less well advanced than for influenza A, and in particular, complications associated with influenza B infection are not as commonly reported. Complications of influenza B infection predominantly include neurological and musculoskeletal pathologies, while a review of the literature shows that bacterial infections associated with influenza B viruses often involve Gram-positive organisms, with a smaller subset featuring Gram-negative species. Case Report: In this case report we highlight an uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract by Escherichia coli immediately following influenza B infection, in an otherwise healthy adult white male with no prior history of urinary tract infection or structural abnormalities of the renal tract. Conclusions: Bacterial infections complicating influenza B infection may include organisms not commonly associated with the respiratory system, such as Escherichia coli. In addition, bacterial complications of influenza B infection may affect non-respiratory systems, including the genitourinary tract. PMID:28223680

  19. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The adult male equivalent concept and its application to Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES).

    PubMed

    Weisell, Robert; Dop, Marie Claude

    2012-09-01

    Knowledge of the amount and quality of food consumed by a population is essential in determining the adequacy of the food availability and supply. Since its founding the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has developed methods for determining food availability and consumption that may be useful to other investigators. Based on FAO's 60 years of experience in conducting Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES), to explain and demonstrate the advantages and use of the Adult Male Equivalent (AME) and Equivalent Nutrition Unit (ENU) concepts. The important factors related to the AME and ENU, such as energy requirements, size and composition of the food consumer unit, and attendance at meals, are explained through the examples of two hypothetical families: a family consisting of a father, a mother, a 12-year old daughter, and a 3-year old son plus an adult guest; and a family consisting of a single mother, a 10-year old son, and two daughters, 6 and 4 years of age. The reader is guided through the steps in calculating the AME and ENU. The various scenarios of the composition, size, and attendance at meals of the consumer unit show that the calculated food energy adequacy can range from +2% to -29%. Care and attention must be given to correctly attributing the consumers of the food intake measured or estimated. In addition, use of these concepts allows for a valid comparison of food consumption units of various sizes and compositions.

  1. Avoiding escalation from play to aggression in adult male rats: The role of ultrasonic calls.

    PubMed

    Burke, Candace J; Kisko, Theresa M; Pellis, Sergio M; Euston, David R

    2017-09-21

    Play fighting is most commonly associated with juvenile animals, but in some species, including rats, it can continue into adulthood. Post-pubertal engagement in play fighting is often rougher and has an increased chance of escalation to aggression, making the use of play signals to regulate the encounter more critical. During play, both juvenile and adult rats emit many 50-kHz calls and some of these may function as play facilitating signals. In the present study, unfamiliar adult male rats were introduced in a neutral enclosure and their social interactions were recorded. While all pairs escalated their playful encounters to become rougher, only the pairs in which one member was devocalized escalated to serious biting. A Monte Carlo shuffling technique was used for the analysis of the correlations between the overt playful and aggressive actions performed and the types and frequencies of various 50-kHz calls that were emitted. The analysis revealed that lower frequency (20-30kHz) calls with a flat component maybe particularly critical for de-escalating encounters and so allowing play to continue. Moreover, coordinating calls reciprocally, with either the same call mimicked in close, temporal association or with complementary calls emitted by participants as they engage in complementary actions (e.g., attacking the nape, being attacked on the nape), appeared to be ways with which calls could be potentially used to avoid escalation to aggression and so sustain playful interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Controls and variability of solute and sedimentary fluxes in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolinski, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The currently prepared SEDIBUD Book on "Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments" (edited by Achim A. Beylich, John C. Dixon and Zbigniew Zwolinski and published by Cambridge University Press) is summarizing and synthesizing the achievements of the International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G./A.I.G.) Working Group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments), which has been active since 2005 (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html). The book comprises five parts. One of them is part about sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Environments. This part "Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Environments" describes two different environments, namely oceanic and continental ones. Each part contains results of research on environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes in selected sites. Apart from describing the environmental conditions of the whole continent of Antarctica and sub-Antarctic islands (Zb.Zwolinski, M.Kejna, A.N.Lastochkin, A.Zhirov, S.Boltramovich) this part of the book characterizes terrestrial polar oases free from multi-year ice and snow covers (Zb.Zwolinski). The detailed results of geoecological and sedimentological research come from different parts of Antarctica. Antarctic continental shelf (E.Isla) is an example of sub-Antarctic oceanic environment. South Shetlands, especially King George Island (Zb.Zwolinski, M.Kejna, G.Rachlewicz, I.Sobota, J.Szpikowski), is an example of sub-Antarctic terrestrial environment. Antarctic Peninsula (G.Vieira, M.Francelino, J.C.Fernandes) and surroundings of McMurdo Dry Valleys (W.B.Lyons, K.A.Welch, J.Levy, A.Fountain, D.McKnight) are examples of Antarctic continental environments. The key goals of the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic book chapters are following: (i) identify the main environmental drivers and rates of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes, and (ii) model possible effects of projected climate change on solute and sedimentary fluxes in cold climate environments

  3. Non-Parental Adults in the Social and Risk Behavior Networks of Sexual Minority Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655

  4. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  5. Situational factors, conditions and individual variables which can determine ultrasonic vocalizations in male adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Schwarting, Rainer K W; Jegan, Nikita; Wöhr, Markus

    2007-09-04

    The fact that rats emit different types of ultrasonic vocalizations in a variety of contexts has received increasing experimental attention, since such calls might serve as indices of the animal's subjective state, and/or as social signals in various types of interactions with other rats. Here, we present two experiments in adult male Wistar rats where we tested several different situations and conditions with respect to the occurrence of high-frequency (50-kHz) and low-frequency (22-kHz) calls. These experiments showed that rats emitted high-frequency calls when tested singly in a housing cage, which was situated in a room with no other rats present. Calling did not habituate with repeated testing, and occurred in the animal's own home cage, or a fresh housing cage, and irrespective of whether the animal's motivational status was high or low, that is, irrespective of whether they were food-deprived or fed ad libitum. Furthermore, high- and low-frequency calls were observed when applying a standardized new tickling procedure, which provided evidence for effective types of tickling. Most, but not all, young adult rats still accepted this stimulation as play. Therefore, this procedure might be a useful method to elicit high-frequency calls in adult rats. Overall, substantial evidence for inter-individual variability and intra-individual stability in vocalization was provided both, within and between housing cage and tickle tests. This variability seems to depend at least partly on dispositions or traits, which can be gauged by specific screening tests, like measuring risk-assessment in the elevated plus-maze, since animals with more risk-assessment were more likely to emit high-frequency calls during cage and tickle tests. These findings are discussed with respect to the major hypotheses concerning the functional significance of ultrasonic vocalizations, namely the social/communicatory and the motivational/emotional hypothesis.

  6. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  7. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  8. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hock Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Cheong Chee; Lim, Kuay Kuang; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Huey Chien; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi Mohd; Kaur, Gurpreet; Zain, Zarihah Mohd; Mohamad, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Salleh, Sallehuddin

    2013-01-07

    Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986-2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5-47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21-30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67-2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65-2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63-2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22-2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98-2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05-1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46-2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15-1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18-20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90-2.94); 20-29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82-3.89; 31-40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47-3.28); 41-50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69-2.20) ; 51-60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15-1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03-1.22)) urban as reference. The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality

  9. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  10. Stress-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male rats is altered by prenatal ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    SLIWOWSKA, J. H.; BARKER, J. M.; BARHA, C. K.; LAN, N.; WEINBERG, J.; GALEA, L. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    In adulthood, both alcohol (ethanol) and stress are known to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats. Similarly, most studies report that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces cell proliferation and/or cell survival in the hippocampus of adult males. Furthermore, PAE is known to have marked effects on behavioral and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to stressors. However, no studies have examined the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by stress in PAE animals. We hypothesized that, in accordance with previous data, PAE would suppress basal levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and further that stress acting on a sensitized HPA axis would have greater adverse effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in PAE than in control rats. Adult male offspring from PAE, pair-fed (PF) control, and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to restraint stress (9 days, 1 h/day) or left undisturbed. Rats were then injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on day 10, perfused 24 h (proliferation) or 3 weeks (survival) later, and brains processed for BrdU immunohistochemistry. We found that (1) under non-stressed conditions, PAE rats had a small but statistically significant suppressive effect on levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and (2) unexpectedly, repeated restraint stress significantly reduced neurogenesis in C and PF, but not PAE rats. We speculate that the failure of PAE males to mount an appropriate (i.e. suppressive) neurogenic response to stressors, implies reduced plasticity and adaptability or resilience, which could impact negatively on hippocampal structure and function. PMID:20536332

  11. Testosterone increases display behaviors but does not stimulate growth of adult plumage in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Day, Lainy B; McBroom, Jennifer T; Schlinger, Barney A

    2006-02-01

    In order to attract females, male golden-collared manakins gather in leks and perform a complex display consisting of acrobatics accompanied by loud "wingsnapping". During this display, males show off their yellow beard and yellow, black, and green plumage that is striking in comparison to the dull green plumage of young males and females. We investigated the role of testosterone (T) in activating the display of manakins and in stimulating the growth of the adult male plumage. T regulates song, copulation, and territorial aggression in temperate species. In tropical species, however, T levels can be relatively low year round, which has raised questions about the involvement of T in courtship display and male aggression in these species. In neither temperate nor tropical species has the role of hormones in the shift from juvenile to adult plumage been well studied. Therefore, we implanted green-plumaged birds and adult males with either a T pellet or an inert pellet (controls) and observed the display behaviors of these birds in the field and in captivity. In captive birds, we also plucked feathers from sexually dimorphic regions and observed color and regeneration rate of new feathers. We found that birds implanted with T increased several display behaviors compared to controls. All plucked feathers grew back the same color as prior to treatment; however, we observed some differences in feather growth rate between T-treated birds and controls.

  12. Comparison of esthetics perception and satisfaction of facial profile among male adolescents and adults with different profiles

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Neda; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Shafaee, Hooman; Mozhdehifard, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate esthetics perception and satisfaction of the facial profile among Iranian male adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, male subjects referred to Orthodontic Department of Mashhad Dental School were enrolled (n = 84) and were divided into two groups: Adolescents (n = 39), and adults (n = 45). They were also assigned to straight, convex, or concave profile groups based on the facial profile angle (G-Sn-Pog’). An ideal silhouette of the lower facial profile was designed in Adobe® Photoshop® CS2 software (Kansas, USA). Then, eight other silhouettes representing different relations of the maxilla and mandible were constructed. Patients were asked to use numbers 1–10 to rank the facial profiles in the order of the attractiveness, and choose a silhouette that best closely resembled their own profile. Moreover, using a questionnaire patients were asked to rank their satisfaction with their profile, and asked to assign a number (1–5) to each question as follows; one represented the least satisfaction, while five reflected the highest satisfaction. Results: Adult and adolescent subjects with straight (adults: 12.0 ± 1.9, adolescents: 12.8 ± 1.05) and concave (adults: 10.0 ± 2.14, adolescents: 10.0 ± 2.08) profile showed the highest and the least satisfaction with their own profile, respectively. Both adult and adolescent group selected “retrognathic maxilla, prognathic mandible” as the least attractive profile. Overall, “straight” and “bimaxillary dentoalveolar retrusion” were chosen as the most attractive silhouettes in adolescent and adults, respectively. In comparison to a professional opinion (clinician ranking), 42.9% of adolescents and 22% of adults were able to correctly diagnose their own profiles type. Conclusion: Most of the male adolescents and especially adults diagnosis of their own profile differed with a professional assessment. PMID:27127750

  13. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Leads to Hypertension That Is Gonadal Hormone-Dependent in Adult Rat Male and Female Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone exposure impacts postnatal reproductive and endocrine function, leading to alterations in sex steroid levels. Because gonadal steroids are key regulators of cardiovascular function, it is possible that alteration in sex steroid hormones may contribute to development of hypertension in prenatally testosterone-exposed adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether prenatal testosterone exposure leads to development of hypertension in adult males and females and to assess the influence of gonadal hormones on arterial pressure in these animals. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with testosterone propionate or its vehicle (controls) were examined. Subsets of male and female offspring were gonadectomized at 7 wk of age, and some offspring from age 7 to 24 wk received hormone replacement, while others did not. Testosterone exposure during prenatal life significantly increased arterial pressure in both male and female adult offspring; however, the effect was greater in males. Prenatal androgen-exposed males and females had more circulating testosterone during adult life, with no change in estradiol levels. Gonadectomy prevented hyperandrogenism and also reversed hypertension in these rats. Testosterone replacement in orchiectomized males restored hypertension, while estradiol replacement in ovariectomized females was without effect. Steroidal changes were associated with defective expression of gonadal steroidogenic genes, with Star, Sf1, and Hsd17b1 upregulation in testes. In ovaries, Star and Cyp11a1 genes were upregulated, while Cyp19 was downregulated. This study showed that prenatal testosterone exposure led to development of gonad-dependent hypertension during adult life. Defective steroidogenesis may contribute in part to the observed steroidal changes. PMID:22302690

  14. Chronic nicotine alters cannabinoid-mediated locomotor activity and receptor density in periadolescent but not adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Linda L.; Reed, Stephanie Collins; Wade, Dean; Izenwasser, Sari

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of youths use cigarettes, and more than half of the youths who smoke daily also use illicit drugs. The focus of these studies is on how exposure to nicotine affects subsequent responses to both nicotine and cannabinoids in adolescents compared with adults. We have shown previously that chronic treatment with nicotine produces sensitization to its locomotor-activating effects in female and adult rats but not male adolescent rats. To better understand the effects of nicotine on adolescent and adult rats, rats were injected with nicotine or saline for 7 days and, on day 8, either challenged with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) or the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 and tested for locomotor activity, or the brains were removed for quantitative autoradiography studies of the cannabinoid1 receptor. A separate group of rats was treated with nicotine plus the cannabinoid antagonist AM 251 and then challenged with CP 55,940. In adolescent male rats, nicotine administration led to sensitization to the locomotor-decreasing effects of both Δ9-THC and CP 55,940, but in adult male rats, the response to either drug was unchanged compared to controls. The effect of nicotine on CP 55,940-mediated locomotor activity was blocked by co-administration of AM 251 with the nicotine. Further, cannabinoid receptor density was increased in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and select regions of the hippocampus in adolescent male rats pretreated with nicotine compared to vehicle-treated controls. There were no significant changes in cannabinoid receptor binding, however, in any of the brain regions examined in adult males pretreated with nicotine. The prelimbic prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus have been shown previously to be involved in stimulant reinforcement; thus it is possible that these changes contribute to the unique behavioral effects of chronic nicotine and subsequent drug administration in adolescents compared with adults. PMID

  15. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult, male and female, high alcohol drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Effect of Resistant Soybean on Male and Female Development and Adult Sex Ratios of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Colgrove, A. L.; Niblack, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether currently used sources of resistance (soybean Plant Introductions [PI] 548402, 88788, 90763, 437654, 209332, 89772, and 548316) influence sex ratios in H. glycines, four inbred lines of the nematode characterized by zero or high numbers of females on resistant soybean were used to observe the number of adult males produced. Nematodes were allowed to infect soybean roots for 5 days in pasteurized sand. Infected plants were washed and transferred to hydroponic culture tubes. Males were collected every 2 to 3 days up to 30 days after infestation (DAI), and females were collected at 30 DAI. Resistance that suppressed adult females also altered adult male numbers. On PI 548402, 90763, and 437654, male numbers were low and close to zero, whereas on PI 88788, male numbers were higher (α = 0.05). In a separate experiment, the same PIs were infected by an inbred line that tested as an HG Type 0 (i.e., the numbers of females that developed on each PI were less than 10% of the number that developed on the standard susceptible soybean cultivar Lee). In this experiment, male numbers were similar to female numbers on PI 548402, 90763, 437654, and 89772, whereas male numbers on PI 88788, 209332, and 548316 were higher than those of females (α = 0.05). In all experiments, the total number of adults that developed to maturity relative to the number of second-stage juveniles that initially penetrated the root was less on resistant than on susceptible soybean (P ≤ 0.05), indicating that resistance influenced H. glycines survival and not sexual development. PMID:19262856

  18. Foraging behaviour of Lesser Sheathbills Chionis minor exploiting invertebrates on a sub-Antarctic island.

    PubMed

    Burger, Alan E

    1982-02-01

    During winter (May through October) many Lesser Sheathbills Chionis minor at Marion Island in the sub-Antarctic were obliged to leave their preferred foraging habitat in penguin colonies to forage for invertebrates on the island's coastal plain. The study describes factors affecting feeding success, time budgets and predation risk of the sheathbills which exploited these small, patchily dispersed prey. The birds appeared to select prey ≧1 mm in diameter, and ignore smaller, common invertebrates.Sheathbills were highly selective of foraging habitat. During 17 censuses made through the winter, 97% of the 1,504 birdsightings were at only eight of the 19 available vegetation types. Multiple regression analysis revealed that prey density was the most important criterion in habitat preference, followed by plant canopy height and distance of the habitat from the sea. These variables accounted for 78% of the variance of habitat use. Focal-animal observations in a sample of habitats showed that feeding success was correlated with prey density and distance from the sea. Tall vegetation impeded the locomotion and foraging of sheathbills. The sheathbills reduced predation risk from skuas Catharacta lonnbergi and travelling time by foraging near the shore. The spatial distribution of prey within vegetation types was apparently unimportant in habitat selection.During winter 83% of the sheathbills in the study foraged communally and 98% roosted communally. Flocks occurred only on good quality habitat and flocking probably facilitated habitat selection. Feeding success increased initially with increasing flock size but decreased in flocks greater than 15 birds, which was attributed to localized prey deletions. The sheathbills spent 88% of the daytime foraging; and feeding, looking around and walking comprised 99% of foraging time. Feeding time increased with increasing flock size, looking around decreased but walking was unaffected. Aggression was rare, was unaffected by flock

  19. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2015-01-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/STI risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one’s identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more past-6-month sexual partners, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios (aORs) = 1.32–1.55; p < 0.0001). Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p < 0.0001). Syndemics were associated with sexual risk in TMSM who had socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42–2.25; p < 0.001), but not among those TMSM who had not (aOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.63–1.19; p = 0.37). Findings suggest that syndemic pathways to sexual risk are similar for TMSM who have socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. PMID:26384946

  20. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations.

  1. Spacing behaviour of juvenile corn mice, Calomys musculinus , at the beginning of the breeding period, in absence of adult males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Andrea; Priotto, José; Sommaro, Lucia; Polop, Jaime

    2006-05-01

    This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the absence of fathers promotes a different spacing behaviour in juveniles Calomys musculinus at the beginning of the breeding period. The study was carried out in four 0.25-ha enclosures (two control and two experimental), in a natural pasture, between November 2003 and February 2004. In this study the fathers were removed from the experimental enclosures after juveniles were born. Home-range size depended on sex of juveniles and treatment (father removal). In control and experimental enclosures, female home-range sizes were always smaller than male home-ranges. Male home-ranges were always larger in experimental enclosures than in control enclosures. Treatment and overlap type (intra- and inter-sexual) were not independent. The overlap proportions of male home-ranges were greatest in experimental enclosures than in control enclosures, in both the overlap types (male/male, males/females). The intra- (females/females) and inter-sexual (females/males) overlap proportions of female home-ranges were independent of treatment. In C. musculinus, at the beginning of the breeding period and in absence of adult males, juvenile males increase their home-range size and therefore the degree of inter- and intra-sexual home-range overlap as a mechanism for enlarging the number of receptive females that they encounter.

  2. Preliminary report on the correlations among pineal concretions, prostatic calculi and age in human adult males.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Sano, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-09-01

    By using quantitative image analysis of soft X-ray photographs on the bulk of extracted pineal glands and prostates, we made a preliminary investigation into the correlations among pineal concretions (% by mass), prostatic calculi (% by mass) and age (years) in 40 human adult males, ranging in age from 31 to 95 years (mean (+/-SD) 69.9 +/- 15.2 years), who died and underwent the routine dissection course. The mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi were 17.68 +/- 13.56% (range 0-51.34%) and 0.93 +/- 1.31% (range 0-5.82%), respectively. There was no correlation between the mass concentration of pineal concretions and aging (r = 0.03; P < 1.0). There was no correlation between mass concentration of prostatic calculi and aging (r = 0.28; P < 0.5). No pineal concretions and no prostatic calculi were observed in seven and 10 cases, respectively; in addition, in one case, neither-concretions nor calculi were seen. From such data and from the previously reported suggestion on the counteracting functions between the pineal gland and prostate, a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi was expected. This was certainly obtained, but the correlation was low (r = -0.39; P < 0.05). Such a low correlation and no correlations between the concentrations of pineal concretions and aging or between prostatic calculi and aging may have been caused by the examination of relatively older humans. Therefore, further investigations using a number of pair samples collected from males including younger age generations will be necessary.

  3. On Again, Off Again Effects of Gonadectomy on the Acoustic Startle Reflex in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Turvin, J.C.; Messer, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown sex and/or estrous cycle differences in the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and its prepulse inhibition (PPI) in humans and animals. However, few have examined the effects of hormone manipulations on these behaviors. This study paired gonadectomy (GDX) in adult male rats with testing for ASR and PPI at 2, 4, 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37 days after surgery. Initial studies of control, GDX and GDX rats given testosterone propionate revealed no group differences in PPI, but did reveal phasic facilitation of the ASR in GDX rats that was greatest on the first and final testing sessions and that was attenuated by testosterone. A second study addressing roles for estrogen and androgen signaling tested new control and GDX rats along with GDX rats given estradiol or the non-aromatizable androgen, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone and revealed no group differences in PPI, and increases in ASR in GDX rats that were largest during the first and final testing sessions and that were attenuated by both hormone replacements. However, while responses in GDX rats given testosterone were similar to those of controls, ASR in estradiol- and to a lesser extent in dihydrotestosterone-treated GDX rats were typically lower than in controls. This may suggest that hormone modulation of the ASR requires synergistic estrogen and androgen actions. In the male brain where this can be achieved by local steroid metabolism, the enzymes responsible, e.g., aromatase, could help identify loci in the startle circuitry that may be especially relevant for the hormone modulation observed. PMID:17169383

  4. Sirolimus and tacrolimus rather than cyclosporine A cause bone loss in healthy adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Mercedes; Montero, Mercedes; Guede, David; Caeiro, Jose-Ramón; Martín-Fernández, Marta; Díaz-Curiel, Manuel; de la Piedra, Concepción

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (FK-506), and rapamycin (RAPA) on bone mass, femoral microstructure, femoral biomechanical properties, and bone remodeling in healthy adult male rats. Forty-eight 5-month-old male Wistar rats were used. CsA (2 mg/kg/day), FK-506 (3 mg/kg/day), RAPA (1.25 mg/kg/day), or water (0.5 ml/rat/day, control group) were administered orally for 3 months. After sacrifice, mean values of immunosuppressants in blood were: CsA (670.4 ng/ml), FK-506 (19.2 ng/ml), and RAPA (4.8 ng/ml). Levels of biochemical parameters were normal in all groups. Femoral BMD was decreased in FK-506 and RAPA groups and lumbar BMD in FK-506 group. Trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased only in FK-506 group. RAPA and CsA affected femoral cortical structure, but FK-506 did not. FK-506 produced an increase in bone remodeling, and CsA a decrease. FK-506 group showed a decrease in biomechanical parameters relative to all groups. RAPA group showed a decrease in ultimate stress vs control group, and CsA group presented an increase in biomechanical parameters versus control group. We found that administration of both RAPA and FK-506 as monotherapy for healthy rats produced osteopenia. CsA treatment only produces slight damages in the cortical zone of the femur.

  5. Variants of psychopathy in adult male offenders: A latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S; Santtila, Pekka; Habermeyer, Elmar; Nitschke, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27). The 4 PCL-R factors were the dependent variables for clustering. A solution with 3 latent classes showed a better fit to the data than did a unitary model without latent classes. Tentative labels for the latent classes are Manipulative (Latent Class 1 [LC1]), Aggressive (Latent Class 2 [LC2]), and Sociopathic (Latent Class 3 [LC3]). The latter class represented an antisocial group that lacked the emotional detachment observed in the other 2 groups. We propose that LC1 and LC2 reflect phenotypic variations on a theme of the traditional construct of psychopathy, and that LC3 is consistent with conceptions of antisocial personality disorder and sociopathy. Replication and external classification with an independent data set of 497 adult male offenders again yielded clearly separable clusters, as well as meaningful differences or trends among latent classes on education, intelligence, symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported psychopathic traits and negative affect. The conceptualization of psychopathy in terms of manipulative and aggressive variants is consistent with clinical theory and is empirically grounded.

  6. Gross efficiency responses to exercise conditioning in adult males of various ages.

    PubMed

    Gissane, C; Corrigan, D L; White, J A

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated gross efficiency changes in a group of 60 adult males (mean age 39.2 +/- 1.2 years) resulting from endurance training and age-related responses to such training in sub-groups (each n = 20) of younger (30.7 +/- 0.7 years), intermediate (38.3 +/- 0.5 years) and older (48.6 +/- 1.1 years) subjects. Gross efficiency (%) was calculated from work output, oxygen consumption and RER energy equivalents following 10 min standard cycle ergometry exercise at 100 W and 50 rev min-1. Measurements were made at pre-, mid- and post-8 months of training, which involved progressive walking/jogging activities designed to enhance endurance capacity. In the total group, VO2 decreased pre- to post-training from 2.15 +/- 0.02 to 1.93 +/- 0.01 1 min-1 (P less than 0.01). In the sub-groups, both the younger and older subjects showed a significantly reduced VO2, from 2.17 +/- 0.01 to 1.98 +/- 0.04 1 min-1 and 2.05 +/- 0.08 to 1.86 +/- 0.03 1 min-1 respectively (P less than 0.05), but no significant changes were noted at mid-training. In the intermediate age subjects, while there were trends towards a reduced VO2, none was significant. The ANOVA revealed increased mean gross efficiency in the total group from pre- (14.3 +/- 0.1%) to post- (15.5 +/- 0.2%) (P less than 0.05) but not at mid-training (14.8 +/- 0.2%). While similar trends were observed in the sub-groups, gross efficiency increases were not significant, although changes in gross efficiency were reflected in VO2. The findings suggest that during standardized exercise, oxygen cost may be reduced and gross efficiency increased in adult males following endurance training and that such changes may take place over a variety of age ranges.

  7. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Alfredo; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Anderson, Robert F; Straub, Marietta; Hodell, David A; Jaccard, Samuel L; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haug, Gerald H

    2014-03-21

    John H. Martin, who discovered widespread iron limitation of ocean productivity, proposed that dust-borne iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton caused the ice age reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In a sediment core from the Subantarctic Atlantic, we measured foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct ice age nitrate consumption, burial fluxes of iron, and proxies for productivity. Peak glacial times and millennial cold events are characterized by increases in dust flux, productivity, and the degree of nitrate consumption; this combination is uniquely consistent with Subantarctic iron fertilization. The associated strengthening of the Southern Ocean's biological pump can explain the lowering of CO2 at the transition from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions as well as the millennial-scale CO2 oscillations.

  8. Maternal flaxseed diet during lactation changes adrenal function in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2015-10-14

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been a focus of interest in the field of functional foods because of its potential health benefits. However, we hypothesised that maternal flaxseed intake during lactation could induce several metabolic dysfunctions in adult offspring. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the adrenal function of adult offspring whose dams were supplemented with whole flaxseed during lactation. At birth, lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: rats from dams fed the flaxseed diet (FLAX) with 25% of flaxseed and controls dams. Pups received standard diet after weaning and male offspring were killed at age 180 days old to collect blood and tissues. We evaluated body weight and food intake during development, corticosteronaemia, adrenal catecholamine content, hepatic cholesterol, TAG and glycogen contents, and the protein expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and adrenaline β2 receptor at postnatal day 180 (PN180). After weaning, pups from the FLAX group had a higher body weight (+10 %) and food intake (+10%). At PN180, the FLAX offspring exhibited higher serum corticosterone (+48%) and lower adrenal catecholamine ( - 23%) contents, lower glycogen ( - 30%), higher cholesterol (4-fold increase) and TAG (3-fold-increase) contents in the liver, and higher 11β-HSD1 (+62%) protein expression. Although the protein expression of hypothalamic CRH was unaffected, the FLAX offspring had lower protein expression of pituitary ACTH ( - 34%). Therefore, induction of hypercorticosteronaemia by dietary flaxseed during lactation may be due to an increased hepatic activation of 11β-HSD1 and suppression of ACTH. The changes in the liver fat content of the FLAX group are suggestive of steatosis, in which hypercorticosteronaemia may play an important role. Thus, it is recommended that lactating women restrict the intake of flaxseed during

  9. Increased dairy consumption differentially improves metabolic syndrome markers in male and female adults.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Christine E; Barona, Jacqueline; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2014-02-01

    Effects of dairy consumption on metabolic health and adiposity are inconsistent. Most clinical trials have investigated dairy intake, frequently during caloric restriction, in overweight or obese populations but not in a metabolic syndrome population. We investigated the effect of increased dairy intake without caloric restriction on anthropometrics, plasma lipids, and glucose in typically low-dairy consumers who met the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) metabolic syndrome criteria. Male (n=14) and female (n=23) adults (54.1 ± 9.7 years) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to consume low-fat dairy (LFD) (10 oz of 1% milk, 6 oz of nonfat yogurt, 4 oz of 2% cheese) or carbohydrate control (CNT) (1.5-oz granola bar and 12 oz of 100% juice) foods for 6 weeks in a crossover study design. Anthropometrics, metabolic syndrome parameters, insulin resistance, and parathyroid hormone were measured. Body composition was analyzed by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for a subset of subjects (n=22). LFD modulated metabolic syndrome parameters differently according to gender. Following LFD, men had lower glucose (95.4 ± 9.1 vs. 98.9 ± 10.6 mg/dL, P=0.048), whereas women had lower body weight (BW), waist circumference, and body mass index (P<0.01) compared to CNT. Women also had lower energy intake following LFD compared to CNT. Increases in phosphorus (a dairy nutrient) were negatively correlated with decreases in BW (r=-0.537; P<0.01) and body fat in women (r=-0.593, P<0.025), whereas the decreases in energy intake had no correlation with anthropometrics. Three dairy servings/day promoted small but significant improvements differentially by gender in a metabolic syndrome population.

  10. Waterpipe tobacco dependence in U.K. male adult residents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Saba; Al-Bakri, Ali; Al'Absi, Mustafa; Croucher, Ray

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WPTS) is increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11), and (b) to assess, estimate, and identify factors associated with waterpipe tobacco dependence symptoms among U.K. male adult resident waterpipe tobacco smokers. A total of 180 waterpipe tobacco smokers were recruited during random visits to 7 outlets serving waterpipe tobacco. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews using the WPTS module of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and the LWDS-11. Descriptive statistics, exploratory psychometric, univariate, and Poisson regression analysis were employed. Participants' M/SD age was 29.46/±9.41 years, Arabic ethnicity accounted for 58.3%, and 53.9% had completed more than secondary education. Psychometric analyses for the LWDS-10, after removing 1 item from the generic scale, revealed Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.74. About 47% of the sample demonstrated waterpipe tobacco dependence. Being Arab (p = .040, OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.05-6.62), smoking waterpipe daily in the past (p = .003, OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.30-3.49), and an increase in length in the last session of WPTS (p = .044, OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.32) were identified as risk factors for waterpipe tobacco dependence. This study demonstrated the potential of LWDS-11 and revealed 2 domains: positive and negative reinforcement and physiological dependence. Results indicated that waterpipe tobacco smokers in the United Kingdom demonstrated tobacco dependence symptoms, which were associated with socio-behavioral factors. Generalizability of these findings and their implications in public health are yet to be investigated.

  11. Contact Karate Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in Young Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Magalhaes Sales, Marcelo; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Barbosa Sampaio, Wellington; Ernesto, Carlos; Alberto Vieira Browne, Rodrigo; Fernando Vila Nova de Moraes, Jose; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Rocha Moraes, Milton; Eugene Lewis, John; Gustavo Simões, Herbert; Martins da Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, systemic arterial hypertension is a leading cause of death and non-communicable cardiovascular disease. A major factor contributing to this disease is a sedentary lifestyle. However, physical exercise, such as martial arts, may be an option for blood pressure (BP) control. The magnitude of post-exercise hypotension is associated with a prolonged decrease in BP in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. Objectives The present study aimed to verify the effects of a Contact Karate (CK) session on BP responses during a post-exercise recovery period in young adults. Patients and Methods Thirty-two male CK athletes volunteered (28.2 ± 6.7 years; 77.0 ± 5.7 kg; and 176.0 ± 4.7 cm) and underwent one CK session (50 minutes) and a control session in which no exercise was performed and the individuals remain seated during the whole time. BP was measured during rest (before sessions), as well as on the 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th minutes of the post-exercise recovery. Results The systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly lower at the post-exercise period compared to pre-exercise rest (P < 0.05), with the largest reductions being observed at the 60th minutes of recovery [SBP (rest: 125.9 ± 4.7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 111.7 ± 5.4 mmHg); DBP (rest: 78.8 ± .7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 69.8 ± 2.7 mmHg)] and at the same periods of post-exercise recovery of the control session. Conclusions A single CK session can promote a decrease in BP for at least 60 minutes after performing this type of exercise in young adults. PMID:27826399

  12. Neonatal tryptophan depletion and corticosterone supplementation modify emotional responses in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Zoratto, Francesca; Fiore, Marco; Ali, Syed F; Laviola, Giovanni; Macrì, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are crucially involved in the regulation of emotions. Specifically, spontaneous and/or environmentally mediated modulations of the functionality of these systems early in development may favour the onset of depressive- and anxiety-related phenotypes. While the independent contribution of each of these systems to the emergence of abnormal phenotypes has been detailed in clinical and experimental studies, only rarely has their interaction been systematically investigated. Here, we addressed the effects of reduced serotonin and environmental stress during the early stages of postnatal life on emotional regulations in mice. To this aim, we administered, to outbred CD1 mouse dams, during their first week of lactation, a tryptophan deficient diet (T) and corticosterone via drinking water (C; 80μg/ml). Four groups of dams (animal facility rearing, AFR; T treated, T; C treated, C; T and C treated, TC) and their male offspring were used in the study. Maternal care was scored throughout treatment and adult offspring were tested for: anhedonia (progressive ratio schedule); anxiety-related behaviour (approach-avoidance conflict paradigm); BDNF, dopamine and serotonin concentrations in selected brain areas. T, C and TC treatments reduced active maternal care compared to AFR. Adult TC offspring showed significantly increased anxiety- and anhedonia-related behaviours, reduced striatal and increased hypothalamic BDNF and reduced dopamine and serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and their turnover in the hippocampus. Thus, present findings support the view that neonatal variations in the functionality of the serotonergic system and of HPA axis may jointly contribute to induce emotional disturbances in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contact Karate Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in Young Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes Sales, Marcelo; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Barbosa Sampaio, Wellington; Ernesto, Carlos; Alberto Vieira Browne, Rodrigo; Fernando Vila Nova de Moraes, Jose; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Rocha Moraes, Milton; Eugene Lewis, John; Gustavo Simões, Herbert; Martins da Silva, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide, systemic arterial hypertension is a leading cause of death and non-communicable cardiovascular disease. A major factor contributing to this disease is a sedentary lifestyle. However, physical exercise, such as martial arts, may be an option for blood pressure (BP) control. The magnitude of post-exercise hypotension is associated with a prolonged decrease in BP in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. The present study aimed to verify the effects of a Contact Karate (CK) session on BP responses during a post-exercise recovery period in young adults. Thirty-two male CK athletes volunteered (28.2 ± 6.7 years; 77.0 ± 5.7 kg; and 176.0 ± 4.7 cm) and underwent one CK session (50 minutes) and a control session in which no exercise was performed and the individuals remain seated during the whole time. BP was measured during rest (before sessions), as well as on the 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th minutes of the post-exercise recovery. The systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly lower at the post-exercise period compared to pre-exercise rest (P < 0.05), with the largest reductions being observed at the 60th minutes of recovery [SBP (rest: 125.9 ± 4.7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 111.7 ± 5.4 mmHg); DBP (rest: 78.8 ± .7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 69.8 ± 2.7 mmHg)] and at the same periods of post-exercise recovery of the control session. A single CK session can promote a decrease in BP for at least 60 minutes after performing this type of exercise in young adults.

  14. Effects of photoperiod on food intake, activity and metabolic rate in adult neutered male cats.

    PubMed

    Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Kerr, K R; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of increased photoperiod (longer days) on voluntary physical activity levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake required to maintain BW, and fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in adult cats. Eleven healthy, adult, neutered, male domestic shorthair cats were used in a randomized crossover design study. During two 12-week periods, cats were exposed to either a short-day (SD) photoperiod of 8 h light: 16 h dark or a long-day (LD) photoperiod of 16 h light: 8 h dark. Cats were fed a commercial diet to maintain baseline BW. In addition to daily food intake and twice-weekly BW, RMR (via indirect calorimetry), body composition [via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)] and physical activity (via Actical activity monitors) were measured at week 0 and 12 of each period. Fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations were measured at week 0, 6 and 12 of each period. Average hourly physical activity was greater (p = 0.008) in LD vs. SD cats (3770 vs. 3129 activity counts/h), which was primarily due to increased (p < 0.001) dark period activity (1188 vs. 710 activity counts/h). This corresponded to higher (p < 0.0001) daily metabolizable energy intake (mean over 12-week period: 196 vs. 187 kcal/day), and increased (p = 0.048) RMR in LD cats (9.02 vs. 8.37 kcal/h). Body composition, serum leptin and serum ghrelin were not altered by photoperiod. More research is needed to determine potential mechanisms by which these physiological changes occurred and how they may apply to weight management strategies.

  15. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo-yong; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients. PMID:26981099

  16. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE.
    JC Rockett, JC Luft, JB Garges and DJ Dix. Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: G Klinefelter
    The development of wate...

  17. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE.
    JC Rockett, JC Luft, JB Garges and DJ Dix. Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: G Klinefelter
    The development of wate...

  18. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  19. Effects of Acrobat MZ and Tattoo C on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) development and adult male behavior.

    PubMed

    Teather, K; Harris, M; Boswell, J; Gray, M

    2001-02-01

    Exposure of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos and adult males to sublethal concentrations of two commonly used fungicides, Acrobat MZ and Tattoo C, had varying effects on development and adult male behavior. During embryolarval assays, medaka exposed to Acrobat exhibited decreased heart rates throughout embryonic development and were smaller at hatching than controls. Differences in hatching size were not apparent with Tattoo although some decrease in heart rate was observed at higher concentrations. Tail lesions and abnormal spinal development was a problem common to embryos exposed to Acrobat. Neither time to hatch nor early growth was affected by exposure to either fungicide. Adult males that had been exposed to high concentrations of Acrobat or Tattoo over a 28-day period were less likely to approach females during behavioral trials. The absence of other behavioral effects, particularly those related to reproductive performance, may have been due to females being sexually unreceptive during behavioral trials. No other behavioral modifications were apparent for adult males exposed to either fungicide. Information about developmental and behavioral responses to sublethal concentrations of pesticides is important for establishing environmental guidelines concerning their use.

  20. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  1. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  2. Vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist treatment during mouse embryogenesis impairs social behavior and cognitive function of adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Hill, Joanna M; Cuasay, Katrina; Abebe, Daniel T

    2007-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a regulator of rodent embryogenesis during the period of neural tube closure. VIP enhanced growth in whole cultured mouse embryos; treatment with a VIP antagonist during embryogenesis inhibited growth and development. VIP antagonist treatment during embryogenesis also had permanent effects on adult brain chemistry and impaired social recognition behavior in adult male mice. The neurological deficits of autism appear to be initiated during neural tube closure and social behavior deficits are among the key characteristics of this disorder that is more common in males and is frequently accompanied by mental retardation. The current study examined the blockage of VIP during embryogenesis as a model for the behavioral deficits of autism. Treatment of pregnant mice with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10 had no apparent effect on the general health or sensory or motor capabilities of adult offspring. However, male offspring exhibited reduced sociability in the social approach task and deficits in cognitive function, as assessed through cued and contextual fear conditioning. Female offspring did not show these deficiencies. These results suggest that this paradigm has usefulness as a mouse model for aspects of autism as it selectively impairs male offspring who exhibit the reduced social behavior and cognitive dysfunction seen in autism. Furthermore, the study indicates that the foundations of some aspects of social behavior are laid down early in mouse embryogenesis, are regulated in a sex specific manner and that interference with embryonic regulators such as VIP can have permanent effects on adult social behavior.

  3. Extended hatching periods in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Lithodidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, S.; Calcagno, J. A.; Lovrich, G. A.; Sartoris, F. J.; Anger, K.

    2003-06-01

    Temporal pattern of hatching was studied in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Molina) and Paralomis granulosa (Jaquinot) from the Argentine Beagle Channel. In both species, larval hatching occurred in low daily numbers over an extended period of up to several weeks, depending on hatch size. Low daily hatching activity and low oxygen-consumption rates in freshly hatched P. granulosa larvae are discussed as life history adaptations to, and/or physiological constraints by, the environmental conditions of high latitudes.

  4. Soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for sub-Antarctic islands contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Sub-Antarctic islands have been subjected to petroleum hydrocarbon spills, yet no information is available regarding the toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to these subpolar soils. The purpose of the present study was to identify soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sub-Antarctic soil. Soil from Macquarie Island, a sub-Antarctic island south of Australia, was collected and exposed to 10 concentrations of Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel, ranging from 0 to 50,000 mg fuel/kg soil, for a 21-d period. The sensitivity of nitrification, denitrification, carbohydrate utilization, and total soil respiration to SAB fuel was assessed. Potential nitrification activity was the most sensitive indicator of SAB contamination assessed for nitrogen cycling, with an IC20 (concentration that results in a 20% change from the control response) of 190 mg fuel/ kg soil. Potential denitrification activity was not as sensitive to SAB contamination, with an IC20 of 950 mg fuel/kg soil for nitrous oxide production. Nitrous oxide consumption was unaffected by SAB contamination. Carbohydrate utilization (respiration caused by sucrose) was a more sensitive indicator (IC20, 16 mg fuel/kg soil) of SAB contamination than total respiration (IC20, 220 mg fuel/kg soil). However, total soil respiration was a more responsive measurement end point, increasing soil respiration over a 72-h period by 17 mg of CO2, compared to a change of only 2.1 mg of CO2 for carbohydrate utilization. Our results indicate that IC20s varied between 16 to 950 mg fuel/kg soil for Macquarie Island soil spiked with SAB diesel fuel. These results indicate that current cleanup levels derived from temperate zones may be too liberal for soil contamination in sub-Antarctic islands.

  5. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Ogino, Yukiko; Gregg, Adrienne; Chapman, John; McLaughlin, Mike J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a class of synthetic industrial chemicals commonly found in the aquatic environment worldwide. PAEs have been recognised as anti-androgens in male mammals but little is known about their endocrine disrupting effects in fish. This study investigated the effects of 7-day exposures to nominal (measured) concentrations of 125 (62), 250 (140), 500 (230) and 1,000 (383) μg/L of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) on the biomarkers of reproduction in adult male Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) using molecular, biochemical and histological endpoints. None of the tested concentrations of DnBP had any effect on survival or the vital body indices of the fish. The sizes of spermatogonia, Type A and B spermatocytes and spermatids were significantly smaller relative to the controls after treatment with DnBP. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in fish treated with 250-1,000 μg/L of DnBP in comparison to the unexposed fish. At the end of the exposure period, the expressions of the transcripts for the androgen receptors α and β were significantly elevated in the livers of the fish treated with 500 and 1,000 μg/L of DnBP. In addition, there was also an increase in the circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma in the higher treatment groups. An induction in the activity of aromatase was noted in the brains of 1,000 μg/L DnBP-treated fish. This was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic expression of the genes (here and later, whenever the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym for gene transcription although it is acknowledged that it is also regulated, e.g., by translation, mRNA stability and protein stability) encoding for the oestrogen receptors α and β and choriogenin L. Collectively, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in the testes, the upregulation of the genes for the oestrogen receptors and choriogenin in the liver, an induction in the brain

  6. Physiological and biochemical parameters in response to electroejaculation in adult and yearling anesthetized pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Villagrán, M; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in physiological and biochemical parameters during electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia in adult and yearling pampas deer males (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). The relation between heart rate, pulse rate, respiratory rate and oximetry with EE voltages was studied. The changes in cortisol, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and rectal temperature were determined before and after electroejaculation (BEE and AEE). Heart rate and pulse rate values increased during EE, with a greater increase in heart rate in adults (p < 0.01). Respiratory rate and SpO(2) were not affected by EE or category. The rectal temperature decreased in adults and yearlings during EE (p = 0.0001). Alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased AEE (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in young than in adult males (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the EE under general anaesthesia in the pampas deer provoked increases in heart and pulse rates, as well as in creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and a decrease in rectal temperature in both categories. Oximetry values were especially low during the procedure. Heart rate increase was greater in adult males, and alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in yearlings.

  7. Prenatal caffeine exposure induces a poor quality of articular cartilage in male adult offspring rats via cholesterol accumulation in cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hanwen; Li, Jing; Cao, Hong; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations indicate that osteoarthritis is associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Our previous studies showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induced chondrogenesis retardation in IUGR offspring rats. The current study sought to investigate the effects of PCE on male IUGR offspring rats’ articular cartilage, and the mechanisms associated with abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Based on the results from both male fetal and adult fed a high-fat diet (HFD) studies of rats that experienced PCE (120 mg/kg.d), the results showed a poor quality of articular cartilage and cholesterol accumulation in the adult PCE group. Meanwhile, the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations were increased in adult PCE offspring. We also observed lower expression of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) and impaired cholesterol efflux in adult articular cartilage. Furthermore, the expression of cartilage functional genes, components of the IGF1 signaling pathway and cholesterol efflux pathway related genes were decreased in PCE fetal cartilage. In conclusion, PCE induced a poor quality of articular cartilage in male adult offspring fed a HFD. This finding was shown to be due to cholesterol accumulation in the cartilage, which may have resulted from intrauterine reduced activity of the IGF1 signaling pathway. PMID:26639318

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas among Young Adult Male Substance Abusers: A Comparison with a Non-Clinical Group

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement than a non-clinical comparison group. The current study extended the research on substance use and schemas by comparing the early maladaptive schemas of young adult male residential substance abuse patients (n = 101) and a group of non-clinical male college students (n = 175). Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical comparison group on 9 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23312769

  9. [Biochemistry of the developmental cycle of Triatoma infestans (Vinchuca). VI. Identification and lipid composition of hemolymph lipoproteins of adult males].

    PubMed

    Fichera, L E; Brenner, R R

    1982-01-01

    Three lipoproteins were separated from the haemolymph of adult males of Triatoma infestans fed on hen blood. The densities were similar to the high density lipoprotein (HDL) and to two very high density lipoproteins (VHDL) isolated from a pool of adult male and female insects fasted during twelve days. The relative distribution and composition of the three lipoproteins were studied. The fatty acids were mainly carried by the 1.3 and 1.2 diacylglycerols of high density lipoprotein. Triacylglycerols were minor components. Similarly to fasted insects, the main fatty acids were oleic and palmitic. Linoleic was also present. Very high density lipoproteins (VHDL-II) (d 1.25-1.26) were found in the haemolymph of male insects. The relative distribution of HDL and VHDL on fed and fasted insects was different.

  10. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of nutrient and temperature on degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated sub-Antarctic soil.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Pelletier, Emilien; Gourhant, Lénaick; Delille, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Mesocosm studies using sub-Antarctic soil artificially contaminated with diesel or crude oil were conducted in Kerguelen Archipelago (49 degrees 21' S, 70 degrees 13' E) in an attempt to evaluate the potential of a bioremediation approach in high latitude environments. All mesocosms were sampled on a regular basis over six months period. Soils responded positively to temperature increase from 4 degrees C to 20 degrees C, and to the addition of a commercial oleophilic fertilizer containing N and P. Both factors increased the hydrocarbon-degrading microbial abundance and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. In general, alkanes were faster degraded than polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After 180 days, total alkane losses of both oils reached 77-95% whereas total PAHs never exceeded 80% with optimal conditions at 10 degrees C and fertilizer added. Detailed analysis of naphthalenes, dibenzothiophenes, phenanthrenes, and pyrenes showed a clear decrease of their degradation rate as a function of the size of the PAH molecules. During the experiment there was only a slight decrease in the toxicity, whereas the concentration of TPH decreased significantly during the same time. The most significant reduction in toxicity occurred at 4 degrees C. Therefore, bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sub-Antarctic soil appears to be feasible, and various engineering strategies, such as heating or amending the soil can accelerate hydrocarbon degradation. However, the residual toxicity of contaminated soil remained drastically high before the desired cleanup is complete and it can represent a limiting factor in the bioremediation of sub-Antarctic soil.

  12. Aspects of reproductive ecology and benthic-pelagic coupling in the sub-antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis (Theel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Andrew; Neal, Lance

    2012-07-01

    For deeper regions of the continental shelf environmental cues entraining reproduction in echinoderms are often absent, which contributes to adoption of continuous reproduction, having larger eggs, and a lecithotrophic mode of larval development. In the present study the sub-Antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis from the family Synallactidae was obtained during June (winter) and September (spring) from a depth of approximately 300 m north of the Auckland Islands in an area abundant in biogenic sediments. Samples were processed for body indices and gonad development. Features characteristic of non-continuous reproduction were exhibited. Although a larger egg size was found (212±14 μm), two distinct winter cohorts of oocytes occurred (41-81 and 161-201 μm) and body wall weight fluctuations (7.6% increase in males and 27.5% reduction in females) coincided with changes in gonad indices between sample dates. For males gonad as a proportion of body wall weight decreased from 3.31±0.9 to 2.11±0.37% and for females it increased from 1.59±0.28 to 2.5±0.30%. For both sample dates the gonad of males maintained mature spermatozoa whereas female gonad shifted from mainly recovery and growth of oocytes to growth and advanced growth of mature oocytes. In habitats with low or variable food availability intermittent reproduction is predicted as resources are too low for a high reproductive effort and too erratic for synchrony. A pattern of reproduction where fluctuations in seasonal organic input into an accumulated benthic food source initiates and synchronises gametogenesis for future spawning is proposed.

  13. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  14. Relations Between Self-Reported Adverse Events in Childhood and Hypersexuality in Adult Male Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Drew A; Graham, Franklyn J; Knight, Raymond A

    2017-04-01

    Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression. Physical, psychological, and sexual abuse experiences were estimated using several scales of early development. Psychological abuse in childhood and adolescence, especially by a father, was found to be the most prominent predictor of subsequent hypersexual thoughts and behaviors. The accumulation of abuse types, however, was also associated with a monotonic increase in the latent trait of hypersexuality. The consequences of these results for conceptualizations of the construct are discussed.

  15. Effects of cyclophosphamide on the kaolin consumption (pica behavior) in five strains of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Shu-ichi; Ikeda, Masashi; Hokao, Ryoji; Shinoda, Motoo

    2011-07-01

    It is known that pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin, can be induced by administration of toxins or emetic agents in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cyclophosphamide on pica behavior and on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the following five strains of adult male rats: Sprague Dawley (SD), Wistar, Fischer 344 (F344), Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Long Evans (LE). Cyclophosphamide (25 mg or 50 mg/kg) was injected (i.p.) into the rats and kaolin and food intake were measured at 24 hr after injection. The animals were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) at 3 hr after injection of cyclophosphamide, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna. WI and LE rats clearly showed pica behavior as compared with the other strains. In LE rats, the concentration of 5HIAA in CSF also increased in a dose-dependent manner of cyclophosphamide. The pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist) restored both changes (kaolin consumption and 5HIAA levels) induced by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the LE rat is sensitive to cyclophosphamide, that pica induced by cyclophosphamide mimics many aspects of emesis including the serotonergic response in the central nervous system and that use of the pica model would be a practical method for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs in addition to the mechanism of emesis.

  16. Impact of Neonatal Sertraline Exposure on the Post-Myocardial Infarction Outcomes of Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Sarah E.; Peotta, Veronica A.; Reinking, Benjamin E.; Hermann, Gregory M.; Roghair, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) leads to decreased left ventricular volumes and sympathetic activation in adult mice. We hypothesized this neonatal SSRI exposure-induced small left heart syndrome would increase post-myocardial infarction morbidity and mortality. C57BL/6 mice received saline or sertraline (5 mg/kg IP) on post-natal days 1–14. At 5 months, male mice underwent coronary artery ligation and were monitored by radiotelemetry until death or 4 weeks post-ligation. Following ligation, SSRI exposed mice had increased heart rates (SSRI 516 ± 13 bpm, control 470 ± 15 bpm, p<0.05). SSRI-exposed mice had significant reductions in left ventricular systolic volumes both before and after coronary ligation (SSRI: baseline 20 ± 3 µL, post-MI 37 ± 10 µL; control: baseline 30 ± 3 µL, post-MI 65 ± 23 µL). Post-MI echocardiography showed significantly decreased ejection fraction in control mice (baseline 60 ± 4%, post-MI 41 ± 2%, p <0.01) but not SSRI-exposed mice (baseline 65 ± 3%, post-MI 53 ± 7%). Neonatal SSRI exposure did not significantly alter post-MI survival. We conclude that the preexisting SSRI-induced small left heart syndrome may provide protection from post-MI ventricular dilation. PMID:23921310

  17. Comparing indicators of sexual sadism as predictors of recidivism among adult male sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Drew A; Seto, Michael C; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M

    2010-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Five hundred and eighty six adult male sexual offenders were assessed between 1982 and 1992, and these offenders were followed for up to 20-years postrelease via official criminal records. Assessment information included the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis, offense characteristics, phallometric assessment results, and an actuarial risk measure (the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide). Predictive validity was demonstrated in univariate analyses for the behavioral indicators of sexual sadism (area under the curve [AUCs] from .58 to .62) but not psychiatric diagnosis (AUC = .54). Cox regression analyses revealed that phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to violence was still significantly associated with violent (including sexual) recidivism after actuarially estimated risk to reoffend was controlled. A psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism, in contrast, was unrelated to recidivism. The results support the use of more behaviorally operationalized indicators of sexual sadism, especially phallometric assessment of sexual arousal, and suggest the DSM criteria for sexual sadism require further work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Relationships between maximal oxygen uptake and endothelial function in healthy male adults: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Silvio; Canino, Baldassare; Batsis, John A; Buscemi, Chiara; Calandrino, Vincenzo; Mattina, Alessandro; Arnone, Mariangela; Caimi, Gregorio; Cerasola, Giovanni; Verga, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic capacity, as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) has an important role in contrasting the traditional cardiovascular risk factors and preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is known that endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, is strictly linked to atherogenesis and cardiovascular risk. However, the relationship between VO2 max and FMD has not been fully investigated especially in healthy non-obese subjects. This preliminary study cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between VO2 max and FMD in 22 non-obese, healthy sedentary male subjects. Dividing the cohort in two subgroups of 11 subjects each according to the median value of VO2 max, the FMD was significantly lower in the subgroup with lower VO2 max (mean ± sem: 7.1 ± 0.7 vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 %; P = 0.035). Absolute VO2 max (mL min(-1)) was significantly and independently correlated with body fat mass (r = -0.50; P = 0.018) and with FMD (r = 0.44; P = 0.039). This preliminary study suggests that maximal oxygen uptake is independently correlated with endothelial function in healthy non-obese adults. These results are also in agreement with the possibility that improving maximal oxygen uptake may have a favorable effect on endothelial function and vice versa.

  19. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Bremaud, M.; Desbrée, A.; Farah, J.; Huet, C.; Franck, D.

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models' features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them.

  20. Nicotine-Cadmium Interaction Alters Exploratory Motor Function and Increased Anxiety in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chris Ajonijebu, Duyilemi; Adeyemi Adeniyi, Philip; Oloruntoba Adekeye, Adeshina; Peter Olatunji, Babawale; Olakunle Ishola, Azeez; Michael Ogundele, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the time dependence in cadmium-nicotine interaction and its effect on motor function, anxiety linked behavioural changes, serum electrolytes, and weight after acute and chronic treatment in adult male mice. Animals were separated randomly into four groups of n = 6 animals each. Treatment was done with nicotine, cadmium, or nicotine-cadmium for 21 days. A fourth group received normal saline for the same duration (control). Average weight was determined at 7-day interval for the acute (D1-D7) and chronic (D7-D21) treatment phases. Similarly, the behavioural tests for exploratory motor function (open field test) and anxiety were evaluated. Serum electrolytes were measured after the chronic phase. Nicotine, cadmium, and nicotine-cadmium treatments caused no significant change in body weight after the acute phase while cadmium-nicotine and cadmium caused a decline in weight after the chronic phase. This suggests the role of cadmium in the weight loss observed in tobacco smoke users. Both nicotine and cadmium raised serum Ca2+ concentration and had no significant effect on K+ ion when compared with the control. In addition, nicotine-cadmium treatment increased bioaccumulation of Cd2+ in the serum which corresponded to a decrease in body weight, motor function, and an increase in anxiety. PMID:26317007

  1. Maternal separation facilitates extinction of social fear in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D

    2016-01-15

    Early life stress, such as child abuse or neglect, is a risk factor for the development of psychopathologies characterized by abnormal social and emotional behaviors. In rodents, long-lasting changes in stress coping and emotional behavior can be induced by separating pups from their mother. We used maternal separation (MS; 3h daily on postnatal days 1-14) to test whether early life stress alters acquisition and extinction of social fear in adult male mice as studied in a specific model of social fear, i.e., in the social fear conditioning paradigm. We show that MS facilitated extinction of social fear without altering acquisition or expression of social fear. This facilitatory effect of MS on social fear extinction was not due to improved social learning and memory abilities or to increased social interest, as MS rather impaired social memory in the social discrimination test and did not alter social preference in the social preference-avoidance test. In contrast, MS did not alter acquisition and extinction of non-social, cued fear, or non-social memory as assessed in the object discrimination test and non-social anxiety as assessed in the elevated plus-maze. These results suggest that a social stress like MS in early life may improve coping with and recovery from a traumatic social experience in adulthood in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Liang, Chaozhao; Su, Puyu; Peng, Zhen; Shi, Kai; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Lu, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Jishuang; Xia, Lei; Yang, Jiajia; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P < 0.001 for all). Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P < 0.001 for all). These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  3. Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Maryam; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Eidi, Akram; Sepehrara, Leili

    2003-10-08

    The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake in adult male rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all experiments. Water intake was measured 1 h after drug injections. Administration of histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and naloxone (0.5-1 microg/rat) increased, while morphine (2.5 microg/rat), pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, and ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, decreased water intake in isolated rats. Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors attenuated the histamine-induced response. Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased the inhibitory effect induced by morphine. Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors decreased the naloxone-induced effect on water intake. It is concluded that the histaminergic system may have a close interaction with morphine and naloxone on drinking behavior.

  4. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  5. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment.

  6. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers.

  7. Witnessing domestic violence during childhood is associated with psychopathic traits in adult male criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Dargis, Monika; Koenigs, Michael

    2017-04-01

    While there is growing evidence that suffering physical abuse during childhood is subsequently associated with psychopathic traits in both juvenile and adult offenders, there is considerably less research on whether exposure to domestic violence as a witness, rather than as a direct victim, influences the subsequent presentation of psychopathic traits in adulthood. Accordingly, the current study examined the relationship between witnessing domestic violence during childhood (i.e., witnessing, hearing, or intervening in abuse against a parent/sibling) and psychopathic traits in adulthood in a sample of n = 127 incarcerated male offenders. As predicted, witnessing domestic violence was significantly associated with overall level of psychopathy, with a particularly strong relationship to the interpersonal/affective features of psychopathy. Importantly, this relationship held when controlling for the experience of domestic violence as a direct victim. These results add to the growing body of literature linking adverse and traumatic events during childhood with psychopathic traits later in life, and suggest that domestic violence exposure may be one factor contributing to the manipulative, interpersonal style exhibited by individuals high in psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Metformin exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations causes potential endocrine disruption in adult male fish.

    PubMed

    Niemuth, Nicholas J; Jordan, Renee; Crago, Jordan; Blanksma, Chad; Johnson, Rodney; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants that have been found ubiquitously in wastewater and surface waters around the world. A major source of these compounds is incomplete metabolism in humans and subsequent excretion in human waste, resulting in discharge into surface waters by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. One pharmaceutical found in particularly high abundance in recent WWTP effluent and surface water studies is metformin, one of the world's most widely prescribed antidiabetic drugs. Interactions between insulin signaling and steroidogenesis suggest potential endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin found in the aquatic environment. Adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were chronically exposed to metformin for 4 wk, at 40 µg/L, a level similar to the average found in WWTP effluent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Genetic endpoints related to metabolism and endocrine function as well as reproduction-related endpoints were examined. Metformin treatment induced significant up-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding the egg-protein vitellogenin in male fish, an indication of endocrine disruption. The present study, the first to study the effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure in fathead minnows, demonstrates the need for further study of the endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin in aquatic organisms.

  9. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English

    PubMed Central

    Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

  10. Nicotine enhances the expression of a sucrose or cocaine conditioned place preference in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Buffalari, Deanne M; Marfo, Nana Yaa A; Smith, Tracy T; Levin, Melissa E; Weaver, Matthew T; Thiels, Edda; Sved, Alan F; Donny, Eric C

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine has been shown to enhance the motivational properties of non-nicotine stimuli. This reinforcement-enhancing property of nicotine has the potential to promote the use of other illicit substances as well as maladaptive patterns of food intake. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether nicotine enhances preference for contexts paired with cocaine or sucrose utilizing a place conditioning procedure. Separate groups of adult male rats were administered sucrose or cocaine in one of two compartments of a standard CPP chamber on four consecutive days. Preference was then assessed following no injection, a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of nicotine, and a s.c. saline injection. The animals preferred the chamber paired with either sucrose or cocaine, as evident from an increased time spent in the paired chamber compared to baseline. Nicotine further increased the time spent in the sucrose- or cocaine-paired chamber, consistent with a reinforcement-enhancement effect. Previous results demonstrate an interaction between nicotine and intake of other drugs or food. The present findings provide an additional mechanism that may underlie these effects and which may have implications for drug dependence and obesity.

  11. Metformin Exposure at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Causes Potential Endocrine Disruption in Adult Male Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemuth, Nicholas J; Jordan, Renee; Crago, Jordan; Blanksma, Chad; Johnson, Rodney; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants that have been found ubiquitously in wastewater and surface waters around the world. A major source of these compounds is incomplete metabolism in humans and subsequent excretion in human waste, resulting in discharge into surface waters by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. One pharmaceutical found in particularly high abundance in recent WWTP effluent and surface water studies is metformin, one of the world's most widely prescribed antidiabetic drugs. Interactions between insulin signaling and steroidogenesis suggest potential endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin found in the aquatic environment. Adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were chronically exposed to metformin for 4 wk, at 40 µg/L, a level similar to the average found in WWTP effluent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Genetic endpoints related to metabolism and endocrine function as well as reproduction-related endpoints were examined. Metformin treatment induced significant up-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding the egg-protein vitellogenin in male fish, an indication of endocrine disruption. The present study, the first to study the effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure in fathead minnows, demonstrates the need for further study of the endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin in aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25358780

  12. Effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide, clothianidin, on the reproductive organ system in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Bal, Ramazan; Türk, Gaffari; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Ökkes; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Baydaş, Gıyasettin; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Yener, Zabit; Etem, Ebru; Tuzcu, Zeynep

    2013-10-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is a novel, broad-spectrum insecticide. In the current study, it was aimed to study the effect of subchronic exposure to low doses of CTD (2, 8 and 24 mg/kg body weight/day) on the reproductive system in adult rats. CTD treatment did not significantly change serum testosterone level or sperm parameters (e.g. concentration, motility and morphology), but caused significant decreases in weights of epididymis, right cauda epididymis and seminal vesicles. CTD treatment did not cause sperm DNA fragmentation and did not change the apoptotic index in the seminiferous tubules and levels of α-tocopherol and glutathione, but increased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and cholesterol levels significantly at all doses. CTD exposure caused significant elevations in palmitic, linoleic and arachidonic acids in testis in all CTD-exposed groups. There was a drop in 20:4/18:2 (arachidonic acid/linoleic acid) ratio and an increase in 18:1n-9/18:0 (oleic acid/stearic acid) ratios in all CTD groups, in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, CTD had little detectable detrimental effects on the reproductive system of male rats over the measured parameters.

  13. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (<2h/month, N=12), casual players (4-8h/month, N=10), and experienced players (>15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  14. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  15. Cadmium exposure disrupts GABA and taurine regulation of prolactin secretion in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Caride, A; Fernández-Pérez, B; Cabaleiro, T; Esquifino, A I; Lafuente, A

    2009-03-28

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of cadmium exposure on 24 h changes of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine median eminence and pituitary contents. Also the possible alterations of the regulatory mechanisms of GABA and taurine on prolactin secretion were evaluated. Adult male rats were given cadmium at a dose of 25 mg/l of cadmium chloride in the drinking water for 30 days. Control age-matched rats received cadmium free water. Metal exposure induced the appearance of a maximal value of prolactin at 08:00 h. In median eminence, cadmium abolished the GABA and taurine maximal values and decreased GABA and taurine mean levels. In the anterior pituitary, cadmium treatment phase advanced 12 h the peak observed in controls at 00:00 h for both amino acids. There was a positive correlation between GABA and taurine contents in median eminence and the anterior pituitary in both control and cadmium-exposed animals. However, the correlation between GABA or/and taurine with prolactin levels disappeared in cadmium-exposed animals. These results suggest that cadmium exposure affects GABA and taurine daily pattern in the median eminence and anterior pituitary, and those changes explain, at least in part, the modification in the regulatory pattern of prolactin secretion.

  16. Nicotine-Cadmium Interaction Alters Exploratory Motor Function and Increased Anxiety in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Chris Ajonijebu, Duyilemi; Adeyemi Adeniyi, Philip; Oloruntoba Adekeye, Adeshina; Peter Olatunji, Babawale; Olakunle Ishola, Azeez; Michael Ogundele, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the time dependence in cadmium-nicotine interaction and its effect on motor function, anxiety linked behavioural changes, serum electrolytes, and weight after acute and chronic treatment in adult male mice. Animals were separated randomly into four groups of n = 6 animals each. Treatment was done with nicotine, cadmium, or nicotine-cadmium for 21 days. A fourth group received normal saline for the same duration (control). Average weight was determined at 7-day interval for the acute (D1-D7) and chronic (D7-D21) treatment phases. Similarly, the behavioural tests for exploratory motor function (open field test) and anxiety were evaluated. Serum electrolytes were measured after the chronic phase. Nicotine, cadmium, and nicotine-cadmium treatments caused no significant change in body weight after the acute phase while cadmium-nicotine and cadmium caused a decline in weight after the chronic phase. This suggests the role of cadmium in the weight loss observed in tobacco smoke users. Both nicotine and cadmium raised serum Ca(2+) concentration and had no significant effect on K(+) ion when compared with the control. In addition, nicotine-cadmium treatment increased bioaccumulation of Cd(2+) in the serum which corresponded to a decrease in body weight, motor function, and an increase in anxiety.

  17. Ginkgo biloba extract facilitates recovery from penetrating brain injury in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Attella, M J; Hoffman, S W; Stasio, M J; Stein, D G

    1989-07-01

    Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats received 100 mg/kg Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) intraperitoneally for 30 days. GBE reduced overall activity and decreased sensitivity to light in the open field maze. The rats were also less responsive to noxious stimuli after 13 days of treatment with GBE. After the last injection, all subjects were trained on a delayed-spatial alternation task. Subsequent to acquisition of the spatial task, the rats received either sham operations and saline or bilateral frontal cortex lesions treated with either saline or GBE. Thirty additional days of treatment began on the day of injury, and open field behavior, analgesia, and metabolic activity measurements were again measured. The rats with lesions treated with saline were more active than their GBE-treated counterparts and sham controls but there were no differences in response to illumination or noxious stimuli. Retention of the delayed-spatial alternation indicated that rats with lesions treated with GBE were less impaired than brain-injured subjects receiving saline treatment. Histological examination showed that GBE reduced the extent of brain swelling in response to the injury.

  18. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production.

  19. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a young adult male from Berber, Sudan (2nd-3rd century CE).

    PubMed

    Binder, M; Saad, M

    2017-09-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a pathological condition characterised by extensive periosteal new bone formation (NBF) on the diaphyses of the long bones, metacarpal and metatarsal bones. In modern clinical contexts, the secondary form of the disease is common and most often occurs secondary to intra-thoracic cancer and other forms of chronic pulmonary disease. Paleopathological evidence for HOA on the other hand has only occasionally been reported. Here we report a young adult male from the Meriotic cemetery at Berber in Sudan (2nd-3rd century CE) displaying widespread NBF on the diaphyses of the upper and lower limb bones, metacarpal and metatarsal bones, as well as the pelvis and scapulae. While several pathological conditions have to be considered as differential diagnostic options for NBF in the post-cranial skeleton, HOA is the most likely diagnosis, based on the distribution of the changes observed in this individual, as well as their macroscopic and radiographic characteristics. A chronic pulmonary condition as indicated by NBF on the visceral side of the ribs may represent the underlying cause for the HOA. This individual represents the first paleopathological case of HOA reported from an archaeological site in Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hemispheric differences in dichaptic scanning of verbal and spatial material by adult males and females.

    PubMed

    Borgo, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo; Puntin, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    An experimental design based on the combination of dichaptic presentation associated to the Posner's paradigm was adopted to investigate laterality effects for verbal and spatial non-linguistic stimuli in male and female adult normal subjects. In a grapheme similarity judgment task based on "Name Identity" a right hand/left hemisphere advantage was found. Conversely, laterality effects were neither observed when the task involved "Perceptually Identical" or "Different" letter pairs. In a further experiment, the same methodology was adopted to verify hemispheric effects with spatial non-linguistic material, and a significant advantage for the left hand/right hemisphere was observed. Contrary to many previous studies, no gender or gender x task effects have been detected in both experiments. The present results suggest the existence, also in the tactile domain, of a direct link between input type and the linguistic or non-linguistic processing to which the two hemispheres are devoted. The overall pattern of data seriously hampers Witelson's original hypothesis that letter stimuli presented in the tactile modality are primarily processed as spatial stimuli, and are therefore dependent on the right hemisphere functioning.

  1. Cadmium chloride exposure modifies amino acid daily pattern in the mediobasal hypothalamus in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Caride, A; Fernández-Pérez, B; Cabaleiro, T; Bernárdez, G; Lafuente, A

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of cadmium exposure on the daily pattern of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult male rats. For this purpose, animals were treated with cadmium at two different exposure doses (25 and 50 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)) in the drinking water for 30 days. Control age-matched rats received CdCl(2)-free water. After the treatment, rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. CdCl(2) exposure modified the amino acid daily pattern, as it decreased aspartate, glutamate, GABA and taurine levels at 12:00 h with both exposure doses employed. In addition, the treatment with 25 mg l(-1) of CdCl(2) induced the appearance of minimal values at 16:00 h and maximal values between 04:00 and 08:00 h for glutamate, and a peak of glutamine content at 20:00 h. The heavy metal also decreased GABA medium levels around the clock in the mediobasal hypothalamus. However, CdCl(2) did not alter the metabolic correlation between glutamate, aspartate, glutamine and GABA observed in control animals. These results suggest that CdCl(2) induced several alterations in aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, GABA and taurine daily pattern in the mediobasal hypothalamus and those changes may be related to alterations in hypothalamic function.

  2. The Adult Male Rape Victim: Forensic Description of a Series of 57 Cases.

    PubMed

    Casali, Michelangelo Bruno; Palazzo, Elisa; Blandino, Alberto; Battistini, Alessio; Motta, Francesca; Kustermann, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86.8% of cases, mostly performed by a single assailant. Anogenital injuries were recorded in 61.4% of cases, whereas extragenital injuries in 35.1%: abrasions and perianal reddening were the most frequent acute anogenital marks, whereas the head and lower limbs were the body parts most commonly affected by blunt trauma. No clinically severe injuries were found. Anal and perianal swabs for semen detection tested positive in less than 20% cases, whereas oral swabs always tested negative. When performed, nearly 50% of cases tested positive in drug tests, above all for psychoactive substances. No definite forensic diagnosis in terms of confirmation of rape was possible on the basis of type and topography of injuries.

  3. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  4. Phthalates in Commercial Chinese Rice Wines: Concentrations and the Cumulative Risk Assessment to Adult Males in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Lu, Wen Wei; Chen, Bo; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of 16 phthalates in 164 commercial Chinese rice wines (CRW) were detected by GC-MS, and consumption data on CRW in different packaging types was investigated from 634 adult males in Shanghai using a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the principles of probabilistic modelling and cumulative risk assessment, the exposure and health risk of phthalates from CRW to adult males in Shanghai was evaluated. DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP were detected in the samples, the range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6.10% for BBP to 15.24% for DIBP, and the detected concentrations were 51.06-200.34 ng/mL. All the respondents consumed CRW, 90.69% of them consumed CRW 0.01-49.9 mL/d, the minimum value of the average daily intake of CRW was 6.25 mL/d, the median was 13.72 mL/d and the maximum was 300 mL/d. The median exposure level of the 6 detected Phthalates to adult males in Shanghai were 6.58-7.10 ng/(d•kg), and the maximum exposure level were 137.38-540.47 ng/(d•kg). The cumulative exposure health risk index (HI) based on the median and maximum exposure level of the 6 Phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP) were 0.001147 and 0.063396, both were far less than 1. In conclusion, CRW were generally consumed by the adult males in Shanghai, although multiple phthalates were detected in commercial CRW, health risk of such exposure levels from commercial CRW to the target adult males in Shanghai was very low.

  5. Juvenile Rank Can Predict Male-Typical Adult Mating Behavior in Female Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eila K.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30–90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60–90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

  6. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-07-01

    The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de

  7. Vulnerability of the neural circuitry underlying sexual behavior to chronic adult exposure to oral bisphenol a in male mice.

    PubMed

    Picot, Marie; Naulé, Lydie; Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Martini, Mariangela; Raskin, Kalina; Grange-Messent, Valérie; Franceschini, Isabelle; Keller, Matthieu; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2014-02-01

    There are human reproduction concerns associated with extensive use of bisphenol A (BPA)-containing plastic and, in particular, the leaching of BPA into food and beverages. In this context, it remains unclear whether and how exposure to BPA interferes with the developmental organization and adult activation of male sexual behavior by testosterone. We evaluated the developmental and adult exposure to oral BPA at doses equivalent to the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (5 mg/kg body weight per day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) (50 μg/kg body weight per day) on mouse sexual behavior and the potential mechanisms underlying BPA effects. Adult exposure to BPA reduced sexual motivation and performance at TDI dose only. Exposed males took longer to initiate mating and reach ejaculation despite normal olfactory chemoinvestigation. This deficiency was not restored by sexual experience and was associated with unchanged circulating levels of testosterone. By contrast, developmental exposure to BPA at TDI or no-observed-adverse-effect-level dose did not reduce sexual behavior or alter the neuroanatomical organization of the preoptic area. Disrupting the neural androgen receptor resulted in behavioral and neuroanatomical effects similar to those induced by adult exposure to TDI dose. Moreover, adult exposure of mutant males to BPA at TDI dose did not trigger additional alteration of sexual behavior, suggesting that BPA and neural androgen receptor mutation share a common mechanism of action. This shows, for the first time, that the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior is vulnerable to chronic adult exposure to low dose of BPA and suggests that BPA could act in vivo as an antiandrogenic compound.

  8. Testosterone increases repertoire size in an open-ended learner: an experimental study using adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Alain J-M; Pinxten, Rianne; Darras, Veerle M; Eens, Marcel

    2012-11-01

    Song in songbirds is a learned secondary sexual behavior, first acquired during a sensitive phase of juvenile development, which is affected by hormones such as testosterone (T). While the latter has received much attention, the potential involvement of T in the adult repertoire changes observed in a number of species is much less understood. Yet, this may prove essential to understand the role of song as a sexually selected trait. We therefore performed a T-implantation experiment during the non-breeding season (when T is basal), using adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), a songbird species in which song repertoire size (and composition) changes seasonally and increases with age. Repertoire size increased rapidly in T-males, but not in control males, indicating a role for T in repertoire size changes. This increase resulted from a lower proportion of dropped song types in T-males than in control males, while the proportion of added song types did not differ between both groups. Interestingly, the observed repertoire turnover (adding and removing song types from the repertoire) in both groups, suggests that elevated plasma T levels were not essential for changes in repertoire composition (contrary to repertoire size). Finally, T-males (but not control males) significantly increased their song rate, while neither group showed a significant change in their song bout length and phrase repetition rate. Taken together, our results suggest a role for T in adult song learning and provide new insights into the information content of repertoire size and song bout length as sexually selected traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Garcia, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dust has the potential to modify global climate by influencing the radiative balance of the atmosphere and by supplying iron and other essential limiting micronutrients to the ocean. The scarcity of iron limits marine productivity and carbon uptake in one-quarter of the world ocean where the concentration of major nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) is perennially high. The Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems. Paleoceanographic records from the Subantarctic Atlantic have revealed a remarkable correlation between phytoplankton productivity and aeolian iron flux during glacial periods supporting the iron fertilization hypothesis. In addition, a recent study has shown that peak glacial times and millennial cold events were nearly universally associated not only with increases in dust flux and export production, but also with an increase in nutrient consumption (the last indicated by higher foraminifera-bound δ15N) (Martinez-Garcia et al. 2014). This combination of changes is uniquely consistent with ice age iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Atlantic. The strengthening of the biological pump associated with the observed increase in Subantarctic nutrient consumption during the high-dust intervals of the last two ice ages can explain up to ~40 ppm of the CO2 decrease that characterizes the transitions from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions. However, the impact of iron fertilization in other sectors of the Southern Ocean characterized by lower ice age dust fluxes than the Atlantic remains unclear. A series of recently published records from the Subantarctic Pacific indicate that dust deposition and marine export production were three times higher during glacial periods than during interglacials (Lamy et al. 2014). Here we present new measurements of foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes in a sediment core located in the

  10. Fatty Acid de Novo Synthesis in Adult Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Offspring, and Adult Male Response to a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Yee, Jennifer K; Han, Guang; Vega, Juan; Lee, Wai-Nang P; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2016-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet. We measured fatty acid de novo synthesis in IUGR adult males (6 months) using deuterium-enriched drinking water as a stable isotope tracer, then further studied the response after consumption of an isocaloric high fat diet. Baseline de novo synthesis in adult females was also studied at age 9 months. Males demonstrated increased baseline de novo synthesis in both SC fat and visceral fat. Correspondingly, SC and visceral fat protein expression of lipogenic enzymes acetyl-coA carboxylase-α (ACCα) and fatty acid synthase were upregulated. After the isocaloric high fat diet, de novo synthesis was suppressed such that no differences remained between the two groups, although, IUGR SC fat demonstrated persistently increased lipogenic protein expression. In contrast, de novo synthesis among adult females is not impacted in IUGR. In conclusion, enhancement of male IUGR SC fat de novo synthesis appears to be an early consequence of metabolic programming, whereas enhancement in visceral fat appears to be a later consequence.

  11. Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17α-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Olsson, Per-Erik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25 ng/L EE2for 14 days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25 ng/L, but not 5 ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25 ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment.

  12. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fructose only in pregnancy provokes hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, and impaired insulin signaling in adult male, but not female, progeny.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Lourdes; Panadero, María I; Roglans, Núria; Otero, Paola; Rodrigo, Silvia; Álvarez-Millán, Juan J; Laguna, Juan C; Bocos, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. However, consumption of beverages containing fructose is allowed during gestation. Recently, we found that an intake of fructose (10 % wt/vol) throughout gestation produces impaired fetal leptin signaling and hepatic steatosis. Therefore, we have investigated whether fructose intake during pregnancy produces subsequent changes in the progeny, when adult. Fed 261-day-old male and female descendants from fructose-fed, control or glucose-fed mothers were used. Plasma was used to analyze glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin. Hepatic expression of proteins related to insulin signaling was determined. Fructose intake throughout pregnancy did not produce alterations in the body weight of the progeny. Adult male progeny of fructose-fed mothers had elevated levels of insulin without a parallel increase in phosphorylation of protein kinase B. However, they displayed an augmented serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-2, indicating reduced insulin signal transduction. In agreement, adiponectin levels, which have been positively related to insulin sensitivity, were lower in male descendants from fructose-fed mothers than in the other two groups. Furthermore, mRNA levels for insulin-responsive genes were not affected (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucose-6-phosphatase) or they were decreased (sterol response element-binding protein-1c) in the livers of male progeny from fructose-supplemented rats. On the contrary, adult female rats from fructose-fed mothers did not exhibit any of these disturbances. Maternal fructose, but not glucose, intake confined to the prenatal stage provokes impaired insulin signal transduction, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia in adult male, but not female, progeny.

  14. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  15. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy.

    PubMed

    Cassola, V F; Lima, V J de Melo; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  16. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    PubMed

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25410991

  18. Steady as He Goes: At-Sea Movement of Adult Male Australian Sea Lions in a Dynamic Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Andrew D.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region. PMID:24086338

  19. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Andrew D; Harcourt, Robert G; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  20. Influence of 50 Hz magnetic field on sex hormones and other fertility parameters of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Akhras, Moh'd-Ali; Darmani, Homa; Elbetieha, Ahmed

    2006-02-01

    The effects of an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field on the sex hormones and other fertility parameters of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. Adult male rats were exposed to a 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field at approximately 25 microT (rms) for 18 consecutive weeks. There were no significant effects on the absolute body weight and the weight of the testes of the exposed rats. However, the weights of seminal vesicles and preputial glands were significantly reduced in the exposed male rats. Similarly, a significant reduction in sperm count was observed in the exposed group. Furthermore, there were no significant effects on the serum levels of male follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during the 18 weeks of exposure period. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in the serum levels of male luteinizing hormone (LH) after 18 weeks of exposure (P < .005), while testosterone levels were significantly decreased only after 6 and 12 weeks of the exposure period. These results suggest that long term exposure to ELF could have adverse effects on mammalian fertility and reproduction.

  1. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas del Rio, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  2. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  3. Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

  4. Dental caries and associated factors among young male adults between 1999 and 2003 in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bastos, J L D; Nomura, L H; Peres, M A

    2007-06-01

    To assess the prevalence, severity and distribution of dental caries and associated factors among young male adults from Florianopolis (Southern Brazil) and to compare these results with those from a previous study. A cross-sectional study (n-414) was conducted among Brazilian Army subjects in 2003. Dental caries experience was recorded using the DMF-T Index (WHO, 1997). Non-clinical data were obtained through a questionnaire. The analyses included DMF-T descriptive statistics, calculation of the Gini coefficient to assess inequality in the distribution of caries and non-conditional multiple logistic regression, following a hierarchical approach. The response rate was 95.6%. High values of intra- and inter-examiner agreement were achieved (Kappa > 0.83). Reductions of 18.6% in prevalence and 26.7% in caries severity were accompanied by an increase of 18.6% in dental caries inequality. Individuals with eight or less years of study (OR 8.1 : CI95% 1.9-34.7), raised by mothers with eight or less years of study (OR 2.9 : CI 95% 1.7-5.0) were more likely to have dental caries. Subjects whose families earned less than six Brazilian minimum wages per month were also more likely to have dental caries (OR 2.3 : CI95% 1.4-3.8). Decreases in caries prevalence and severity were followed by an increased inequality in caries distribution. Low level of schooling, low maternal schooling and low monthly family income were statistically associated with dental caries.

  5. Implication of caffeine consumption and recovery on the reproductive functions of adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, Shakiru A; Ogunwole, Eunice; Raji, Yinusa

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of caffeine consumption and recovery on reproductive functions and fertility of Wistar rats. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A (control) received distilled water (vehicle), while groups B, C, and D were treated orally with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW), 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days. Groups E, F, and G were treated orally with 10 mg/kg BW, 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days and then allowed to recover for another 30 days. Caffeine caused a decrease in body weight, while recovery groups showed appreciable increase in body weight during recovery. Relative weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and epididymis decreased dose dependently during treatment but increased during recovery. The liver and kidney weight increased during treatment but reduced during recovery. Sperm count was significantly decreased in both treated and recovery groups. Initial decrease in sperm viability and volume was appreciably reversed during recovery period. Serum level of testosterone increased at high doses, while serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) showed significant decrease. Histological sections of testis in treated groups showed mild congestion of the interstitial blood vessel and subcapsular congestion. However, there was no subcapsular congestion in the recovery groups. All rats in both treated and recovery groups had 100% fertilization success from fertility study. Suggestively, caffeine treatment for 4 weeks could impair body, reproductive organs weight, sperm characteristics, LH/FSH level, and also testicular cyto-architecture. Effects appeared, however, reversible after caffeine withdrawal.

  6. Study of genetic variation in the STAT3 on obesity and insulin resistance in male adults.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Tomas F; Sookoian, Silvia; Gemma, Carolina; Burgueño, Adriana L; González, Claudio D; Pirola, Carlos J

    2008-07-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in hepatic glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism and has been implicated in the leptin-mediated energy homeostasis. We explored whether STAT3 gene variants are associated with obesity and insulin resistance in a well-characterized sample of 984 adult men (aged 34.4+/-8.6 years) of self-reported European ancestry from a population-based study. We analyzed three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs), two intronic (rs2293152 and rs6503695) and one located in a noncoding region near the gene promoter (rs9891119). These variants were not associated with either obesity (in which 488 lean individuals were compared to 496 overweight/obese subjects) (P values: 0.68, 0.49, and 0.9 for rs2293152, rs6503695, and rs9891119, respectively) or BMI as a continuous trait (P values: 0.85, 0.73, and 0.58 for rs2293152, rs6503695, and rs9891119, respectively). We found no significant association between the three tagSNPs and fasting plasma glucose and insulin. Likewise, no association was observed between the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and any of the tagSNPs. A significant association was observed with total cholesterol and rs6503695 (nominal P value 0.019), but after correcting for multiple testing by Bonferroni correction, the significance becomes marginal (P=0.057). In conclusion, although STAT3 is an excellent candidate gene for assessing obesity and insulin resistance susceptibility alleles, our results do not support a major role for STAT3 variants in BMI and insulin resistance in our male population.

  7. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  8. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources—including clinical history. Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  9. The possible mechanisms by which maternal hypothyroidism impairs insulin secretion in adult male offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Hedayati, Mehdi; Godini, Aliashraf; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have recently shown that maternal hypothyroidism leads to impaired glucose metabolism and reduced insulin secretion in adult offspring in rats. The aim of this study was to locate the defect in the insulin secretion pathway induced by maternal hypothyroidism. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid (FH) group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out on 5-month-old male offspring. In in vitro studies, the effects of various secretagogues and inhibitors acting at different levels of the insulin secretion cascade were investigated, and insulin content, insulin secretion and glucokinase activity of the islets were compared. Although insulin content of the FH islets did not differ from that of control islets, insulin secretion from FH islets was reduced when it was challenged by glucose or arginine. Compared with control islets, activities of both hexokinase and glucokinase were also significantly decreased in the FH islets. Although, in both groups, increasing glibenclamide and nifedipine concentrations in the presence of 16.7 mmol l(-1) glucose increased and decreased insulin secretion, respectively, the percentage of changes in secretion of FH islets was significantly lower compared with control islets. The response of FH islets to high extracellular potassium concentration and diazoxide was also significantly lower than that of the control islets. These findings demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion in the FH group is probably related to alterations in different steps of the insulin secretion pathway and not in the insulin pool of β-cells.

  10. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark Et

    2015-06-27

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m(-2)) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b(2) pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  11. Cadmium chloride toxicity revisited: effect on certain andrological, endocrinological and biochemical parameters of adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, S; Malik, H; Farooq, U; Rashid, F; Nasim, H; Tariq, S; Rehman, S

    2014-01-01

    The present study was devised to assess the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) administration on certain andrological, endocrinological and biochemical alterations in adult male rabbits (n=24). The animals were assigned to control (n=8) and experimental (n=16) group. Experimental group was orally administered with 1.5 mg/kg body weight of CdCl(2). The trials were carried out for a total of 5 weeks and blood sampling was carried out on weekly basis. A gradual decrease was noticed for body weight in the experimental group from week 1 to 5, being significantly lower in week 4 and 5 (P<0.05). A similar decremented trend was noticed for serum testosterone level being significantly lower in experimental group in week 4 and 5 (P<0.001). Significantly lower values were noticed for prolactin in experimental group in week 4 and 5 (P<0.05), than in the control. On the contrary, serum cortisol level showed a gradual increase in experimental group, from week 1 to 5, being significantly higher in week 4 and 5 (P<0.05). Regarding the biochemical attributes, all the parameters under study revealed a gradually ascending trend. Statistical significance was, however, achieved in varying weeks and at varying levels. The total protein and albumin were significantly higher in week 4 and 5 (P<0.01); alanine aminotransferase in week 2 (P<0.01), 3 (P<0.001), 4 (P<0.01) and 5 (P<0.001); aspartate aminotransferase in week 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 (P<0.01); and alkaline phosphatase in week 1, 2 (P<0.01), 3, 4 and 5 (P<0.0001), respectively. Overall mortality rate in experimental group was 68.75 (11/16). In a nutshell, Cd exposure results in adverse effects on all physiological parameters of body and may lead to lethal consequences.

  12. Human TNF-α induces differential protein phosphorylation in Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Bonatto, José Matheus C; Schechtman, Debora; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and its vertebrate host have a complex and intimate connection in which several molecular stimuli are exchanged and affect both organisms. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is known to induce large-scale gene expression changes in the parasite and to affect several parasite biological processes such as metabolism, egg laying, and worm development. Until now, the molecular mechanisms for TNF-α activity in worms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed at exploring the effect of hTNF-α on S. mansoni protein phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by a quantitative analysis of phosphoprotein staining and protein identification by mass spectrometry. We analyzed three biological replicates of adult male worms exposed to hTNF-α and successfully identified 32 protein spots with a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation upon in vitro exposure to hTNF-α. Among the differentially phosphorylated proteins, we found proteins involved in metabolism, such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, urea cycle, and aldehyde metabolism, as well as proteins related to muscle contraction and to cytoskeleton remodeling. The most differentially phosphorylated protein (30-fold increase in phosphorylation) was 14-3-3, whose function is known to be modulated by phosphorylation, belonging to a signal transduction protein family that regulates a variety of processes in all eukaryotic cells. Further, 75% of the identified proteins are known in mammals to be related to TNF-α signaling, thus suggesting that TNF-α response may be conserved in the parasite. We propose that this work opens new perspectives to be explored in the study of the molecular crosstalk between host and pathogen.

  13. Early social isolation provokes electrophysiological and structural changes in cutaneous sensory nerves of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Segura, Bertha; Melo, Angel I; Fleming, Alison S; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria Eugenia; González del Pliego, Margarita; Aguirre-Benitez, Elsa L; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2014-12-01

    Sensory and social deprivation from the mother and littermates during early life disturbs the development of the central nervous system, but little is known about its effect on the development of the peripheral nervous system. To assess peripheral effects of early isolation, male rat pups were reared artificially in complete social isolation (AR); reared artificially with two same-age conspecifics (AR-Social); or reared by their mothers and with littermates (MR). As adults, the electrophysiological properties of the sensory sural (SU) nerve were recorded. We found that the amplitude and normalized area (with respect to body weight) of the compound action potential (CAP) response provoked by single electrical pulses of graded intensity in the SU nerves of AR animals were shorter than the CAP recorded in SU nerves from MR and AR-Social animals. The slope of the stimulus-response curve of AR SU nerves was smaller than that of the other nerves. The histological characterization of axons in the SU nerves was made and showed that the myelin thickness of axons in AR SU nerves was significant lower (2-7µm) than that of the axons in the other nerves. Furthermore, the area and axon diameter of SU nerves of both AR and AR-Social animals were significant lower than in MR animals. This is the first report to show that maternal and littermate deprivation by AR disturbs the development of the myelination and electrophysiological properties of axons in the SU nerve; the replacement of social cues prevents most of the effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tash, Joseph S; Johnson, Donald C; Enders, George C

    2002-03-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  15. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  16. Characterization of a Graded Cervical Hemicontusion Spinal Cord Injury Model in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Kelly A.; Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chompoopong, Supin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Most experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents induce damage in the thoracic cord and subsequently examine hindlimb function as an indicator of recovery. In these models, functional recovery is most attributable to white-matter preservation and is less influenced by grey-matter sparing. In contrast, most clinical cases of SCI occur at the lower cervical levels, a region in which both grey-matter and white-matter sparing contribute to functional motor recovery. Thus experimental cervical SCI models are beginning to be developed and used to assess protective and pharmacological interventions following SCI. The objective of this study was to characterize a model of graded cervical hemicontusion SCI with regard to several histological and behavioral outcome measures, including novel forelimb behavioral tasks. Using a commercially available rodent spinal cord impactor, adult male rats received hemicontusion SCI at vertebral level C5 at 100, 200, or 300 kdyn force, to produce mild, moderate, or severe injury severities. Tests of skilled and unskilled forelimb and locomotor function were employed to assess functional recovery, and spinal cord tissue was collected to assess lesion severity. Deficits in skilled and unskilled forelimb function and locomotion relating to injury severity were observed, as well as decreases in neuronal numbers, white-matter area, and white-matter gliosis. Significant correlations were observed between behavioral and histological data. Taken together, these data suggest that the forelimb functional and locomotor assessments employed here are sensitive enough to measure functional changes, and that this hemicontusion model can be used to evaluate potential protective and regenerative therapeutic strategies. PMID:21087156

  17. Safety, Effectiveness and Acceptability of the PrePex Device for Adult Male Circumcision in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Feldblum, Paul J.; Odoyo-June, Elijah; Obiero, Walter; Bailey, Robert C.; Combes, Stephanie; Hart, Catherine; Jou Lai, Jaim; Fischer, Shelly; Cherutich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision (MMC) in routine service delivery in Kenya. Methods We enrolled 427 men ages 18–49 at one fixed and two outreach clinics. Procedures were performed by trained clinical officers and nurses. The first 50 enrollees were scheduled for six follow-up visits, and remaining men were followed at Days 7 and 42. We recorded adverse events (AEs) and time to complete healing, and interviewed men about acceptability and pain. Results Placement and removal procedures each averaged between 3 and 4 minutes. Self-reported pain was minimal during placement but was fleetingly intense during removal. The rate of moderate/severe AEs was 5.9% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%–8.5%), all of which resolved without sequelae. AEs included 5 device displacements, 2 spontaneous foreskin detachments, and 9 cases of insufficient foreskin removal. Surgical completion of MMC was required for 9 men (2.1%). Among the closely monitored first 50 participants, the probability of complete healing by Day 42 was 0.44 (95% CI 0.30–0.58), and 0.90 by Day 56. A large majority of men was favorable about their MMC procedure and would recommend PrePex to friends and family. Conclusions The PrePex device was effective for MMC in Kenya, and well-accepted. The AE rate was higher than reported for surgical procedures there, or in previous PrePex studies. Healing time is longer than following surgical circumcision. Provider experience and clearer counseling on post-placement and post-removal care should lead to lower AE rates. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01711411 PMID:24788898

  18. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Effect of Selenium on Neurotoxicity in Adult Male Mice Exposed to Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Shabnam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Formaldehyde is used in medicine and industry, and it is known to have detrimental effects on various systems including the nervous system, by increasing oxidative stress. However, data are scarce related to substances that can protect against the neurotoxicity induced by formaldehyde. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the protective effects of selenium against the toxic effect of this compound. Methods: A total of 48 adult male mice were divided randomly into six groups, i.e., (1) control, (2) treated with formaldehyde, (3) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.1 mg/kg selenium, (4) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.2 mg/kg selenium, (5) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.4 mg/kg selenium, and (6) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.8 mg/kg selenium. At the end of 14 days, the cerebellums were removed for histological evaluation. Morphological changes were examined using Image J software. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Formaldehyde caused a reduction in the numbers and sizes of Purkinje cells and granular cells; in addition, the thickness of the granular layer was thinner than that in the control mice (P < 0.05). Treatment with 0.1 mg/kg selenium resulted in an increase in the number of Purkinje cells as well as the area of the gray matter compared to those of the control mice. Conclusion: Formaldehyde-induced neuronal damage was prevented by the administration of 0.1 mg/kg selenium, hence this treatment shows therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurotoxicity PMID:25763172

  20. Effects of dried plum supplementation on bone metabolism in adult C57BL/6 male mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, B J; Graef, J L; Wronski, T J; Rendina, E; Williams, A A; Clark, K A; Clarke, S L; Lucas, E A; Halloran, B P

    2014-04-01

    Dietary supplementation of dried plum (DP) prevents bone loss and restores bone mass in osteopenic animal models. This study was designed to determine the effects of DP supplementation on bone metabolic activity over time using adult (6-month-old) male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40) receiving control (CON = AIN93 M) or CON+DP 25 % (w/w) diets for 4 or 12 weeks. After 4 weeks of treatment, animals consuming the DP diet had a higher whole-body bone mineral density, vertebral trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), and femoral cortical thickness compared to the CON animals. In the distal metaphysis of the femur, BV/TV was increased in the DP-treated animals, but only after 12 weeks. Bone histomorphometric analyses revealed that DP decreased osteoblast surface (67 %) and osteoclast surface (62 %) at 4 weeks, but these surfaces normalized to the CON animals by 12 weeks. Coincident with these changes, the mineralizing surface (MS/BS) and cancellous bone formation rate (BFR/BS) were reduced at 4 weeks in the DP group compared to the CON, but by 12 weeks of DP supplementation, BFR/BS (~twofold) and MS/BS (~1.7-fold) tended to be increased (p < 0.10). The relative abundance of RNA for key regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and indicators of osteoblast activity were reduced in the DP group at 4 weeks with no difference between groups at 12 weeks. These results indicate that supplementing the diet with DP initially suppressed cancellous bone turnover, but a biphasic response occurs over time, resulting in a positive effect on bone mass and structure.

  1. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history.

  2. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark ET

    2015-01-01

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2–8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0–6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults. PMID:26240669

  3. Fast and delayed locomotor response to acute high-dose nicotine administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Jandová, K; Marešová, D; Pokorný, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the immediate and delayed locomotor response to high-dose nicotine (NIC) administration in rats. The vertical and horizontal activity of behavior in adult male rats exposed to 1 mg/kg NIC or saline (SAL) were tested in a Laboras apparatus for one hour after drug application. Animals were then returned to their cages and housed for another seven days. After this period all animals were placed in Laboras again and their behavioral pattern was retested for another period of one hour (delayed response). Horizontal activity: immediately after nicotine administration animal were less mobile (first 2-minutes interval), when compared with controls. The immobilization effect of nicotine disappeared within 4 minutes and during whole first 10-minutes interval time spent by locomotion did not differ from controls. Locomotion activity of animals treated with nicotine increased robustly in following 10 minutes and remained significantly higher in 2nd, 3rd and 5th 10-minutes interval. Vertical activity: Rearing frequency was significantly lowered by NIC administration in first two minutes of the experiment and the same was found when the duration of rearing was analyzed. Lower rearing intensity of NIC treated animals disappeared in 4 minutes and was finally higher during whole test session as compared with controls. When duration of rearing was analyzed it was significantly longer in NIC treated animals. In majority of observed behavioral aspects there were no differences between NIC treated rats and controls seven days after NIC or SAL treatment. Our results reflect effect of NIC and we conclude that NIC significantly influences behavior of experimental animals.

  4. Maternal allergy acts synergistically with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy to induce hepatic fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Allina, Jorge; Grabowski, Jacquelin; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Fiel, M Isabel; Jackson, Christine E; Zelikoff, Judith T; Odin, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal environmental exposures during pregnancy are known to affect disease onset in adult offspring. For example, maternal asthma exacerbations during pregnancy can worsen adult asthma in the offspring. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with future onset of cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring susceptibility to liver disease. This pilot study examined the long-term effect of maternal allergen challenge and/or cigarette smoking during pregnancy on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in adult mouse offspring. Ovalbumin (OVA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-sensitized/challenged CD-1 dams were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) or filtered air from gestational day 4 until parturition. Eight weeks postnatally, offspring were sacrificed for comparison of hepatic histology and mRNA expression. Adult male offspring of OVA-sensitized/challenged dams exposed to MCS (OSM) displayed significantly increased liver fibrosis (9.2% collagen content vs. <4% for all other treatment groups). These mice also had 1.8-fold greater collagen 1A1 mRNA levels. From the results here, we concluded that maternal allergen challenge in combination with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may be an important risk factor for liver disease in adult male offspring.

  5. Exogenous Androgen during Development Alters Adult Partner Preference and Mating Behavior in Gonadally Intact Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Henley, C.L.; Nunez, A.A.; Clemens, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    In the rat, neonatal administration of testosterone propionate to a castrated male causes masculinization of behavior. However, if an intact male is treated neonatally with testosterone (hyper-androgen condition), male sexual behavior in adulthood is disrupted. There is a possibility that the hyper-androgen treatment is suppressing male sexual behavior by altering the male’s partner preference and thereby reducing his motivation to approach the female. If so, this would suggest that exposure to supra-physiological levels of androgen during development may result in the development of male-oriented partner preference in the male. To test this idea, male rats were treated either postnatally or prenatally with testosterone, and partner preference and sexual behavior were examined in adulthood. The principal finding of this study was that increased levels of testosterone during early postnatal life, but not prenatal, decreased male sexual behavior and increased the amount of time a male spent with a stimulus male, without affecting the amount of time spent with a stimulus female during partner preference tests. Thus, the reduction in male sexual behavior produced by early exposure to high levels of testosterone is not likely due to a reduction in the male’s motivation to approach a receptive female. PMID:20171967

  6. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p < 0.0001). Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p < 0.0001). Syndemics were associated with sexual risk in TMSM who had socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p < 0.001), but not among those TMSM who had not (aOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.63-1.19; p = 0.37). Findings suggest that syndemic pathways to sexual risk are similar for TMSM who have socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk.

  7. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Nicole M.; Tomaszycki, Michelle L.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  8. First Record of the Scarab Beetle, Phyllophaga lissopyge from South America, with Descriptions of Adult Seasonal Activity and Male Response to Sex Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Rodriguez, Anuar; Peck, Daniel C.; Robbins, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllophaga lissopyge (Bates) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) is reported for the first time from South America. Male sex pheromone response is described for P. lissopyge and two other co-occurring Phyllophaga species. Adults of P. lissopyge and P. menetriesi (Blanchard) flew to traps baited with methyl 2-(methylthio) benzoate whereas adults of P. obsoleta (Blanchard) flew irregularly to four different pheromone compounds. Adult seasonal activity is described from males captures in Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. PMID:21529153

  9. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-12-01

    The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. To investigate the effect of the 'The11' injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4-11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5-11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players.

  10. Feeding in fear? How adult male western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) adjust to predation and savanna habitat pressures.

    PubMed

    Lindshield, Stacy; Danielson, Brent J; Rothman, Jessica M; Pruetz, Jill D

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated risk-sensitive foraging in adult male western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) occupying a savanna environment at Fongoli, Senegal. The aim of this study was to determine how the risks of predation and heat stress influenced their behavior while feeding on a key food, fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). Proximity of fruiting baobab trees to anthropogenic landmarks were compared to food intake, feeding rate, and behavioral indicators of fear in adult males (N = 11) at Fongoli. Additionally, we compared foraging to vegetative habitats, baobab ripe fruit nutritive quality, surface water availability, and foraging party composition. Fruit abundance increased with proximity to anthropogenic landmarks, and chimpanzees exhibited higher frequencies of antipredator behaviors as they approached these risky areas. However, predation risk did not deter adult males from visiting these fruiting trees; instead, risky foraging bouts were associated with higher food intakes and longer feeding times. Additionally, higher feeding rates were observed in open-canopy habitats, and this behavior may have minimized their risk of heat stress. Adaptations that minimize predation risk are widespread in mammalian prey species, but these traits are poorly understood in chimpanzees. Great apes encounter few nonhuman predators capable of successfully capturing and killing them; thus, such events are rarely observed. Although people rarely hunt chimpanzees in Senegal, we found that adult males perceived humans as predators and adjusted their behavior while foraging in risky habitats. From an applied perspective, risk-taking behavior is important for understanding and mitigating the problem of crop-feeding in locations where chimpanzees and humans live in sympatry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the ‘The11’ injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. Results In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4–11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5–11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. Conclusions This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players. PMID:22878257

  12. Variation in fecal testosterone levels, inter-male aggression, dominance rank and age during mating and post-mating periods in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Ziegler, T E

    2007-12-01

    In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test.

  15. Using plain language skills to create an educational brochure about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Kim; Wizowski, Lindsay; Duckworth, JoAnn; Cassano, Jane; Hahn, Shirley Ann; Neal, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Writing in plain language makes it easier for patients to read, understand, and make informed decisions about sperm banking. Greater attention to the issue and properly designed educational brochures for use by nurses in oncology and reproductive health is of evident importance but of unknown impact. A multidisciplinary clinical team followed an evidence-based, patient-centered approach to develop "plain language" patient education materials about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. A patient education booklet was produced and implemented as part of the planned patient education for AYA male oncology patients at McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The patient education booklet for use by health professionals as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion with AYA males has been produced with the hope that it will contribute to better informed decision making regarding sperm banking and increased use of this technology for fertility preservation.

  16. Enhancement of nerve-injury-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in adult male and female mice following early life stress.

    PubMed

    Nishinaka, Takashi; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-01-15

    Early life stress contributes to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and chronic pain in adult patients. However, information about the effect of early life stress on chronic pain in mice is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of early life stress on baseline pain sensitivity and thermal or mechanical hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury in male and female mice. Early life stress was induced by maternal separation and social isolation (MSSI). Mice were separated from dam and littermates for 6h/day during postnatal days 15-21 and then were housed individually until the end of the study. At 9 weeks of age, the sciatic nerve was partially ligated to elicit neuropathic pain. Thermal and mechanical sensitivity were measured by plantar and von Frey tests. At 7 weeks of age, MSSI induced depression-like behaviors in both male and female mice, but induced anxiety-like behaviors only in female mice. MSSI had no effect on thermal and mechanical sensitivity before nerve injury. However, MSSI enhanced nerve-injury-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in both male and female mice. MSSI exacerbated neuropathic pain in adult male and female mice. Overall, this model may be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal relationship between early life stress and chronic pain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Spirometric evaluation of ventilatory function in adult male cigarette smokers in Sokoto metropolis.

    PubMed

    Isah, Muhammad D; Makusidi, Muhammad A; Abbas, Aminu; Okpapi, Juliana U; Njoku, Chibueze H; Abba, Abdullahi A

    2017-01-01

    /FVC) in adult males. Decline in FEV1 is directly related to pack-years of cigarette smoking.

  18. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate) in adult males with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Bateh, Abd El-aziz M; Hamed, Sherifa A; Rageh, Tarek A; Elsorogy, Yaser B

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for ≥1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition), Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results: Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = −0.323; P = 0.030), bead memory (r = −0.314; P = 0.036) and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = −0.346; P = 0.020). Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis). The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040), verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001) and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.