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Sample records for adult male worms

  1. Bancroftian filariasis in Egypt: visualization of adult worms and subclinical lymphatic pathology by scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Faris, R; Hussain, O; El Setouhy, M; Ramzy, R M; Weil, G J

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the value of scrotal ultrasound as a means of evaluating Bancroftian filariasis. Color Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed to look for subclinical hydroceles and motile adult filarial worms (dancing worms) in dilated lymphatics. Sixty-one male subjects from a filariasis-endemic area in Egypt were studied including 19 clinically normal microfilaria (MF) carriers (seven with dancing worms and eight with subclinical hydroceles), 13 MF-negative subjects with positive filarial antigen test results (three with dancing worms and seven with subclinical hydroceles), 22 exposed subjects with no MF and negative antigen test results (no dancing worms, four subclinical hydroceles), and seven subjects with clinical filariasis (no dancing worms, seven hydroceles). Thus, all men tested with clinical filariasis and most clinically normal subjects with either microfilaremia or filarial antigenemia had abnormal ultrasound examination results. Ultrasound findings often changed after therapy with diethylcarbamazine, with disappearance of dancing worms and development of new scrotal calcifications or hydroceles. This study confirms the value of scrotal ultrasound as a means of noninvasively visualizing adult filarial worms and assessing subclinical lymphatic damage in Bancroftian filariasis.

  2. Ultrastructural characterization of male and female Physaloptera rara (Spirurida: Physalopteridae): feline stomach worms.

    PubMed

    Naem, Soraya; Asadi, Reza

    2013-05-01

    Physaloptera rara (Spirurida: Physalopteridae) has been found in dogs, coyotes, raccoons, wolves, foxes, cats, and bobcats in North America. The parasites' developmental cycles involve insects, including beetles, cockroaches, and crickets, as intermediate hosts. The nematodes firmly attach to the wall of the stomach and duodenum, where they feed on the mucosa and suck blood. Frequent movement of these nematodes results in erosions and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study reports the morphological features of adult P. rara using scanning electron microscopy. Adult worms were removed from the stomach of an infected domestic cat. Male and female worms measured 25-29 and 27-41 mm, respectively. The worms were stout and the cuticle was reflected over the lips to form a large cephalic collarette with fine transverse striations. The worms possessed two large, simple triangular lateral pseudolabia, each armed with one external tooth, three internal teeth, two submedian cephalic papillae, an amphid, and three porous-like circumscribed regions. The internal margins of the lips had a pair of cuticular folds. At the anterior end of both male and female worms, an excretory pore was located on the ventral side and a pair of lateral ciliated cervical papillae was seen. The vulva was anterior to the middle of the body of female worms. The tail ends of the female worms were stumpy, with two large phasmids near their extremities. The males' tails bore large lateral alae. Ventral ornamentation, in male worms, was composed of three different cuticular patterns; coblestone-like formations, longitudinal cuticular ridges, and rows of bead-like structures. The spicules were unequal and dissimilar; the right spicule had a thick end and the left spicule had a sharp tip. At the posterior end of the males, four pairs of stalked precloacal papillae, three pairs of postcloacal papillae, and two phasmids were present. Three and four sessile papillae were seen directly

  3. A dwarf male reversal in bone-eating worms.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Greg W; Wilson, Nerida G; Worsaae, Katrine; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2015-01-19

    Darwin hypothesized that sexes in a species should be similar unless sexual selection, fecundity selection, or resource partitioning has driven them apart. Male dwarfism has evolved multiple times in a range of animals, raising questions about factors that drive such extreme size dimorphism. Ghiselin noted that dwarf males are more common among smaller marine animals, and especially among sedentary and sessile species living at low densities, where mates are difficult to find, or in deep-sea environments with limited energy sources. These benefits of male dwarfism apply well to Osedax (Annelida: Siboglinidae), bone-eating marine worms. Osedax males, notable for extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD), are developmentally arrested larvae that produce sperm from yolk reserves. Harems of dwarf males reside in the lumen of the tube surrounding a female. Herein, we describe Osedax priapus n. sp., a species that deviates remarkably by producing males that anchor into, and feed on, bone via symbiont-containing "roots," just like female Osedax. Phylogenetic analyses revealed O. priapus n. sp. as a derived species, and the absence of dwarf males represents a character reversal for this genus. Some dwarf male features are retained due to functional and morphological constraints. Since O. priapus n. sp. males are anchored in bone, they possess an extensible trunk that allows them to roam across the bone to contact and inseminate females. Evolutionary and ecological implications of a loss of male dwarfism are discussed. PMID:25496962

  4. In vitro and in vivo effects of hesperidin treatment on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Allam, G; Abuelsaad, A S A

    2014-09-01

    Hesperidin has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. Herein, the schistosomicidal activity of this compound was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Using an in vitro assay, a concentration of 200 μg/ml of hesperidin resulted in the mortality of 100% adult worms of Schistosoma (S.) mansoni within 72 h and a partial tegumental alteration in 10% of worms. However, after 144 h incubation, 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations showed 0% and 10% mortality in adult worms, respectively, without any changes to the tegument. Sublethal doses did not influence egg output nor the development of eggs deposited by pairs of adult worms. In an in vivo study, mice infected with S. mansoni and treated with 600 mg hesperidin/kg body weight showed a respective reduction of 50, 45.2, 50 and 47.5% of males, females, worm pairs and total worm burden. In addition, a respective reduction, based on the number of eggs/g tissue, of 41.5, 63.7 and 58.6% was observed in the liver, intestine and liver/intestinal tissue combined. Furthermore, S. mansoni-specific IgG level significantly increased with hesperidin treatment, whereas IgA and IgE levels were not significantly changed. IgM levels decreased in response to cercarial antigen preparation but were not altered in response to soluble worm or soluble egg antigen. As in hesperidin-treated mice, praziquantel-treated mice showed a similar pattern of specific antibody response to S. mansoni antigens. The present study represents the first report on the effects of the schistosomicidal activity of hesperidin.

  5. Collection of Clonorchis sinensis adult worms from infected humans after praziquantel treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chenghua; Kim, Jae-hwan; Lee, Jeong-Keun; Bae, Young Mee; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Lim, Min Kyung; Shin, Hai-Rim; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2007-01-01

    A cohort was established for evaluation of cancer risk factors in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. As one of the cohort studies, stools of 947 residents (403 males and 544 females, age range: 29-86 years) were screened for Clonorchis sinensis eggs using both Kato-Katz method and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall egg positive rate of C. sinensis was 37.7% and individual EPG (eggs per gram of feces) counts ranged from 24 to 28,800. Eight egg positive residents voluntarily joined a process of collection of the passed worms after praziquantel treatment. A total of 158 worms were recovered from 5 of the 8 treated persons, ranged from 3 to 108 in each individual. The worms were 15-20 mm × 2-3 mm in size, and showed brown-pigmented, red, or white body colors. This is the first collection record of C. sinensis adult worms from humans through anthelmintic treatment and purgation. The adult worms of C. sinensis may be paralyzed by praziquantel and then discharged passively through bile flow in the bile duct and by peristaltic movement of the bowel. PMID:17570980

  6. Adult filarial worm from the breast aspirate of a young man.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hilda; Thomas, Beena Mary; Putran, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions in clinically unsuspected cases. Here we report a male patient who presented with a tender breast nodule and single enlarged lymph node. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) yielded 1 ml of yellow coloured fluid and single thread like worm measuring 6 × 0.2 cm. A diagnosis of breast abscess with a worm morphologically consistent with filariasis was offered. A follow up visit after 2 months showed regression of the breast lesion and the lymph node. Filariasis of the breast is an uncommon condition and can cause a diagnostic dilemma at times. FNA cytology appears to be a more convenient and effective diagnostic tool in patients with mass lesions. Demonstration and identification of the parasite in smears helps in avoiding surgical excision and early institution of prompt therapy especially in young patients. PMID:27413335

  7. Single worm genotyping demonstrates that Onchocerca ochengi females simultaneously produce progeny sired by different males.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Julia C; Eisenbarth, Albert; Renz, Alfons; Streit, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Onchocerca ochengi is a filarial nematode parasite of African cattle and most closely related to Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness. O. ochengi females induce the formation of a nodule in the dermis of the host, in which they remain sedentary in very close association with the host's tissue. Males, which do not adhere to the host's tissue, are also found within the nodules at an average number of about one male per nodule. Young O. ochengi females tend to avoid the immediate proximity of existing nodules. Therefore, O. ochengi nodules are dispersed in the ventral inguinal skin at considerable distances from each other. It has been speculated that males avoid the risk of leaving a female once they have found one and remain in the nodule as territorial males rendering the reproductive strategy of O. ochengi essentially monogamous. We developed a protocol that allows reliable PCR amplification of single copy loci from different developmental stages of O. ochengi including embryos and microfilariae. From 32 O. ochengi nodules, we genotyped the female worms and the 67 adult male worms, found in these nodules, together with a fraction of the progeny from within the uteri of females. In 18 of 32 gravid females progeny derived from multiple males were found. In five nodules, the males isolated from the same nodule as the female were not sufficient to explain the genotypes of the entire progeny. We conclude that frequently O. ochengi females simultaneously produce progeny sired by different males and that most but not all males are still present in the nodule when their offspring is ready to hatch. PMID:22706958

  8. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  9. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  10. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  11. Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: morphometric differences between adult worms from sympatric rodent and human isolates.

    PubMed

    Neves, R H; Pereira, M J; de Oliveira, R M; Gomes, D C; Machado-Silva, J R

    1998-01-01

    A computer software for image analysis (IMAGE PRO PLUS, MEDIA CYBERNETICS) was utilized in male and females adult worms, aiming the morphological characterization of Schistosoma mansoni samples isolated from a slyvatic rodent, Nectomys squamipes, and humans in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and recovered from Mus musculus C3H/He. The following characters for males's testicular lobes were analyzed: number, area, density, larger and smaller diameter, longer and shorter axis and perimeter and extension; for females: area, longer and shorter axis, larger and smaller diameter and perimeter of the eggs and spine; oral and ventral suckers area and distance between them in both sex were determined. By the analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in all studied characters, except for the density of testicular lobes. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were detected for all characters in the female worms. Data ratify that sympatric isolates present phenotypic differences and the adult female characters are useful for the proper identification of S. mansoni isolates.

  12. Onchocerca gutturosa and O. volvulus: studies on the viability and drug responses of cryopreserved adult worms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Townson, S; Shay, K E; Dobinson, A R; Connelly, C; Comley, J C; Zea-Flores, G

    1989-01-01

    The viability and drug responses of cryopreserved adult Onchocerca have been examined in vitro. Male worms were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) using ethanediol as a cryoprotectant in a 2-step incubation procedure. After thawing, 85-90% of O. gutturosa males were normally motile. These motile worms were evaluated for viability using 4 measurements (long-term motility/survival in culture; [U-14C]adenine uptake and leakage; glucose utilization; MTT-formazan colorimetry) and were no different from unfrozen controls. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that the motility responses of cryopreserved worms exposed to the antifilarial drugs ivermectin, CGP 6140 and levamisole were virtually identical to unfrozen controls. Some success was also obtained with this technique in cryopreserving O. volvulus males, with 2 thawed specimens surviving in culture for 93 and 106 d respectively. Following collagenase isolation, female worms were cryopreserved in medium +10% serum without protectant at -79 degrees C. A batch of 8 female O. gutturosa were all motile when thawed 14 d later, with a mean survival time (based on 5 specimens) of 71 d (range 60-90). However, a batch of worms transferred from -79 degrees C to -196 degrees C were badly damaged when thawed. Female O. volvulus were cryopreserved at -79 degrees C in Guatemala and sent by air freight on solid CO2 to the UK. Most specimens were active when thawed. Survival of motile specimens ranged from 7 to 272 d in culture. It is concluded that these techniques are of practical value for the storage and transportation of adult Onchocerca.

  13. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C; Weil, Gary J

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of "classical" anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of V as deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects of

  14. Anthelmintic activity in vitro and in vivo of Baccharis trimera (Less) DC against immature and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Oliveira, Adriana Silva Santos; Jeraldo, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe; Linhares, Arício Xavier; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2014-04-01

    Although its efficiency against all Schistosoma species, praziquantel (PZQ) shows low efficacy against schistosomula and juvenile stages. The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In this scenario, studies to new formulations, more comprehensive and without adverse effects, are being conducted. One viable and promising treatment is the study of medicinal plants as a new approach to the experimental treatment for Schistosomiasis. Amongst all the variety of the medicinal species studied, we can highlight Baccharis trimera (Less) DC, known as "Carqueja-amarga". This paper not only describes the effect of crude dichloromethane extract (DE) and aqueous fraction (AF) obtained from B. trimera, in vitro but also is the first one that investigates the in vivo efficacy of B. trimera against schistosomula, juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni BH strain. In the experiment, mice were treated with DE, AF and PZQ (40 and 200mg/kg) over the period of larval development (3 and 30 post-infection; pi), and adult worms (60days post-infection; pi). The in vitro results show that the DE and AF effects are dose-dependents, being the 130μg/mL the most effective one in a shorter period of incubation. The exposure of the in vitro samples over adult parasites were able to inhibit 100% of the oviposition in females. Likewise caused the mortality of the parasites with morphological alterations on the tegument, on the suckers, oral and acetabulum, in both males and females after 6-72h of exposure. Additionally, the in vivo treatments against juvenile and adult infection were more effective compared to the control group untreated. Administrations of AF and DE in day 30pi (juvenile worms) show female worm total burden reductions of 75% and 68% respectively. At the same period of infection reductions of respectively 98% and 97% egg/g in the faeces were seen. In relation to the different egg developmental stages

  15. Elimination of Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms by Rhesus Macaques: Basis for a Therapeutic Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R. Alan; Langermans, Jan A. M.; van Dam, Govert J.; Vervenne, Richard A.; Hall, Stephanie L.; Borges, William C.; Dillon, Gary P.; Thomas, Alan W.; Coulson, Patricia S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Among animal models of schistosomiasis, the rhesus macaque is unique in that an infection establishes but egg excretion rapidly diminishes, potentially due to loss of adult worms from the portal system via shunts or death by immune attack. Principal Findings To investigate this, six rhesus macaques were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the infection monitored until portal perfusion at 18 weeks. Despite a wide variation in worm numbers recovered, fecal egg output and circulating antigen levels indicated that a substantial population had established in all animals. Half the macaques had portal hypertension but only one had portacaval shunts, ruling out translocation to the lungs as the reason for loss of adult burden. Many worms had a shrunken and pallid appearance, with degenerative changes in intestines and reproductive organs. Tegument, gut epithelia and muscles appeared cytologically intact but the parenchyma was virtually devoid of content. An early and intense IgG production correlated with low worm burden at perfusion, and blood-feeding worms cultured in the presence of serum from these animals had stunted growth. Using immunoproteomics, gut digestive enzymes, tegument surface hydrolases and antioxidant enzymes were identified as targets of IgG in the high responder animals. Significance It appears that worms starve to death after cessation of blood feeding, as a result of antibody-mediated processes. We suggest that proteins in the three categories above, formulated to trigger the appropriate mechanisms operating in rhesus macaques, would have both prophylactic and therapeutic potential as a human vaccine. PMID:18820739

  16. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  17. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-01-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  18. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    PubMed Central

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  19. Preparation and characterization of specific monoclonal antibodies for the detection of adult worm infections in onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Daggfeldt, Annika; Titanji, Vincent P K; Grönvik, Kjell-Olov

    2005-12-01

    Suitable molecular tests for monitoring the viability of adult worms of Onchocerca in vivo are required to accelerate the development of new macrofilaricides in river blindness (onchocerciasis). Hence, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared and evaluated in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for their abilities to detect circulating adult worm antigens in onchocercal bovine and human sera. The MAbs did not cross-react with a number of control antigens, which included extracts of Ascaris suum, Loa loa, and O. ochengi microfilariae. They were all IgG1 molecules. Their targets in O. ochengi total extract were a set of the same 15 polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 21-220 Kda. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed their adult worm specificity and showed their binding to the hypodermis of the adult worm. The ELISA could detect as little as 100 pg/mL of the affinity-purified target antigens. It also detected the antigens with 94.1% specificity in 50 out of 56 infected bovine sera (90% sensitivity) and in 21 out of 43 infected human sera (48.8% sensitivity, which could go up to 72.1% on elimination of two skewed control cases). We conclude that the MAbs could be field tested and used in responder populations as described herein or employed as components of more sensitive assays for the evaluation of novel Onchocerca macrofilaricides.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of the oesophageal gland region of male worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Nawaratna, Sujeevi S K; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Willis, Charlene; Chuah, Candy; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal tract of schistosomes opens at the mouth and leads into the foregut or oesophageal region that is lined with syncytium continuous with the apical cytoplasm of the tegument. The oesophagus is surrounded by a specialised gland, the oesophageal gland. This gland releases materials into the lumen of the oesophagus and the region is thought to initiate the lysis of erythrocytes and neutralisation of immune effectors of the host. The oesophageal region is present in the early invasive schistosomulum, a stage potentially targetable by anti-schistosome vaccines. We used a 44k oligonucleotide microarray to identify highly up-regulated genes in microdissected frozen sections of the oesophageal gland of male worms of S. mansoni. We show that 122 genes were up-regulated 2-fold or higher in the oesophageal gland compared with a whole male worm tissue control. The enriched genes included several associated with lipid metabolism and transmembrane transport as well as some micro-exon genes. Since the oesophageal gland is important in the initiation of digestion and the fact that it develops early after invasion of the mammalian host, further study of selected highly up-regulated functionally important genes in this tissue may reveal new anti-schistosome intervention targets for schistosomiasis control. PMID:25149559

  1. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis and Effects of the Medicinal Plant Species Mitracarpus frigidus on Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Florêncio, Jônatas Rodrigues; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Scio, Elita

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo schistosomicidal properties of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Mitracarpus frigidus (MFM) and to determine its HPLC profile. For the in vitro experiment, four pairs of adult worms, obtained from infected mice, were exposed to different concentrations of MFM (100 to 400 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h and analyzed under an inverted microscope. For the in vivo experiment, mice were inoculated with cercariae and, 20 days after infection, MFM (100 and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally for the following 25 days. Mice were euthanized after 60 days. MFM showed in vitro schistosomicidal activity, exhibiting the opening of the gynaecophoral canal of some male schistosomes, the presence of contorted muscles, vesicles, and the darkening of the paired worms skin. In vivo experiments showed that MFM treatments significantly reduced total worm count, as praziquantel, showing a decrease in liver and spleen weight. Also, a significant reduction in granuloma density was observed. MFM treatment did not cause alterations in the liver function of either infected or noninfected mice. The HPLC chromatogram profile showed the presence of kaempferol-O-rutinoside, rutin, kaempferol, psychorubrin, and ursolic acid. PMID:24901000

  2. Chemotherapeutic studies on Litomosoides carinii infection of Mastomys natalensis. 8. The action of furazolidone on adult worms and microfilariae.

    PubMed

    Wegerhof, P H; Lämmler, G; Sänger, I; Zahner, H

    1979-09-01

    After oral administration of furazolidone in doses of 5 x 50 mg/kg and 1 x 100 mg/kg body weight to Litomosoides carinii--infected Mastomys natalensis microfilaraemia decreased continuously and was reduced by more than 98% 42 days after start of treatment. After the 5-day treatment all adult female and male worms were found dead and encapsulated within 2 weeks, whereas after the single dose 100% of the female parasites were encapsulated 28 days after treatment. In untreated animals quantiative examinations of the intrauterine stages showed an average number of 500 x 103 embryos per adult female worm. Following the 5-day treatment the number of embryos per female parasite was reduced after 42 days to 12.5 x 103, and after the single treatment to 26.9 x 103. By classification into 5 different stages (2- and 4-cell stages, Morula stage, "Horse-shoe" stage, "Ring" and "Brezel" stages, and intruterine microfilariae) an embryogram showed a continuous increase in pathologically-altered embryos during the whole observation period. The 2- and 4-cell stages suffered the most damaged. By 16 days after the end of the 5-day treatment and by 28 days after the single treatment all embryonic stages in the uteri were found to be pathologically altered. Furazolidone possessess high macrofilaricidal activity together with a considerable adverse effect on embryognesis and some delayed effect on microfilaraemia. PMID:543002

  3. Anthelmintic activity in vivo of epiisopiloturine against juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Maria A; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N; Véras, Leiz M C; Lima, David F; Campelo, Yuri D M; Campos, Stefano Augusto; Kuckelhaus, Selma A S; Pinto, Pedro L S; Eaton, Peter; Mafud, Ana C; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; Allegretti, Silmara M; de Moraes, Josué; Lolić, Aleksandar; Verbić, Tatjana; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI) against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported.

  4. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  5. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  6. [Parasitologic significance of the alteration of the causative Anisakidae worm and of the Pseudoterranova decipiens female immature adult worm, casting off the cuticles, and excreted from human in Kanazawa City].

    PubMed

    Ishikura, H; Kikuchi, K; Akao, N; Doutei, M; Yagi, K; Takahashi, S; Sato, N

    1995-09-01

    We have been studying Anisakidae larvae, their intermediate hosts and their final hosts in the northern Japan Sea area. These larvae cause anisakidosis. According to the investigation, the recent burst of pseudoterranovosis in this area can be attributed to the increased presence of sea lions, which proliferate in the Arctic region, then migrate to the northern Japan Sea and eat the intermediate host fish. In a stomach of a male sea lion that was captured in February 1995, we found more than 4,500 Pseudoterranova decipiens. Although there is no known circumstance in which a human would consume an adult worm of Anisakis nematode, an astonishing case of this was found in Kanazawa; a female young adult Pseudoterranova decipiens undergoing the final metamorphosis was emitted from a patient. This indicates that the Anisakis larva can mature into the adult worm in humans. It is postulated that the Pseudoterranova decipiens larva is in the process of adapting to use humans as the final host. PMID:8543275

  7. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  8. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  9. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  10. De novo assembly and characterization of the Trichuris trichiura adult worm transcriptome using Ion Torrent sequencing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo N; Silva, Eduardo S; Santos, André S; De Sá, Pablo H; Ramos, Rommel T; Silva, Artur; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L; Loureiro, Sebastião; Pinheiro, Carina S; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2016-07-01

    Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T. trichiura, using next-generation sequencing technology and a de novo assembly strategy. Nearly 17.6 million high-quality clean reads were assembled into 6414 contiguous sequences, with an N50 of 1606bp. In total, 5673 protein-encoding sequences were confidentially identified in the T. trichiura adult worm transcriptome; of these, 1013 sequences represent potential newly discovered proteins for the species, most of which presenting orthologs already annotated in the related species T. suis. A number of transcripts representing probable novel non-coding transcripts for the species T. trichiura were also identified. Among the most abundant transcripts, we found sequences that code for proteins involved in lipid transport, such as vitellogenins, and several chitin-binding proteins. Through a cross-species expression analysis of gene orthologs shared by T. trichiura and the closely related parasites T. suis and T. muris it was possible to find twenty-six protein-encoding genes that are consistently highly expressed in the adult stages of the three helminth species. Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities. Five of these transcripts were amongst the most highly expressed protein-encoding sequences in the T

  11. De novo assembly and characterization of the Trichuris trichiura adult worm transcriptome using Ion Torrent sequencing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo N; Silva, Eduardo S; Santos, André S; De Sá, Pablo H; Ramos, Rommel T; Silva, Artur; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L; Loureiro, Sebastião; Pinheiro, Carina S; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2016-07-01

    Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T. trichiura, using next-generation sequencing technology and a de novo assembly strategy. Nearly 17.6 million high-quality clean reads were assembled into 6414 contiguous sequences, with an N50 of 1606bp. In total, 5673 protein-encoding sequences were confidentially identified in the T. trichiura adult worm transcriptome; of these, 1013 sequences represent potential newly discovered proteins for the species, most of which presenting orthologs already annotated in the related species T. suis. A number of transcripts representing probable novel non-coding transcripts for the species T. trichiura were also identified. Among the most abundant transcripts, we found sequences that code for proteins involved in lipid transport, such as vitellogenins, and several chitin-binding proteins. Through a cross-species expression analysis of gene orthologs shared by T. trichiura and the closely related parasites T. suis and T. muris it was possible to find twenty-six protein-encoding genes that are consistently highly expressed in the adult stages of the three helminth species. Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities. Five of these transcripts were amongst the most highly expressed protein-encoding sequences in the T

  12. Proteomic Changes between Male and Female Worms of the Polychaetous Annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata before and after Spawning

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Ravasi, Timothy; Reish, Donald; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The Neanthesacuminata species complex (Polychaeta) are cosmopolitan in distribution. Neanthesarenaceodentata, Southern California member of the N. acuminata complex, has been widely used as toxicological test animal in the marine environment. Method of reproduction is unique in this polychaete complex. Same sexes fight and opposite sexes lie side by side until egg laying. Females lose about 75% of their weight and die after laying eggs. The male, capable of reproducing up to nine times, fertilizes the eggs and incubates the embryos for 3-4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any set of proteins that influences this unique pattern of reproduction. Gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and gel-free quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify differential protein expression patterns before and after spawning in both male and female N. arenaceodentata. Males showed a higher degree of similarity in protein expression patterns but females showed large changes in phosphoproteme before and after spawning. There was a decrease (about 70%) in the number of detected phosphoproteins in spent females. The proteins involved in muscular development, cell signaling, structure and integrity, and translation were differentially expressed. This study provides proteomic insights of the male and female worms that may serve as a foundation for better understanding of unusual reproductive patterns in polychaete worms. PMID:24023665

  13. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  14. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  15. Biochemical characterization and role of the proteasome in the oxidative stress response of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ornelas, Alice Maria de Magalhães; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Borges, William de Castro; Natale, Massimo; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2014-08-01

    The trematode Schistosoma mansoni, an important parasite of humans, is the principle agent of the disease schistosomiasis. In the human host, one of the most important stress factors of this parasite is the oxidative stress generated by both the metabolism of the worm and the immune system of the host. The proteasomal system is responsible for protein homeostasis during oxidative stress. The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic protease formed by two compartments, a 20S core and regulatory particle 19S, and controls the degradation of intracellular proteins, hence regulating many cellular processes. In the present report, we describe the biochemical characterization and role of the 20S proteasome in the response of adult S. mansoni worms exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Characterization of the response to the oxidative stress included the evaluation of viability, egg production, mortality, tegument integrity, and both expression and activity of proteasome. We observed decreases in viability, egg production as well as 100% mortality at the higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide tested. The main changes observed in the tegument of adult worms were peeling as well as the appearance of bubbles and a decrease of spines on the tubercles. Furthermore, there were increases in 26S activity to the same extent as 20S proteasome activity, although there was increase of 20S proteasome content, suggesting that degradation of protein oxidized in adult worms is due to the 20S proteasome. It was demonstrated that adult S. mansoni worms are sensitive to oxidative stress, and that a variety of processes in this parasite are altered under this condition. The work contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms employed by S. mansoni to survive under oxidative stress. PMID:24870249

  16. Giant retroperitoneal cyst in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Egawa, S; Satoh, T; Suyama, K; Uchida, T; Iwabuchi, K; Koshiba, K

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents a case of a symptomatic giant retroperitoneal cyst in an adult male. The unilocular cyst was excised successfully with resolution of the attendant symptoms. Histological findings of the cyst wall suggested a lymphangiomatous etiology. Any good risk patient found to harbor such a cyst should undergo complete excision in view of the potential for the development of symptoms and complications.

  17. Vesicoureteric reflux in the adult male.

    PubMed

    Chapple, C R; Christmas, T J; Turner-Warwick, R T

    1990-02-01

    The main prevalence of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is in the adult female population. Although recognised as a clinical entity in adult males, little detailed information is available on this subject. A retrospective analysis was carried out on the results of 1519 consecutive videocystometrograms performed on male patients. VUR had an overall incidence of 8.6% within this population, with a range of 5.1% in patients with normal urodynamics to 15.6% in those with detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. The common denominator between VUR and urodynamic measurement appears to be the generation of high intravesical pressures. These findings suggest that VUR is not uncommon in the male population, is usually asymptomatic and should respond to the treatment of any underlying bladder abnormality.

  18. iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of schistosomula and adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaodan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Min; Han, Yanhui; Han, Hongxiao; Han, Qian; Lu, Ke; Hong, Yang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-04-14

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide. The schistosomulum and adult worm are two stages of the complex lifecycle of Schistosoma japonicum and excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) play a major role in host-parasite interactions. In this study, iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the proteome of ESPs obtained from schistosomula and adult worms of S. japonicum, and 298 differential ESPs were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of differential ESPs in the two developmental stages showed that 161 ESPs upregulated in schistosomula were associated with stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism and protein degradation, whereas ESPs upregulated in adult worms were mainly related to immunoregulation and purine metabolism. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), two differential proteins identified in this study, were expressed. Further studies showed that rSjHSP70 and rSjTPx stimulated macrophages expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory factors TGF-β, IL-10 and Arg-1, and suppressed the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in LPS-induced macrophages. This study provides new insights into the survival and development of schistosomes in the final host and helps identify vaccine candidates or new diagnostic reagents for schistosomiasis.

  19. Exosome-like vesicles derived by Schistosoma japonicum adult worms mediates M1 type immune- activity of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Li, Zhitao; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular space upon fusion of the multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane, while initial studies described that the role of exosomes was a reticulocyte cargo-disposal mechanism allowing remodeling of the plasma membrane during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Recent studies indicate that exosomes are secreted by most cells and pathogens and play an important role in intercellular signaling and exert regulatory function by carrying bioactive molecules. As numerous pathogens, adult worm of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) reside in mesenteric veins of definitive host including man and mammal animals. It was reported that the worms or the eggs also have specialized secretion systems to export effector proteins or other molecules into host target cells. However, the mechanisms involved remained unclear. This study investigated the isolation of the exosome-like vesicles secreted by S. japonicum adult worms and its immune activity on microphage in vitro. In this report, we identified exosome-based secretion as a new mechanism for protein secretion by S. japonicum. Electron microscopy tomography revealed the previously unidentified ultrastructural detail of exosome-like vesicles with high resolution; they were found to be typical spherical shape and to have a diverse population that varies in size of 30-100 nm. Exosome-like vesicles isolated from S. japonicum contained a significantly different protein compared with debris pelleted and the apoptosis body. We also demonstrate that macrophages were preferentially differentiated into the M1 subtype while being treated with S. japonicum exosome-like vesicles. This study reveals there are exosome-like vesicles derived by S. japonicum adult worms, and the exosome-like vesicles can mediate M1-type immune- activity of macrophage.

  20. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    PubMed

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options. PMID:26197627

  1. High prevalence of haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang provinces, Thailand, proven by adult worm recovery from suspected opisthorchiasis cases.

    PubMed

    Wijit, Adulsak; Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand.

  2. High prevalence of haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang provinces, Thailand, proven by adult worm recovery from suspected opisthorchiasis cases.

    PubMed

    Wijit, Adulsak; Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand. PMID:24516289

  3. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  4. In vitro synergistic interaction between amide piplartine and antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin against Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula and adult worms.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, J; Keiser, J; Ingram, K; Nascimento, C; Yamaguchi, L F; Bittencourt, C R; Bemquerer, M P; Leite, J R; Kato, M J; Nakano, E

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the world's major public health problems, and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this notable neglected disease. Drug combinations have been considered an important strategy for treatment of infectious diseases, which might enhance therapeutic efficacy and delaying resistance. In this study, we have examined the in vitro activities of the amide piplartine and the antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin 01 administered singly or in combination against Schistosoma mansoni of different ages including 3-hour-old and 7-day-old schistosomula and 49-day-old adult schistosomes as well as on egg output by adult worms. We calculated the median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of 7.87 and 17.99 μM on 49-day-old adults, 11.02 and 71.58 μM on 7-day-old schistosomula, and 70.87 and 98.42 μM on 3-hour-old schistosomula for piplartine and dermaseptin, respectively. Most Piplartine/dermaseptin combinations showed synergistic effect, with combination index (CI) values less than 0.9 when S. mansoni adults or schistosomula were simultaneously incubated with both drugs in vitro; synergy between these two compounds was also indicated using isobolograms. Additionally, we observed alterations on the tegumental surface of schistosomula and adult schistosomes by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. Furthermore, egg laying of surviving worms was considerably more reduced when exposed to the piplartine/dermaseptin combinations than each drug alone, and this inhibition was irreversible. This is the first report on the synergistic effect between piplartine and dermaseptin against S. mansoni and opens the route to further studies (e.g. in vivo) to characterize this combination in greater detail. PMID:23061657

  5. Excretory/secretory antigens from Dirofilaria immitis adult worms interact with the host fibrinolytic system involving the vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Simón, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of canine and feline heartworm disease. The parasite can survive for long periods of time (7 years or more) in the circulatory system of immunocompetent reservoirs, producing usually a chronic inflammatory vascular disease. In addition, the simultaneous death of groups of adult worms can trigger an acute disease characterized by the exacerbation of inflammatory reactions and the emergence of serious thromboembolic events. In the context of the D. immitis/host relationships, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between the excretory/secretory antigens from D. immitis adult worms (DiES) and the fibrinolytic system of the host. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we showed that DiES extract is able to bind plasminogen and generate plasmin, although this fact requires the presence of the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Moreover, we established that DiES extract enhances t-PA expression in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Additionally, 10 plasminogen-binding proteins from DiES extract were identified by mass spectrometry (HSP60, actin-1/3, actin, actin 4, transglutaminase, GAPDH, Ov87, LOAG_14743, galectin and P22U). The data suggest that DiES antigens interact with the environment of the parasite regulating the activation of the fibrinolytic system of the host with involvement of the vascular endothelium in the process.

  6. Programmed Worms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    A hungry worm is looking for something to eat according to very specific rules, and the path he takes is a graph. The problem is detailed in Applesoft BASIC using low resolution graphics for worms that turn 90 degrees and high resolution for worms that can turn 45 degrees. (MP)

  7. Television viewing and obesity in adult males.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M

    1989-01-01

    We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males. After adjustment for age, smoking status, length of work week, measured physical fitness, and reported weekly hours of exercise, people who viewed TV more than three hours/day were twice as likely to be obese as those who viewed less than 1 hour/day. Those who viewed for 1 to 2 hours daily had a relative risk of 1.60 (1.21, 2.11). Physical fitness consistently confounded the associations between TV viewing and obesity/super-obesity, but the other control variables did not do so. PMID:2929820

  8. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (P<0.01) than those from BALB/c mice by flow cytometry. A total of 15 apoptosis-associated genes including the major components of an intrinsic cell-death pathway were identified from S. japonicum in this study, suggested that a similar apoptosis pathway might occur in S. japonicum. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of most of the tested apoptosis-associated genes, except CASP7, were significantly higher or at the similar level in adult worms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing

  9. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (P<0.01) than those from BALB/c mice by flow cytometry. A total of 15 apoptosis-associated genes including the major components of an intrinsic cell-death pathway were identified from S. japonicum in this study, suggested that a similar apoptosis pathway might occur in S. japonicum. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of most of the tested apoptosis-associated genes, except CASP7, were significantly higher or at the similar level in adult worms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing

  10. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child’s age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child’s age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child’s age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child’s age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  11. Evaluation of an Anger Therapy Intervention for Incarcerated Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoy, Steven D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    An anger therapy intervention was developed for incarcerated adult males. The therapy was an extension of cognitive-behavioral approaches, incorporating principles and practices drawn from Buddhist psychology. Adult males from a Midwestern low-security prison were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (n= 16) or a waiting list control…

  12. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  13. Stranger and Acquaintance Sexual Assault of Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; del Bove, Giannetta; Addison, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This study examined victim and assault characteristics and the nature and extent of coercion, violence, and physical injuries among adult male victims of sexual assaults. Client records of three groups presenting to a sexual assault care center were included: males assaulted by a stranger (n = 64), males assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 81), and…

  14. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

    PubMed

    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  15. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm: a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A; Magnussen, P; Bloch, P; Yakubu, A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent guinea-worms. There was no significant difference in the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded that ivermectin has no effect on prepatent guinea-worms nor does it disturb their migration pattern. No adverse reaction to treatment was seen. It appears that ivermectin can be used safely as mass chemotherapy against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where guinea-worm is also endemic.

  16. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin against schistosomula and juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Silva, Márcio L A E; Souza, Julia Medeiros; Laurentiz, Rosangela S de; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M; Tavares, Denise C; Filho, Ademar A Da Silva; Cunha, Wilson R; Bastos, Jairo K; Magalhães, Lizandra G

    2015-09-01

    The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis relies on the use of praziquantel. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for new drug leads. This paper is the first report on the in vitro and in vivo activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin (DNK) against Schistosoma mansoni. In vitro, the lethal concentrations for 50% of parasites (LC50) of DNK against adult worms were 103.9±3.6 and 102.5±4.8μM at 24 and 72h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images showed extensive tegumental alterations such as peeling and smaller numbers of tubercles in the spine of adult worms. DNK also elicited high mortality of schistosomula, with LC50 values of 57.4±2.3, 32.5±0.9, and 20.4±1.2μM at 24, 48, and 72h, respectively. DNK displayed moderate activity against the juvenile liver parasite, with an LC50 value of 179.5±2.3 μM at 72h. This compound reduced the total number of eggs by over 83%, and it affected the development of eggs produced by adult worms. The selectivity index showed that at 24h, DNK was 8.5 and 15.4 times more toxic to the adult worms and schistosomula than to Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells, respectively. Treatment of infected mice with DNK moderately decreased worm burden (33.8-52.3%), egg production (40.7-60.0%), and spleen and liver weights. Together, our results indicated that DNK presents moderate in vitro and in vivo activities against S. mansoni, and it might therefore be interesting to explore the structure-activity relationship of the antischistosomal activity of this compound.

  17. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Tadjalli, Mina; Nazifi, Saeed; Marzban Abbasabadi, Behrokh; Majidi, Banafsheh

    2013-01-01

    In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old). The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks. PMID:25653798

  18. Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae): changes of body wall musculature during the development from miracidium to adult worm.

    PubMed

    Bulantová, Jana; Chanová, Marta; Houžvičková, Lenka; Horák, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Trichobilharzia regenti (Schistosomatidae, Digenea), a parasite of birds, exhibits a unique strategy among schistosomes, having affinity to the nervous system of vertebrate hosts. Migration of parasitic stages within hosts and/or swimming of non-parasitic larvae in water environment depend on the action of body wall muscles which were studied with confocal and electron microscopy. In all stages, body wall musculature is comprised of differently organized circular and longitudinal muscles. During the development, an extensive change of musculature characteristics and/or formation of new muscle structures were recorded; cercariae, schistosomula and adult worms produce additional underlying diagonal muscle fibers and inner plexus of radial musculature. Substantial changes of the outer environment during penetration of a host (osmotic values of water vs. host tissues) are accompanied by surface transformation of miracidia/mother sporocysts and cercariae/schistosomula. Contrary to that, changes of body musculature in these stages are characterized only by growth and re-organization of existing structures, and never by formation of new components of body musculature. Future studies in this field may contribute to a better knowledge of morphology and function of trematode muscles, including those of schistosomes that are important pathogens of humans and animals. PMID:20813538

  19. Stem cell proliferation during in vitro development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva to adult worm

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In free-living flatworms somatic differentiated cells do not divide, and a separate population of stem cells (called neoblasts) is responsible for cell proliferation and renewal. In cestodes, there is evidence that similar mechanisms of cell renewal exist. Results In this work, we have characterized proliferative cells during the development of the model cestode Mesocestoides corti from larva (tetrathyridium) to young segmented worm. This was done by two complementary strategies with congruent results: characterizing cells in S phase and their progeny by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, and characterizing cells in M phase by arresting mitotic cells with colchicine and studying their morphology and distribution. Proliferative cells are localized only in the inner parenchyma, particularly in close proximity to the inner muscle layer, but not in the cortical parenchyma nor in the sub-tegumental tissue. After proliferation some of these cells migrate to the outer regions were they differentiate. In the larvae, proliferative cells are more abundant in the anterior regions (scolex and neck), and their number diminishes in an antero-posterior way. During the development of adult segments periodic accumulation of proliferative cells are observed, including a central mass of cells that constitutes the genital primordium, which grows at least in part due to in situ proliferation. In later segments, the inner cells of genital primordia cease to proliferate and adopt a compact distribution, and proliferative cells are also found in the testes primordia. Conclusions Proliferative cells have a characteristic localization and morphology throughout development from larva to adult of Mesocestoides corti, which is similar, and probably evolutionary conserved, to that described in other model cestodes. The characteristics of proliferative cells suggest that these consist of undifferentiated stem cells. PMID:20626875

  20. Adult male chimpanzees inherit maternal ranging patterns.

    PubMed

    Murray, Carson M; Gilby, Ian C; Mane, Sandeep V; Pusey, Anne E

    2008-01-01

    Space use often correlates with reproductive success [1, 2]. Individual site fidelity is ubiquitous across a variety of taxa, including birds, mammals, insects, and reptiles [3-9]. Individuals can benefit from using the same area because doing so affords access to known resources, including food and/or breeding sites. The majority of studies on site fidelity have focused upon strictly territorial species in which individuals range in well-defined, exclusive areas (e.g., [4, 9]). By comparison, the transient groups that define fission-fusion species allow for considerable flexibility in individual space use. Although there is evidence that individual space use can influence reproductive success [2], relatively little is known about individual ranging patterns in fission-fusion species. Here, we investigate three potential correlates of male site fidelity (age, habitat quality, and maternal space use) in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that when alone, each male preferentially concentrated his space use near the area where his mother ranged when he was dependent. We suggest that solitary ranging allows males to avoid direct competition with conspecifics and that foraging in familiar areas maximizes foraging efficiency. These results highlight the importance of male foraging strategies in a species in which male ranging is typically explained in terms of mating access to females.

  1. Secreted adhesion molecules of Strongyloides venezuelensis are produced by oesophageal glands and are components of the wall of tunnels constructed by adult worms in the host intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, H; El-Malky, M; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2003-02-01

    The parasitic female of Strongyloides venezuelensis keeps invading the epithelial layer of the host intestinal mucosa. Upon invasion, it adheres to the surface of the intestinal epithelial cells with adhesion molecules secreted from the mouth. It has been demonstrated that S. venezuelensis are expelled from the intestine because mucosal mast cells inhibit the attachment of adult worms to the mucosal surface. In the present study, we generated specific antibodies against secreted adhesion molecules to investigate their function in vivo, because these molecules have been demonstrated only in vitro in spite of the importance in the infection processes. A mouse monoclonal antibody specific to S. venezuelensis adhesion molecules inhibited the attachment of adult worms to plastic dishes and the binding of adhesion molecules to rat intestinal epithelial cells. Immunohistochemical study revealed that adhesion molecules were produced by oesophageal glands and were continuously secreted in vivo to line the wall of the tunnels formed by adult worms in the intestinal mucosa. Our findings indicate that adhesion molecules play essential roles in the infection processes of S. venezuelensis in the host intestine. PMID:12636354

  2. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Chris

    2004-02-17

    Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.

  3. In vitro evaluation of schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Mentha x villosa and some of its chemical constituents in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Matos-Rocha, Thiago José; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Marília Gabriela; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Veras, Dyana Leal; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the composition of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and to evaluate its biological effects in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Rotundifolone (70.96 %), limonene (8.75 %), trans-caryophyllene (1.46 %), and β-pinene (0.81 %) were shown to be the major constituents of this oil. Adult worms of S. mansoni were incubated with different concentrations of the essential oil (1, 10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and of its constituents rotundifolone (0.7, 3.54, 7.09, 70.96, 177.4, 354.8, and 700.96 µg/mL), limonene (43.75 µg/mL), trans-caryophyllene (7.3 µg/mL), and β-pinene (4.03 µg/mL). No schistosomicidal activity was identified at the trans-caryophyllene and β-pinene concentrations studied. However, use of the essential oil (10 µg/mL), rotundifolone (7.09 µg/mL), and limonene (43.75 µg/mL) resulted in decreased worm motility continuing until 96 hours of observation. At higher concentrations (100 and 70.96 µg/mL, respectively), both the essential oil and rotundifolone caused mortality among adult worms of S. mansoni. The positive control praziquantel caused the death of all parasites after 24 h of evaluation. The results from this study suggest that the essential oil of Mentha x villosa presents schistosomicidal efficacy.

  4. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sean D.; Rogers, Samuel; del Junco, Gerard W.; Sepulveda, Karla

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma—a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man. PMID:27186240

  5. Estrogen receptor immunoreactivity in prepubertal and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Romeo, R D; Diedrich, S L; Sisk, C L

    1999-04-23

    Estrogen and estrogen receptors (ER) are involved in the expression of steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether there are pubertal changes in ER expression in brain that are correlated with pubertal changes in responsiveness to steroid negative feedback and behavioral activation. We found equivalent numbers of ER-immunoreactive (ER-ir) cells in castrated prepubertal and adult male hamsters in nuclei that comprise the neural circuit that mediate male sexual behavior. Therefore, increases in the number of cells in these nuclei that express ER are not correlated with the increased behavioral responsiveness to steroid hormone shown by hamsters after puberty. The number of ER-ir cells in the ventral medial hypothalamus was less in adults compared with juveniles. This pubertal decrease in ER expression is correlated with the decreased responsiveness to steroid negative feedback in the adult.

  6. Anatomic autoandrophilia in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2009-12-01

    Some men are sexually aroused by impersonating the individuals to whom they are sexually attracted, or by permanently changing their bodies to become facsimiles of such individuals. Blanchard (J Sex Marital Ther 17:235-251, 1991) suggested that these paraphilic sexual interests, along with fetishism, represented erotic target location errors, i.e., developmental errors in locating erotic targets in the environment. Because the desire to impersonate or become a facsimile of the kind of person to whom one is attracted can have significant implications for identity, Freund and Blanchard (Br J Psychiatry 162:558-563, 1993) coined the term erotic target identity inversion to describe this type of erotic target location error. The best-known examples of erotic target identity inversions occur in men who are sexually attracted to women and who are also sexually aroused by the idea of impersonating or becoming women; these paraphilic interests manifest as transvestic fetishism and as one type of male-to-female transsexualism. Analogous erotic target identity inversions have been described in men who are sexually attracted to children and to female amputees. In theory, erotic target identity inversions should also occur in men who are sexually attracted to men. There have been no unambiguous descriptions, however, of men who are sexually attracted to men and also sexually aroused by the idea of changing their bodies to become more sexually attractive men. This report describes such a man, whose paraphilic interest would appropriately be called anatomic autoandrophilia. The demonstration that anatomic autoandrophilia exists in men is consistent with the theory that erotic target location errors constitute an independent paraphilic dimension. PMID:19093196

  7. Effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for experimental treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni using praziquantel-free and encapsulated into liposomes: assay in adult worms and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Tarsila Ferraz; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Prado, César Corat Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Giorgio, Selma; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug: praziquantel (PZQ). However, this treatment presents limitations such as low and/or erratic bioavailability that can contribute to cases of tolerance. Improvements to the available drug are urgently needed and studies with a controlled system of drug release, like liposomes, have been gaining prominence. The present study evaluated the activity and synergy between liposomal-praziquantel (lip.PZQ) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). Mice received doses of 60 or 100mg/kg PZQ or lip.PZQ, 50 days post-infection, and after the treatment, were exposed to HBO (3 atmosphere absolute - ATA) for 1h. The viability of adult worms and oviposition were analyzed, by necropsy and Kato-Katz examination performed after 15 days of treatment. A concentration of 100mg/kg of lip.PZQ+HBO was more effective (48.0% reduction of worms, 83.3% reduction of eggs/gram of feces) and 100% of the mice had altered of oograms (indicating interruption of oviposition) compared to other treatments and to the Control group (infected and untreated). It is known that PZQ requires participation of the host immune system to complete its antischistosomal activity and that HBO is able to stimulate the immune system. The drug became more available in the body when incorporated into liposomes and, used with HBO, the HBO worked as an adjuvant. This explains the decreases of oviposition and worms recovered form hepatic portal system.

  8. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion.

  9. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  10. Leucocyte responses to fighting in the adult male bandicoot rat.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P R; Sahu, A; Maiti, B R

    1983-01-01

    The effect of fighting stress on blood leucocyte count was studied in the adult male bandicoot rat. Exposure to fighting stress for 3 h induced neutrophilia, eosinopenia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia. The changes were more significant in the subordinate rat than in the dominant animal. It is suggested that leucocyte responses to fighting are perhaps mediated by the adrenal gland in these animals.

  11. Conversational Competency Profiles of Adult Males Who Exhibit Fluency Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Carol D.

    The study explored the verbal and nonverbal conversational competency of five adult males who exhibited fluency disorders. Five subject/interactant videotaped conversational interactions were analyzed utilizing an INter-REActive Learning (INREAL) Model analysis format. Descriptive individual and composite profiles resulting from trained raters'…

  12. Schistosoma mansoni Egg, Adult Male and Female Comparative Gene Expression Analysis and Identification of Novel Genes by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Letícia; Amaral, Murilo S.; Beckedorff, Felipe; Silva, Lucas F.; Dazzani, Bianca; Oliveira, Katia C.; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Gomes, Monete R.; Pires, David S.; Setubal, João C.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is a public health problem. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread species responsible for schistosomiasis in the Americas, Middle East and Africa. Adult female worms (mated to males) release eggs in the hepatic portal vasculature and are the principal cause of morbidity. Comparative separate transcriptomes of female and male adult worms were previously assessed with using microarrays and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), thus limiting the possibility of finding novel genes. Moreover, the egg transcriptome was analyzed only once with limited bacterially cloned cDNA libraries. Methodology/Principal findings To compare the gene expression of S. mansoni eggs, females, and males, we performed RNA-Seq on these three parasite forms using 454/Roche technology and reconstructed the transcriptome using Trinity de novo assembly. The resulting contigs were mapped to the genome and were cross-referenced with predicted Smp genes and H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq public data. For the first time, we obtained separate, unbiased gene expression profiles for S. mansoni eggs and female and male adult worms, identifying enriched biological processes and specific enriched functions for each of the three parasite forms. Transcripts with no match to predicted genes were analyzed for their protein-coding potential and the presence of an encoded conserved protein domain. A set of 232 novel protein-coding genes with putative functions related to reproduction, metabolism, and cell biogenesis was detected, which contributes to the understanding of parasite biology. Conclusions/Significance Large-scale RNA-Seq analysis using de novo assembly associated with genome-wide information for histone marks in the vicinity of gene models constitutes a new approach to transcriptome analysis that has not yet been explored in schistosomes. Importantly, all data have been consolidated into a UCSC Genome Browser search

  13. Fournier’s gangrene after adult male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the advent of mass voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for the partial prevention of HIV, previously rare adverse events associated with adult male circumcision are likely to be encountered with higher frequency. Fournier’s gangrene, defined as a polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, perianal or genital areas, is one such rare and life-threatening adverse event. In this report, we present two cases that were identified in the context of a VMMC programme over a 3-year period during which approximately 100,000 adult circumcisions were performed. Case presentations Case 1: A 19-year-old male who had VMMC performed using the dorsal slit technique developed pain and blisters on the scrotal skin on the sixth postoperative day. He had no co-morbidities, and serology for HIV was negative. On examination, locally he had scrotal skin necrosis with an offensive odour and was dehydrated but afebrile. Repeated aggressive debridement was done while he stayed in a hospital for 3 weeks; at which point, he had healthy granulation tissue and was free of infection. The wound had closed spontaneously and completely by the fifth month. Case 2: A 52-year-old male who had VMMC performed with the sleeve resection method developed pain and swelling of the penis and scrotum on the fourth postoperative day. He had a low-grade fever of 37.6°C. He was not diabetic or immunosuppressed and had a negative HIV serology. He was admitted and was given IV antibiotics, and repeated aggressive debridement was performed. On the third week of hospitalization, he had healthy granulation tissue and received a split skin graft on the penile shaft. At 4 months, the scrotal defect had completely closed. Conclusion Fournier’s gangrene is a rare occurrence after adult male circumcision with associated high morbidity. These are the first descriptions in the VMMC era. PMID:25635197

  14. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  15. Time course of the effect of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro: comparison with its effects on worm length and motility.

    PubMed

    da Silva, S P; Noël, F

    1995-01-01

    We report herein that praziquantel inhibits the capacity of adult male Schistosoma mansoni to attach to the bottom of a glass dish and produces a diminution of worm length and motility, acting under a similar concentration and time dependency. After removal of 1 microM praziquantel from the medium, the worms progressively recuperated their initial length and motility without recovering their attachment capability. The absence of calcium or presence of 1 microM verapamil did not change the praziquantel-induced effect on worm attachment, causing only a transient decrease in worm length and motility. The present data indicate that the diminution of motility induced by praziquantel results from the progressive contraction of the longitudinal musculature of the worm. In contrast, the loss of attachment should not be causally related to the contraction of the worm since these two praziquantel-induced effects have distinct patterns of response under some experimental conditions. PMID:7479644

  16. Juvenile Hormone Is Required in Adult Males for Drosophila Courtship

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Thilini P.; Saurabh, Sumit; Dauwalder, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) has a prominent role in the regulation of insect development. Much less is known about its roles in adults, although functions in reproductive maturation have been described. In adult females, JH has been shown to regulate egg maturation and mating. To examine a role for JH in male reproductive behavior we created males with reduced levels of Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyl Transferase (JHAMT) and tested them for courtship. JHAMT regulates the last step of JH biosynthesis in the Corpora Allata (CA), the organ of JH synthesis. Males with reduced levels of JHAMT showed a reduction in courtship that could be rescued by application of Methoprene, a JH analog, shortly before the courtship assays were performed. In agreement with this, reducing JHAMT conditionally in mature flies led to courtship defects that were rescuable by Methoprene. The same result was also observed when the CA were conditionally ablated by the expression of a cellular toxin. Our findings demonstrate that JH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of male mating behavior. PMID:27003411

  17. Adult male positioning in baboon progressions: order and chaos revisited.

    PubMed

    Rhine, R J; Westlund, B J

    1981-01-01

    Evidence of nonrandom positioning among adult males is crucial for a protection theory of the spatial organization of baboon progressions. In a recent study it was suggested that systematic positioning of troop members other than mothers and infants is so slight and rare that progressions may be regarded as essentially random. This suggestion depends upon debatable methodological points presumably downgrading previous findings of nonrandom order. Reanalysis of data from this study revealed numerous analytical and statistical problems, as well as serious calculation and other errors, and showed that the findings are consistent with results of the present and previous research. Adult males tended toward the front or back of progressions, a tendency which was intensified in potentially dangerous situations. Dominant males were disproportionately more often frontward and subordinate males rearward. Nonrandom order, which was found for a variety of circumstances at high levels of statistical significance, was unusually general in that it occurred in 6 studies, 7 troops, 2 species, and 5 locations. Such generality is consistent with a protection theory postulating phylogenetic underpinnings of a sociospatial organization which allows an advanced primate to adapt to terrestrial coexistence with predators.

  18. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs.

  19. Induction of protective immunity and modulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity in mice using PIII, an anionic fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, C; Zouain, C S; Alves, J B; Goes, A M

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed in order to define Schistosoma mansoni antigens that are able to function as modulator agents in the granulomatous hypersensitivity to parasite eggs in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. A fraction of S. mansoni, designated PIII, derived from adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was obtained using anion-exchange chromatography on an FPLC system. Immunization of mice with PIII in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum and Al(OH)3 as adjuvant induced an immune response in this animals as determined by ELISA and spleen cell proliferation assays against S. mansoni antigens SEA, SWAP and PIII. In addition, PIII caused a significant degree of protection against a challenge infection in immunized mice as observed by the decrease on worm burden recovered from the portal system. We also showed that PIII profoundly inhibited the vigorous anamnestic granulomatous response to eggs in the liver and lungs. This suppression correlated with a significant decrease in granuloma size. From these results we conclude that the PIII preparation contains antigens that can mediate protective anti-parasite immunity and downregulate granulomatous hypersensitivity to S. mansoni eggs. PMID:9280892

  20. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of spoon worms (Echiura, Annelida): Implications for morphological evolution, the origin of dwarf males, and habitat shifts.

    PubMed

    Goto, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Echiurans (spoon worms) are derived annelids that have secondarily lost segmentation. Recently, two molecular phylogenetic studies were performed to resolve the interfamily relationship of echiurans. However, the tree topologies were incongruent and taxon sampling was limited in both the studies. Thus, the phylogenetic relationships within echiurans remain contentious. In this study, I reevaluated the molecular phylogeny of echiurans, using three nuclear (18S, 28S, and H3) and two mitochondrial (16S and COI) genes of 49 echiuran species belonging to 17-19 genera and five families. Results showed that echiurans form the following two major clades: a sexually monomorphic group (Echiuridae, Urechidae, and Thalassematidae) and a sexually dimorphic group (Bonelliidae and Ikedidae). The sister group relationships between Urechidae and Echiuridae, as well as between Ikedidae and Bonelliidae, were supported. The analysis also supported the following relationships among genera within Thalassematidae: {Arhynchite [(Thalassema, Lissomyema) (Ochetostoma, Listriolobus, Ikedosoma, Anelassorhynchus)]}. Furthermore, I evaluated the evolutionary patterns of important taxonomic characteristics (body-wall longitudinal musculature, proboscis shape, gonostmal lip shape, and body color) and habitat shifts (water depth and substrate type), using ancestral state reconstruction analyses. The analyses showed that sexually dimorphic echiurans originated in the shallow waters and secondarily invaded the deep sea, although deep-to-shallow habitat reversal was also detected. In contrary to the previous hypothesis, sexual dimorphism with dwarf males in echiurans may have been a preadaptation to the deep-sea environment. The analyses also showed that habitat shifts from soft sediments to hard substrates occurred in Thalassematidae and Bonelliidae, respectively. A new classification of echiurans, in which Echiura comprises two superfamilies, namely Echiuroidea (with Echiuridae, Urechidae, and

  1. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of spoon worms (Echiura, Annelida): Implications for morphological evolution, the origin of dwarf males, and habitat shifts.

    PubMed

    Goto, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Echiurans (spoon worms) are derived annelids that have secondarily lost segmentation. Recently, two molecular phylogenetic studies were performed to resolve the interfamily relationship of echiurans. However, the tree topologies were incongruent and taxon sampling was limited in both the studies. Thus, the phylogenetic relationships within echiurans remain contentious. In this study, I reevaluated the molecular phylogeny of echiurans, using three nuclear (18S, 28S, and H3) and two mitochondrial (16S and COI) genes of 49 echiuran species belonging to 17-19 genera and five families. Results showed that echiurans form the following two major clades: a sexually monomorphic group (Echiuridae, Urechidae, and Thalassematidae) and a sexually dimorphic group (Bonelliidae and Ikedidae). The sister group relationships between Urechidae and Echiuridae, as well as between Ikedidae and Bonelliidae, were supported. The analysis also supported the following relationships among genera within Thalassematidae: {Arhynchite [(Thalassema, Lissomyema) (Ochetostoma, Listriolobus, Ikedosoma, Anelassorhynchus)]}. Furthermore, I evaluated the evolutionary patterns of important taxonomic characteristics (body-wall longitudinal musculature, proboscis shape, gonostmal lip shape, and body color) and habitat shifts (water depth and substrate type), using ancestral state reconstruction analyses. The analyses showed that sexually dimorphic echiurans originated in the shallow waters and secondarily invaded the deep sea, although deep-to-shallow habitat reversal was also detected. In contrary to the previous hypothesis, sexual dimorphism with dwarf males in echiurans may have been a preadaptation to the deep-sea environment. The analyses also showed that habitat shifts from soft sediments to hard substrates occurred in Thalassematidae and Bonelliidae, respectively. A new classification of echiurans, in which Echiura comprises two superfamilies, namely Echiuroidea (with Echiuridae, Urechidae, and

  2. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  3. Sex ratios of Dirofilaria immitis in naturally infected dogs show female bias at low worm intensities.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Schukken, Ynte; Greiner, Ellis

    2012-12-01

    Sex ratios in invertebrates commonly deviate from parity (1:1). Various genetic and epigenetic factors distort sex ratios to favor males or females. We examined sex ratios in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworms) obtained from naturally-infected dogs. Dirofilaria from 84 naturally-infected pound-source dogs were extracted at necropsy, counted and sexed. Dogs had a median worm intensity of 15 filariae. Overall, sex ratios equaled 1. However, at low worm intensities, dogs were more likely to have female than male worms. Of eight unisex infections, seven were all-female (range 1-11 worms), while only one dog had a single male worm. Similarly, in mixed-sex infection at worm intensities<20 worms, dogs were more likely to have more female worms than male worms. Our results suggest that sex disequilibrium exists in D. immitis at lower worm intensities, but disappears with higher worm intensities. Reasons for this disequilibrium are unknown, but presumably confer a species survival advantage.

  4. Adult Mansonella perstans in the abdominal cavity in nine Africans.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K; Neafie, R C; Lanoie, L; Connor, D H

    1987-11-01

    Adult Mansonella perstans infected the abdominal cavity of nine patients seen at Karawa Hospital in the Ubangi territory of Zaire. In four patients the worms were removed at laparotomy, and in the other five they were removed at autopsy. Twelve adult worms were identified in the nine patients. None of the worms caused symptoms or contributed to the patient's death. Worms were in the hernial sac in three patients, and one each was in connective tissue beside a reactive mesenteric lymph node, in peripancreatic connective tissue, in perirenal connective tissue, in hepatic portal connective tissue, on the serosal surface of the small intestine, and in connective tissue adjacent to rectum. The diameter of male worms was 45 microns to 60 microns and of female worms, 80 microns to 125 microns. One female worm was removed intact. It was 6 cm long and had a bifurcated tail characteristic of M. perstans. PMID:3688309

  5. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  6. Reproductive toxicity of DDT in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ben Rhouma, K; Tébourbi, O; Krichah, R; Sakly, M

    2001-08-01

    The reproductive toxicity of DDT was investigated in adult male rats exposed to 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.wt) day(-1) for 10 successive days. Compared with control animals, administration of DDT led to a dose-dependent reduction of testicular weight and the number as well as the percentage of motile spermatozoa in the epididymis. Testicular histological observations revealed also a marked loss of gametes in the lumen of seminiferous tubules. In DDT-treated rats, the seminal vesicles weights dropped significantly, resulting from a decrease of testosterone production by testes, whereas serum LH and FSH increased after pesticide exposure. This increase of gonadotrophin levels may be related to an impairment of the negative feedback exerted by the steroid on the hypothalamic--pituitary axis. It is concluded that DDT induced adverse effects on male rat fertility by acting directly on the testes and altering the neuroendocrine function.

  7. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Moradi, Hemen; Zarei, Sadegh; Asadi, Soheila; Salehzadeh, Aref; Ghafourikhosroshahi, Abolfazl; Mortazavi, Motahareh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) on adult male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups of six animals each were used for this study. For ten days, Groups one to four continuously received 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg nZnO, respectively. Group five served as the control group. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and histopathological study of the liver and renal tissue, sperm analysis, serum oxidative stress parameters and some liver enzymes were done. The results of this study showed that nZnO at concentration more than 50 mg/kg lead to significant changes in liver enzymes, oxidative stress, liver and renal tissue and sperm quality and quantity. In conclusion, the toxicity of nZnO is more significant when the concentration is increased; however, the use of low doses requires further investigation.

  8. Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology.

    PubMed

    Songsri, Jiraporn; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Sripan, Panupan

    2016-02-01

    Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group. PMID:26951978

  9. Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Songsri, Jiraporn; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Sripan, Panupan

    2016-01-01

    Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group. PMID:26951978

  10. In vitro pairing of Echinostoma revolutum (trematoda) metacercariae and adults, and characterization of worm products involved in chemoattraction.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Tancer, R B; Fleming, S J

    1980-12-01

    In vitro pairing studies were done on chemically excysted metacercariae and on adults of Echinostoma revolutum maintained in vitro in agar-Locke's petri dish cultures at 39 +/- 1 C for up to 24 hr. Whereas newly excysted metacercariae did not pair, both immature and mature adults showed significant pairing. Adult echinostomes confined in dialysis sacs emitted excretory-secretory (EC) products which significantly attracted single echinostome adults in vitro. Only the lipophilic fraction of ES products was found to elicit attraction. Preparative TLC analysis of adult echinostomes produced three major bands as follows: I (phospholipids); II (free sterols); and III (free fatty acids + triglycerides). When tested in vitro, only the free sterol fraction significantly attracted single adult echinostomes. TLC and GLC analyses of free sterols of E. revolutum have indicated that cholesterol is the major free sterol. PMID:7218094

  11. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    PubMed Central

    Ukoha, Ukoha Ukoha; Udemezue, Onochie Okwudili; Oranusi, Chidi Kingsley; Asomugha, Azuoma Lasbrey; Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Nzeukwu, Lynda Chinenye

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF), nasofacial, nasomental (NM) and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%), a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°), a projected nose (NM=38.68°) and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°). Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face. PMID:23661886

  12. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  13. Guinea worm in southern Ghana: its epidemiology and impact on agricultural productivity.

    PubMed

    Belcher, D W; Wurapa, F K; Ward, W B; Lourie, I M

    1975-03-01

    In southern Ghana guinea worm disease was found to occur almost exclusively in villages dependent upon pond water during the dry season. The recent occurrence of guinea worm for the first time in many villages in the survey area suggests that the disease is spreading. The risk of increasing disease in the Accra plains is serious, because almost half of the 159 villages surveyed use pond water, and residents frequently travel to endemic areas. In this study adult male farmers were at greatest risk of becoming infected. The average work loss in untreated adults was more than 5 weeks. Because guinea worm disease is seasonal, conciding with peak agricultural activities, and few alternative labor sources are available for the incapacitated farmer, a marked reduction in agricultural output occurs. Additional research is needed to guide health education programs, to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical control of cyclops in ponds, and to develop low-cost improved rural water supplies.

  14. Cysteamine reduces serum gonadotropin concentrations in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Badger, T M; Sagar, S M; Millard, W J; Martin, J B; Rosenblum, P

    1982-01-18

    We have examined the effects of cysteamine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of the adult male rat. A single subcutaneous injection of cysteamine (300 mg/kg) reduces significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05 serum concentrations of LH, FSH and T. Cysteamine blocked LH secretion induced by castration and administration of naloxone and LHRH. Neither acute nor chronic treatment (7 days) altered the hypothalamic LHRH content. These results suggest that cysteamine acts to reduce pituitary responsiveness to LHRH, resulting in lower mean serum gonadotropin and testosterone concentrations. It is possible, however, that cysteamine acts also at the hypothalamus to reduce LHRH secretion and/or at the testes to reduce testosterone release.

  15. Development of Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice analyzed by bright field and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Biolchini, Carla de Lamare; Neves, Renata Heisler; Hulstijn, Maarten; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2006-09-01

    The blood flukes of mammals (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) are among trematodes unique whose adult worms have separated sexes which are dissimilar in appearance. The developmental features, growth and organogenesis of Schistosoma mansoni were studied in Swiss Webster mice by a digital system for image analysis and confocal microscopy. Data so far obtained showed two phases with significative morphological changes at 3-4 weeks post-infection, and a gradual similar development onwards in the reproductive system and tegument. Our male-dependent phase demonstrated that mating occurs before sexual maturing. At week three, the majority of male worms (59%) had formed the gynaecophoric canal although testicular lobes and tegumental tubercles were absent. By this time, 33% females had an incipient ovary (without cellular differentiation). At week four, 77.2% males presented testicular lobes with few germinative cells while 26% had developing tegumental tubercles. The immature ovary was observed in 69% females. Suckers followed different pattern of growth between male and females. The size of oral and ventral suckers from six-week-old male worms grew abruptly (3.0 fold) more than that of three-week-old. In female worms, maximum growth was attained at week four, reducing in size thereafter. From sixth week onwards, all specimens showed the fully developed reproductive system. Probably, these features are morphological traits which schistosome has experienced from hermaphrodite to dioecy.

  16. Gummy Worm Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Anshutz, Ramona J.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science activity using gummy worms to help primary students develop the mathematical skills of measurement concepts, units of measure, estimation, and graphing needed for science learning. Groups of two begin by estimating the number of gummy worms in their package and identifying the colors they expect to find. Individual worms are…

  17. Intracranial Capillary Hemangioma in the Posterior Fossa of an Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial capillary hemangioma (ICH) is a rare entity, with approximately 24 reported cases in the literature. There are only three reported cases of ICH in an adult male. In this case report, we describe the fourth documented case of ICH in an adult male and, to the best of our knowledge, the first ever documented case of ICH in the posterior fossa of an adult male. We also discuss its imaging appearance and differential diagnosis. PMID:27747124

  18. The Father Christmas worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.

  19. Occlusal status in Asian male adults: prevalence and ethnic variation.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jen; Sandham, Andrew; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 17-22 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1% (n = 258), Malay 17.7% (n = 60), and Indian 6.2% (n = 21). British Standard Institute (BSI) and Angle's classification were used to determine incisor and molar relationships, respectively. Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test was performed to compare the occlusal traits between ethnic groups. The distribution of incisor relationships of the total sample consisted of Class I = 48.1%, Class II/1 = 26.3%, Class II/2 = 3.2%, and Class III = 22.4%. Right Angle's molar relationships were 49.9%, 24.5%, and 24.2% whereas left Angle's molar relationships were 53.1%, 25.1%, and 21.2% for Class I, II, and III, respectively. Comparison between ethnic groups found that Indian subjects were more likely to have Class II/1 malocclusions and clinically missing permanent teeth (P < .05). The study found that the overall prevalence of malocclusion (BSI) was Class I, Class II/1, Class III, and Class II/2 in descending order of proportions. Angle's Class I molar was most prevalent followed by Class II and Class III relations. A significant difference in occlusal status between the ethnic groups was found regarding incisor relationship and missing permanent teeth (P < .05).

  20. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    PubMed

    Labocha, Marta K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i) automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii) a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii) flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him) phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86) showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248.

  1. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-01

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  2. Position of the mandibular foramen in adult male Tanzania mandibles.

    PubMed

    Russa, Afadhali D; Fabian, Flora M

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia is common in various dental operations. Anatomical variations of the location of the inferior alveolar nerve as it enters the mandibular foramen have been implicated as a main cause of these anesthesia failures. The aim of this work was to determine the location of the mandibular foramen in relation to the occlusal plane at the level of mandibular first molar and second premolar--often used as landmarks during the blocking procedure--and to different landmarks on the ramus of the mandible. The study was performed using mandibles from adult black male Tanzanians aged 30-45 years. Measurements were accomplished using two-digit electronic Vernier calipers. The distances were determined from the center of the mandibular foramen to the different reference points. The mandibular foramen was above the occlusal plane at the M1 and PM2 reference points in all the mandibles studied. It was also located about 20 mm and 12 mm from the anterior and posterior borders of the ramus respectively. There was no significant difference between the left and right side in any of the measurements. These results indicate that during anesthetic or other clinical procedures, the clinician can precisely determine the position of neurovascular bundle of the inferior alveolar nerve above the occlusal plane. PMID:26749676

  3. GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

  4. Arterial Compliance and Autonomic Functions in Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Yogesh; Gupta, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is known to augment sympathetic activity and may lead to increased arterial stiffness. Several studies have reported association of increased sympathetic activity and arterial stiffness to cardiovascular risks among smokers. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) of peripheral arteries, instead of aorta can be used as a non-invasive indicator of arterial stiffness. Aim To measure non-invasively, the autonomic functions and peripheral arterial stiffness in smokers, and to find out whether the aforementioned factors are modified by the level of physical activity in these smokers. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, HIMS, Dehradun, over a period of 12 months (2013-2014) on 100 adult males (20-40 years); 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers. The parameters analysed include relevant anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), sustained Hand Grip Test (HGT) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) domains. Data interpretation and analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Comparison of the above mentioned parameters amongst groups was done with unpaired t-test. The relationship of pack-years & physical activity with vascular functions was assessed by Pearson’s correlation. Interaction of various grades of smoking and physical activity with Cardiovascular System (CVS) parameters was assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results Smokers had higher values of PWV (5.7±0.5m/s) as compared to non-smokers (4.8±0.4m/s) (p<0.001). ΔDBP during HGT was lower (7±3.18mmHg) among smokers as compared to non-smokers (19.4±3.5mmHg) (p<0.001). Smoking (pack-years) was positively related to PWV (r= .03) but showed a weak negative relationship with change in Diastolic Blood Pressure (ΔDBP) (r= -0.084, p=0.56) showing that, more the frequency of smoking, the more was arterial stiffening and the lesser was the sympathetic response to the HGT. The smokers had significantly higher sympathetic activity; Low

  5. Worm-stars and half-worms: Novel dangers and novel defense.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Clark, Laura C; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, we reported the isolation and surprising effects of two new bacterial pathogens for Caenorhabditis and related nematodes. These two pathogens belong to the genus Leucobacter and were discovered co-infecting a wild isolate of Caenorhabditis that had been collected in Cape Verde. The interactions of these bacteria with C. elegans revealed both unusual mechanisms of pathogenic attack, and an unexpected defense mechanism on the part of the worm. One pathogen, known as Verde1, is able to trap swimming nematodes by sticking their tails together, resulting in the formation of "worm-star" aggregates, within which worms are killed and degraded. Trapped larval worms, but not adults, can sometimes escape by undergoing whole-body autotomy into half-worms. The other pathogen, Verde2, kills worms by a different mechanism associated with rectal infection. Many C. elegans mutants with alterations in surface glycosylation are resistant to Verde2 infection, but hypersensitive to Verde1, being rapidly killed without worm-star formation. Conversely, surface infection of wild-type worms with Verde1 is mildly protective against Verde2. Thus, there are trade-offs in susceptibility to the two bacteria. The Leucobacter pathogens reveal novel nematode biology and provide powerful tools for exploring nematode surface properties and bacterial susceptibility. PMID:25254146

  6. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates the accumulation of translatable yolk polypeptide gene transcript in adult male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shirk, P D; Minoo, P; Postlethwait, J H

    1983-01-01

    Yolk polypeptide (YP) synthesis is hormonally stimulated during maturation of adult female Drosophila melanogaster. Synthesis of the three YPs is sex specific and occurs in fat body cells and follicle cells of adult females. However, males have been shown to produce YPs when treated with the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). By using a cell-free translation system as an assay for YP mRNA, we found that 20-HE also causes the accumulation of translatable YP message in males. In addition, hybridization of cloned copies of genes for both YP1 and YP3 to total RNA from males showed that 20-HE caused the appearance of YP gene transcripts in males. Eight hours after treatment of males with 20-HE, YP gene transcript levels had increased at least 25-fold to approximately 2.7 x 10(6) copies of YP1 gene transcript per adult male fly. In normal adult females, there were 42 x 10(6) copies per fly by 24 hr. There was neither detectable YP synthesis nor translatable YP gene transcript in either normal 1- to 3-day-old males or 24-hr-old males treated with a juvenile hormone analogue. This evidence shows that 20-HE acts to regulate the levels of translatable YP mRNA in male Drosophila.

  7. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  8. Body Composition and Anthropometric Correlates of Isokinetic Leg Extension Strength of Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Thorland, William G.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of body size and composition as determinants of differences in isokinetic leg extensor strength in young adult males performing at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  9. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  10. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  11. Long-Range Socioeconomic and Marital Consequences of Adolescent Marriage in Three Cohorts of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied long-term consequences of adolescent marriage in three age cohorts of males. Found that Black and White males who married as adolescents completed less education, earned less, held lower-status occupations, and experienced more marital disruption than did peers who married as adults. (Author/NB)

  12. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  13. The African eye worm: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sadia; Fisher, Melanie; Juckett, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Loiasis, caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa, is often asymptomatic but frequently manifests as episodic angioedema and periocular migration of adult worms. Hence also known as the eye worm.(1) It is rarely encountered in the United States among travelers and immigrants. This report describes a case of loiasis in a Cameroonian student seen at a US university clinic. PMID:18217870

  14. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  15. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  16. Celebrate Worm Week!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Betty; Garrett, Sandra; Trammell, Laura Z.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on an extended learning experience with worms as the main topic in which students collect and organize information and choose an experimental question. Based on the constructivist theory of learning. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  17. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Croft, James L.; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Methods Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Results Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Conclusions Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies. PMID:26083689

  18. Impact of guinea worm disease on children in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ilegbodu, V A; Kale, O O; Wise, R A; Christensen, B L; Steele, J H; Chambers, L A

    1986-09-01

    School attendance records of all primary schools in a guinea worm-endemic village in southwestern Nigeria were examined to determine the cause of missed school days and school drop-outs. At the time of the survey, 1,495 pupils (768 boys and 727 girls were registered in the 4 primary schools in the village, of which 21% of the pupils were infected with guinea worm disease (GWD). Female pupils had a higher infection rate than their male counterparts. Guinea worm-infected pupils missed up to 25% of school year days compared to a non-guinea worm-infected absence of 2.5%. At the height of guinea worm season in the study area, guinea worm-related absences contributed virtually all of the absenteeism recorded in the schools. Implications of the findings within the context of educational attainment of the pupils are discussed.

  19. Triorchidism: genetic and imaging evaluation in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Belba, Arben; Riversi, Valentina; Mari, Francesca; Cellesi, Eleonora; Ponchietti, Roberto

    2014-06-30

    We report the results of imaging and cytogenetic studies in a case of triorchidism in a 54 years old male without any associated anomaly. A scrotal ultrasonography revealed the presence of two testes within the left hemiscrotum with complete septation and echotexture and vascular flow pattern similar to the vascular flow of the normal right testis. There was no focal abnormal echogenicity suggesting malignancy. Scrotal MRI confirmed two soft-tissue structures in the left hemiscrotum with normal signal intensity at T1w and T2w images. Both testes had a tunica albuginea with low-signal intensity. Cytogenetic analysis resulted in normal male karyotype 46XY. Array-CGH analysis detected the presence of two interstitial rearrangements: a ~120 Kb deletion of chromosome 1 and a ~140 Kb deletion of chromosome 16. Currently there are little details on the functions of both genes.

  20. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Julie L; Moeller, Morten E; Jørgensen, Anne F; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Bordoy, Anna M; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

  1. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Julie L; Moeller, Morten E; Jørgensen, Anne F; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Bordoy, Anna M; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  2. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"…

  3. Kin recognition and cannibalistic behaviours by adult male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Warren W.; Mirza, Reehan S.; Pyle, Greg G.

    2008-03-01

    Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested. In this study, adult male fathead minnows were tested using behavioural assays, with egg cannibalism as an endpoint, to determine whether adult males could discriminate between related and unrelated embryos. Egg cannibalism was highest when adult male fathead minnows were presented with unrelated eggs and lowest when presented with eggs fertilized by the test subject (related eggs). The degree of cannibalism was also a function of breeding status. Unrelated males in breeding condition showed an intermediate response between the low cannibalism demonstrated by related males and the high cannibalism demonstrated by unrelated males in a nonbreeding condition. These results suggest that although male fathead minnows can discriminate between unrelated and related embryos, at least some component of parental investment is a simple function of breeding status.

  4. Do adult eastern bluebird Sialia sialis males recognize juvenile-specific traits?

    PubMed Central

    LIGON, RUSSELL A.; HILL, GEOFFREY E.

    2009-01-01

    Juveniles of many avian species possess spotted or mottled plumage that is distinct from the plumage of adults. Such plumage has typically been assumed to aid in camouflaging vulnerable immature birds. Here, we propose that spotty plumage signals juvenile status, thereby decreasing aggression from territorial adults. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the aggressive responses of adult eastern bluebird males to different combinations of simultaneously presented taxidermic mounts. We found that territorial males attacked adult models significantly more than juvenile models, and that they attacked adult models with orange breasts (typical of adults) more frequently than they attacked adult models with spotty breasts (typical of juveniles). We found no difference in attack rates when models with white breasts (a novel trait) were presented with models possessing spotty breasts. These observations indicate that breast colour is a cue used by territorial adults when identifying conspecific intruders, but that adults do not recognize juvenile-specific plumage as such. Adults respond aggressively only to orange-breasted intruders. PMID:20161226

  5. Psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult males

    PubMed Central

    Aydogmus, Yasin; Semiz, Murat; Er, Okan; Bas, Okan; Atay, Irfan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult men, and analyze these changes following circumcision. Methods: We included 37 adults who applied to our clinic for circumcision and who did not have any psychiatric or urologic disorders and age-matched 30 controls in our study. Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were applied to the study group twice, once before and once three months after circumcision, and only once in the control group. Also, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was noted and premature ejaculation (PE) evaluation was done. Intra- and intergroup comparisons were performed. Results: The two groups were similar with regard to demographic data. Comparison of preoperative BCS and LSAS scores with the scores of the control group showed significant differences (p=0.003, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). However, postoperative scores were similar to the scores obtained in the control group (p=0.768, p>0.05, and p>0.05, respectively). Scores of all scales showed significant improvements postoperatively. Also, PEDT scores and IELT changes before and after circumcision were significant in the study group, but not when compared to the control group. Conclusions: Our results indicated that social anxiety and anxiety levels decreased after circumcision in adult Turkish men, and their body gratification increased. We found that not being circumcised might negatively affect individuals in adulthood when it comes to body image and sexual satisfaction, however, both improve after circumcision. PMID:27790295

  6. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    PubMed

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  7. Adult partner preference and sexual behavior of male rats affected by perinatal endocrine manipulations.

    PubMed

    Brand, T; Kroonen, J; Mos, J; Slob, A K

    1991-09-01

    Intact adult male rats, in which aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was prevented pre- and/or neonatally by ATD (1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione), were repeatedly tested for partner preference behavior (choice: estrous female vs active male). In consecutive tests increasing preference scores for the female were found. Neonatal ATD males showed significantly lower preference scores for an estrous female than controls or prenatal ATD males. Prenatal ATD caused preference scores only slightly lower than those of controls. Ejaculation frequencies were markedly reduced or even absent in neonatal ATD males. Prenatal ATD treatment only had no or a moderately lowering effect on ejaculation frequency. Lordosis behavior of adult intact males was more facilitated following neonatal ATD treatment than following prenatal ATD treatment. In a number of tests the serotonergic drug 8-OH-DPAT was injected prior to testing for sexual partner preference and copulatory behavior. DPAT significantly increased preference for an estrous female in all groups of males when interaction was possible, but had no effect when sexual interaction was prevented by wire mesh. DPAT was able to increase the number of ejaculators in nonejaculating groups (i.e., perinatally ATD-treated males). "Premature ejaculations," i.e., ejaculations with the first intromission, were frequently observed with DPAT treatment in all groups of males. In conclusion, the availability of neonatal estrogen (derived from testosterone) organizes, at least partially, the preference for an estrous female normally shown by adult male rats. The lack of neonatal estrogen causes males to be less masculinized, both in partner preference behavior and ejaculatory behavior, and less defeminized in lordosis behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  9. Guinea worm infection of urinary bladder manifesting as obstructive uropathy in rural Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Birare, Shivaji D; Kamble, M H; Lanjewar, D N; Parija, S C; Girji, D D; Kulkarni, P V; Gupta, Rashmi S; Abdul Jabbar, A M

    2005-10-01

    Guinea worm or Dracunculus medinensis is a well-documented helminthic infestation in many areas of Asia. In this report, we describe a rare case of guinea worm infestation in a 25-year-old woman who had developed symptoms of obstructive uropathy, in whom fragments of guinea worm were removed after urethral catheterization. To the best of our knowledge, adult guinea worm occurring in the urinary bladder has not been previously described.

  10. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention. PMID:19704393

  11. Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms positively modulate soluble egg antigen-induced inflammatory hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Stereological analysis and immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and chemokines.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, W.; Bogers, J.; Deelder, A.; Wéry, M.; Van Marck, E.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronized liver granulomas were induced by injecting Sepharose beads to which SEA soluble egg antigen (SEA) or the concanavalin A binding fraction of SEA had been coupled into a mesenteric vein in naive, single-sex (35 days) and bisexually (28 days) Schistosoma mansoni-infected and Plasmodium berghei-immunized mice. Stereological analysis revealed that peak granuloma formation was already reached 8 days after injection in single-sex infected mice compared with 16 days in naive animals. No difference in granuloma formation between naive and P. berghei-immunized animals and between unisexually and bisexually S. mansoni-infected mice was observed. This suggests that the positive immunomodulatory effect on the granulomogenesis is worm specific and not likely to be due to arousal of the immune system by unrelated factors, nor is it influenced by the gender or degree of maturation of female worms. At all stages in time, the concanavalin A binding-fraction-induced granulomas reached only 65 to 70% of the volume of SEA-induced granulomas. Immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins around deposited heads revealed that fibronectin was the dominant extracellular matrix protein and that also type I and IV collagen and laminin were deposited. Temporal analysis of the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-6 was performed. Morphological evidence is presented for the role of adhesion molecules in the initiation and maintenance of hepatic granuloma formation. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was expressed in the granuloma and in hepatic artery branches. From these data, it is concluded that adult S. mansoni worms positively modulate schistosomal hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Adhesion molecules and chemokines play important roles in schistosomal granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9176396

  12. Effect of naloxone on serum testosterone in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, N; Pedroza, D; Calzada, L; Salazar, L; Fuentes, V

    1996-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that endogenous opioids may play an important role in the hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone. Administration of high doses of naloxone, an opiate antagonist, produces an increase in plasma concentration of LH. Naltrexone administration to healthy males produces an increase in both immunoactive and bioactive LH. The objective of the present work was to assess the effect of low doses of naloxone during 10 consecutive days on testosterone serum levels in rabbit. Three groups of five rabbits were injected with naloxone or saline. Naloxone was tested at 0.1 and 0.01 mg/kg day-1. Blood samples were taken at 90 min and 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days after starting naloxone administration. Plasma testosterone (T) levels were measured by RIA. T levels increased progressively through the study in the experimental groups. The differences were significant after days 4 and 7 for 0.01-mg/kg and 0.1-mg/kg doses, respectively. T levels in both groups peaked at day 10 and decreased at day 14 (4 days after treatment). PMID:8827343

  13. Bullous Skin Lesions in an Adult Male: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Gaurav; Siv, Jenny; Ware, Avis E.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) Symptoms: Bullous hemorrhagic lesions • elevated liver enzymes Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is an IgA small-vessel vasculitis that is primarily a disease of childhood. Its presentation in adulthood is rare and has a more severe disease course. We present a case with an atypical presentation of this disease that was a diagnostic challenge for multiple providers. Case Report: A 42-year-old man noticed bullous lesions over his ankles that spread to his entire legs over a few weeks. They later became necrotic and ulcerated areas. His primary care physician and 2 dermatologists could not reach a definitive diagnosis. He then presented to our hospital with new abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and a new elevation in liver enzymes. A biopsy of his skin lesions led to the diagnosis of HSP. Conclusions: We discuss this highly unusual initial presentation with bullous skin lesions and liver enzyme abnormalities and explore the medical literature to understand its pathogenesis. Clinicians need to be aware of this rare presentation to avoid a delay in diagnosis and management. PMID:25858335

  14. A rare case of secretory breast carcinoma in a male adult with axillary lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinhua; Jiang, Li; Gan, Yongli; Wu, Weizhu

    2015-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is a rare tumor originally described in children but occurring equally in adult population, especially in women. This unusual subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases even death. So far, merely ten cases of secretory breast carcinoma with metastatic axillary lymph node in male were reported. Here, we describe the eleventh case, a 24-years-old male who presented with a painless mass in the right breast was diagnosed to be "secretary breast carcinoma", and subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.

  15. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  16. Testosterone and Adult Male Bone: Actions Independent of 5α-Reductase and Aromatase.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2015-10-01

    Androgens and estrogens influence skeletal development and maintenance in males. However, the relative contributions of the circulating sex steroid hormones that originate from testicular/adrenal secretion versus those produced locally in bone via intracrine action require further elucidation. Our novel hypothesis is that testosterone exerts direct protective effects on the adult male skeleton independently of the actions of 5α-reductase or aromatase.

  17. Concept, Characteristics and Defending Mechanism of Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Jiaqing; Xiao, Bin; Wei, Guiyi

    Worms are a common phenomenon in today's Internet and cause tens of billions of dollars in damages to businesses around the world each year. This article first presents various concepts related to worms, and then classifies the existing worms into four types- Internet worms, P2P worms, email worms and IM (Instant Messaging) worms, based on the space in which a worm finds a victim target. The Internet worm is the focus of this article. We identify the characteristics of Internet worms in terms of their target finding strategy, propagation method and anti-detection capability. Then, we explore state-of-the-art worm detection and worm containment schemes. This article also briefly presents the characteristics, defense methods and related research work of P2P worms, email worms and IM worms. Nowadays, defense against worms remains largely an open problem. In the end of this article, we outline some future directions on the worm research.

  18. Welcome to Worm Central

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Lisa; Rydant, A. L.; Jobin, Raymond A.; Sterling, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a vermicomposting program at Epping Elementary School in New Hampshire. The "Feed It to the Worms: A Vermicomposting Geographic Curriculum," developed by the New Hampshire Geographic Alliance and led by fourth grade teacher, Lisa Madison, fits perfectly into the school's ongoing Artist-in-Residence program, where students…

  19. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  20. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  1. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  2. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown.

  3. Postembryonic development of the bone-eating worm Osedax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Norio; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax exclusively inhabit sunken vertebrate bones on the seafloor. The unique lifestyle and morphology of Osedax spp. have received much scientific attention, but the whole process of their development has not been observed. We herein report the postembryonic development and settlement of Osedax japonicus Fujikura et al. (Zool Sci 23:733-740, 2006). Fertilised eggs were spawned into the mucus of a female, and the larvae swam out from the mucus at the trochophore stage. Larvae survived for 10 days under laboratory conditions. The larvae settled on bones, elongated their bodies and crawled around on the bones. Then they secreted mucus to create a tube and the palps started to develop. The palps of O. japonicus arose from the prostomium, whereas the anterior appendages of other siboglinids arose from the peristomium. The recruitment of dwarf males was induced by rearing larvae with adult females. Females started to spawn eggs 6 weeks after settlement.

  4. The role of testicular hormones and luteinizing hormone in spatial memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Sarah E A; Alla, Juliet; Wheat, Elizabeth; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce; Thornton, Janice E

    2012-04-01

    Attempts to determine the influence of testicular hormones on learning and memory in males have yielded contradictory results. The present studies examined whether testicular hormones are important for maximal levels of spatial memory in young adult male rats. To minimize any effect of stress, we used the Object Location Task which is a spatial working memory task that does not involve food or water deprivation or aversive stimuli for motivation. In Experiment 1 sham gonadectomized male rats demonstrated robust spatial memory, but gonadectomized males showed diminished spatial memory. In Experiment 2 subcutaneous testosterone (T) capsules restored spatial memory performance in gonadectomized male rats, while rats with blank capsules demonstrated compromised spatial memory. In Experiment 3, gonadectomized male rats implanted with blank capsules again showed compromised spatial memory, while those with T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol (E) capsules demonstrated robust spatial memory, indicating that T's effects may be mediated by its conversion to E or to DHT. Gonadectomized male rats injected with Antide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist which lowers luteinizing hormone levels, also demonstrated spatial memory, comparable to that shown by T-, E-, or DHT-treated males. These data indicate that testicular androgens are important for maximal levels of spatial working memory in male rats, that testosterone may be converted to E and/or DHT to exert its effects, and that some of the effects of these steroid hormones may occur via negative feedback effects on LH.

  5. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  6. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  7. A Handbook for a Small Halfway House for the Male Adolescent-Adult Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Russell W.; Melanphy, Robert F.

    Presented are guidelines on planning and establishing a small, residential halfway house for the male adolescent/adult retardate in which mental health and use of the halfway house to replace institutionalization of selected retardates are emphasized. The halfway house is explained to be planned on premises of community participation and program…

  8. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  10. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  11. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  12. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  13. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  14. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  15. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  16. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  17. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  18. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  19. Serious Psychological Distress and Substance Use among Young Adult Males. The NSDUH Report. Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions to assess serious psychological distress (SPD) and substance use. SPD is an overall indicator of nonspecific psychological distress. This report examines serious psychological distress and substance use among young adult males aged 18 to 25, a relatively understudied group with…

  20. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  1. Are Males and Females Sexually Abused as Children Socially Anxious Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N.

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…

  2. WormBase 2007

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Anthony; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Bastiani, Carol; Canaran, Payan; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Fernandes, Jolene; Fiedler, Tristan J.; Han, Michael; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; McKay, Sheldon; Müller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Ozersky, Philip; Petcherski, Andrei; Schindelman, Gary; Schwarz, Erich M.; Spooner, Will; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Stein, Lincoln D.; Spieth, John; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is the major publicly available database of information about Caenorhabditis elegans, an important system for basic biological and biomedical research. Derived from the initial ACeDB database of C. elegans genetic and sequence information, WormBase now includes the genomic, anatomical and functional information about C. elegans, other Caenorhabditis species and other nematodes. As such, it is a crucial resource not only for C. elegans biologists but the larger biomedical and bioinformatics communities. Coverage of core areas of C. elegans biology will allow the biomedical community to make full use of the results of intensive molecular genetic analysis and functional genomic studies of this organism. Improved search and display tools, wider cross-species comparisons and extended ontologies are some of the features that will help scientists extend their research and take advantage of other nematode species genome sequences. PMID:17991679

  3. Description of the larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, with remarks on the adult male genital morphology (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxytelinae).

    PubMed

    Makranczy, György; Webster, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    The previously unknown larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, is described and illustrated. Adult male terminalia and genitalia are illustrated with line drawings. Adults of this species exhibit little difference in size or external morphology between males and females. PMID:27110170

  4. Description of the larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, with remarks on the adult male genital morphology (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxytelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Makranczy, György; Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The previously unknown larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, is described and illustrated. Adult male terminalia and genitalia are illustrated with line drawings. Adults of this species exhibit little difference in size or external morphology between males and females. PMID:27110170

  5. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  6. Bone mineral mass in adult lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivorous males.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A G; Sanchez, T V; Chaffee, F L; Mayor, G H; Mickelsen, O

    1983-03-01

    Past studies indicate postmenopausal women who eat meat may experience greater bone mineral loss than lacto-ovo-vegetarian women. The present study extends those findings by comparing bone mineral in adult lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivorous males. Bone mineral mass was determined by direct photon absorptiometry in 320 lacto-ovo-vegetarian and 320 omnivorous males 20 to 79 yr old. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians were Seventh-day Adventists committed to their diet for at least 20 yr. Measurements were made at a cortical site along the radius. No statistical differences were identified between bone mineral mass in the lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivorous males in any decade examined. When contrasted against significant differences between bone mineral mass in postmenopausal omnivores and lacto-ovo-vegetarians, the data presented here may be interpreted as indicating that some factor associated with meat consumption is increasing bone mineral losses in postmenopausal females while having no observable effect in males.

  7. Guinea worm disease outcomes in Ghana: determinants of broken worms.

    PubMed

    Glenshaw, Mary T; Roy, Sharon; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Downs, Philip; Williamson, John; Eberhard, Mark

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, Ghana ranked second in Guinea worm disease (GWD) incidence and reported a previously undocumented 20% prevalence of worm breakage. A prospective study was conducted in 2007 to validate and describe worm breakage and determinants. Among 221 patients with known outcomes, the worm breakage rate observed was 46%. After controlling for demographics, worm and wound presentation, and treatment course and provision, worm breakage was associated with narrow-diameter worms (< 2 mm) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-7.53). Protective factors against worm breakage included antibiotic ointment use (AOR 0.31; 95% CI = 0.14-0.70), bandage protocol compliance (AOR: 0.38; 95% CI = 0.16-0.89), intact bandages (AOR 0.27; 95% CI = 0.09-0.82), and bloody compared with dry wounds (AOR 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.7). The high worm breakage rate observed warrants improvement in case management and patient care. Adherence to established treatment protocols should be facilitated through improved provider training and supervision to reduce the disabling consequences of broken worms.

  8. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  9. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart.

  10. Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael B.; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors—lying on the substrate and day time sleeping—that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7–14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

  11. Seasonality of adult male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): androgens and behavior in a confined troop.

    PubMed

    Rostal, D C; Glick, B B; Eaton, G G; Resko, J A

    1986-12-01

    Seasonal variations in levels of serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), reproductive behavior, and social behavior were investigated in 12 adult males (5 to 20+ years of age) of the Oregon troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Blood samples were collected at 2- to 4-month intervals, and behaviors were monitored twice weekly over a 15-month period. Significant seasonal variations in levels of testosterone and DHT, and in frequencies of mount series, ejaculations, number of female partners, displays, courtship, and aggression were observed. Seasonal variations in reproductive and social behaviors did not correlate with seasonal variations in androgen levels because seasonal increases in these behaviors followed seasonal increases in the androgens with a 1- to 2-month delay. However, significant correlations between increased androgen levels and the onset of mating activity occur when mean monthly frequencies of mount series are shifted 1 to 2 months earlier to coincide with the rise in serum androgen levels. The frequency of adult male play and male-male mounting increased significantly when androgen levels were low. We suggest that photoperiod changes may function as a proximate cue in male Japanese macaques which induces a state of biological readiness for mating, and the behavioral consequences (i.e., mating) are then dependent upon the presence of receptive females.

  12. A Horsehair Worm, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida), Passed in a Canine Feces.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Sim, Cheolho; Chae, Joon-Seok; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Bae-Keun

    2015-12-01

    Nematomorpha, horsehair or Gordian worms, include about 300 freshwater species in 22 genera (Gordiida) and 5 marine species in 1 marine genus (Nectonema). They are parasitic in arthropods during their juvenile stage. In the present study, the used gordian worm was found in the feces of a dog (5-month old, male) in July 2014. Following the worm analysis using light and scanning electron microscopes, the morphological classification was re-evaluated with molecular analysis. The worm was determined to be a male worm having a bi-lobed tail and had male gonads in cross sections. It was identified as Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areole on the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out, and the gordiid worm was assumed to be close to the genus Gordius based on a phylogenic tree analysis.

  13. A Horsehair Worm, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida), Passed in a Canine Feces

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Sim, Cheolho; Chae, Joon-Seok; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Bae-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Nematomorpha, horsehair or Gordian worms, include about 300 freshwater species in 22 genera (Gordiida) and 5 marine species in 1 marine genus (Nectonema). They are parasitic in arthropods during their juvenile stage. In the present study, the used gordian worm was found in the feces of a dog (5-month old, male) in July 2014. Following the worm analysis using light and scanning electron microscopes, the morphological classification was re-evaluated with molecular analysis. The worm was determined to be a male worm having a bi-lobed tail and had male gonads in cross sections. It was identified as Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areole on the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out, and the gordiid worm was assumed to be close to the genus Gordius based on a phylogenic tree analysis. PMID:26797439

  14. Aripiprazole-Induced Hypoprolactinemia in an Adult Male with First-Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Propst, Alanna J; Jarvis, G Eric; Margolese, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. Compared to other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole has less metabolic side effects and is less likely to increase prolactin. Moreover, it has been shown to have a unique prolactin lowering effect. While aripiprazole has been associated with subnormal prolactin levels in children, no documented cases of hypoprolactinemia in adults exist thus far. Here we report a case of aripiprazole-induced hypoprolactinemia in an adult male with first-episode psychosis, and the possible effects of abnormally low prolactin are discussed.

  15. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-10-15

    Social proficiency requires making appropriate behavioral adaptations as a result of social experience. For example, male rodents become sexually proficient with experience as demonstrated by a reduction in ectopic (misdirected) mounts, mount-to-intromission ratio, and latency to ejaculation. We previously found that over a series of timed tests with a receptive female, male hamsters deprived of testosterone specifically during puberty (NoT@P) have overall lower levels of sexual behavior and continue to display high levels of ectopic mounts, compared with males that experienced endogenous testosterone during puberty (T@P). These results suggested that pubertal testosterone programs sexual proficiency in adulthood, but because NoT@P males engaged in less sexual behavior than T@P males in these tests, the amount of sexual experience may have been insufficient to improve sexual proficiency. To more rigorously test the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is necessary for social proficiency in adulthood, the present study compared the behavior of NoT@P and T@P males in a series of 4 trials with a 48-h interval between each trial. Sexual experience was equated by limiting each trial to 5 intromissions. Sexually-naïve males were either gonadectomized prepubertally (NoT@P) or in adulthood (T@P) and received subcutaneous testosterone capsules four weeks later. Two weeks after testosterone replacement, these groups and a group of adult gonad-intact controls began sexual behavior testing. We found that NoT@P males had more ectopic mounts/min across all four tests compared to gonad-intact and T@P males. Moreover, both gonad-intact and T@P males, but not NoT@P males, showed an increase in the number of mounts and intromissions/min between trials 1 and 3. Unexpectedly, both gonad-intact and T@P, but not NoT@P, males showed a decrease in sexual behaviors during trial 4. Thus, T@P males display multiple behavioral adaptations to sexual experience that are not observed in No

  16. The design of worm gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for designing worm gear sets to meet torque multiplication requirements. First, the fundamentals of worm gear design are discussed, covering worm gear set nomenclature, kinematics and proportions, force analysis, and stress analysis. Then, a suggested design method is discussed, explaining how to take a worm gear set application, and specify a complete worm gear set design. The discussions are limited to cylindrical worm gear sets that have a 90 deg shaft angle between the worm and the mating gear.

  17. Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex.

  18. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms

  19. Reproductive abnormalities in adult male mice following preimplantation exposures to estradiol or pesticide methoxychlor.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, Sergei Ya; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Amstislavsky, Vjacheslav S; Tibeikina, Marina A; Osipov, Kiril V; Eroschenko, Victor P

    2006-02-01

    Adult females of ICR strain of mice were bred, separated into different experimental groups, and treated as follows. On Days 2-4 of pregnancy, the mice received daily subcutaneous injections of either 0.05 ml sesame oil (vehicle) or same volume of 5.0mg of purified methoxychlor (MXC) suspended in the vehicle. Another group received a single subcutaneous injection of 1.0 microg of estradiol-17beta (E) on Day 2 of pregnancy only. Male offspring were tested at 3 and 6 months of age. At 3 months, E or MXC did not alter the weights of seminal vesicles, preputial glands, or testes, although after exposure for 30 min to a female in estrus behind a partition, testosterone levels were significantly reduced in treated males in comparison to control males exposed to the same partition test. At 6 months, the preputial glands and testes weight remained unchanged, while the seminal vesicles were significantly heavier in E- and MXC-treated males. Same partition tests again revealed that in E and MXC groups, testosterone levels remained significantly lower in comparison to control males. MXC or E exposures during preimplantation appear to induce long-term effects on the sexual development in 3 and 6 month-old-males by compromising their sexual arousal and altering seminal vesicles weights in the older group.

  20. Effect of estrogen receptor-subtype-specific ligands on fertility in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Kadam, Leena; Balasinor, N H

    2015-06-01

    Maintenance of normal male fertility relies on the process of spermatogenesis which is under complex endocrine control by mechanisms involving gonadotropin and steroid hormones. Although testosterone is the primary sex steroid in males, estrogen is locally produced in the testis and plays a very crucial role in male fertility. This is evident from presence of both the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the testis and their absence, as in the case of knockout mice models, leads to sterility. The present study was undertaken to understand individual roles of the two ERs in spermatogenesis and their direct contribution towards the maintenance of male fertility using receptor-subtype-specific ligands. Administration of ERα and β agonists to adult male rats for 60 days results in a significant decrease in fertility, mainly due to an increase in pre- and post-implantation loss and a concomitant decrease in litter size and sperm counts. Our results indicate that ERα is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin hormones, whereas both ERs are involved in regulation of prolactin and testosterone production. Histological examinations of the testis reveal that ERβ could be involved in the process of spermiation since many failed spermatids were observed in stages IX-XI following ERβ agonist treatment. Our results indicate that overactivation of estrogen signaling through either of its receptors can have detrimental effects on the fertility parameters and that the two ERs have both overlapping and distinct roles in maintenance of male fertility.

  1. Effect of estrogen receptor-subtype-specific ligands on fertility in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Kadam, Leena; Balasinor, N H

    2015-06-01

    Maintenance of normal male fertility relies on the process of spermatogenesis which is under complex endocrine control by mechanisms involving gonadotropin and steroid hormones. Although testosterone is the primary sex steroid in males, estrogen is locally produced in the testis and plays a very crucial role in male fertility. This is evident from presence of both the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the testis and their absence, as in the case of knockout mice models, leads to sterility. The present study was undertaken to understand individual roles of the two ERs in spermatogenesis and their direct contribution towards the maintenance of male fertility using receptor-subtype-specific ligands. Administration of ERα and β agonists to adult male rats for 60 days results in a significant decrease in fertility, mainly due to an increase in pre- and post-implantation loss and a concomitant decrease in litter size and sperm counts. Our results indicate that ERα is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin hormones, whereas both ERs are involved in regulation of prolactin and testosterone production. Histological examinations of the testis reveal that ERβ could be involved in the process of spermiation since many failed spermatids were observed in stages IX-XI following ERβ agonist treatment. Our results indicate that overactivation of estrogen signaling through either of its receptors can have detrimental effects on the fertility parameters and that the two ERs have both overlapping and distinct roles in maintenance of male fertility. PMID:25869617

  2. Developmental neurotoxicity of PHAHs: Endocrine-mediated and general behavioral endpoints in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Roth-Härer, Astrid; Hack, Alfons; Altmann, Lilo; Winneke, Gerhard

    2005-05-01

    During development, gonadal steroids exert effects on the nervous system which are long-lasting or organizational, in contrast to the transient activational actions in adulthood. Therefore, disturbance of neuroendocrine functions by developmental exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) is likely to affect sex-dependent behavior in adults. Our previous data revealed effects of maternal PCB exposure on sexual differentiation of the brain and subsequent sweet preference as sexually dimorphic behavior in adult offspring. Present research is focused on brominated flame retardants because of their wide-spread use and accumulation in human breast milk. Pregnant Long Evans rats were SC injected with PBDE 99 (2,2',4,4',5-PBDE) daily from gestational day 10 to 18. For comparison, an additional group was exposed to Aroclor 1254. Preliminary results indicate a dose-related increase in sweet preference in adult male offspring exposed to PBDE. Exposure also led to decreases in testosterone and estradiol serum levels. Additional decreases were detected in male anogenital distance. There were no changes of locomotor activity in the open field. On haloperidol-induced catalepsy, latencies were prolonged in all exposed males. In summary, PBDE induced endocrine effects and concomitant changes of sex-dependent behavior similar to PCBs. Outcome of general behavior suggests an involvement of dopaminergic processes in developmental PBDE exposure.

  3. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  4. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  5. Physiological responses of the adult male collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae), to severe dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Greene, L W; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and hormonal responses of eight adult male collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) to an ad libitum diet intake, or 25% of an ad libitum intake, were examined. Blood samples for hematological, serum-biochemical and hormonal profiles were collected at three week intervals during the nine week experiment starting 4 August 1983. Males fed on the restricted diet lost an average of 26% of their body weight during the trial, compared to a slight weight gain for those fed ad libitum. Characteristics of the red and white blood cell populations were not influenced by diet intake, with the exception of mean corpuscular volume, which was consistently lower amongst males fed on the restricted diet. Restricted food intake resulted in significantly elevated serum values for urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen:creatinine, urea index, alpha globulin:beta globulin, gamma globulin:albumin, nonesterified fatty acids, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes (LD1 and LD2). Restricted food intake resulted in significantly lowered serum values for total alpha globulin, alpha-1 globulin, total beta globulin, beta-1 globulin, beta-2 globulin, glucose, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, copper and triiodothyronine. Serum levels of creatinine, total protein, albumin, alpha-2 globulin, uric acid, total bilirubin, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, calcium:phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and thyroxine were unaffected by diet intake level. Semen evaluation indicated spermatogenesis was not affected by dietary restriction despite reductions in scrotal circumference and ejaculate gel volume. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower among males fed on the restricted diet after nine weeks. These data suggest male libido might be depressed during poor range conditions, while maintenance of spermatogenesis might permit them to take immediate advantage of improved

  6. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult.

  7. Functional Mapping of Protein Kinase A Reveals Its Importance in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    de Saram, Paulu S. R.; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J.; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Walker, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and ‘smart’ anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P≤0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology

  8. Functional mapping of protein kinase A reveals its importance in adult Schistosoma mansoni motor activity.

    PubMed

    de Saram, Paulu S R; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M; Walker, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and 'smart' anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P≤0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology.

  9. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  10. Lead Exposure in Adult Males in Urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the Apartheid Era

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Catherine A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Smith, Martin J.; Trueman, Clive N.; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country’s late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g−1), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g−1) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead. PMID:23505462

  11. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-07-31

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  12. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  13. Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Cavalheiro, Gabriela Finoto; de Souza, Alexsandra Vila Maior; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide.

  14. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Ruff, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA.

  15. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  16. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Ruff, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA

  17. Impact of prenatal and acute methamphetamine exposure on behaviour of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Pometlová, M; Slamberová, R

    2009-01-01

    Psychostimulants have been shown to alter behaviour in both rats and humans. The aim of the present study was: (1) to assess the effect of prenatal and acute methamphetamine (MA) administration on behaviour in adult male rats and (2) to find out if the prenatal exposure to MA increases sensitivity to acute MA application in adulthood. Behaviour of adult male rats prenatally exposed to MA (5 mg/kg) or no drug was tested in Open field (OF) and Elevated plus maze (EPM). Half of the animals were injected with MA (1 mg/kg) subcutaneously 30 minutes prior to testing. Locomotion, exploration, comforting behaviour and anxiety were evaluated in the OF, while anxiety and exploratory behaviour were assessed in the EPM. Our results showed that prenatal MA did not have an effect on baseline behaviour in either of the tests. By contrast, acute MA increased overall psychomotor activity by increasing locomotion and exploratory behaviour and decreasing comforting behaviour. Moreover, adult rats prenatally exposed to MA were more sensitive to the effects of acute MA on exploration. In addition, acute MA application decreased anxiety in the OF as well as in the EPM. Our present study, thus, demonstrates that acute MA increases overall psychomotor activity and decreases anxiety to novel environment. To further support our hypothesis that prenatal MA exposure increases sensitivity to drugs in adulthood, studies investigating the levels of dopamine in the rat brain after prenatal MA exposure are planned.

  18. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  19. The internet worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    In November 1988 a worm program invaded several thousand UNIX-operated Sun workstations and VAX computers attached to the Research Internet, seriously disrupting service for several days but damaging no files. An analysis of the work's decompiled code revealed a battery of attacks by a knowledgeable insider, and demonstrated a number of security weaknesses. The attack occurred in an open network, and little can be inferred about the vulnerabilities of closed networks used for critical operations. The attack showed that passwork protection procedures need review and strengthening. It showed that sets of mutually trusting computers need to be carefully controlled. Sharp public reaction crystalized into a demand for user awareness and accountability in a networked world.

  20. Perfluorooctane sulfonate effects on the reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Pereiro, N; Moyano, R; Lafuente, A

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a neurotoxic agent and it can disrupt the endocrine system activity. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of PFOS exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in adult male rats, and to evaluate the possible morphological alterations induced by PFOS in the endocrine tissues of this axis. Adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic noradrenaline concentration increased in the anterior hypothalamus and in the median eminence, not changing in the mediobasal hypothalamus. PFOS treated rats presented a decrease of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression, increasing the mRNA levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats treated with all doses administered except with the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. PFOS also induced a raise of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gene expression in the animals exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic GnRH concentration was modified, LH and testosterone release was inhibited and FSH secretion was stimulated. Moreover, PFOS induced several histopathological alterations in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testis. The results obtained in the present study suggest in general terms that PFOS can inhibit the physiological activity of the reproductive axis in adult male rats, which could be explained, at least in part, by the structural alterations showed in the animals exposed to this chemical: very dense chromatin, condensed ribosomes and a loss of the morphology in the hypothalamus; a degeneration of the gonadotrophic cells, as well as a loss and degeneration of the spermatozoids and a very marked edema in the testis.

  1. Intra-community coalitionary lethal attack of an adult male southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    PubMed

    Talebi, M G; Beltrão-Mendes, R; Lee, P C

    2009-10-01

    We report on the first evidence of intra-community coalitionary lethal aggression in muriquis (Brachyteles). The event occurred in southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) during a long-term study (>15 years) of two social groups inhabiting mostly pristine Atlantic forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, southern São Paulo State, Brazil. The attack took place deep in the core area of the Group Caetê home range. Tense agonistic behaviors and vocalizations preceded the lethal coalitionary attack, and the tension increased over a 36-48 hr period. One adult female and two unidentified individuals also took part in a coalition led by six adult males. The members of the coalition collectively approached, embraced, immobilized and repeatedly bit the entire body of an adult male, resulting in severe bleeding injuries and the victim's death in less than 1 hr after the attack commenced. Combined ecological, behavioral and spatial data related to the event indicate that this was an intra-community attack and suggest social tensions related to mating competition as the proximate trigger of the coalitionary killing. The attack resembled those reported for chimpanzees, with clear numeric superiority and a low risk of injury to aggressors, resulting in the death of a lone conspecific victim. This observation (n=1) is suggestive of a capacity for escalated aggression in muriquis and reinforces arguments for the potential adaptive significance of intra-community aggression in male philopatric societies, as reported for spider monkeys and chimpanzees. These characteristics challenge the view of the muriquis as a peaceful primate and support the general hypothesis that imbalances of power contribute to intra-specific killing in primates, such as chimpanzees and humans.

  2. Whole adult organism transcriptional profiling of acute metal exposures in male Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A convergence of technological breakthroughs in the past decade has facilitated the development of rapid screening tools for biomarkers of toxicant exposure and effect. Platforms using the whole adult organism to evaluate the genome-wide response to toxicants are especially attractive. Recent work demonstrates the feasibility of this approach in vertebrates using the experimentally robust zebrafish model. In the present study, we evaluated gene expression changes in whole adult male zebrafish following an acute 24 hr high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 hr LC20, LC40 and LC60. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal. Results Comparative analysis identified subsets of differentially expressed transcripts both overlapping and unique to each metal. Application of gene ontology (GO) and transcription factor (TF) enrichment algorithms revealed a number of key biological processes perturbed by metal poisonings and the master transcriptional regulators mediating gene expression changes. Metal poisoning differentially activated biological processes associated with ribosome biogenesis, proteosomal degradation, and p53 signaling cascades, while repressing oxygen-generating pathways associated with amino acid and lipid metabolism. Despite appreciable effects on gene regulation, nickel poisoning did not induce any morphological alterations in male zebrafish organs and tissues. Histopathological effects of cobalt remained confined to the olfactory system, while chromium targeted the gills, pharynx, and intestinal mucosa. A number of enriched transcription factors mediated the observed gene response to metal poisoning, including known targets such as p53, HIF1α, and the myc oncogene, and novel

  3. Embryonic Atrazine Exposure Elicits Alterations in Genes Associated with Neuroendocrine Function in Adult Male Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Weber, Gregory J; Jannasch, Amber S; Horzmann, Katharine A; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis states that exposure to environmental stressors early in life can elicit genome and epigenome changes resulting in an increased susceptibility of a disease state during adulthood. Atrazine, a common agricultural herbicide used throughout the Midwestern United States, frequently contaminates potable water supplies and is a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. In our previous studies, zebrafish was exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (μg/l) atrazine through embryogenesis, rinsed, and allowed to mature to adulthood. A decrease in spawning was observed with morphological alterations in offspring. In addition, adult females displayed an increase in ovarian progesterone and follicular atresia, alterations in levels of a serotonin metabolite and serotonin turnover in brain tissue, and transcriptome changes in brain and ovarian tissue supporting neuroendocrine alterations. As reproductive dysfunction is also influenced by males, this study assessed testes histology, hormone levels, and transcriptomic profiles of testes and brain tissue in the adult males. The embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in no alterations in body or testes weight, gonadosomatic index, testes histology, or levels of 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. To further investigate potential alterations, transcriptomic profiles of adult male testes and brain tissue was completed. This analysis demonstrated alterations in genes associated with abnormal cell and neuronal growth and morphology; molecular transport, quantity, and production of steroid hormones; and neurotransmission with an emphasis on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axes. Overall, this data indicate future studies should focus on additional neuroendocrine endpoints to determine potential functional impairments. PMID:27413107

  4. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    PubMed Central

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

  5. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  6. Antiandrogenic pesticides disrupt sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Baatrup, E; Junge, M

    2001-10-01

    Environmental contaminants have been identified as endocrine disruptors through their antiandrogenic activity. Thus, as androgen receptor antagonists, the fungicide vinclozolin and the principal DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE have been demonstrated to induce demasculinization in rats. Whether this is also the case in fish remains to be demonstrated. For a period of 30 days, groups of adult male guppies were exposed to vinclozolin, p,p'-DDE, or the therapeutic antiandrogen flutamide (used as positive control) applied to the fodder at concentrations between 0.1 and 100 microg/g fodder. Subsequently, sexual characteristics of relevance to the male reproductive capacity were measured and compared with untreated control fish. All three chemicals caused profound alterations at increasing levels of biological organization, even in these fully matured males. At the cellular level, the three compounds induced a significant reduction in the number of ejaculated sperm cells. At the organ level, the sexually attractive orange-yellow coloration was reduced in area and discolored, and treated fish also had smaller testes. Further, at the organismal level, computer-aided behavior analyses demonstrated a severe disruption in male courtship behavior. We conclude that this demasculinization is consistent with an antiandrogenic action of vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE and is likely to compromise reproductive capability in this fish.

  7. Using the acetabulum to estimate age at death of adult males.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; Estabrook, George F; Cunha, Eugenia; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2006-03-01

    The acetabular region is often present and adequately preserved in adult human skeletal remains. Close morphological examination of the 242 left male os coxae from the identified collection of Coimbra (Portugal) has enabled the recognition of seven variables that can be used to estimate age at death. This paper describes these variables and argues their appropriateness by analyzing the correlation between these criteria and the age, the intra- and interobserver consistence, and the accuracy in age prediction using Bayesian inference to estimate age of identified specimens. Results show significant close correlation between the acetabular criteria and age, nonsignificant differences in intra- and interobserver test, and 89% accuracy in Bayes prediction. Obtained estimated age of the specimens had similar accuracy in all ages. These results indicate that these seven variables, based on the acetabular area, are potentially useful to estimate age at death for adult specimens.

  8. Steroidogenic factor 1 differentially regulates fetal and adult leydig cell development in male mice.

    PubMed

    Karpova, Tatiana; Ravichandiran, Kumarasamy; Insisienmay, Lovella; Rice, Daren; Agbor, Valentine; Heckert, Leslie L

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, AD4BP, NR5A1) is a key regulator of the endocrine axes and is essential for adrenal and gonad development. Partial rescue of Nr5a1(-/-) mice with an SF-1-expressing transgene caused a hypomorphic phenotype that revealed its roles in Leydig cell development. In contrast to controls, all male rescue mice (Nr5a1(-/-);tg(+/0)) showed varying signs of androgen deficiency, including spermatogenic arrest, cryptorchidism, and poor virilization. Expression of various Leydig cell markers measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR indicated fetal and adult Leydig cell development were differentially impaired. Whereas fetal Leydig cell development was delayed in Nr5a1(-/-);tg(+/0) embryos, it recovered to control levels by birth. In contrast, Sult1e1, Vcam1, and Hsd3b6 transcript levels in adult rescue testes indicated complete blockage in adult Leydig cell development. In addition, between Postnatal Days 8 and 12, peritubular cells expressing PTCH1, SF-1, and CYP11A1 were observed in control testes but not in rescue testes, indicating SF-1 is needed for either survival or differentiation of adult Leydig cell progenitors. Cultured prepubertal rat peritubular cells also expressed SF-1 and PTCH1, but Cyp11a1 was expressed only after treatment with cAMP and retinoic acid. Together, data show SF-1 is needed for proper development of fetal and adult Leydig cells but with distinct primary functions; in fetal Leydig cells, it regulates differentiation, whereas in adult Leydig cells it regulates progenitor cell formation and/or survival. PMID:26269506

  9. Steroidogenic factor 1 differentially regulates fetal and adult leydig cell development in male mice.

    PubMed

    Karpova, Tatiana; Ravichandiran, Kumarasamy; Insisienmay, Lovella; Rice, Daren; Agbor, Valentine; Heckert, Leslie L

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, AD4BP, NR5A1) is a key regulator of the endocrine axes and is essential for adrenal and gonad development. Partial rescue of Nr5a1(-/-) mice with an SF-1-expressing transgene caused a hypomorphic phenotype that revealed its roles in Leydig cell development. In contrast to controls, all male rescue mice (Nr5a1(-/-);tg(+/0)) showed varying signs of androgen deficiency, including spermatogenic arrest, cryptorchidism, and poor virilization. Expression of various Leydig cell markers measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR indicated fetal and adult Leydig cell development were differentially impaired. Whereas fetal Leydig cell development was delayed in Nr5a1(-/-);tg(+/0) embryos, it recovered to control levels by birth. In contrast, Sult1e1, Vcam1, and Hsd3b6 transcript levels in adult rescue testes indicated complete blockage in adult Leydig cell development. In addition, between Postnatal Days 8 and 12, peritubular cells expressing PTCH1, SF-1, and CYP11A1 were observed in control testes but not in rescue testes, indicating SF-1 is needed for either survival or differentiation of adult Leydig cell progenitors. Cultured prepubertal rat peritubular cells also expressed SF-1 and PTCH1, but Cyp11a1 was expressed only after treatment with cAMP and retinoic acid. Together, data show SF-1 is needed for proper development of fetal and adult Leydig cells but with distinct primary functions; in fetal Leydig cells, it regulates differentiation, whereas in adult Leydig cells it regulates progenitor cell formation and/or survival.

  10. The lived experience of adult male survivors who allege childhood sexual abuse by clergy.

    PubMed

    Fater, K; Mullaney, J A

    2000-01-01

    This phenomenological study describes the essential structure of the lived experience of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by clergy (AMSCSABC). A purposive sample of seven AMSCSABC related their subjective experiences in semistructured interviews. Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Survivors describe a bifurcated rage and spiritual distress that pervades their entire "lifebeing." Learning about AMSCSABC will assist nurses to identify potential risk factors of childhood sexual abuse by clergy (CSABC), design prevention strategies, and enhance empathy for a healing relationship.

  11. Of Mice and Men-Warning: Intact Versus Castrated Adult Male Mice as Xenograft Hosts Are Equivalent to Hypogonadal Versus Abiraterone Treated Aging Human Males, Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Sedelaar, J.P. Michiel; Dalrymple, Susan S.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immune deficient male mice bearing human prostate cancer xenografts are used to evaluate therapeutic response to novel androgen ablation approaches and the results compared to surgical castration based upon assumption that testosterone microenvironment in intact and castrated adult male mice mimics eugonadal and castrated aging adult human males. METHODS To test these assumptions, serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were determined longitudinally in groups (n > 20) of intact versus castrated adult male nude, NOG, and immune competent C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS In adult male mice, TT and FT varies by 30- to 100-fold within the same animal providing a microenvironment that is only equivalent to hypogonadal, not eugonadal, adult human males (TT is 1.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml [5.8 ± 4.1 nM] in nude and 2.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml [8.7 ± 4.4 nM] in NOG mice versus >4.2 ng/ml [14.7 nM] in eugonadal humans). This was confirmed based upon enhanced growth of androgen dependent human prostate cancer xenografts inoculated into mice supplemented with exogenous testosterone to elevate and chronically maintain serum TT at a level (5 ng/ml [18 nM]) equivalent to a 50-year-old eugonadal human male. In castrated mice, TT and FT range from 2 to 20 pg/ml (7–70 pM) and <0.8 pg/ml (<2.6 pM), respectively, which is equivalent to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone. This was confirmed based upon the inability of another CYP17A1 inhibitor, ketoconazole, to inhibit the growth of CRPC xenografts in castrated mice. CONCLUSIONS Adult male mice supplemented with testosterone mimic eugonadal human males, while unsupplemented animals mimic standard androgen ablation and castrated animals mimic abiraterone treated patients. These studies confirm what is claimed in Robert Burns’ poem “To a Mouse” that “The best laid schemes of mice and men/often go awry. PMID:23775398

  12. Ultrasonic vocalizations of adult male Foxp2-mutant mice: behavioral contexts of arousal and emotion.

    PubMed

    Gaub, S; Fisher, S E; Ehret, G

    2016-02-01

    Adult mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) occur in multiple behavioral and stimulus contexts associated with various levels of arousal, emotion and social interaction. Here, in three experiments of increasing stimulus intensity (water; female urine; male interacting with adult female), we tested the hypothesis that USVs of adult males express the strength of arousal and emotion via different USV parameters (18 parameters analyzed). Furthermore, we analyzed two mouse lines with heterozygous Foxp2 mutations (R552H missense, S321X nonsense), known to produce severe speech and language disorders in humans. These experiments allowed us to test whether intact Foxp2 function is necessary for developing full adult USV repertoires, and whether mutations of this gene influence instinctive vocal expressions based on arousal and emotion. The results suggest that USV calling rate characterizes the arousal level, while sound pressure and spectrotemporal call complexity (overtones/harmonics, type of frequency jumps) may provide indices of levels of positive emotion. The presence of Foxp2 mutations did not qualitatively affect the USVs; all USV types that were found in wild-type animals also occurred in heterozygous mutants. However, mice with Foxp2 mutations displayed quantitative differences in USVs as compared to wild-types, and these changes were context dependent. Compared to wild-type animals, heterozygous mutants emitted mainly longer and louder USVs at higher minimum frequencies with a higher occurrence rate of overtones/harmonics and complex frequency jump types. We discuss possible hypotheses about Foxp2 influence on emotional vocal expressions, which can be investigated in future experiments using selective knockdown of Foxp2 in specific brain circuits.

  13. Age differences in physique of adult males aged 30 to 86 years in Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2000-07-01

    In the Pacific Region, some adult populations have shown a steady rise in overweight and obesity across the 1970s and into the 1990s. While younger adults have been shown to have lower body mass index (BMI) than older ones in both the least and most modernised Samoan populations, among intermediately modernised Samoan populations, BMI has been found to be higher in younger adults than in older ones. A survey in the Cook Islands carried out in 1966 showed no age group differences in height, weight and BMI among adult males, but significantly higher mean weight and BMI among adult males aged 30 years and above. The present analysis gives mean height, weight, BMI and skinfolds of adult males above 30 years of age on Rarotonga in 1996, and examines whether the BMI-age group relationship now shows a similar transitional pattern to that observed on American Samoa. In addition, the 1996 values are compared with values obtained in 1986, to determine whether changes in physique have taken place across this time. In the 1996 volunteer sample of 142 male Cook Islanders, older adults are significantly shorter, lighter, with lower BMI than younger adults. Furthermore, the younger adults of the 1996 survey are significantly heavier, with greater BMI than the 1986 sample. This suggests that the adult male Rarotongan population is in an intermediate position with respect to lifestyle transition, the secular trend in body size and increasing prevalence of obesity, and that there has been a rapid increase in body fatness prevalence among younger adults. PMID:11027034

  14. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  15. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  16. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) - A comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Andreia A.; Humann, Fernanda C.; Oliveira Campos, Lucio A.; Tavares, Mara G.; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid) on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i) gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii) in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males. PMID:22215977

  17. Awareness of heart attack and stroke symptoms among Hispanic male adults living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Bardales, Ricardo; Bales, Robert; Aguero, Carlos; Brady, Shelly; Tobar, Adriana; McGrath, Cynthia; Zaiser, Julia; Lipsky, Martin S

    2010-10-01

    There is evidence that Hispanic men are a high risk group for treatment delay for both heart attack and stroke. More targeted research is needed to elucidate this specific population's knowledge of warning signs for these acute events. This study sought to describe within-group disparities in Hispanic men's knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze a multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Heart and Stroke module database. The data were cross-sectional and focused on health risk factors and behaviors. The research participants were U.S. male Hispanic adults aged 18-99. The main outcome measure for the study was heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded that Hispanic men aged >or=18 years who earned low scores on the composite heart attack and stroke knowledge questions (range 0-8 points) were more likely to: have less than a high school education, have deferred medical care because of cost, not have an identified health care provider, and be uninsured. There were significant within-group differences. Targeting educational efforts toward older (>or=55 years) Hispanic men with less than high school education, those who do not have an identified health care provider or health insurance, and who defer health care because of cost could be ways to improve the outcome of acute vascular events among the U.S. Hispanic adult male population.

  18. Photoperiodic regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Walton, James C; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Leuner, Benedetta; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-08-01

    Photoperiodic organisms monitor environmental day length to engage in seasonally appropriate adaptions in physiology and behavior. Among these adaptations are changes in brain volume and neurogenesis, which have been well described in multiple species of birds, yet few studies have described such changes in the brains of adult mammals. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species in which to investigate the effects of day length on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as males, in addition to having reduced hippocampal volume in short days (SD) with concomitant impairments in hippocampus-mediated behaviors, have photoperiod-dependent changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We performed the current experiment to assess the effects of photoperiod on hippocampal neurogenesis longitudinally, using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine at multiple time points across 10 weeks of SD exposure. Compared with counterparts held in long day (LD) lengths, across the first 8 weeks of SD exposure hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced. However, at 10 weeks in SD lengths neurogenic levels in the hippocampus were elevated above those levels in mice held in LD lengths. The current findings are consistent with the natural photoperiodic cycle of hippocampal function in male white-footed mice, and may help to inform research on photoperiodic plasticity in neurogenesis and provide insight into how the complex interplay among the environment, genes and adaptive responses to changing day lengths affects brain structure, function and behavior at multiple levels. PMID:24893623

  19. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

  20. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  1. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    PubMed

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats.

  2. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed.

  3. Photoperiodic regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Walton, James C; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Leuner, Benedetta; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-08-01

    Photoperiodic organisms monitor environmental day length to engage in seasonally appropriate adaptions in physiology and behavior. Among these adaptations are changes in brain volume and neurogenesis, which have been well described in multiple species of birds, yet few studies have described such changes in the brains of adult mammals. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species in which to investigate the effects of day length on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as males, in addition to having reduced hippocampal volume in short days (SD) with concomitant impairments in hippocampus-mediated behaviors, have photoperiod-dependent changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We performed the current experiment to assess the effects of photoperiod on hippocampal neurogenesis longitudinally, using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine at multiple time points across 10 weeks of SD exposure. Compared with counterparts held in long day (LD) lengths, across the first 8 weeks of SD exposure hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced. However, at 10 weeks in SD lengths neurogenic levels in the hippocampus were elevated above those levels in mice held in LD lengths. The current findings are consistent with the natural photoperiodic cycle of hippocampal function in male white-footed mice, and may help to inform research on photoperiodic plasticity in neurogenesis and provide insight into how the complex interplay among the environment, genes and adaptive responses to changing day lengths affects brain structure, function and behavior at multiple levels.

  4. Immunoexpression of aromatase in immature and adult males of the European bison (Bison bonasus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Kopera, I; Szczepanowicz, M; Gizejewski, Z; Sadowska, J; Bilińska, B

    2010-04-01

    Based on recent literature dealing with the role of oestrogens in the male gonad, attempts were undertaken to reveal the site of aromatization within the testis of the European bison (Bison bonasus). Testes were collected from culled animals living in free-ranging populations in Bialowieza Forest, Poland (nine males aged 8 months to 10 years). Moreover, to check for any alterations in the expression of testicular aromatase between American bison (Bison bison) and European bison, testes from one adult 10-year-old individual were also chosen for this study. For immunohistochemistry, 4% formaldehyde fixative was used. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of immunohistochemical staining were performed. Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and germ cells exhibited a positive immunoreaction for aromatase in testes of immature and sexually mature bison. A marked increase in aromatase expression was observed in three adult European individuals with impaired spermatogenesis. Consistent with recent data and those of our own, it might be suggested that the strong expression of aromatase negatively affects spermatogenic function in bison testes and may serve as a possible explanation of specific sperm defects observed in European bison bulls. On the contrary, one cannot exclude that differences in the aromatase immunoexpression levels are attributed to the homozygosity, the cause of frequent disease in European bison.

  5. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    PubMed

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  6. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language–neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  7. The Effects of Inflammatory Tooth Pain on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Ebrahimnejad, Hamed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Amirkhosravi, Ladan; Raoof, Ramin; Esmaeili Mahani, Saeed; Ramazani, Mohsen; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. Methods: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test. Results: Intradental application of chemical noxious stimuli, capsaicin and formalin, significantly affected nociceptive behaviors (P<0.001). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) significantly increased the anxiety levels in rats by decrease in the duration of time spent in open arm and increase in the duration of time spent in closed arm. Rats that received capsaicin made fewer open arm entries compared to the control animals (P<0.05). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) treated rats showed more stretch attend postures compared to the control and sham operated animals. In diazepampretreated rats, capsaicin induced algesic effect was prevented (P<0.001). Conclusion: Inflammatory pulpal pain has anxiogenic effect on rats, whereas diazepam premedication showed both anxiolytic and pain reducing effects. PMID:27563419

  8. Desvenlafaxine may accelerate neuronal maturation in the dentate gyri of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Aditya; Ball, Alan R; Laird, Christina D; Hermer, Linda; Ormerod, Brandi K

    2014-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the effects of anti-depressant drugs on behavior in rodent models of depression. To explore this link further, we tested whether the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine impacted adult hippocampal neurogenesis differently than its primary active SNRI metabolite desvenlafaxine. Adult male Long Evans rats (n = 5-6 per group) were fed vehicle, venlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg) or desvenlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg) twice daily for 16 days. Beginning the third day of drug treatment, the rats were given a daily bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) injection for 5 days to label dividing cells and then perfused 2 weeks after the first BrdU injection to confirm total new hippocampal cell numbers and their phenotypes. The high desvenlafaxine dose increased total new BrdU+ cell number and appeared to accelerate neuronal maturation because fewer BrdU+ cells expressed maturing neuronal phenotypes and more expressed mature neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyri of these versus vehicle-treated rats. While net neurogenesis was not increased in the dentate gyri of rats treated with the high desvenlafaxine dose, significantly more mature neurons were detected. Our data expand the body of literature showing that antidepressants impact adult neurogenesis by stimulating NPC proliferation and perhaps the survival of neuronal progeny and by showing that a high dose of the SNRI antidepressant desvenlafaxine, but neither a high nor low venlafaxine dose, may also accelerate neuronal maturation in the adult rat hippocampus. These data support the hypothesis that hippocampal neurogenesis may indeed serve as a biomarker of depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment, and may be informative for developing novel fast-acting antidepressant strategies.

  9. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced.

  10. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hebets, Eileen A

    2003-11-11

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.

  11. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod. PMID:14597702

  12. Possible secondary population-level effects of selective harvest of adult male muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Joshua H; Gorn, Tony S

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6-10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002-2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4-12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8-9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and conservation of

  13. Possible Secondary Population-Level Effects of Selective Harvest of Adult Male Muskoxen

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joshua H.; Gorn, Tony S.

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6–10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002–2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4–12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8–9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and

  14. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  15. Possible secondary population-level effects of selective harvest of adult male muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Joshua H; Gorn, Tony S

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6-10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002-2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4-12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8-9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and conservation of

  16. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure affect the drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats?

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Schutová, Barbora; Hrubá, Lenka; Pometlová, Marie

    2011-10-10

    Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide and also one of the most common drugs abused by pregnant women. Repeated administration of psychostimulants induces behavioral sensitization in response to treatment of the same or related drugs in rodents. The effect of prenatal MA exposure on sensitivity to drugs in adulthood is not yet fully determined. Because our most recent studies demonstrated that prenatal MA (5mg/kg) exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same drug, we were interested whether the increased sensitivity corresponds with the increased drug-seeking behavior. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the conditioned place preference (CPP). The following psychostimulant drugs were used as a challenge in adulthood: MA (5mg/kg), amphetamine (5mg/kg) and cocaine (10mg/kg). All psychostimulant drugs induced increased drug-seeking behavior in adult male rats. However, while MA and amphetamine-induced increase in drug-seeking behavior did not differ based on the prenatal drug exposure, prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed tolerance effect to cocaine in adulthood. In addition, prenatally MA-exposed rats had decreased weight gain after administration of MA or amphetamine, while the weight of prenatally MA-exposed rats stayed unchanged after cocaine administration. Defecation was increased by all the drugs (MA, amphetamine and cocaine), while only amphetamine increased the tail temperature. In conclusion, our results did not confirm our hypothesis that prenatal MA exposure increases drug-seeking behavior in adulthood in the CPP test.

  17. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  18. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  19. Social experience modulates ocular dominance plasticity differentially in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Balog, Jenny; Matthies, Ulrike; Naumann, Lisa; Voget, Mareike; Winter, Christine; Lehmann, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to regulate brain plasticity. We investigated the potential influence of social experience on ocular dominance plasticity. Fully adult female or male mice were monocularly deprived for four days and kept a) either alone or in pairs of the same sex and b) either in a small cage or a large, featureless arena. While mice kept alone did not show ocular dominance plasticity, no matter whether in a cage or in an arena, paired female mice in both environmental conditions displayed a shift of ocular dominance towards the open eye. Paired male mice, in contrast, showed no plasticity in the cage, but a very strong ocular dominance shift in the arena. This effect was not due to increased locomotion, since the covered distance was similar in single and paired male mice in the arena, and furnishing cages with a running wheel did not enable ocular dominance plasticity in cage-housed mice. Confirming recent results in rats, the plasticity-enhancing effect of the social environment was shown to be mediated by serotonin. Our results demonstrate that social experience has a strong effect on cortical plasticity that is sex-dependent. This has potential consequences both for animal research and for human education and rehabilitation.

  20. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion.

  1. Salivary Testosterone Measurement by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Adult Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Keevil, BG; MacDonald, P; Macdowall, W; Lee, DM; Wu, FCW

    2016-01-01

    Background Salivary testosterone (Sal-T) may be a useful surrogate of serum free testosterone. The study aims were to use a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to determine whether Sal-T concentrations accurately reflect Sal-T concentrations in both sexes and to investigate practical aspects of sample collection. Methods Saliva and serum samples were collected in 104 male and 91 female subjects. A more sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was developed to enable Sal-T quantitation in the low concentrations found in females. Saliva (200 μL) was extracted with 1 mL of methyl-tert-butyl ether following the addition of D5-testosterone. Quantitation was performed using a Waters TQ-S mass spectrometer. Results The assay achieved a lower limit of quantification of 5pmol/L, sufficiently sensitive to measure testosterone in female saliva. Sal-T showed a diurnal variation but samples taken at weekly and monthly intervals showed no significant differences. Sal-T was stable at ambient temperature for up to 5 days, after freeze-thawing and 3 years frozen storage. Reference intervals for Sal-T were 93-378 pmol/L in males and 5-46 pmol/L in females. Sal-T correlated significantly with serum calculated free-T in males (r=0.71, P<0.001) and in females (r=0.39, P<0.001). Conclusions These results confirm that testosterone can be reliably and accurately measured by LC-MS/MS in both adult male and female saliva samples. These results lay the foundation for further exploration of the clinical application of Sal- T as a reliable alternative to serum testosterone in the diagnosis and management of androgen disorders and assessment of androgen status in clinical research. PMID:24194586

  2. Adult male circumcision with a circular stapler versus conventional circumcision: A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jin, X D; Lu, J J; Liu, W H; Zhou, J; Yu, R K; Yu, B; Zhang, X J; Shen, B H

    2015-06-01

    Male circumcision is the most frequently performed procedure by urologists. Safety and efficacy of the circumcision procedure requires continual improvement. In the present study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of a new male circumcision technique involving the use of a circular stapler. In total, 879 consecutive adult male patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 441 underwent stapler circumcision, and 438 underwent conventional circumcision. The operative time, pain score, blood loss volume, healing time, treatment costs, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. The operative time and blood loss volume were significantly lower in the stapler group than in the conventional group (6.8 ± 3.1 vs 24.2 ± 3.2 min and 1.8 ± 1.8 vs 9.4 ± 1.5 mL, respectively; P<0.01 for both). The intraoperative and postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in the stapler group than in the conventional group (0.8 ± 0.5 vs 2.4 ± 0.8 and 4.0 ±0.9 vs 5.8 ± 1.0, respectively; P<0.01 for both). Additionally, the stapler group had significantly fewer complications than the conventional group (2.7% vs 7.8%, respectively; P<0.01). However, the treatment costs in the stapler group were much higher than those in the conventional group (US$356.60 ± 8.20 vs US$126.50 ± 7.00, respectively; P<0.01). Most patients (388/441, 88.0%) who underwent stapler circumcision required removal of residual staple nails. Overall, the present study has shown that stapler circumcision is a time-efficient and safe male circumcision technique, although it requires further improvement.

  3. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  4. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara. PMID:9749634

  5. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara.

  6. Quality of life, social situation, and sexual satisfaction, in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Thorén, Marja

    2014-09-01

    To determine quality of life (QoL) in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 30), 19-67 years old, were compared with controls (n = 32). QoL was assessed using questionnaires on general living conditions and sexual issues, and the psychological well-being index (PGWB) form. Fewer CAH males than controls were students (3 vs. 25 %, P = 0.028) and more had blue-collar work (57 vs. 33 %, P = 0.023). Patients were less interested in sports (47 vs. 72 %, P = 0.034) and art/literature/film (10 vs. 47 %, P = 0.004). PGWB total score was 82.7 ± 13.7 versus 87.0 ± 11.1 (P = NS), but hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate treated scored lower than controls and prednisolone treated. Glucocorticoid over-treated had lower QoL than those with poor control (PGWB total score 77.1 ± 13.5 vs. 92.4 ± 11.1, P = 0.026) and controls (P = 0.025). Total PGWB score was positively correlated with adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. Subscale scores indicated that patients with late diagnosis were more depressive (12.1 ± 2.8 vs. 13.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.011) and had a lower self-control (11.3 ± 3.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.0, P = 0.019) compared with controls. Sexual satisfaction was similar in spite of more patients being sexually inactive (27 vs. 6 %, P = 0.040). Adult CAH males differed from controls with respect to type of occupation and spare time interests but had similar QoL despite being less sexually active. Optimizing glucocorticoid therapy might further improve QoL. Some disadvantages found in patients diagnosed late will hopefully not be seen in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, but this has yet to be studied.

  7. Quality of life, social situation, and sexual satisfaction, in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Thorén, Marja

    2014-09-01

    To determine quality of life (QoL) in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 30), 19-67 years old, were compared with controls (n = 32). QoL was assessed using questionnaires on general living conditions and sexual issues, and the psychological well-being index (PGWB) form. Fewer CAH males than controls were students (3 vs. 25 %, P = 0.028) and more had blue-collar work (57 vs. 33 %, P = 0.023). Patients were less interested in sports (47 vs. 72 %, P = 0.034) and art/literature/film (10 vs. 47 %, P = 0.004). PGWB total score was 82.7 ± 13.7 versus 87.0 ± 11.1 (P = NS), but hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate treated scored lower than controls and prednisolone treated. Glucocorticoid over-treated had lower QoL than those with poor control (PGWB total score 77.1 ± 13.5 vs. 92.4 ± 11.1, P = 0.026) and controls (P = 0.025). Total PGWB score was positively correlated with adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. Subscale scores indicated that patients with late diagnosis were more depressive (12.1 ± 2.8 vs. 13.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.011) and had a lower self-control (11.3 ± 3.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.0, P = 0.019) compared with controls. Sexual satisfaction was similar in spite of more patients being sexually inactive (27 vs. 6 %, P = 0.040). Adult CAH males differed from controls with respect to type of occupation and spare time interests but had similar QoL despite being less sexually active. Optimizing glucocorticoid therapy might further improve QoL. Some disadvantages found in patients diagnosed late will hopefully not be seen in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, but this has yet to be studied. PMID:24408051

  8. A study on endocrine dysfunction in adult males with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay K; Moulick, Avijit; Saha, Manjari; Dutta, Anita; Bandyopadhyay, Ramtanu; Basu, Asish Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Over a period of two years, 72 adult males with liver cirrhosis of different aetiologies were studied in terms of clinical and biochemical evidence of endocrine dysfunctions related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the thyroid status, and compared with 40 age-matched control subjects. With more advanced disease, a progressive fall in testosterone, leutinising hormone and triiodothyronine and a rise in oestradiol was observed. Severity of the liver disease determined by Child-Turcotte-Pugh class, rather than aetiology (alcoholic or postviral), was the chief determinant of such dysfunctions. The involvement was both central and peripheral, with only peripheral defects at gonadal level in early state but dysfunctions at both the levels in late stage of cirrhosis.

  9. Case-based discussion: Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia a rare presentation in an immunocompetent adult male

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Ajay; Vyas, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ghatavat, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease usually associated with other systemic diseases; however, idiopathic cases are being reported. As per recent ATS/ERS 2013 guidelines, diagnostic criteria of clinical, radiological and histopathological for LIP is same as 2002 except some cystic changes on HRCT chest. Many cases diagnosed in the past as LIP now turn out to be NSIP; therefore as per new ATS/ERS classification whenever anybody report a case of LIP, NSIP should always be kept in mind as differential diagnosis. Here we present a case of LIP in an immunocompetent adult male presented with history of persistent dry cough and breathlessness on exertion, confirmed on HRCT chest and histopathologically, treated successfully with steroids. PMID:26628770

  10. NGF induces appearance of adult-like response to spatial novelty in 18-day male mice.

    PubMed

    Calamandrei, Gemma; Valanzano, Angela; Ricceri, Laura

    2002-10-17

    We investigated the effects of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) administration on the maturation of reactivity to spatial and non-spatial novelty in developing mice. CD-1 mice of both sexes received intracerebral administration of NGF on postnatal day (pnd) 15, and their response to object displacement (spatial novelty) and object substitution (object novelty) were assessed in a spatial open-field with four objects on pnd 18 or 28. On pnd 18, NGF induced only in males precocious appearance of spatial novelty discrimination, while increasing choline acetyltransferase activity in neocortex and hippocampus of both sexes. The behavioral and neurochemical effects disappeared by pnd 28. NGF triggers adult-like responding to spatial novelty in developing mice and such effect is gender-specific.

  11. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

    2010-05-01

    Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. PMID:19574097

  12. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  13. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco J.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  14. Comparative analysis of antioxidants against cadmium induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Khan, Mehreen; Ahmed, Shakeel; Ullah, Hizb

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the potential benefits of three different antioxidants in reversing cadmium (Cd)-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Rats (n = 5) weighing 180 +/- 20 gm were divided into five groups (control, Cd, Cd + sulforaphane, Cd + vitamin E, and Cd + plant extract). Treated groups received CdCl2 (0.2 mg/kg), sulforaphane (25 µg/rat), vitamin E (75 mg/kg), and plant extract (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. Blood samples and testicular tissues were obtained for estimation of testosterone, Zn, and Cd concentration and daily sperm production/efficiency of sperm production. Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease in final body weight (p < 0.0001). The plasma concentrations of Cd were significantly increased and Zn concentration decreased (p < 0.0001) in the Cd group as compared to the control group. The testicular concentrations of Cd were significantly increased and Zn concentration decreased (p < 0.0001) in the Cd group as compared to the control group. Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in plasma testosterone concentrations and daily sperm production as compared to the control group. More significant effects were observed with Cd+sulforaphane, Cd + vitamin E, and Cd + plant extract treated groups in slashing Cd-induced toxicity. Present findings suggest that Ficus religiosa and sulforaphane are more powerful antioxidants as compared to vitamin E in reversing the oxidative stress and can have a protective role against Cd induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Part of the mechanism involved in this protective role seems to be associated with the antioxidant properties of these agents in reducing reproductive damage. PMID:24156729

  15. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    PubMed

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p < 0.001). In smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  16. Effect of methamphetamine exposure and cross-fostering on cognitive function in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hrubá, Lenka; Schutová, Barbora; Pometlová, Marie; Rokyta, Richard; Slamberová, Romana

    2010-03-17

    The aim of our study was to examine the effect of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and cross-fostering on cognitive functions of adult male rats tested in Morris water maze (MWM). Rat mothers were exposed daily to injection of MA (5mg/kg) or saline for 9 weeks: prior to impregnation, throughout gestation and lactation periods. Females without any injections were used as an absolute control. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother raised 4 pups of her own and 8 pups from the mothers with the other two treatments. Four types of tests were used: (1) Place navigation test (Learning), (2) Probe test (Probe), (3) Retention memory test (Memory) and (4) Visible platform task. Our results demonstrate that the prenatal exposure to MA does not impact learning and memory, while postnatal exposure to MA shows impairments in cognition. In the test of learning, all animals fostered to MA-treated dams had longer latencies, bigger search error and used lower spatial strategies than the animals fostered to control or saline-treated mother, regardless of prenatal exposure. Regardless of postnatal exposure, the animals prenatally exposed to saline swam faster in all the tests than the animals prenatally exposed to MA and controls, respectively. This study indicates that postnatal but not prenatal exposure to MA affects learning in adult male rats. However, it is still not clear whether these impairments are due to a direct effect of MA on neuronal structure or due to an indirect effect of MA mediated by impaired maternal care.

  17. Safety, Feasibility, and Acceptability of the PrePex Device for Adult Male Circumcision in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Tippett Barr, Beth A.; Kang'ombe, Anderson; Hofstee, Carola; Kilembe, Franklin; Galagan, Sean; Chilongozi, David; Namate, Dorothy; Machaya, Medson; Kabwere, Khuliena; Mwale, Mwawi; Msunguma, Wezi; Reed, Jason; Chimbwandira, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nonsurgical adult male circumcision devices present an alternative to surgery where health resources are limited. This study aimed to assess the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Malawi. Methods: A prospective single-arm cohort study was conducted at 3 sites (1 urban static, 1 rural static, 1 rural tent) in Malawi. Adverse event (AE) outcomes were stratified to include/exclude pain, and confidence intervals (CIs) were corrected for clinic-level clustering. Results: Among 935 men screened, 131 (14.0%) were not eligible, 13 (1.4%) withdrew before placement, and 791 (84.6%) received the device. Moderate and severe AEs totaled 7.1% including pain [95% CI: 3.4–14.7] and 4.0% excluding pain (95% CI: 2.6 to 6.4). Severe AEs included pain (n = 3), insufficient skin removal (n = 4), and early removal (n = 4). Among early removals, 1 had immediate surgical circumcision, 1 had surgery after 48 hours of observation, 1 declined surgery, and 1 did not return to our site although presented at a nearby clinic. More than half of men (51.9%) reported odor; however, few (2.2%) stated they would not recommend the device to others because of odor. Median levels of reported pain (scale, 1–10) were 2 (interquartile range, 2–4) during application and removal, and 0 (interquartile range, 0–2) at all other time points. Conclusions: Severe AEs were rare and similar to other programs. Immediate provision of surgical services after displacement or early removal proved a challenge. Cases of insufficient skin removal were linked to poor technique, suggesting provider training requires reinforcement and supervision. PMID:27331590

  18. Physical work capacity and effect of endurance training in visually handicapped boys and young male adults.

    PubMed

    Shindo, M; Kumagai, S; Tanaka, H

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between several physical fitness parameters and eyesight divided into 3 grades in visually handicapped boys and young male adults, and to investigate the effect of mild exercise training on physical and psychic symptoms as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. Four subjects were totally blind (TB), 6 were semi-blind (SB) and 27 had amblyopia (AM). Physical fitness tests consisted of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max), maximal pedalling speed and power, maximal stepping rate, and isometric knee extension strength. Compared with AM and SB groups, the TB group was inferior in all physical fitness parameters. Especially, Vo2max, in TB (26 ml.kg-1.min-1) was about 56% of that in age-matched Japanese sighted subjects and was significantly low compared with the AM and SB groups. Both muscle strength and maximal pedalling power corresponded to about 50% that of the age-matched sighted group. Six SB and 4 TB students (mean = 17.7 years) were trained for 6 weeks on a bicycle ergometer at an intensity of 50% VO2max. Training was undertaken for 3 days per week and maintained for 60 min per session. After training, physical and psychic symptoms determined by the Cornell Medical Index improved significantly. These results indicate that low physical work capacity in visually handicapped boys and young male adults is due to the lack of physical activity, and that mild endurance training is effective in improving physical and psychic symptoms as well as cardiorespiratory fitness.

  19. The Wonder of Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia; Landry, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Kindergarten students have an amazing capacity for wonder and inquisitiveness--two important characteristics for future scientists. Much of what young students "know" about the natural world stems from their daily interactions with peers, adults, the outdoors, and the media. What can be especially challenging to uncover and redirect are…

  20. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P < 0.0002) while remaining euglycemic, insulin sensitive, inactive, and exhibiting metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype. PMID:22461568

  1. Atypically rightward cerebral asymmetry in male adults with autism stratifies individuals with and without language delay.

    PubMed

    Floris, Dorothea L; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Auer, Tibor; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J; Bullmore, Edward T; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left-hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right-hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right-handed adults with ASC and 69 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel-based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC.

  2. Prenatal testosterone supplementation alters puberty onset, aggressive behavior, and partner preference in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) could change the body weight (BW), anogenital distance (AGD), anogenital distance index (AGDI), puberty onset, social behavior, fertility, sexual behavior, sexual preference, and T level of male rats in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rats received either 1 mg/animal of T propionate diluted in 0.1 ml peanut oil or 0.1 ml peanut oil, as control, on the 17th, 18th and 19th gestational days. No alterations in BW, AGD, AGDI, fertility, and sexual behavior were observed (p > 0.05). Delayed onset of puberty (p < 0.0001), increased aggressive behavior (p > 0.05), altered pattern of sexual preference (p < 0.05), and reduced T plasma level (p < 0.05) were observed for adult male rats exposed prenatally to T. In conclusion, the results showed that prenatal exposure to T was able to alter important aspects of sexual and social behavior although these animals were efficient at producing descendants. In this sense more studies should be carried to evaluated the real impact of this hormonal alteration on critical period of sexual differentiation on humans, because pregnant women exposed to hyperandrogenemia and then potentially exposing their unborn children to elevated androgen levels in the uterus can undergo alteration of normal levels of T during the sexual differentiation period, and, as a consequence, affect the reproductive and behavior patterns of their children in adulthood.

  3. The recreational drug ecstasy disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Sarah M; Walker, Deena M; Reveron, Maria E; Duvauchelle, Christine L; Gore, Andrea C

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive function involves an interaction of three regulatory levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad. The primary drive upon this system comes from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells, which receive afferent inputs from other neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system to result in the proper coordination of reproduction and the environment. Here, we hypothesized that the recreational drug (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy'), which acts through several of the neurotransmitter systems that affect GnRH neurons, suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis of male rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered saline or MDMA either once (acute) or for 20 days (chronic) and were euthanized 7 days following the last administration. We quantified hypothalamic GnRH mRNA, serum luteinizing hormone concentrations, and serum testosterone levels as indices of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions, respectively. The results indicate that the hypothalamic and gonadal levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are significantly altered by MDMA, with GnRH mRNA and serum testosterone levels suppressed in rats administered MDMA compared to saline. Furthermore, our finding that hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels are suppressed in the context of low testosterone concentrations suggests that the central GnRH neurosecretory system may be a primary target of inhibitory regulation by MDMA usage.

  4. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  5. Retrocalcaneal Bursitis due to Rare Calcaneal Osteochondroma in Adult Male : Excision and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupesh; Anjana; Kundan, Meghraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Osteochondroma is the most common benign tumour of the bone and is considered as developmental lesion of the bone. Common site of osteochondroma presentation is around the knee but calcaneal osteochondroma as such is a rare entity. Osteochondromas grow during childhood through adolescence, but usually the growth of osteochondroma ends when the epiphyseal plates close. In an adult, growth of an osteochondroma suggests the diagnosis of a malignant transformation. However, it can also present as pressure symptom in later phase of life. Here, we presented a case of retrocalcaneal bursitis in late phase of life of a male farmer due to late growth of osteochondroma. Case Presentation: We report a case of calcaneal osteochondroma which is an extremely rare site of occurrence with painful swelling of ankle causing limitation of walking in a 58-year-old male. Surgical excision of tumour followed by a histological confirmation reported negative for any malignant changes. Conclusion: There may be chances of osteochondroma being a reason for retrocalcaneal bursitis. It is possible of late detection of benign osteochondromas which show symptomatic growth and pressure effect in skeletally mature patients without malignant transformation. PMID:27703931

  6. Atypically rightward cerebral asymmetry in male adults with autism stratifies individuals with and without language delay

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng‐Chuan; Auer, Tibor; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Murphy, Declan G.M.; Baron‐Cohen, Simon; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left‐hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right‐hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right‐handed adults with ASC and 69 age‐ and IQ‐matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel‐based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC. Hum Brain Mapp 37:230–253, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26493275

  7. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: identification and characterization of microRNAs in male and female adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Xin; Ai, Lin; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhang, Ren-Li; Chen, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Guo, Jian; Cai, Yu-Chun; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2011-06-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic pleocytosis in humans and is of significant socio-economic importance globally. microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis and pathogenesis. They have been identified in a diverse range of organisms. The objective of this study was to determine and characterize miRNAs of female and male adults of A. cantonensis by Solexa deep sequencing. A total of 8,861,260 and 10,957,957 high quality reads with 20 and 23 conserved miRNAs were obtained in females and males, respectively. No new miRNA sequence was found. Nucleotide bias analysis showed that uracil was the prominent nucleotide, particularly at positions of 1, 10, 14, 17 and 22, approximately at the beginning, middle and the end of the conserved miRNAs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in A. cantonensis, which may represent a new platform for studying regulation of genes and their networks in A. cantonensis.

  8. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  9. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Olalekan; Nzeh, Donald; Yusuf, Ayodeji; Sanya, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies. PMID:25288854

  10. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior.

  11. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior. PMID:26321240

  12. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence.

  13. Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing–systemizing cognitive styles in male adults

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Sadek, Susan A.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Murphy, Declan G.M.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive style can be characterized along two dimensions: ‘systemizing’ (S, the drive to analyze or build ‘rule-based’ systems) and ‘empathizing’ (E, the drive to identify another's mental state and respond to this with an appropriate emotion). Discrepancies between these two dimensions in one direction (S > E) or the other (E > S) are associated with sex differences in cognition: on average more males show an S > E cognitive style, while on average more females show an E > S profile. The neurobiological basis of these different profiles remains unknown. Since individuals may be typical or atypical for their sex, it is important to move away from the study of sex differences and towards the study of differences in cognitive style. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined how neuroanatomy varies as a function of the discrepancy between E and S in 88 adult males from the general population. Selecting just males allows us to study discrepant E-S profiles in a pure way, unconfounded by other factors related to sex and gender. An increasing S > E profile was associated with increased gray matter volume in cingulate and dorsal medial prefrontal areas which have been implicated in processes related to cognitive control, monitoring, error detection, and probabilistic inference. An increasing E > S profile was associated with larger hypothalamic and ventral basal ganglia regions which have been implicated in neuroendocrine control, motivation and reward. These results suggest an underlying neuroanatomical basis linked to the discrepancy between these two important dimensions of individual differences in cognitive style. PMID:22446488

  14. Persistence of an extreme male-biased adult sex ratio in a natural population of polyandrous bird.

    PubMed

    Kosztolányi, A; Barta, Z; Küpper, C; Székely, T

    2011-08-01

    In a number of insects, fishes and birds, the conventional sex roles are reversed: males are the main care provider, whereas females focus on matings. The reversal of typical sex roles is an evolutionary puzzle, because it challenges the foundations of sex roles, sexual selection and parental investment theory. Recent theoretical models predict that biased parental care may be a response to biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). However, estimating ASR is challenging in natural populations, because males and females often have different detectabilities. Here, we use demographic modelling with field data from 2101 individuals, including 579 molecularly sexed offspring, to provide evidence that ASR is strongly male biased in a polyandrous bird with male-biased care. The model predicts 6.1 times more adult males than females (ASR=0.860, proportion of males) in the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. The extreme male bias is consistent between years and concordant with experimental results showing strongly biased mating opportunity towards females. Based on these results, we conjecture that parental sex-role reversal may occur in populations that exhibit extreme male-biased ASR.

  15. Non-Parental Adults in the Social and Risk Behavior Networks of Sexual Minority Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655

  16. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  17. Causes of gynaecomastia in young adult males and factors associated with idiopathic gynaecomastia.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Halil önder; Onde, Mehmet Emin; Terekeci, Hakan; Kurtoglu, Soner; Tor, Hayati

    2002-10-01

    Gynaecomastia is a common clinical condition. Persistent pubertal or late onset idiopathic gynaecomastia is the leading cause of gynaecomastia in different series. The aim of this study was the assessment of the prevalence and characteristics of different causes of gynaecomastia in young adult males, and evaluation of the factors associated with idiopathic gynaecomastia. Fifty-three male patients (mean age 22.04 +/- 2.22, range 19-29), who had been admitted to our outpatient clinics with gynaecomastia as the main presenting symptom were enrolled in the study. Patients were evaluated with breast palpation, breast ultrasonography, anthropometric measurements and sex steroid levels. Secondary causes of gynaecomastia were ruled out. Thirty age-matched healthy individuals were also studied as healthy control group. Idiopathic gynaecomastia was diagnosed in 31 of 53 patients (58%), with 17 (32%) persistent pubertal and 14 (24%) late onset course. Other causes of gynaecomastia were hypogonadism in 13 cases (25%), hyperprolactinaemia in five (9%), chronic liver disease in two (4%), and drug induced (prolonged use of H2 antagonists) in two (4%). Patients with idiopathic gynaecomastia, either pubertal or late onset, were compared with the healthy control group in order to find out associated factors. Anthropometric measurements revealed a significant increase in body weight and body mass index (BMI) in the patient group compared with healthy controls (72.4 +/- 13.3 vs. 63.6 +/- 7.9 kg, p = 0.0086 and 25.2 +/- 4.0 vs. 21.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m2, p = 0.0001). Total skin fold thickness (SFT) of four different regions were also higher in the patient group (50.9 +/- 22.1 vs. 32.6 +/- 10.2 mm, p = 0.0006) indicating a higher body fat percentage. Total serum testosterone (4.76 +/- 1.31 vs. 5.70 +/- 1.06 microg/mL, p = 0.0038) and luteinizing hormone (LH) (4.80 +/- 1.92 vs. 7.32 +/- 1.90 mIU/mL, p < 0.0001) levels were significantly lower in the patient group while oestradiol levels were

  18. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the hedgehog stomach worm, Physaloptera clausa (Spirurida: Physalopteridae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physaloptera clausa (Spirurida: Physalopteridae) nematodes parasitize the stomach of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and cause weight loss, anorexia and gastric lesions. The present study provides the first morphological description of adult P. clausa from the stomachs of infected hedgehogs, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods From June to October 2011, 10 P. clausa from European hedgehogs were fixed, dried, coated and subjected to SEM examination. Results Males and females (22–30 mm and 28–47 mm, respectively) were stout, with the cuticle reflecting over the lips to form a large cephalic collarette and showing fine transverse striations in both sexes. The mouth was characterized by two large, simple triangular lateral pseudolabia, each armed with external and internal teeth. Inside the buccal cavity, a circle of internal small teeth can be observed. Around the mouth, four sub-median cephalic papillae and two large amphids were also observed. The anterior end of both male and female bore an excretory pore on the ventral side and a pair of lateral ciliated cervical papillae. In the female worm, the vulva was located in the middle and the eggs were characterized by smooth surfaces. The posterior end of the female worm was stumpy with two large phasmids in proximity to its extremity. The posterior end of the male had large lateral alae, joined together anteriorly across the ventral surface, with subequal and dissimilar spicules, as well as four pairs of stalked pre-cloacal papillae, three pairs of post-cloacal papillae, and two phasmids. Three sessile papillae occured anteriorly and four posteriorly to the cloaca. Conclusions The present SEM study provides the first in-depth morphological characterization of adult P. clausa, and highlights similarities and differences with P. bispiculata P. herthameyerae, Heliconema longissimum and Turgida turgida. PMID:23566611

  19. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  20. Subconjunctival Loa loa worm: first case report in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passos, Renato Magalhães; Barbosa, Carolina Pelegrini; Almeida, Juliana de Souza; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Camargo, Luis Marcelo Aranha

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of ocular infestation by Loa loa in Brazil. Loiasis is caused by infestation with Loa loa, a filarial parasite originally found in the rainforests of western and central Africa. It is transmitted by the bite of the fly Chrysops and has been recently described in other places other than Africa, in African immigrants or travellers. Our case is a 33 year-old woman from Cameroon who was living in São Paulo, Brazil, for 5 years. She was asymptomatic until one morning she started feeling "something moving" in the left eye. Under topical anesthesia, on the slit lamp, a moving worm was removed from the subconjunctival space, which later was confirmed to be a male Loa loa adult specimen. Blood tests revealed microfilaraemia of 129 mf/mL. The patient was treated with 400 mg oral albendazole for 3 weeks and 60 mg prednisone. This report illustrates an unusual ocular disease, which is extremely rare outside of Africa, but easily diagnosed and treated. Ophthalmologists should be aware of it, in face of an increasingly globalized world. PMID:22552423

  1. Prenatal Testosterone Induces Sex-Specific Dysfunction in Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Pathways in Adult Male and Female Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone (T) exposure impacts postnatal cardiovascular function, leading to increases in blood pressure with associated decreased endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in adult females. Endothelial function in males is not known. Furthermore, which of the endothelial pathways contributes to endothelial dysfunction and if there exists sex differences are not known. The objective of this study was to characterize the relative contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in prenatal T-exposed adult males and females. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with T propionate or its vehicle were examined. Telemetric blood pressure levels and endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity were assessed with wire myography. Levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and Kcnn3 and Kcnn4 channel expression were examined in mesenteric arteries. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in T males and females than in controls. Endothelium-dependent acetylcholine relaxation was significantly lower in both T males and females. EDHF-mediated relaxation was specifically blunted in T males (Emax = 48.64% ± 3.73%) compared to that in control males (Emax = 81.71% ± 3.18%); however, NO-mediated relaxation was specifically impaired in T females (Emax = 36.01% ± 4.29%) compared with that in control females (Emax = 54.56% ± 6.37%). Relaxation to sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim were unaffected with T-treatment. NOS3 protein was decreased in T females but not in T males. Kcnn3 expression was decreased in both T males and females compared to controls. These findings suggest that prenatal T leads to an increase in blood pressure in the adult offspring, associated with blunting of endothelial cell-associated relaxation and that the effects are sex-specific: EDHF-related in males and NO-related in females. PMID:23966325

  2. Comparison of esthetics perception and satisfaction of facial profile among male adolescents and adults with different profiles

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Neda; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Shafaee, Hooman; Mozhdehifard, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate esthetics perception and satisfaction of the facial profile among Iranian male adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, male subjects referred to Orthodontic Department of Mashhad Dental School were enrolled (n = 84) and were divided into two groups: Adolescents (n = 39), and adults (n = 45). They were also assigned to straight, convex, or concave profile groups based on the facial profile angle (G-Sn-Pog’). An ideal silhouette of the lower facial profile was designed in Adobe® Photoshop® CS2 software (Kansas, USA). Then, eight other silhouettes representing different relations of the maxilla and mandible were constructed. Patients were asked to use numbers 1–10 to rank the facial profiles in the order of the attractiveness, and choose a silhouette that best closely resembled their own profile. Moreover, using a questionnaire patients were asked to rank their satisfaction with their profile, and asked to assign a number (1–5) to each question as follows; one represented the least satisfaction, while five reflected the highest satisfaction. Results: Adult and adolescent subjects with straight (adults: 12.0 ± 1.9, adolescents: 12.8 ± 1.05) and concave (adults: 10.0 ± 2.14, adolescents: 10.0 ± 2.08) profile showed the highest and the least satisfaction with their own profile, respectively. Both adult and adolescent group selected “retrognathic maxilla, prognathic mandible” as the least attractive profile. Overall, “straight” and “bimaxillary dentoalveolar retrusion” were chosen as the most attractive silhouettes in adolescent and adults, respectively. In comparison to a professional opinion (clinician ranking), 42.9% of adolescents and 22% of adults were able to correctly diagnose their own profiles type. Conclusion: Most of the male adolescents and especially adults diagnosis of their own profile differed with a professional assessment. PMID:27127750

  3. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013.

  4. Effects of organisational oestradiol on adult immunoreactive oestrogen receptors (alpha and beta) in the male mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Kudwa, A E; Harada, N; Honda, S-I; Rissman, E F

    2007-10-01

    Steroid hormones act on developing neural circuits that regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are involved in hormone-sensitive behaviours. To test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to oestradiol (E(2)) organises the quantity of adult oestrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta), we used male mice with a targeted mutation of the aromatase enzyme gene (ArKO) and their wild-type (WT) littermates. These mice are unable to aromatise testosterone to E(2), but still express both ERalpha and beta. To evaluate adult responsiveness to E(2), gonadectomised males were implanted with Silastic capsules containing E(2), or an empty implant, 5 days prior to sacrifice. Immunoreactivity for ERalpha and ERbeta was quantified in the caudal ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and the medial preoptic area (POA). Regardless of genotype, adult treatment with E(2) reduced ERalpha-immunoreactive (ir) and ERbeta-ir cell numbers in the POA, as well as ERbeta-ir, but not ERalpha-ir, cell numbers in the VMN. Genotype, and thus endogenous exposure to E(2), produced opposite effects on ER expression in the two brain areas. In the VMN, ArKO males had more ERalpha-ir and ERbeta-ir cells than did WT males. In the POA, ArKO males had fewer ERalpha-ir and ERbeta-ir cells than did WT males. Thus, numbers of immunoreactive neurones containing both ERs in the adult ArKO male were enhanced in the POA, but decreased in the VMN, and most likely these patterns were established during the developmental critical period. Furthermore, although both ERalpha and beta-ir cell numbers are altered by the disruption of the aromatase gene, ERbeta is altered in a more robust and region-specific manner.

  5. Spacing behaviour of juvenile corn mice, Calomys musculinus , at the beginning of the breeding period, in absence of adult males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Andrea; Priotto, José; Sommaro, Lucia; Polop, Jaime

    2006-05-01

    This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the absence of fathers promotes a different spacing behaviour in juveniles Calomys musculinus at the beginning of the breeding period. The study was carried out in four 0.25-ha enclosures (two control and two experimental), in a natural pasture, between November 2003 and February 2004. In this study the fathers were removed from the experimental enclosures after juveniles were born. Home-range size depended on sex of juveniles and treatment (father removal). In control and experimental enclosures, female home-range sizes were always smaller than male home-ranges. Male home-ranges were always larger in experimental enclosures than in control enclosures. Treatment and overlap type (intra- and inter-sexual) were not independent. The overlap proportions of male home-ranges were greatest in experimental enclosures than in control enclosures, in both the overlap types (male/male, males/females). The intra- (females/females) and inter-sexual (females/males) overlap proportions of female home-ranges were independent of treatment. In C. musculinus, at the beginning of the breeding period and in absence of adult males, juvenile males increase their home-range size and therefore the degree of inter- and intra-sexual home-range overlap as a mechanism for enlarging the number of receptive females that they encounter.

  6. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations.

  7. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  8. Male reproductive health after childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Lisa B; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-09-20

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors.

  9. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE.
    JC Rockett, JC Luft, JB Garges and DJ Dix. Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: G Klinefelter
    The development of wate...

  10. Some Indicators of Fathering Behaviors in the United States: A Crosscultural Examination of Adult Male-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Wade C.; Day, Randal D.

    1979-01-01

    Adult male-child dyads of the United States, Ireland, Spain, Japan, and Mexico were examined at the proxemic level. Findings challenge the idea that American children are relatively more deprived of nurturing behavior from the father figure. American men do not interact with children much differently than men from other countries. (Author/BEF)

  11. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  12. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist treatment during mouse embryogenesis impairs social behavior and cognitive function of adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Hill, Joanna M; Cuasay, Katrina; Abebe, Daniel T

    2007-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a regulator of rodent embryogenesis during the period of neural tube closure. VIP enhanced growth in whole cultured mouse embryos; treatment with a VIP antagonist during embryogenesis inhibited growth and development. VIP antagonist treatment during embryogenesis also had permanent effects on adult brain chemistry and impaired social recognition behavior in adult male mice. The neurological deficits of autism appear to be initiated during neural tube closure and social behavior deficits are among the key characteristics of this disorder that is more common in males and is frequently accompanied by mental retardation. The current study examined the blockage of VIP during embryogenesis as a model for the behavioral deficits of autism. Treatment of pregnant mice with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10 had no apparent effect on the general health or sensory or motor capabilities of adult offspring. However, male offspring exhibited reduced sociability in the social approach task and deficits in cognitive function, as assessed through cued and contextual fear conditioning. Female offspring did not show these deficiencies. These results suggest that this paradigm has usefulness as a mouse model for aspects of autism as it selectively impairs male offspring who exhibit the reduced social behavior and cognitive dysfunction seen in autism. Furthermore, the study indicates that the foundations of some aspects of social behavior are laid down early in mouse embryogenesis, are regulated in a sex specific manner and that interference with embryonic regulators such as VIP can have permanent effects on adult social behavior.

  14. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  15. Epidemiological studies on guinea-worm in some newly discovered villages of Jhabua District (M.P.) and test of carica papaya leaves of guinea worm infection.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, P K

    1989-05-01

    Epidemiological survey was carried out for prevalence of guinea worm infection in 12 villages having a total population of 10281 persons in Jhabua district of M.P. The prevalence of 2.85 percent. Infection was more common in males. A paste of leaves of carica papya with opium and common salt applied for 3 days was helpful in relief of symptoms and easy extraction of worm from the body.

  16. Preliminary report on the correlations among pineal concretions, prostatic calculi and age in human adult males.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Sano, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-09-01

    By using quantitative image analysis of soft X-ray photographs on the bulk of extracted pineal glands and prostates, we made a preliminary investigation into the correlations among pineal concretions (% by mass), prostatic calculi (% by mass) and age (years) in 40 human adult males, ranging in age from 31 to 95 years (mean (+/-SD) 69.9 +/- 15.2 years), who died and underwent the routine dissection course. The mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi were 17.68 +/- 13.56% (range 0-51.34%) and 0.93 +/- 1.31% (range 0-5.82%), respectively. There was no correlation between the mass concentration of pineal concretions and aging (r = 0.03; P < 1.0). There was no correlation between mass concentration of prostatic calculi and aging (r = 0.28; P < 0.5). No pineal concretions and no prostatic calculi were observed in seven and 10 cases, respectively; in addition, in one case, neither-concretions nor calculi were seen. From such data and from the previously reported suggestion on the counteracting functions between the pineal gland and prostate, a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi was expected. This was certainly obtained, but the correlation was low (r = -0.39; P < 0.05). Such a low correlation and no correlations between the concentrations of pineal concretions and aging or between prostatic calculi and aging may have been caused by the examination of relatively older humans. Therefore, further investigations using a number of pair samples collected from males including younger age generations will be necessary. PMID:14527133

  17. Preliminary report on the correlations among pineal concretions, prostatic calculi and age in human adult males.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Sano, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-09-01

    By using quantitative image analysis of soft X-ray photographs on the bulk of extracted pineal glands and prostates, we made a preliminary investigation into the correlations among pineal concretions (% by mass), prostatic calculi (% by mass) and age (years) in 40 human adult males, ranging in age from 31 to 95 years (mean (+/-SD) 69.9 +/- 15.2 years), who died and underwent the routine dissection course. The mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi were 17.68 +/- 13.56% (range 0-51.34%) and 0.93 +/- 1.31% (range 0-5.82%), respectively. There was no correlation between the mass concentration of pineal concretions and aging (r = 0.03; P < 1.0). There was no correlation between mass concentration of prostatic calculi and aging (r = 0.28; P < 0.5). No pineal concretions and no prostatic calculi were observed in seven and 10 cases, respectively; in addition, in one case, neither-concretions nor calculi were seen. From such data and from the previously reported suggestion on the counteracting functions between the pineal gland and prostate, a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi was expected. This was certainly obtained, but the correlation was low (r = -0.39; P < 0.05). Such a low correlation and no correlations between the concentrations of pineal concretions and aging or between prostatic calculi and aging may have been caused by the examination of relatively older humans. Therefore, further investigations using a number of pair samples collected from males including younger age generations will be necessary.

  18. Variants of psychopathy in adult male offenders: A latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S; Santtila, Pekka; Habermeyer, Elmar; Nitschke, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27). The 4 PCL-R factors were the dependent variables for clustering. A solution with 3 latent classes showed a better fit to the data than did a unitary model without latent classes. Tentative labels for the latent classes are Manipulative (Latent Class 1 [LC1]), Aggressive (Latent Class 2 [LC2]), and Sociopathic (Latent Class 3 [LC3]). The latter class represented an antisocial group that lacked the emotional detachment observed in the other 2 groups. We propose that LC1 and LC2 reflect phenotypic variations on a theme of the traditional construct of psychopathy, and that LC3 is consistent with conceptions of antisocial personality disorder and sociopathy. Replication and external classification with an independent data set of 497 adult male offenders again yielded clearly separable clusters, as well as meaningful differences or trends among latent classes on education, intelligence, symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported psychopathic traits and negative affect. The conceptualization of psychopathy in terms of manipulative and aggressive variants is consistent with clinical theory and is empirically grounded. PMID:25643206

  19. Body configuration and joint moment analysis during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males.

    PubMed

    Horita, T; Kitamura, K; Kohno, N

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body configurations and the joint function during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males. Twelve healthy adult males and eight (one male and seven females) 6-yr-old kindergartners participated in this study. Subjects performed standing long jump on a force platform with full effort. Body segment and joint angles were analyzed by high speed videography (100 frames.s-1). Using kinetic and kinematic data, joint moments, power, and work done were calculated through a free body diagram. Average standing long jump performances were +1.5 SD above Japanese norm in both adults and children. A wide range of motion of the lower limb segments during flight phase was found in the adults. In the crouch prior to take off, joint muscle power peaks appeared in the same order, and joint contribution to the total work done showed almost the same values in both adults and children. It is suggested that gross motor pattern before take off is almost accomplished by the 6-yr-old. Judging by hip joint work, adult performance was much better than that of children, since the adults exerted relatively higher negative work from the onset of preparatory movement to the point of lowest center of gravity during crouch. It was concluded that skilled 6-yr-old children have not fully developed either hip negative work during preparatory movement or body configuration in the flight phase, although gross motor pattern before take off phase was accomplished to skilled adult level. PMID:1943628

  20. Neonatal tryptophan depletion and corticosterone supplementation modify emotional responses in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Zoratto, Francesca; Fiore, Marco; Ali, Syed F; Laviola, Giovanni; Macrì, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are crucially involved in the regulation of emotions. Specifically, spontaneous and/or environmentally mediated modulations of the functionality of these systems early in development may favour the onset of depressive- and anxiety-related phenotypes. While the independent contribution of each of these systems to the emergence of abnormal phenotypes has been detailed in clinical and experimental studies, only rarely has their interaction been systematically investigated. Here, we addressed the effects of reduced serotonin and environmental stress during the early stages of postnatal life on emotional regulations in mice. To this aim, we administered, to outbred CD1 mouse dams, during their first week of lactation, a tryptophan deficient diet (T) and corticosterone via drinking water (C; 80μg/ml). Four groups of dams (animal facility rearing, AFR; T treated, T; C treated, C; T and C treated, TC) and their male offspring were used in the study. Maternal care was scored throughout treatment and adult offspring were tested for: anhedonia (progressive ratio schedule); anxiety-related behaviour (approach-avoidance conflict paradigm); BDNF, dopamine and serotonin concentrations in selected brain areas. T, C and TC treatments reduced active maternal care compared to AFR. Adult TC offspring showed significantly increased anxiety- and anhedonia-related behaviours, reduced striatal and increased hypothalamic BDNF and reduced dopamine and serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and their turnover in the hippocampus. Thus, present findings support the view that neonatal variations in the functionality of the serotonergic system and of HPA axis may jointly contribute to induce emotional disturbances in adulthood.

  1. Prenatal caffeine exposure induces a poor quality of articular cartilage in male adult offspring rats via cholesterol accumulation in cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hanwen; Li, Jing; Cao, Hong; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations indicate that osteoarthritis is associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Our previous studies showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induced chondrogenesis retardation in IUGR offspring rats. The current study sought to investigate the effects of PCE on male IUGR offspring rats’ articular cartilage, and the mechanisms associated with abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Based on the results from both male fetal and adult fed a high-fat diet (HFD) studies of rats that experienced PCE (120 mg/kg.d), the results showed a poor quality of articular cartilage and cholesterol accumulation in the adult PCE group. Meanwhile, the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations were increased in adult PCE offspring. We also observed lower expression of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) and impaired cholesterol efflux in adult articular cartilage. Furthermore, the expression of cartilage functional genes, components of the IGF1 signaling pathway and cholesterol efflux pathway related genes were decreased in PCE fetal cartilage. In conclusion, PCE induced a poor quality of articular cartilage in male adult offspring fed a HFD. This finding was shown to be due to cholesterol accumulation in the cartilage, which may have resulted from intrauterine reduced activity of the IGF1 signaling pathway. PMID:26639318

  2. Prenatal caffeine exposure induces a poor quality of articular cartilage in male adult offspring rats via cholesterol accumulation in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hanwen; Li, Jing; Cao, Hong; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-07

    Epidemiological investigations indicate that osteoarthritis is associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Our previous studies showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induced chondrogenesis retardation in IUGR offspring rats. The current study sought to investigate the effects of PCE on male IUGR offspring rats' articular cartilage, and the mechanisms associated with abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Based on the results from both male fetal and adult fed a high-fat diet (HFD) studies of rats that experienced PCE (120 mg/kg.d), the results showed a poor quality of articular cartilage and cholesterol accumulation in the adult PCE group. Meanwhile, the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations were increased in adult PCE offspring. We also observed lower expression of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) and impaired cholesterol efflux in adult articular cartilage. Furthermore, the expression of cartilage functional genes, components of the IGF1 signaling pathway and cholesterol efflux pathway related genes were decreased in PCE fetal cartilage. In conclusion, PCE induced a poor quality of articular cartilage in male adult offspring fed a HFD. This finding was shown to be due to cholesterol accumulation in the cartilage, which may have resulted from intrauterine reduced activity of the IGF1 signaling pathway.

  3. Physiological and biochemical parameters in response to electroejaculation in adult and yearling anesthetized pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Villagrán, M; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in physiological and biochemical parameters during electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia in adult and yearling pampas deer males (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). The relation between heart rate, pulse rate, respiratory rate and oximetry with EE voltages was studied. The changes in cortisol, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and rectal temperature were determined before and after electroejaculation (BEE and AEE). Heart rate and pulse rate values increased during EE, with a greater increase in heart rate in adults (p < 0.01). Respiratory rate and SpO(2) were not affected by EE or category. The rectal temperature decreased in adults and yearlings during EE (p = 0.0001). Alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased AEE (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in young than in adult males (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the EE under general anaesthesia in the pampas deer provoked increases in heart and pulse rates, as well as in creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and a decrease in rectal temperature in both categories. Oximetry values were especially low during the procedure. Heart rate increase was greater in adult males, and alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in yearlings.

  4. Of FOXes and Forgetful Worms.

    PubMed

    Alic, Nazif

    2016-03-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is one of the most haunting aspects of human aging. In a recent publication, Coleen Murphy and colleagues (Kaletsky et al., 2016) describe the transcriptional program that maintains youthful function of aging neurons in the nematode worm. PMID:26959183

  5. Embryonic co-exposure to methoxychlor and Clophen A50 alters sexual behavior in adult male quail.

    PubMed

    Halldin, Krister; Axelsson, Jeanette; Brunström, Björn

    2005-04-01

    Embryonic exposure to estrogens and estrogenic pollutants is known to demasculinize sexual behavior in adult male Japanese quail. In the present study, we administered the insecticide methoxychlor to quail eggs at a dose of 150 microg/g egg and then studied sexual behavior and other reproductive variables in adult males. In a second experiment we administered the same dose of methoxychlor together with 10 microg/g egg of the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Clophen A50 (CA50) and also CA50 alone. Neither methoxychlor nor CA50 had any significant effects by themselves, but when they were administered together a significant reduction in male sexual behavior was observed. It seems likely that induction of biotransformation enzymes in the embryos by CA50 resulted in increased conversion of methoxychlor to the more estrogenic metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE).

  6. Early maladaptive schemas among young adult male substance abusers: a comparison with a non-clinical group.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (J. E. Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement than a non-clinical comparison group. The current study extended the research on substance use and schemas by comparing the early maladaptive schemas of young adult male residential substance abuse patients (n = 101) and a group of non-clinical male college students (n = 175). Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical comparison group on 9 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and substance use treatment programs are discussed.

  7. Male Courtship Rate Plasticity in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana Is Controlled by Temperature Experienced during the Pupal and Adult Stages

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues can act to initiate alternative developmental trajectories that result in different adult phenotypes, including behavioral phenotypes. The developmental period when an organism is sensitive to the cue is often described as a critical period. Here we investigated the critical period for temperature-sensitive courtship rate plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We performed a series of temperature-shift experiments in which larvae, pupae, or adults were shifted for blocks of time from one temperature to an alternative temperature, and then we quantified the courtship rate exhibited by adult males. We discovered that the critical period begins during pupal development and extends into adulthood, but temperature experienced during larval development does not affect male courtship rate. This finding allows us to develop hypotheses that address how developmental and physiological factors may have influenced the evolution of behavioral plasticity in this species. PMID:23717531

  8. Male-specific suppression of hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activities toward sex hormones in the adult male rat administered bisphenol A.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Junya; Nakada, Ken; Yuasa, Akira; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Various adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive organs of male animals have been reported. We found that UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities towards bisphenol A, testosterone and oestradiol were significantly decreased in liver microsomes prepared from adult male Wistar rats administered with the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (1 mg/2 days for 2 or 4 weeks). However, suppression of the transferase activities was not observed in female rats, even after bisphenol A treatment for 4 weeks. Diethylstilbestrol, which is well known as an endocrine disruptor, had the same effects, but p -cumylphenol had no effect on UGT activities towards sex hormones. Co-administration of an anti-oestrogen, tamoxifen, inhibited the suppression of the transferase activities by bisphenol A. Western blotting analysis showed that the amount of UGT2B1, an isoform of UGT which glucuronidates bisphenol A, was decreased in the rat liver microsomes by the treatment. Northern blotting analysis also indicated that UGT2B1 mRNA in the liver was decreased by bisphenol A treatment. The suppression of UGT activities, UGT2B1 protein and UGT2B1 mRNA expression did not occur in female rats. The results indicate that bisphenol A treatment reduces the mRNA expression of UGT2B1 and other UGT isoforms that mediate the glucuronidation of sex hormones in adult male rats, and this suggests that the endocrine balance may be disrupted by suppression of glucuronidation. PMID:12230427

  9. Phthalates in Commercial Chinese Rice Wines: Concentrations and the Cumulative Risk Assessment to Adult Males in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Lu, Wen Wei; Chen, Bo; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of 16 phthalates in 164 commercial Chinese rice wines (CRW) were detected by GC-MS, and consumption data on CRW in different packaging types was investigated from 634 adult males in Shanghai using a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the principles of probabilistic modelling and cumulative risk assessment, the exposure and health risk of phthalates from CRW to adult males in Shanghai was evaluated. DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP were detected in the samples, the range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6.10% for BBP to 15.24% for DIBP, and the detected concentrations were 51.06-200.34 ng/mL. All the respondents consumed CRW, 90.69% of them consumed CRW 0.01-49.9 mL/d, the minimum value of the average daily intake of CRW was 6.25 mL/d, the median was 13.72 mL/d and the maximum was 300 mL/d. The median exposure level of the 6 detected Phthalates to adult males in Shanghai were 6.58-7.10 ng/(d•kg), and the maximum exposure level were 137.38-540.47 ng/(d•kg). The cumulative exposure health risk index (HI) based on the median and maximum exposure level of the 6 Phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP) were 0.001147 and 0.063396, both were far less than 1. In conclusion, CRW were generally consumed by the adult males in Shanghai, although multiple phthalates were detected in commercial CRW, health risk of such exposure levels from commercial CRW to the target adult males in Shanghai was very low. PMID:25341819

  10. Phthalates in Commercial Chinese Rice Wines: Concentrations and the Cumulative Risk Assessment to Adult Males in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Lu, Wen Wei; Chen, Bo; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of 16 phthalates in 164 commercial Chinese rice wines (CRW) were detected by GC-MS, and consumption data on CRW in different packaging types was investigated from 634 adult males in Shanghai using a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the principles of probabilistic modelling and cumulative risk assessment, the exposure and health risk of phthalates from CRW to adult males in Shanghai was evaluated. DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP were detected in the samples, the range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6.10% for BBP to 15.24% for DIBP, and the detected concentrations were 51.06-200.34 ng/mL. All the respondents consumed CRW, 90.69% of them consumed CRW 0.01-49.9 mL/d, the minimum value of the average daily intake of CRW was 6.25 mL/d, the median was 13.72 mL/d and the maximum was 300 mL/d. The median exposure level of the 6 detected Phthalates to adult males in Shanghai were 6.58-7.10 ng/(d•kg), and the maximum exposure level were 137.38-540.47 ng/(d•kg). The cumulative exposure health risk index (HI) based on the median and maximum exposure level of the 6 Phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP) were 0.001147 and 0.063396, both were far less than 1. In conclusion, CRW were generally consumed by the adult males in Shanghai, although multiple phthalates were detected in commercial CRW, health risk of such exposure levels from commercial CRW to the target adult males in Shanghai was very low.

  11. Cloning of calves from various somatic cell types of male and female adult, newborn and fetal cows.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Tani, T; Tsunoda, Y

    2000-11-01

    Twenty-four calves were cloned from six somatic cell types of female and male adult, newborn and fetal cows. The clones were derived from female cumulus (n = 3), oviduct (n = 2) and uterine (n = 2) cells, female and male skin cells (n = 10), and male ear (n = 5) and liver (n = 2) cells. On the basis of the number of cloned embryos transferred (n = 172) to surrogate cows, the overall rate of success was 14%, but based on the number of surrogate mothers that became pregnant (n = 50), the success rate was 48%. Cell nuclei from uterus, ear and liver cells, which have not been tested previously, developed into newborn calves after nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes. To date, seven female and six male calves have survived: six of the females were from adult cells (cumulus (n = 3), oviduct (n = 2) and skin (n = 1) cells) and one was from newborn skin cells, whereas the male calves were derived from adult ear cells (n = 3), newborn liver and skin cells (n = 2), and fetal cells (n = 1). Clones derived from adult cells frequently aborted in the later stages of pregnancy and calves developing to term showed a higher number of abnormalities than did those derived from newborn or fetal cells. The telomeric DNA lengths in the ear cells of three male calves cloned from the ear cells of a bull aged 10 years were similar to those of the original bull. However, the telomeric DNA lengths from the white blood cells of the clones, although similar to those in an age-matched control, were shorter than those of the original bull, which indicates that telomeric shortening varies among tissues.

  12. Vulnerability of the neural circuitry underlying sexual behavior to chronic adult exposure to oral bisphenol a in male mice.

    PubMed

    Picot, Marie; Naulé, Lydie; Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Martini, Mariangela; Raskin, Kalina; Grange-Messent, Valérie; Franceschini, Isabelle; Keller, Matthieu; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2014-02-01

    There are human reproduction concerns associated with extensive use of bisphenol A (BPA)-containing plastic and, in particular, the leaching of BPA into food and beverages. In this context, it remains unclear whether and how exposure to BPA interferes with the developmental organization and adult activation of male sexual behavior by testosterone. We evaluated the developmental and adult exposure to oral BPA at doses equivalent to the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (5 mg/kg body weight per day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) (50 μg/kg body weight per day) on mouse sexual behavior and the potential mechanisms underlying BPA effects. Adult exposure to BPA reduced sexual motivation and performance at TDI dose only. Exposed males took longer to initiate mating and reach ejaculation despite normal olfactory chemoinvestigation. This deficiency was not restored by sexual experience and was associated with unchanged circulating levels of testosterone. By contrast, developmental exposure to BPA at TDI or no-observed-adverse-effect-level dose did not reduce sexual behavior or alter the neuroanatomical organization of the preoptic area. Disrupting the neural androgen receptor resulted in behavioral and neuroanatomical effects similar to those induced by adult exposure to TDI dose. Moreover, adult exposure of mutant males to BPA at TDI dose did not trigger additional alteration of sexual behavior, suggesting that BPA and neural androgen receptor mutation share a common mechanism of action. This shows, for the first time, that the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior is vulnerable to chronic adult exposure to low dose of BPA and suggests that BPA could act in vivo as an antiandrogenic compound.

  13. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Anti-schistosomal Properties of the Anti-anginal Drug, Perhexiline and Its Impact on Schistosoma mansoni Male and Female Reproductive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Perlas, Emerald; Bolasco, Giulia; Nibbio, Martina; Monteagudo, Edith; Bresciani, Alberto; Ruberti, Giovina

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis, one of the world’s greatest human neglected tropical diseases, is caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. A unique feature of schistosome biology is that the induction of sexual maturation as well as the maintenance of the differentiation status of female reproductive organs and egg production, necessary for both disease transmission and pathogenesis, are strictly dependent on the male. The treatment and most control initiatives of schistosomiasis rely today on the long-term application of a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), mostly by campaigns of mass drug administration. PZQ, while very active on adult parasites, has much lower activity against juvenile worms. Monotherapy also favors the selection of drug resistance and, therefore, new drugs are urgently needed. Methods and Findings Following the screening of a small compound library with an ATP-based luminescent assay on Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula, we here report the identification and characterization of novel antischistosomal properties of the anti-anginal drug perhexiline maleate (PHX). By phenotypic worm survival assays and confocal microscopy studies we show that PHX, in vitro, has a marked lethal effect on all S. mansoni parasite life stages (newly transformed schistosomula, juvenile and adult worms) of the definitive host. We further demonstrate that sub-lethal doses of PHX significantly impair egg production and lipid depletion within the vitellarium of adult female worms. Moreover, we highlighted tegumental damage in adult male worms and remarkable reproductive system alterations in both female and male adult parasites. The in vivo study in S. mansoni-patent mice showed a notable variability of worm burdens in the individual experiments, with an overall minimal schistosomicidal effect upon PHX treatment. The short PHX half-life in mice, together with its very high rodent plasma proteins binding could be the cause of the modest efficacy of PHX in the

  14. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  15. Maternal separation facilitates extinction of social fear in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D

    2016-01-15

    Early life stress, such as child abuse or neglect, is a risk factor for the development of psychopathologies characterized by abnormal social and emotional behaviors. In rodents, long-lasting changes in stress coping and emotional behavior can be induced by separating pups from their mother. We used maternal separation (MS; 3h daily on postnatal days 1-14) to test whether early life stress alters acquisition and extinction of social fear in adult male mice as studied in a specific model of social fear, i.e., in the social fear conditioning paradigm. We show that MS facilitated extinction of social fear without altering acquisition or expression of social fear. This facilitatory effect of MS on social fear extinction was not due to improved social learning and memory abilities or to increased social interest, as MS rather impaired social memory in the social discrimination test and did not alter social preference in the social preference-avoidance test. In contrast, MS did not alter acquisition and extinction of non-social, cued fear, or non-social memory as assessed in the object discrimination test and non-social anxiety as assessed in the elevated plus-maze. These results suggest that a social stress like MS in early life may improve coping with and recovery from a traumatic social experience in adulthood in mice. PMID:26497106

  16. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  17. Subglottal resonances of adult male and female native speakers of American English

    PubMed Central

    Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452

  18. Reliability of handheld dynamometry in assessment of hip strength in adult male football players.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Mark L; Hanna, Chris M; Raina Elley, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of handheld dynamometry (HHD) for measuring hip muscle strength in a sample of 30 healthy semi-professional adult male football players. The reliability of HHD had not been assessed in athletes who were likely to be stronger than populations tested previously. Maximal isometric strength of resisted hip flexion and adduction were measured. Mean strength ranged from 51.5 kg for dominant hip flexion to 26.7 kg for hip adduction at 90 degrees of hip flexion. Intrarater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. ICCs for interrater reliability ranged from 0.66 to 0.87. As expected, muscle strength in this group of athletes was significantly higher than that of populations in which HHD reliability has been assessed. Despite this, muscle strength testing of hip flexor and adductor muscles can be performed with good to excellent intra- and interrater reliability in this population. PMID:19376747

  19. Metformin Exposure at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Causes Potential Endocrine Disruption in Adult Male Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemuth, Nicholas J; Jordan, Renee; Crago, Jordan; Blanksma, Chad; Johnson, Rodney; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants that have been found ubiquitously in wastewater and surface waters around the world. A major source of these compounds is incomplete metabolism in humans and subsequent excretion in human waste, resulting in discharge into surface waters by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. One pharmaceutical found in particularly high abundance in recent WWTP effluent and surface water studies is metformin, one of the world's most widely prescribed antidiabetic drugs. Interactions between insulin signaling and steroidogenesis suggest potential endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin found in the aquatic environment. Adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were chronically exposed to metformin for 4 wk, at 40 µg/L, a level similar to the average found in WWTP effluent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Genetic endpoints related to metabolism and endocrine function as well as reproduction-related endpoints were examined. Metformin treatment induced significant up-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding the egg-protein vitellogenin in male fish, an indication of endocrine disruption. The present study, the first to study the effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure in fathead minnows, demonstrates the need for further study of the endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin in aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25358780

  20. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment.

  1. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Liang, Chaozhao; Su, Puyu; Peng, Zhen; Shi, Kai; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Lu, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Jishuang; Xia, Lei; Yang, Jiajia; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P < 0.001 for all). Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P < 0.001 for all). These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  2. Chronic systemic administration of 5-HT produces weight loss in mature adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S

    1995-09-01

    Adult male rats were allowed to free-feed until their body weights had stabilised. They were next trained onto a 4 h per day feeding regimen, until further stabilisation occurred. All rats then received saline injections for 5 days, to establish baseline body weights. One group was then injected with 5.0 mg/kg 5-HT daily for 30 days while the other group continued with saline. Progressive and significant weight loss occurred in the drug-treated animals. After 30 days, the 5-HT-treated rats had lost 7.0% of their baseline body weights, whereas the control group had gained 1.3%. At this point, the 5-HT treated rats were switched back to saline injections to investigate rebound effects. Although the group that had received 5-HT treatment showed evidence of rebound weight gain, mean weights at the end of the 10 day rebound period were still 4.5% lower than baseline values. These data clearly indicate that chronic systemic administration of 5-HT can produce considerable weight loss in rats.

  3. Nicotine-Cadmium Interaction Alters Exploratory Motor Function and Increased Anxiety in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chris Ajonijebu, Duyilemi; Adeyemi Adeniyi, Philip; Oloruntoba Adekeye, Adeshina; Peter Olatunji, Babawale; Olakunle Ishola, Azeez; Michael Ogundele, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the time dependence in cadmium-nicotine interaction and its effect on motor function, anxiety linked behavioural changes, serum electrolytes, and weight after acute and chronic treatment in adult male mice. Animals were separated randomly into four groups of n = 6 animals each. Treatment was done with nicotine, cadmium, or nicotine-cadmium for 21 days. A fourth group received normal saline for the same duration (control). Average weight was determined at 7-day interval for the acute (D1-D7) and chronic (D7-D21) treatment phases. Similarly, the behavioural tests for exploratory motor function (open field test) and anxiety were evaluated. Serum electrolytes were measured after the chronic phase. Nicotine, cadmium, and nicotine-cadmium treatments caused no significant change in body weight after the acute phase while cadmium-nicotine and cadmium caused a decline in weight after the chronic phase. This suggests the role of cadmium in the weight loss observed in tobacco smoke users. Both nicotine and cadmium raised serum Ca2+ concentration and had no significant effect on K+ ion when compared with the control. In addition, nicotine-cadmium treatment increased bioaccumulation of Cd2+ in the serum which corresponded to a decrease in body weight, motor function, and an increase in anxiety. PMID:26317007

  4. Maternal separation facilitates extinction of social fear in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D

    2016-01-15

    Early life stress, such as child abuse or neglect, is a risk factor for the development of psychopathologies characterized by abnormal social and emotional behaviors. In rodents, long-lasting changes in stress coping and emotional behavior can be induced by separating pups from their mother. We used maternal separation (MS; 3h daily on postnatal days 1-14) to test whether early life stress alters acquisition and extinction of social fear in adult male mice as studied in a specific model of social fear, i.e., in the social fear conditioning paradigm. We show that MS facilitated extinction of social fear without altering acquisition or expression of social fear. This facilitatory effect of MS on social fear extinction was not due to improved social learning and memory abilities or to increased social interest, as MS rather impaired social memory in the social discrimination test and did not alter social preference in the social preference-avoidance test. In contrast, MS did not alter acquisition and extinction of non-social, cued fear, or non-social memory as assessed in the object discrimination test and non-social anxiety as assessed in the elevated plus-maze. These results suggest that a social stress like MS in early life may improve coping with and recovery from a traumatic social experience in adulthood in mice.

  5. Androgens inhibit the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Sinnesael, Mieke; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Dubois, Vanessa; Deboel, Ludo; Delisser, Peter; Behets, Geert J; D'Haese, Patrick C; Carmeliet, Geert; Claessens, Frank; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Androgens are well known to enhance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy; however, whether androgens also influence bone's adaptive response to mechanical loading remains unclear. We studied the adaptive osteogenic response to unilateral in vivo mechanical loading of tibia in adult male mice in both a long- and a short-term experimental set-up. Mice were divided into four groups: sham operated, orchidectomized (ORX), T (ORX+T), or nonaromatizable dihydrotestosterone (ORX+DHT) replacement. Significant interactions between androgen status and osteogenic response to mechanical loading were observed. Cortical thickness increased by T (0.14 vs 0.11 mm sham, P<.05) and DHT (0.17 vs 0.11 mm sham, P<.05). However, T partially (+36%) and DHT completely (+10%) failed to exhibit the loading-related increase observed in sham (+107%) and ORX (+131%, all P<.05) mice. ORX decreased periosteal bone formation, which was restored to sham levels by T and DHT. However, both androgens completely suppressed the loading-related increase in periosteal bone formation. Short-term loading decreased the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes in sham, whereas in control fibulas, ORX decreased and T increased the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes. Loading no longer down-regulated sclerostin in the ORX or T groups. In conclusion, both T and DHT suppress the osteogenic response to mechanical loading.

  6. Applicability of dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 to Asian adult males: Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2007-05-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reported comprehensive dose conversion coefficients for adult population, which is exposed to external photon sources in the Publication 74. However, those quantities were calculated from so-called stylized (or mathematical) phantoms composed of simplified mathematical surface equations so that the discrepancy between the phantoms and real human anatomy has been investigated by several authors using Caucasian-based voxel phantoms. To address anatomical and racial limitations of the stylized phantoms, several Asian-based voxel phantoms have been developed by Korean and Japanese investigators, independently. In the current study, photon dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 were compared with those from a total of five Asian-based male voxel phantoms, whose body dimensions were almost identical. Those of representative radio-sensitive organs (testes, red bone marrow, colon, lungs, and stomach), and effective dose conversion coefficients were obtained for comparison. Even though organ doses for testes, colon and lungs, and effective doses from ICRP 74 agreed well with those from Asian voxel phantoms within 10%, absorbed doses for red bone marrow and stomach showed significant discrepancies up to 30% which was mainly attributed to difference of phantom description between stylized and voxel phantoms. This study showed that the ICRP 74 dosimetry data, which have been reported to be unrealistic compared to those from Caucasian-based voxel phantoms, are also not appropriate for Asian population. PMID:17337194

  7. Early deprivation reduced anxiety and enhanced memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuliang; Wang, Bo; Jin, Jing; An, Shuming; Zeng, Qingwen; Duan, Yanhong; Yang, Liguo; Ma, Jing; Cao, Xiaohua

    2014-09-01

    The effects of early deprivation (ED, which involves both dam and littermate deprivation) on anxiety and memory are less investigated in comparison with maternal separation (MS), and it is not yet clear how ED affects long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral pathway. By using a series of behavioral tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and field potential recording, we explored the effect of pre-weaning daily 3-h ED on anxiety, memory and potential mechanisms in adult male rats. Compared with control, ED rats spent longer time in open arms of elevated plus maze and in light compartment of light-dark transition box. Consistently, stress-induced blood plasma corticosterone level was also lower in ED rats. Moreover, ED rats showed better performance in social recognition and Morris water maze test. In accordance with results in memory tests, the threshold of LTP induction in hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway of ED rats was also reduced. Our results indicate ED reduced anxiety, but enhanced social recognition and spatial reference memory. We suggest the diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and facilitated hippocampal LTP may contribute to the anxiety-reducing and memory-enhancing effects of ED, respectively.

  8. School burnout and cardiovascular functioning in young adult males: a hemodynamic perspective.

    PubMed

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Brown, Preston C; Koutnik, Andrew P; Fincham, Frank D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated aortic and brachial hemodynamic functioning that may link school burnout to cardiovascular risk factors. Methodological improvements from previous research were implemented including (1) statistical control of depressive and anxiety symptoms (2) resting, stress-induced and cardiac recovery condition comparisons and (3) use of pulse wave analysis. Forty undergraduate young adult males completed self-report measures of school burnout, trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants then completed a protocol consisting of a 10-min seated rest, 5-min baseline (BASE), 3-min cold pressor test (CPT) and a 3-min recovery period (REC). Indices of brachial and aortic hemodynamics were obtained by means of pulse wave analysis via applanation tonometry. Controlling for anxiety and depressive symptoms, planned contrasts identified no differences in cardiovascular parameters at BASE between participants in burnout and non-burnout groups. However, negative changes in hemodynamic indices occurred in burnout participants at CPT and REC as evidenced by increased aortic and brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressures, increased left ventricular work and increased myocardial oxygen consumption. Findings suggest that school burnout symptoms are associated with cardiac hyperactivity during conditions of cardiac stress and recovery and therefore may be associated with the early manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Future studies are suggested to reveal underlying autonomic mechanisms explaining hemodynamics functioning in individuals with school burnout symptomatology.

  9. Comparability and reproducibility of adult male anogenital distance measurements for two different methods.

    PubMed

    Mendiola, J; Oñate-Celdrán, J; Samper-Mateo, P; Arense-Gonzalo, J J; Torres-Roca, M; Sánchez-Rodríguez, C; García-Escudero, D; Fontana-Compiano, L O; Eisenberg, M L; Swan, S H; Torres-Cantero, A M

    2016-07-01

    The distance from the genitals to the anus, anogenital distance, reflects androgen concentration during prenatal development in mammals. The use of anogenital distance in human studies is still very limited and the quality and consistency of measurements is an important methodological issue. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of adult male anogenital distance measurements by two different methods. All men were attending an outpatient clinic at a university hospital and underwent an andrological examination and completed a brief questionnaire. Two variants of anogenital distance [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGDAS ) and to the cephalad insertion of the penis (AGDAP )] by two methods (lithotomy or frog-legged position) were assessed in 70 men. Within and between coefficient of variations, intra-class correlation coefficients, two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, and scatter and Bland-Altman plots were calculated. The two methods produced similar values for AGDAP but different estimates for AGDAS . Nonetheless, the overall agreement (ICC ≥ 0.80) was acceptable for both measures. Therefore, both methods are internally consistent and adequate for epidemiological studies, and may be used depending on the available medical resources, clinical setting, and populations. PMID:27153294

  10. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  11. Testosterone increases repertoire size in an open-ended learner: an experimental study using adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Alain J-M; Pinxten, Rianne; Darras, Veerle M; Eens, Marcel

    2012-11-01

    Song in songbirds is a learned secondary sexual behavior, first acquired during a sensitive phase of juvenile development, which is affected by hormones such as testosterone (T). While the latter has received much attention, the potential involvement of T in the adult repertoire changes observed in a number of species is much less understood. Yet, this may prove essential to understand the role of song as a sexually selected trait. We therefore performed a T-implantation experiment during the non-breeding season (when T is basal), using adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), a songbird species in which song repertoire size (and composition) changes seasonally and increases with age. Repertoire size increased rapidly in T-males, but not in control males, indicating a role for T in repertoire size changes. This increase resulted from a lower proportion of dropped song types in T-males than in control males, while the proportion of added song types did not differ between both groups. Interestingly, the observed repertoire turnover (adding and removing song types from the repertoire) in both groups, suggests that elevated plasma T levels were not essential for changes in repertoire composition (contrary to repertoire size). Finally, T-males (but not control males) significantly increased their song rate, while neither group showed a significant change in their song bout length and phrase repetition rate. Taken together, our results suggest a role for T in adult song learning and provide new insights into the information content of repertoire size and song bout length as sexually selected traits. PMID:23036784

  12. Worm recovery and precipitin antibody response in guinea pigs and rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Su, K E; Wang, F Y; Chi, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Guinea pigs (Hartley strain) and rats (Wistar strain) were each fed 200 and 100 Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae, respectively. Five animals from each species were sacrificed weekly between 1-8 weeks postinfection (WPI) and then at 12, 16, 20 and 30 WPI for collection of worms, bile and sera. The overall worm recovery rates for guinea pigs and rats were 18.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Only one of the five rats examined at 20 WPI still harbored one worm, while all were worm-free at 30 WPI. By a double diffusion test, no antibodies were detected against C. sinensis adult antigens in the bile juice. Serum antibodies were detected in at least 95% of the infected guinea pigs between 4-30 WPI and rats between 3-16 WPI. Precipitin antibodies seemed to be correlated with the presence of live worms in rats that had been infected for more than 12 weeks.

  13. The uptake of Texas Red-BSA in the excretory system of schistosomes and its colocalisation with ER60 promoter-induced GFP in transiently transformed adult males.

    PubMed

    Wippersteg, Volker; Ribeiro, Fabio; Liedtke, Stefanie; Kusel, John R; Grevelding, Christoph G

    2003-09-30

    The excretory system of schistosomes has focused some attention during the last years since accumulating evidence suggests that it plays an important role in the host-parasite interaction. Signalling molecules such as phosphatases, but also proteases have been localised in the excretory system. To some extent, however, localisation studies are limited by the fact that sections of fixed specimens are used. In this study, we tested the fluorescent molecules FITC-dextran and Texas Red-BSA for their ability to enter the excretory system of living Schistosoma mansoni males. It is demonstrated that the dyes selectively stain the excretory tubules which are widely distributed along the worm body. This finding was used to investigate whether the staining of worms with Texas Red-BSA can help to localise transgene activity in worms which were transiently transformed by particle bombardment. A vector was used for transformation which contained the green fluorescent protein gene, under the control of the regulatory elements of the cysteine protease ER60 gene. After transformation and staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that ER60-induced green fluorescent protein activity colocalises with Texas Red-BSA in the excretory tubules. The results suggest a role for ER60 during the host-parasite interaction. Furthermore, the colocalisation approach introduced here opens further perspectives to characterise gene-expression profiles in this parasite.

  14. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  15. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  16. Exogenous androgen during development alters adult partner preference and mating behavior in gonadally intact male rats.

    PubMed

    Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

    2010-04-01

    In the rat, neonatal administration of testosterone propionate to a castrated male causes masculinization of behavior. However, if an intact male is treated neonatally with testosterone (hyper-androgen condition), male sexual behavior in adulthood is disrupted. There is a possibility that the hyper-androgen treatment is suppressing male sexual behavior by altering the male's partner preference and thereby reducing his motivation to approach the female. If so, this would suggest that exposure to supra-physiological levels of androgen during development may result in the development of male-oriented partner preference in the male. To test this idea, male rats were treated either postnatally or prenatally with testosterone, and partner preference and sexual behavior were examined in adulthood. The principal finding of this study was that increased levels of testosterone during early postnatal life, but not prenatal, decreased male sexual behavior and increased the amount of time a male spent with a stimulus male, without affecting the amount of time spent with a stimulus female during partner preference tests. Thus, the reduction in male sexual behavior produced by early exposure to high levels of testosterone is not likely due to a reduction in the male's motivation to approach a receptive female.

  17. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25410991

  18. Comparison of internal doses calculated using the specific absorbed fractions of the average adult Japanese male phantom with those of the reference computational phantom-adult male of ICRP publication 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira

    2014-03-01

    In order to study the effects of body sizes and masses of organs and tissues on internal dose assessment, the values corresponding to effective dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides were calculated using the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of two phantoms: the average adult Japanese male phantom (JM-103) and the reference computational phantom-adult male (RCP-AM) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. SAFs were evaluated using the phantoms and Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX or were taken from published data. As a result of a comparison for 2894 cases of 923 radionuclides, the maximum discrepancy in the effective dose coefficients between the JM-103 and RCP-AM was about 40%. However, the discrepancies were smaller than 10% in 97% of all cases.

  19. Adult male mice emit context-specific ultrasonic vocalizations that are modulated by prior isolation or group rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Chabout, Jonathan; Serreau, Pierre; Ey, Elodie; Bellier, Ludovic; Aubin, Thierry; Bourgeron, Thomas; Granon, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions in mice are frequently analysed in genetically modified strains in order to get insight of disorders affecting social interactions such as autism spectrum disorders. Different types of social interactions have been described, mostly between females and pups, and between adult males and females. However, we recently showed that social interactions between adult males could also encompass cognitive and motivational features. During social interactions, rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but it remains unknown if call types are differently used depending of the context and if they are correlated with motivational state. Here, we recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice in various behavioral conditions, such as social interaction, novelty exploration and restraint stress. We introduced a modulator for the motivational state by comparing males maintained in isolation and males maintained in groups before the experiments. Male mice uttered USVs in all social and non-social situations, and even in a stressful restraint context. They nevertheless emitted the most important number of calls with the largest diversity of call types in social interactions, particularly when showing a high motivation for social contact. For mice maintained in social isolation, the number of calls recorded was positively correlated with the duration of social contacts, and most calls were uttered during contacts between the two mice. This correlation was not observed in mice maintained in groups. These results open the way for a deeper understanding and characterization of acoustic signals associated with social interactions. They can also help evaluating the role of motivational states in the emission of acoustic signals.

  20. Steady as He Goes: At-Sea Movement of Adult Male Australian Sea Lions in a Dynamic Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Andrew D.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region. PMID:24086338

  1. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Andrew D; Harcourt, Robert G; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  2. Differential alteration of the reproductive axis by testosterone and estrogen in peripubertal and adult male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Pak, Toni R; Lynch, G Robert; Tsai, Pei-San

    2002-09-01

    In male Siberian hamsters, administration of adult physiological levels of testosterone (T) and estrogen (E2) to juveniles inhibited pubertal onset by distinct pathways. It is presently unclear if T and E2 also exert an inhibitory effect on the reproductive function of sexually mature and sexually maturing hamsters. This study aims to determine if there is an age-dependent decline in the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis to these inhibitory steroids and if their actions remain distinct. Peripubertal and adult male Siberian hamsters were implanted with a silastic capsule containing T, E2, or cholesterol (Ch, control). Testosterone treatment significantly reduced testes mass and length and impaired spermatogenesis in both ages. In contrast, E2 treatment reduced testes mass only in peripubertal, but not adult, animals. In fact, E2 treatment significantly increased testes mass in adults without altering spermatogenesis. In addition, circulating E2 is very high immediately prior to pubertal onset and declines thereafter. Our results showed the inhibitory effects of T persist into adulthood whereas those of E2 subside as the animals become sexually mature. The decreased sensitivity of the HPG axis to the inhibitory effects of E2 in adult animals and the high level of circulating E2 immediately prior to pubertal onset suggest E2 may play an important role in the regulation of puberty in this species.

  3. Maternal allergy acts synergistically with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy to induce hepatic fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Allina, Jorge; Grabowski, Jacquelin; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Fiel, M Isabel; Jackson, Christine E; Zelikoff, Judith T; Odin, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal environmental exposures during pregnancy are known to affect disease onset in adult offspring. For example, maternal asthma exacerbations during pregnancy can worsen adult asthma in the offspring. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with future onset of cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring susceptibility to liver disease. This pilot study examined the long-term effect of maternal allergen challenge and/or cigarette smoking during pregnancy on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in adult mouse offspring. Ovalbumin (OVA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-sensitized/challenged CD-1 dams were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) or filtered air from gestational day 4 until parturition. Eight weeks postnatally, offspring were sacrificed for comparison of hepatic histology and mRNA expression. Adult male offspring of OVA-sensitized/challenged dams exposed to MCS (OSM) displayed significantly increased liver fibrosis (9.2% collagen content vs. <4% for all other treatment groups). These mice also had 1.8-fold greater collagen 1A1 mRNA levels. From the results here, we concluded that maternal allergen challenge in combination with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may be an important risk factor for liver disease in adult male offspring.

  4. First Record of the Scarab Beetle, Phyllophaga lissopyge from South America, with Descriptions of Adult Seasonal Activity and Male Response to Sex Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Rodriguez, Anuar; Peck, Daniel C.; Robbins, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllophaga lissopyge (Bates) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) is reported for the first time from South America. Male sex pheromone response is described for P. lissopyge and two other co-occurring Phyllophaga species. Adults of P. lissopyge and P. menetriesi (Blanchard) flew to traps baited with methyl 2-(methylthio) benzoate whereas adults of P. obsoleta (Blanchard) flew irregularly to four different pheromone compounds. Adult seasonal activity is described from males captures in Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. PMID:21529153

  5. Effect of Selenium on Neurotoxicity in Adult Male Mice Exposed to Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Shabnam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Formaldehyde is used in medicine and industry, and it is known to have detrimental effects on various systems including the nervous system, by increasing oxidative stress. However, data are scarce related to substances that can protect against the neurotoxicity induced by formaldehyde. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the protective effects of selenium against the toxic effect of this compound. Methods: A total of 48 adult male mice were divided randomly into six groups, i.e., (1) control, (2) treated with formaldehyde, (3) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.1 mg/kg selenium, (4) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.2 mg/kg selenium, (5) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.4 mg/kg selenium, and (6) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.8 mg/kg selenium. At the end of 14 days, the cerebellums were removed for histological evaluation. Morphological changes were examined using Image J software. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Formaldehyde caused a reduction in the numbers and sizes of Purkinje cells and granular cells; in addition, the thickness of the granular layer was thinner than that in the control mice (P < 0.05). Treatment with 0.1 mg/kg selenium resulted in an increase in the number of Purkinje cells as well as the area of the gray matter compared to those of the control mice. Conclusion: Formaldehyde-induced neuronal damage was prevented by the administration of 0.1 mg/kg selenium, hence this treatment shows therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurotoxicity PMID:25763172

  6. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

    PubMed

    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans.

  7. Electron specific absorbed fractions for the adult male and female ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-07-21

    The calculation of radiation dose from internally incorporated radionuclides is based on so-called absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs). SAFs for monoenergetic electrons were calculated for 63 source regions and 67 target regions using the new male and female adult reference computational phantoms adopted by the ICRP and ICRU and the Monte Carlo radiation transport programme package EGSnrc. The SAF values for electrons are opposed to the simplifying assumptions of ICRP Publication 30. The previously applied assumption of electrons being fully absorbed in the source organ itself is not always true at electron energies above approximately 300-500 keV. High-energy electrons have the ability to leave the source organ and, consequently, the electron SAFs for neighbouring organs can reach the same magnitude as those for photons for electron energies above 1 MeV. The reciprocity principle known for photons can be extended to electron SAFs as well, thus making cross-fire electron SAFs mass-independent. To quantify the impact of the improved electron dosimetry in comparison to the dosimetry using the simple assumptions of ICRP Publication 30, absorbed doses per administered activity of three radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated with and without explicit electron transport. The organ absorbed doses per administered activity for the two evaluation methods agree within 2%-3% for most organs for radionuclides with decay spectra having electron energies below a few hundred keV and within approximately 20% if higher electron energies are involved. An important exception is the urinary bladder wall, where the dose is overestimated by 60-150% using the simplified ICRP 30 approach for the radiopharmaceuticals of this study.

  8. Pesticide use and adult-onset asthma among male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; London, Stephanie J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kullman, Greg J.; Coble, Joseph; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific pesticides have been associated with wheeze in farmers, little is known about pesticides and asthma. We used data from 19,704 male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study to evaluate lifetime use of 48 pesticides and prevalent adult-onset asthma, defined as doctor-diagnosed asthma after age 20. We categorized asthma cases as allergic (N=127) and non-allergic (N=314) based on their history of eczema or hayfever. We used polytomous logistic regression controlling for age, state, smoking, and body mass to assess pesticide associations. High pesticide exposure events were associated with a doubling of both allergic and non-allergic asthma. For ever use, 12 individual pesticides were associated with allergic asthma and four with non-allergic asthma. For allergic asthma, coumaphos (odds ratio (OR) =2.34, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.49,3.70), heptachlor (OR=2.01, 95%CI=1.30,3.11), parathion (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.21,3.46), 80/20 mix (carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide) (OR=2.15, 95%CI=1.23,3.76) and ethylene dibromide (OR=2.07, 95%CI=1.02,4.20), all had odds ratios greater than 2.0 and significant exposure-response trends. For non-allergic asthma, DDT had the strongest association (OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.09,1.84) but with little evidence of increasing asthma with increasing use. Current animal handling and farm activities did not confound these results. We saw little evidence that allergy alone was driving these associations. Pesticides may be an overlooked contributor to asthma risk among farmers. PMID:19541724

  9. Fast and delayed locomotor response to acute high-dose nicotine administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Jandová, K; Marešová, D; Pokorný, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the immediate and delayed locomotor response to high-dose nicotine (NIC) administration in rats. The vertical and horizontal activity of behavior in adult male rats exposed to 1 mg/kg NIC or saline (SAL) were tested in a Laboras apparatus for one hour after drug application. Animals were then returned to their cages and housed for another seven days. After this period all animals were placed in Laboras again and their behavioral pattern was retested for another period of one hour (delayed response). Horizontal activity: immediately after nicotine administration animal were less mobile (first 2-minutes interval), when compared with controls. The immobilization effect of nicotine disappeared within 4 minutes and during whole first 10-minutes interval time spent by locomotion did not differ from controls. Locomotion activity of animals treated with nicotine increased robustly in following 10 minutes and remained significantly higher in 2nd, 3rd and 5th 10-minutes interval. Vertical activity: Rearing frequency was significantly lowered by NIC administration in first two minutes of the experiment and the same was found when the duration of rearing was analyzed. Lower rearing intensity of NIC treated animals disappeared in 4 minutes and was finally higher during whole test session as compared with controls. When duration of rearing was analyzed it was significantly longer in NIC treated animals. In majority of observed behavioral aspects there were no differences between NIC treated rats and controls seven days after NIC or SAL treatment. Our results reflect effect of NIC and we conclude that NIC significantly influences behavior of experimental animals.

  10. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  11. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark ET

    2015-01-01

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2–8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0–6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults. PMID:26240669

  12. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark Et

    2015-06-27

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m(-2)) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b(2) pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults. PMID:26240669

  13. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas Del Rio, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200-300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0-5, 5-24, 24-48, and 48-72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5-24, 24-48, and 48-72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  15. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources—including clinical history. Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  16. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark Et

    2015-06-27

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m(-2)) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b(2) pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  17. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas del Rio, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  18. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana. PMID:26754167

  19. Variation of bone layer thicknesses and trabecular volume fraction in the adult male human calvarium.

    PubMed

    Boruah, Sourabh; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S; Subit, Damien L; Salzar, Robert S; Crandall, Jeff R

    2015-08-01

    The human calvarium is a sandwich structure with two dense layers of cortical bone separated by porous cancellous bone. The variation of the three dimensional geometry, including the layer thicknesses and the volume fraction of the cancellous layer across the population, is unavailable in the current literature. This information is of particular importance to mathematical models of the human head used to simulate mechanical response. Although the target geometry for these models is the median geometry of the population, the best attempt so far has been the scaling of a unique geometry based on a few median anthropometric measurements of the head. However, this method does not represent the median geometry. This paper reports the average three dimensional geometry of the calvarium from X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and layer thickness and trabecular volume fraction from micro CT (μCT) imaging of ten adult male post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Skull bone samples have been obtained and μCT imaging was done at a resolution of 30 μm. Monte Carlo simulation was done to estimate the variance in these measurements due to the uncertainty in image segmentation. The layer thickness data has been averaged over areas of 5mm(2). The outer cortical layer was found to be significantly (p < 0.01; Student's t test) thicker than the inner layer (median of thickness ratio 1.68). Although there was significant location to location difference in all the layer thicknesses and volume fraction measurements, there was no trend. Average distribution and the variance of these metrics on the calvarium have been shown. The findings have been reported as colormaps on a 2D projection of the cranial vault. PMID:25920690

  20. Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17α-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Olsson, Per-Erik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25 ng/L EE2for 14 days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25 ng/L, but not 5 ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25 ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment. PMID:24747828

  1. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Nicole M.; Tomaszycki, Michelle L.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  2. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Baran, Nicole M; Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  3. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  4. Worm infestation among the school children of Dhankuta District.

    PubMed

    Sah, R B; Yadav, S; Jha, P K; Yadav, B K; Pokharel, P K

    2013-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) cause serious public health problem in Nepal. They are more prevalent in the poor segments of the population with low household income, poor handling of personal and environmental sanitation, overcrowding and limited access to clean water. The objective of the study is to assess knowledge and practice about worm infestation and to find out the relation of knowledge and practice with the selected variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 students of Grade 9 and 10 in Government and private schools of Dhankuta. The chi-square test was used to measure the association of knowledge and practice about worm infestation. The knowledge regarding risk factors of worm infestation due to unhygienic pig farming practices is significantly higher in female (66.4%) than male (44.8%). All the risk factors were found to be significantly higher in knowledge among the private school as compared to Government school. Regarding Fathers occupation, unemployed (100.0%) believe it is due to poor personal hygiene and very less of labor (50%) which is significantly associated. Regarding Mother Group, students never eat raw meat and vender food whose mothers have skilled worker. The school going students of Dhankuta were aware of the knowledge regarding the worm infestation but had less knowledge among the school children of Government as compared to private.

  5. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. PMID:26972154

  6. Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug.

  7. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  8. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation.

  9. [Cuticle ultrastructure of the fresh-water horsehair worm Gordionus alpestris (Villot, 1885) (Nematomorpha)].

    PubMed

    Guzeeva, E A; Efeykin, B D; Schmatko, V Yu; Spiridonov, S E

    2015-01-01

    The cuticular structure of the horsehair worm Gordionus alpestris (Villot, 1885) was studied under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Adult worms were collected in the Syuk River near Nickel' Village in the Republic of Adygea (Russia) in June 2013. In the sampling area, the G. alpestris juveniles parasitize diplopods Pachyiulus krivolutskyi Golovatch, 1977. Similarities with other Nematomorpha species with the known cuticle ultrastucture are discussed.

  10. Variation in fecal testosterone levels, inter-male aggression, dominance rank and age during mating and post-mating periods in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Ziegler, T E

    2007-12-01

    In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period. PMID:17427976

  11. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8-/- mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15635.001 PMID:27328324

  12. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  13. Using plain language skills to create an educational brochure about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Kim; Wizowski, Lindsay; Duckworth, JoAnn; Cassano, Jane; Hahn, Shirley Ann; Neal, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Writing in plain language makes it easier for patients to read, understand, and make informed decisions about sperm banking. Greater attention to the issue and properly designed educational brochures for use by nurses in oncology and reproductive health is of evident importance but of unknown impact. A multidisciplinary clinical team followed an evidence-based, patient-centered approach to develop "plain language" patient education materials about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. A patient education booklet was produced and implemented as part of the planned patient education for AYA male oncology patients at McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The patient education booklet for use by health professionals as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion with AYA males has been produced with the hope that it will contribute to better informed decision making regarding sperm banking and increased use of this technology for fertility preservation.

  14. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis. PMID:19718326

  15. A Sex-Linked Gene Controlling the Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female and Male Platyfish (XIPHOPHORUS MACULATUS), Fecundity in Females and Adult Size in Males

    PubMed Central

    Kallman, Klaus D.; Borkoski, Valerie

    1978-01-01

    A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined

  16. Two Leucobacter strains exert complementary virulence on Caenorhabditis including death by worm-star formation.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Félix, Marie-Anne; Clark, Laura C; Stroud, Dave; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2013-11-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated "worm-stars." Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy, separating their bodies into two parts. The other pathogen, Verde2, killed worms after rectal invasion, in a more virulent version of a previously studied infection. Resistance to killing by Verde2, by means of alterations in host surface glycosylation, resulted in hypersensitivity to Verde1, revealing a trade-off in bacterial susceptibility. Conversely, a sublethal surface infection of worms with Verde1 conferred partial protection against Verde2. The formation of worm-stars by Verde1 occurred only when worms were swimming in liquid but provides a striking example of asymmetric warfare as well as a bacterial equivalent to the trapping strategies used by nematophagous fungi.

  17. Two Leucobacter strains exert complementary virulence on Caenorhabditis including death by worm-star formation.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Félix, Marie-Anne; Clark, Laura C; Stroud, Dave; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2013-11-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated "worm-stars." Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy, separating their bodies into two parts. The other pathogen, Verde2, killed worms after rectal invasion, in a more virulent version of a previously studied infection. Resistance to killing by Verde2, by means of alterations in host surface glycosylation, resulted in hypersensitivity to Verde1, revealing a trade-off in bacterial susceptibility. Conversely, a sublethal surface infection of worms with Verde1 conferred partial protection against Verde2. The formation of worm-stars by Verde1 occurred only when worms were swimming in liquid but provides a striking example of asymmetric warfare as well as a bacterial equivalent to the trapping strategies used by nematophagous fungi. PMID:24206844

  18. Low dimensional worm-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    1995-01-01

    A simple three dimensional physical model is proposed to qualitatively address a particular type of dynamics evolving on toroidal structures. In the phase space this dynamics creates appearance of a worm-hole through which a chaotic, quasiperiodic and periodic behaviors are formed. An intriguing topological property of such a system is that it possesses no steady state solutions. As such, it opens some interesting questions in the bifurcation theory. The model also offers a novel qualitative tool for explaining some recently reported experimental and simulation results observed in physics, chemistry and biology.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Scheving, Lawrence A; Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A; Wang, Rebecca F; Stevenson, Mary C; Threadgill, David W; Russell, William E

    2014-03-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies.

  20. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J.; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes, and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, were associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition. PMID:26500524

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Scheving, Lawrence A; Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A; Wang, Rebecca F; Stevenson, Mary C; Threadgill, David W; Russell, William E

    2014-03-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies. PMID:24407590

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A.; Wang, Rebecca F.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Threadgill, David W.; Russell, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies. PMID:24407590

  3. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes, and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, were associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  4. Detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes of Fasciola gigantica worms under triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SX): an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shehab, Amel Y; Ebeid, Samia M; El-Samak, Mohamed Y; Hussein, Neveen M

    2009-04-01

    Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is an efficient fasciolicide that affects both juvenile and adult worms. After oral administration it is rapidly metabolized to TCBZ sulphoxide and sulphone that were found responsible for its fasciolicidal activity. Parasite defense mechanisms include detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzymes that would suppress its oxidative killing. The present work aimed at evaluating these enzymes under TCBZ-SX. Thirty juvenile and 30 adult F. gigantica worms collected from the liver parenchyma and bile ducts formed the subject of the study. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) were measured in juvenile and adult worms incubated, without and with 15 and 50 microg/ml TCBZ-SX for 18 hours at 37 degrees C. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in SOD activity and an increase in GST level in both juvenile and adult worms after incubation in the two concentrations. The remaining enzymes and GSH revealed variable levels.

  5. Worms--a "license to kill".

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Lizundia, Regina; Schorderet Weber, Sandra; Sager, Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Worm infections can cause severe harm and death to both humans and numerous domestic and wild animals. Despite the fact that there are many beneficial worm species, veterinarians, physicians and parasitologists have multiple reasons to combat parasitic worms. The pros and cons of various approaches for the discovery of new control methods are discussed, including novel anthelmintics, vaccines and genetic approaches to identify novel drug and vaccine targets. Currently, the mainstay of worm control remains chemotherapy and prophylaxis. The importance of knowledgeable and wise use of the available anthelmintics is highlighted.

  6. Adult partner preference and sexual behavior of male rats exposed prenatally to betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Piffer, Renata C; Garcia, Patrícia C; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of prenatal betamethasone exposure on sexual partner preference, testosterone level, and sexual behavior. Pregnant rats received 0.1 mg/kg of betamethasone or saline on the 12th, 13th, 18th, and 19th days of pregnancy. Parameters in male offspring were evaluated at 90 days of age. Male rats from the betamethasone group did not show any difference in sexual partner preference as expressed by the total number of visits to the female or male zone. However, these males spent significantly less total time and shorter duration per visit in the female zone than their controls. Therefore, prenatal exposure to betamethasone led to a significantly lower sexual female partner preference score compared to the control group. These animals also presented diminished testosterone levels in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone induced a delay in the latency to first ejaculation, as well as a decrease in the numbers of postejaculatory intromissions, total intromissions and total ejaculations. Although 80% of the betamethasone-treated animals exhibited male sexual behavior, when they were castrated and pretreated with estrogen, 50% of them showed lordosis and accepted mounts of another sexually experienced male. These results suggest that the prenatal treatment with betamethasone, by increasing maternal corticosteroid level, may have diminished testosterone peak in male pups, a peak crucial to brain sexual differentiation. As a consequence, the prenatal betamethasone treatment reduced the testosterone level in adulthood and altered partner preference and sexual behavior.

  7. The provision of potable water in eradication of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North, Southeastern, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana

    2014-10-01

    Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.

  8. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  9. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Tonk, Elisa C.M.; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R.; Loveren, Henk van; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  10. The maturity of Nypa palm worm Namalycastis rhodochorde (Nereididae: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junardi, Anggraeni, Tjandra; Ridwan, Ahmad; Yuwono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    The Nypa Palm Worm Namalycastis rhodochorde has been used as bait for fishing and commercial species in Pontianak. Maturity is one important characteristic to learn the population dynamic and management. The Nypa Palm worm samples were collected from mangrove area in Kapuas Estuary, West Kalimantan. Fresh samples of gametes collected from the coelomic fluid were observed carefully under compound microscope for the initial determination of maturity. The presences of oocyte ≥120μm in diameter and lipid droplet are the indication of female maturity, while free swimming spermatozoon in the body fluid is the indication of male maturity. Morphologically, the maturity of N. rhodochorde was indicated by the change of body color, softer and fragile body, yet no modified chaetae and heteronereid form.

  11. Reproductive morphology and status of female Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) fatally injured by adult male seals.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Becker, B L; Johanos, T C; Pietraszek, J R; Kuhn, B C

    1994-01-01

    Female Hawaiian monk seals at Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands seasonally risk aggressive mating attempts by groups of adult male monk seals. These attacks, which also target immature female and male seals at a lower frequency, result in injuries that are often fatal and are termed mobbings. This study was undertaken to assess the reproductive status of nine female seals that died after mobbing attacks and to obtain basic morphological data of reproductive tracts from ten females. Reproductive morphology of the seals indicated that the lengths of the uterine body and both uterine horns were significantly shorter in nulliparous than in parous seals. Seven of the nine seals were periovulatory, on the basis of gross morphology of the ovaries at death. The ovaries of the other two seals possessed immature follicles. Histological studies of the vagina and uterus confirmed the reproductive status of the seals. When the reproductive status at the time of first injury was estimated, all seals were in the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle. At least four of these seals were estimated to be in oestrus at the time of their first injury, and seven of the seals sustained at least one injury during the estimated period of oestrus (2-6 days). These results support the hypothesis that most adult female Hawaiian monk seals that die following an attack by male monk seals are periovulatory, and that the majority of the attacks occur during oestrus. PMID:8182594

  12. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  13. Acute Effect of Manganese on Hypothalamic Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Secretion in Adult Male Rats: Involvement of Specific Neurotransmitter Systems

    PubMed Central

    Prestifilippo, Juan Pablo; Fernández-Solari, Javier; De Laurentiis, Andrea; Mohn, Claudia Ester; de la Cal, Carolina; Reynoso, Roxana; Dees, W. Les; Rettori, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    Manganese chloride (MnCl2) is capable of stimulating luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats through the activation of the hypothalamic nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G pathway. The present study aimed to determine the involvement of specific neurotransmitters involved in this action. Our results indicate that dopamine, but not glutamic acid and prostaglandinds, mediates the MnCl2 stimulated secretion of LHRH from medial basal hypothalami in vitro, as well as increases the activity of nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, a biphasic response was observed in that gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) release was also increased, which acts to attenuate the MnCl2 action to stimulate LHRH secretion. Although it is clear that manganese (Mn+2) can acutely induce LHRH secretion in adult males, we suggest that the additional action of MnCl2 to release GABA, a LHRH inhibitor, may ultimately contribute to suppressed reproductive function observed in adult animals following exposure to high chromic levels of Mn+2. PMID:18603625

  14. THE EFFECTS OF ETHINYL ESTRADIOL ON SPERMATOGENESIS IN THE ADULT MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, increases in male infertility have been attributed to exposure to environmental estrogens. Decreased sperm concentrations and increased infertility have been reported in the human, while many reports have documented reproductive effects due to estrogenic exposure in ani...

  15. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  16. Disentangling recoding processes and evaluative associations in a gender attitude implicit association test among adult males.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The course of male development of implicit gender attitudes between young age (N = 30, age 17-26 years) and old age (N = 34, age 56-78 years) was investigated. The findings demonstrated that younger males had a stronger implicit preference for females relative to males than did older participants, shedding light on the nature of age differences in gender attitudes in regard to implicit measures. Although younger and older participants demonstrated different levels of gender bias on an implicit association test (IAT), the application of the ReAL model [Meissner, F., & Rothermund, K. (2013). Estimating the contributions of associations and recoding in the implicit association test: The ReAL model for the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(1), 45-69.] showed that evaluative associations of both female and male were activated at equivalent levels among both the young and old age groups, but younger males were more able to recode the female gender and a positive evaluation into common categories. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses between younger and older males exaggerated the differences in the underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and concealed the differences in recoding processes. These findings have important implications for the measurement and interpretation of implicit gender attitudes. PMID:26933754

  17. Disentangling recoding processes and evaluative associations in a gender attitude implicit association test among adult males.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The course of male development of implicit gender attitudes between young age (N = 30, age 17-26 years) and old age (N = 34, age 56-78 years) was investigated. The findings demonstrated that younger males had a stronger implicit preference for females relative to males than did older participants, shedding light on the nature of age differences in gender attitudes in regard to implicit measures. Although younger and older participants demonstrated different levels of gender bias on an implicit association test (IAT), the application of the ReAL model [Meissner, F., & Rothermund, K. (2013). Estimating the contributions of associations and recoding in the implicit association test: The ReAL model for the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(1), 45-69.] showed that evaluative associations of both female and male were activated at equivalent levels among both the young and old age groups, but younger males were more able to recode the female gender and a positive evaluation into common categories. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses between younger and older males exaggerated the differences in the underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and concealed the differences in recoding processes. These findings have important implications for the measurement and interpretation of implicit gender attitudes.

  18. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  19. Differential responses to salt supplementation in adult male and female rat adrenal glands following intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Karine; Otis, Mélissa; St-Louis, Jean; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Brochu, Michèle

    2011-04-01

    In low sodium-induced intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) rat, foetal adrenal steroidogenesis as well as the adult renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is altered. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo) and of angiotensin II receptor subtypes 1 (AT(1)R) and 2 (AT(2)R) in adult adrenal glands and whether this expression could be influenced by IUGR and by high-salt intake in a sex-specific manner. After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT(2)R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR.

  20. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Calisi, Rebecca M; Knudsen, Daniel P; Krause, Jesse S; Wingfield, John C; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2013-01-01

    Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2) in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD), a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs). We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states. PMID:24058881

  1. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Daniel P.; Krause, Jesse S.; Wingfield, John C.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2) in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD), a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs). We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states. PMID:24058881

  2. Isolation of sperm vesicles from adult male mayflies and other insects to prepare high molecular weight genomic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Takemon, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Nakashima, Masashi; Tanida, Kazumi; Kishi, Mitsuo; Kato, Mikio

    2006-03-01

    We describe here a simple and efficient protocol for genomic DNA isolation from adult males of insects: e.g., Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Orthoptera and Dictyoptera. To minimize contamination of external DNA source, the sperm vesicles were isolated from male individuals from which high molecular weight genomic DNA was extracted. According to this protocol, the genomic DNA samples obtained were high quality (intact), and abundant enough for genotyping analyses and molecular cloning. The protocol reported here enables us to process a huge number of individuals at a time with escaping from cross-contamination, and thus it is quite useful for conducting genetic studies at least in some species of insects. The large yield of high molecular weight DNA from single individual may be advantageous for non PCR-based experiments. As a case study of the protocol, partial coding sequences of histone H3 and EF-1alpha genes are determined for some insects with PCR-amplified DNA fragments.

  3. The Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: A factorial analysis of validity and reliability for its use on adult Chinese male weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinhong; Jin, Yahong; Zhou, Shi; Li, Xinhao; Yang, Shun-Nan; Yang, Donglin; Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Yao, Jiaxin

    2015-06-01

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is the distorted perception of men's own muscle appearance. The increasing popularity of weightlifting in Chinese men suggests the presence of MD. The study assessed the validity and reliability of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS) for its use on adult Chinese males. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of responses from 225 and 592 participants confirmed the same five factors for the 17-item Chinese version as the original MASS (CFI=.931, RMSEA=.052). The internal consistency for all factors were acceptable (Cronbach's α=.636 to .737). Correlation levels of its subscales with converging measurements indicated that the revised MASS is effective in assessing MD in Chinese male weightlifters. Differences in the importance of the factors suggest an influence of Chinese culture in the symptoms of MD and the need of assessing the MASS with populations from distinct demographics in China and from different cultures. PMID:25939132

  4. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn.

  5. Effects of aqueous root extract of Carpolobia alba G. Don on sexual behaviour in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Kenmogne, H; Koloko, B; Hambe, C; Domkam, J; Ngaha Njila, M; Bend, E; Oundoum Oundoum, P; Massoma Lembè, D; Dimo, T

    2016-10-01

    Several lines say that a number of natural products, mostly plant based, have been claimed to cure male sexual dysfunction. One of such botanicals is Carpolobia alba G. Don which is used in Cameroon to treat erectile dysfunction and related male sexual debilities. However, the traditional claim has not been scientifically tested. Thirty adult male rats (five groups of six animals) were orally treated daily with distilled water, sildenafil citrate (positive control), 75, 150, 300 mg/kg of C. alba G. Don roots aqueous extract. The erection and ejaculation properties were recorded on the first, seventh and fourteenth day of treatment by following copulation settings: number of erections (NE), mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), average interval of copulation (AIC) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). The extract resulted in an improvement of copulation parameters through significant reduction (p < .001) of PEI, ML and IL and significant increase (p < .001) in the NE, MF, IF, EF, EL and AIC. These results indicate a pro-erectile and pro-ejaculatory potential of aqueous root extract of this plant in male rats. PMID:27681647

  6. Suppression of spermatogenesis by testosterone undecanoate-loaded injectable in situ-forming implants in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Dan; Meng, Shu; Wang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Dan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of administration of testosterone undecanoate (TU)-loaded injectable in situ-forming implant (ISFI) for contraception in adult male Sprague–Dawley rats. Male rats were treated with vehicle, TU-loaded ISFIs (540, 270 and 135 mg TU kg−1) or TU injections (45 mg TU kg−1 every 30 days) for 120 days. Fertility tests served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Serum testosterone concentration, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, and histology of the testis were monitored. The TU-loaded ISFIs increased serum testosterone levels in rats steadily without fluctuation over 3 months. One month after TU administration, the epididymal sperm count decreased significantly in all experimental groups. After 3 months, the animals treated with 270 and 135 mg kg−1 TU-loaded ISFIs were 100% infertile, and no implantation sites were produced in the mated females. However, some of males treated with 540 mg kg−1 ISFI or TU injections were still fertile but numbers of implantation sites were also significantly lower than control values. TU-loaded ISFI at an appropriate dose has potential as a long-acting male contraceptive drug that suppresses spermatogenesis consistently over a period of 3 months. PMID:26459781

  7. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  8. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  9. Organizational role for pubertal androgens on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal sensitivity to testosterone in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Evuarherhe, O; Leggett, J D; Waite, E J; Kershaw, Y M; Atkinson, H C; Lightman, S L

    2009-06-15

    The inhibitory effect of androgens on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in basal and stress conditions in adult male rats is well documented. Major sex-related neuroendocrine changes take place during puberty. There is a robust rise in production and secretion of gonadal steroids, which is thought to underlie numerous neural and behavioural changes brought on after puberty. The present study investigated the effect of the pubertal rise in gonadal steroid levels on the subsequent adult corticosterone profile, particularly the sensitivity of the adult HPA axis to testosterone. Animals were castrated either prepubertally (28 days) or in adulthood (11 weeks) and adult animals were subsequently treated with subcutaneous implants containing either testosterone or cholesterol. Using an automated blood sampling system, blood was collected from each freely moving, conscious rat every 10 min (i) over a 24 h period; (ii) in response to 10 min of noise stress, and (iii) following an immunological challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Analysis revealed that testosterone treatment did not significantly affect overall corticosterone release over the 24 h period in adult animals castrated before puberty in contrast to animals castrated in adulthood in which testosterone significantly suppressed corticosterone secretion. Following either a noise stress or LPS injection, testosterone treatment did not affect the hypothalamic or adrenal stress response in animals castrated prepubertally. Testosterone significantly suppressed the corticotrophin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin mRNA as well as the corticosterone response to LPS in castrated animals that had had their testes intact over puberty. These data provide evidence that puberty is a critical organizational period during which rising levels of gonadal steroids programme the sensitivity of the adult HPA axis to gonadal steroids in adulthood.

  10. Primary Mature Cystıc Teratoma Mimickıng an Adrenal Mass in an Adult Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ener, Kemal; Aldemir, Mustafa; Isik, Evren; Irkkan, Cigdem; Kayigil, Onder

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are bizarre neoplasms derived from embryonic tissues that are typically found only in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults. Primary retroperitoneal teratomas are rare and present challenging management options. We report a case of a unilateral primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma mimicking an adrenal mass in a 54-year-old male patient. Complete resection of the adrenal mass was performed by the flank approach by using the 11th rib resection. Because of the risk of malignancy, follow-up radiographic studies were performed to ensure the oncologic efficacy of resection. The patient has been free of recurrence for longer than 12 months. PMID:24578814

  11. Dew Worms in the White Nights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lumbricus terrestris L. (the dew worm) forages, mates and migrates on the soil surface during the night. Its distribution covers a broad latitudinal gradient and variation in day length conditions. Since soil-surface activity is crucial for the survival and reproduction of dew worms, it is conceivab...

  12. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  13. Maternal exposure to low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol facilitates morphine-induced place conditioning in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Rubio, P; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Martín-Calderón, J L; Del Arco, I; Bartolomé, S; Villanúa, M A; Navarro, M

    1998-11-01

    The possible existence of an increased susceptibility to the reinforcing properties of morphine was analyzed in male and female rats born from mothers exposed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 1, 5, or 20 mg/kg) during gestation and lactation. Maternal exposure to low doses of THC (1 and 5 mg/kg), relevant for human consumption, resulted in an increased response to the reinforcing effects of a moderate dose of morphine (350 microg/kg), as measured in the place-preference conditioning paradigm (CPP) in the adult male offspring. These animals also displayed an enhanced exploratory behavior in the defensive withdrawal test. However, only females born from mothers exposed to THC 1 mg/kg exhibited a small increment in the place conditioning induced by morphine. The possible implication of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed by monitoring plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in basal and moderate-stress conditions (after the end of the CPP test). Female offspring perinatally exposed to THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) displayed high basal levels of corticosterone and a blunted adrenal response to the HPA-activating effects of the CPP test. However, male offspring born from mothers exposed to THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) displayed the opposite pattern: normal to low basal levels of corticosterone, and a sharp adrenal response to the CPP challenge. The present study reveals that maternal exposure to low doses of THC results in an increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of morphine in the adult male offspring, and in sexually dimorphic behavioral and endocrine alterations in the adaptative responses to stressors such as novelty or place-preference testing. These results support the growing evidence of the importance of monitoring the long-term consequences of maternal consumption of cannabis derivatives.

  14. Maternal exposure to low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol facilitates morphine-induced place conditioning in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Rubio, P; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Martín-Calderón, J L; Del Arco, I; Bartolomé, S; Villanúa, M A; Navarro, M

    1998-11-01

    The possible existence of an increased susceptibility to the reinforcing properties of morphine was analyzed in male and female rats born from mothers exposed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 1, 5, or 20 mg/kg) during gestation and lactation. Maternal exposure to low doses of THC (1 and 5 mg/kg), relevant for human consumption, resulted in an increased response to the reinforcing effects of a moderate dose of morphine (350 microg/kg), as measured in the place-preference conditioning paradigm (CPP) in the adult male offspring. These animals also displayed an enhanced exploratory behavior in the defensive withdrawal test. However, only females born from mothers exposed to THC 1 mg/kg exhibited a small increment in the place conditioning induced by morphine. The possible implication of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed by monitoring plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in basal and moderate-stress conditions (after the end of the CPP test). Female offspring perinatally exposed to THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) displayed high basal levels of corticosterone and a blunted adrenal response to the HPA-activating effects of the CPP test. However, male offspring born from mothers exposed to THC (1 or 5 mg/kg) displayed the opposite pattern: normal to low basal levels of corticosterone, and a sharp adrenal response to the CPP challenge. The present study reveals that maternal exposure to low doses of THC results in an increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of morphine in the adult male offspring, and in sexually dimorphic behavioral and endocrine alterations in the adaptative responses to stressors such as novelty or place-preference testing. These results support the growing evidence of the importance of monitoring the long-term consequences of maternal consumption of cannabis derivatives. PMID:9768557

  15. Maternal salt and fat intake causes hypertension and sustained endothelial dysfunction in fetal, weanling and adult male resistance vessels

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clint; Harrison, Claudia J.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal salt and fat intake can independently programme adult cardiovascular status, increasing risk of cardiovascular disease in offspring. Despite its relevance to modern western-style dietary habits, the interaction between increased maternal salt and fat intake has not been examined. Female virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, a standard control diet (CD) (10% kcal fat, 1% NaCl), High-fat diet (HF) (45% kcal fat, 1% NaCl), High-salt diet (SD) (10% kcal fat, 4% NaCl), High-fat high-salt diet (HFSD) (45% kcal fat, 4% NaCl) prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy and throughout lactation. Fetal, weanling and adult vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph at fetal day 18, weaning day 21 and day 135 of adulthood. Increased blood pressure in SD, HFD and HFSD male offspring at day 80 and 135 of age was consistent with perturbed vascular function in fetal, weanling and adult vessels. Maternal salt intake reduced EDHF and calcium-mediated vasodilation, maternal fat reduced NO pathways and maternal fat and salt intake, a combination of the two pathways. Adult offspring cardiovascular disease risk may, in part, relate to vascular adaptations caused by maternal salt and/or fat intake during pregnancy, leading to persistent vascular dysfunction and sustained higher resting blood pressure throughout life. PMID:25953742

  16. Adult male height in an American colony: Puerto Rico and the USA mainland compared, 1886-1955.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ricardo A; Goodman, Elizabeth; Levins, Richard; Caram, Mariana; Seyfried, Craig

    2007-03-01

    The links between adult height and socioeconomic-political marginality are controversial. We test hypotheses by comparing secular trends between two groups of USA adult male citizens born during 1886-1930: (a) 9805 men surveyed in Puerto Rico during 1965 and (b) 3064 non-Hispanic Whites surveyed on the mainland during 1971-1975. Puerto Rico provides an apt case study because it is the oldest colony in the world and was the poorest region of the USA during the 20th century. During the period considered the average adult man in Puerto Rico was 164.8 cm tall, 8.3 cm shorter than the average adult man on the mainland (173.1cm). Both groups experienced secular improvements in height, with men on the mainland having higher rates than men in Puerto Rico. In neither case were results statistically significant. The modest changes in Puerto Rico likely reflect the offsetting role of improved health and a stagnant rural economy during the first half of the 20th century.

  17. Two different pathways for the maintenance of trabecular bone in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Marie K; Movérare, Sofia; Skrtic, Stanko; Alatalo, Sari; Halleen, Jussi; Mohan, Subburaman; Gustafsson, J A; Ohlsson, Claes

    2002-04-01

    Androgens may regulate the male skeleton either directly via activation of the androgen receptor (AR) or indirectly via aromatization of androgens into estrogen and, thereafter, via activation of estrogen receptors (ERs). There are two known estrogen receptors, ER-alpha and ER-beta. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative roles of ER-alpha, ER-beta, and AR in the maintenance of trabecular bone in male mice. Seven-month-old male mice, lacking ER-alpha (ERKO), ER-beta (BERKO), or both receptors (DERKO), were orchidectomized (orx) and treated for 3 weeks with 0.7 microg/mouse per day of 17beta-estradiol or vehicle. No reduction in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) was seen in ERKO, BERKO, or DERKO mice before orx, showing that neither ER-a nor ER-beta is required for the maintenance of a normal trabecular BMD in male mice. After orx, there was a pronounced decrease in trabecular BMD, similar for all groups, resulting in equal levels of trabecular BMD in all genotypes. This reduction was reversed completely in wild-type (WT) and BERKO mice treated with estrogen, and no significant effect of estrogen was found in ERKO or DERKO mice. In summary, the trabecular bone is preserved both by a testicular factor, presumably testosterone acting via AR and by an estrogen-induced activation of ER-alpha. These results indicate that AR and ER-alpha are redundant in the maintenance of the trabecular bone in male mice. In contrast, ER-beta is of no importance for the regulation of trabecular bone in male mice.

  18. Near-Miss Discharge of an Older Adult Male With Central Cord Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kyle L; Hicks, Rodney W

    2015-01-01

    Acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) occurs in more than 11,000 individuals annually. A common cause in older adult is a low-velocity hypertension neck injury. This article reviews ATCCS from the perspective of an older adult who, after a fall at his primary residence, sustained a facial laceration. Just prior to discharge, neurological deficits were noted, which required further investigation with magnetic resonance imaging. Subsequently, the findings required emergent surgical intervention. Emergency nurses should be familiar with muscle assessment, deep tendon reflex assessment, and nervous system dermatomes. The value of repeating the physical examination prior to discharge is discussed.

  19. Properties of Isokinetic Fatigue at Various Movement Speeds in Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David H.; Manning, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen male subjects, aged 20 to 28 years, engaged in three fatigue bouts using an isokinetic dynamometer to measure knee extension contractions. Peak torque varied inversely with movement speed, and the pattern of decrement was independent of speed. Time to peak torque did not change significantly across trials in isokinetic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  20. Formaldehyde exposure induces autophagy in testicular tissues of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shui-Ping; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Lin, Pu; Qin, Zhen; An, Lu; Zheng, Lie-Rui; Lei, Li

    2015-03-01

    Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of causing adverse male reproductive effects. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in male reproductive injuries induced by formaldehyde exposure, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis and develop new targets for prevention and treatment of male infertility. In this study, electron microscopy, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were used to detect autophagy in testicular tissues. Moreover, testicular weights, histopathology, and morphometry were used to evaluate the reproductive injuries of formaldehyde exposure. We found that formaldehyde exposure-induced autophagy in testicular tissues was dose dependent. Increasing autophagosomes in spermatogenetic cells was observed by electron microscopy in formaldehyde exposure group. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed the transcription levels of the LC3-II, as well as the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, an indicator of autophagy, significantly increased in testicular tissue of formaldehyde exposure group in a dose dependent manner when compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in testicular weight and morphologic findings. In summary, formaldehyde exposure triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for male reproductive impairment induced by formaldehyde.

  1. Cutaneous Manifestations of a Zoonotic Onchocerca Species in an Adult Male, Acquired in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jonathan H.; Walsh, Noreen M. G.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Sloan, Lynne; Gibson, Lawrence E.; Desormeau, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old male with known hypertension and hypercholesterolemia sought medical attention because of a 3-month history of skin swelling on his upper back. Histopathology and molecular techniques were employed and identified an organism in the Onchocerca genus. This represents a very uncommon example of cutaneous infection by a zoonotic Onchocerca species. PMID:24501037

  2. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior. PMID:21206800

  3. Vaccination with a genetically modified Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 reduces adult parasite numbers and affects the fertility of female worms following a subcutaneous challenge of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with B. malayi infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Wei, Junfei; Ward, Danielle; Abraham, David; Lustigman, Sara; Zhan, Bin; Klei, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    Vaccination of Mongolian gerbils with Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 in which the amino acid Asn66 was mutated to Lys66 (Bm-CPI-2M) resulted in reduced parasite numbers of 48.6% and 48.0% at 42 and 90 days p.i. with B. malayi L3s. Fertility of female worms was also affected at 90 days p.i. In vitro killing of L3s observed in the presence of gerbil peritoneal exudate cells and anti-Bm-CPI-2M sera suggests antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a putative protective mechanism. These observations suggest that Bm-CPI-2M is a promising prophylactic and anti-fecundity vaccine candidate.

  4. Factors Associated with Knowledge of and Willingness for Adult Male Circumcision in Changsha, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Mingqiang; Wang, Ling; Chen, Caifang; Zeng, Fanchang; Huang, Liang; Xue, Ruizhi; Chen, Junjie; Gao, Benmin; Tang, Zhengyan

    2016-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of male genital diseases. MC is not commonly practiced among Chinese males and little is known about the factors associated with their knowledge of and willingness for MC. This study was to explore the knowledge regarding the foreskin among Chinese males and to identify factors associated with their willingness to undergo circumcision. Methods A total of 237 patients with redundant prepuce/phimosis were interviewed through face-to-face interviews. The items on the questionnaire included: demographics, an objective scale assessing knowledge about the foreskin, willingness to have MC, the attitudes of sexual partners and doctors toward redundant prepuce/phimosis, and the approaches that patients used to acquire knowledge regarding the prepuce. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors that are associated with willingness to be circumcised (WTC). Results A total of 212 patients completed the interview. Multivariable logistic regression showed that three factors were significantly associated with WTC: being married (OR = 0.43), perceiving redundant prepuce/phimosis as a disease (OR = 1.93), and if a patient’s partner supported MC (OR = 1.39). 58% (n = 122) had received information about the foreskin from another party: 18% (n = 37) from school, 8% (n = 17) from family, 17% (n = 36) from friends, 27% (n = 57) from health care providers. About 4% (n = 8) believed that their partners disliked their redundant prepuce/phimosis. 20% (n = 42) had received doctors’ advice to undergo circumcision. Conclusion Knowledge about the foreskin was low among Chinese males. Our study elucidates the factors associated with WTC and suggests that more education of the population about the foreskin can help improve the recognition of a correctible abnormality and help patients assess the potential role of MC in their health. PMID:26859292

  5. Interpersonal Skills Training: Evaluation of a Program with Adult Male Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Philip H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of an interpersonal skill training program, adult offenders were randomly assigned to either interpersonal effectiveness training or waiting-list control. Results indicated interpersonal effectiveness training group superiority on Interpersonal Behavior Role-Play Test training and generalization assessment items. Findings…

  6. Examining Young Recreational Male Soccer Players' Experience in Adult- and Peer-Led Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imtiaz, Faizan; Hancock, David J.; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Youth sport has the potential to be one of the healthiest and most beneficial activities in which children can partake. Participation in a combination of adult-led and peer-led sport structures appears to lead to favorable outcomes such as enhanced physical fitness, as well as social and emotional development. The purpose of the present…

  7. Does Prison-Based Adult Basic Education Improve Postrelease Outcomes for Male Prisoners in Florida?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Rosa Minhyo; Tyler, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The authors use administrative data from Florida to determine the extent to which prison-based adult basic education (ABE) improves inmate's postrelease labor market outcomes, such as earnings and employment. Using two nonexperimental comparison groups, the authors find evidence that ABE participation is associated with higher postrelease…

  8. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  9. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  10. Literacy and Identity: Reflections of Six African American Males in an Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This multiple case study explored how the literate experiences of six African American men influenced their perceptions of and engagement with a community-based adult basic education and literacy (ABEL) program in a large northeastern city. The theoretical framework included a social practices view of literacy and a constructivist view of…

  11. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned…

  12. Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Male and Female Young Adults: 1990 versus 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine

    The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…

  13. Peri-pubertal exposure to testicular hormones organizes response to novel environments and social behaviour in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gillian R; Kulbarsh, Kyle D; Spencer, Karen A; Duval, Camille

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to testicular hormones during the peri-pubertal period of life has long-term, organizational effects on adult sexual behaviour and underlying neural mechanisms in laboratory rodents. However, the organizational effects of peri-pubertal testicular hormones on other aspects of behaviour and brain function are less well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating peri-pubertal testicular hormone exposure on later behavioural responses to novel environments and on hormone receptors in various brain regions that are involved in response to novelty. Male rodents generally spend less time in the exposed areas of novel environments than females, and this sex difference emerges during the peri-pubertal period. Male Lister-hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus) were castrated either before puberty or after puberty, then tested in three novel environments (elevated plus-maze, light-dark box, open field) and in an object/social novelty task in adulthood. Androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER1) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R2) mRNA expression were quantified in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and medial amygdala. The results showed that pre-pubertally castrated males spent more time in the exposed areas of the elevated-plus maze and light-dark box than post-pubertally castrated males, and also confirmed that peri-pubertal hormone exposure influences later response to an opposite-sex conspecific. Hormone receptor gene expression levels did not differ between pre-pubertally and post-pubertally castrated males in any of the brain regions examined. This study therefore demonstrates that testicular hormone exposure during the peri-pubertal period masculinizes later response to novel environments, although the neural mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated.

  14. Spermatogenesis in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo): quantitative approach in immature and adult males subjected to various photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Noirault, Jérôme; Brillard, Jean-Pierre; Bakst, Murray R

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and quantitate the germ cell populations of the testes in sexually mature male turkeys (Trial 1), determine the duration of meiosis based on BrdU labeling and stereological analyses (Trial 2), and examine the impact of various photoperiods on germinal and somatic cell populations in immature and adult males (Trial 3). In Trial 1, both testes within a male had similar stereological components (P>0.05) for all parameters analyzed. In Trial 2, the duration of Type-1 spermatocytes and round spermatids in turkeys lasted 4.5+/-0.5 and 2.0+/-0.5 days, respectively. In Trial 3, the short photoperiod (7L:17D) delayed testicular growth (in the stereological parameters analyzed). In contrast, the effect of a moderately short photoperiod (10.5L:13.5D) was comparable to the effect of a long (14L:10D) or increasing photoperiod (7L:17D to 14L:10D) on the stereological parameters examined. With the exception of the short photoperiod, all other photoperiods used in this study induced comparable early testicular maturation, with maximum testis weight at 29-35 weeks of age. As the males got older, there was a progressive, linear decline in testis weight through 60 weeks, at which time there were no significant differences among photoperiods. In conclusion, the duration of meiosis in the turkey was similar to that observed in the fowl and guinea-fowl. The existence of a threshold of photosensitivity to gonad stimulation in male turkeys is suggested to be between 7.0 and 10.5 h of light.

  15. Peri-pubertal exposure to testicular hormones organizes response to novel environments and social behaviour in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gillian R.; Kulbarsh, Kyle D.; Spencer, Karen A.; Duval, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to testicular hormones during the peri-pubertal period of life has long-term, organizational effects on adult sexual behaviour and underlying neural mechanisms in laboratory rodents. However, the organizational effects of peri-pubertal testicular hormones on other aspects of behaviour and brain function are less well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating peri-pubertal testicular hormone exposure on later behavioural responses to novel environments and on hormone receptors in various brain regions that are involved in response to novelty. Male rodents generally spend less time in the exposed areas of novel environments than females, and this sex difference emerges during the peri-pubertal period. Male Lister-hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus) were castrated either before puberty or after puberty, then tested in three novel environments (elevated plus-maze, light–dark box, open field) and in an object/social novelty task in adulthood. Androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER1) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R2) mRNA expression were quantified in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and medial amygdala. The results showed that pre-pubertally castrated males spent more time in the exposed areas of the elevated-plus maze and light–dark box than post-pubertally castrated males, and also confirmed that peri-pubertal hormone exposure influences later response to an opposite-sex conspecific. Hormone receptor gene expression levels did not differ between pre-pubertally and post-pubertally castrated males in any of the brain regions examined. This study therefore demonstrates that testicular hormone exposure during the peri-pubertal period masculinizes later response to novel environments, although the neural mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:26159287

  16. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). Conclusion There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour. PMID:26985272

  17. Subacute and Reproductive Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Hydroethanolic Extract of Jacaranda decurrens Roots in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joyce Alencar; Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Piccinelli, Ana Cláudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença (Bignoniaceae) is a species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Previous findings from our group reported scientifically that J. decurrens has anti-inflammatory efficacy. However, more toxicological studies are needed to support and ensure its safe use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of a prolonged treatment with hydroethanolic root extract of J. decurrens (EJD) on hematological, biochemical, and reproductive parameters in adult male rats. The animals received by oral gavage 0; 250; 500; or 1000 mg/kg body weight of EJD for 28 days. After the treatment, biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The EJD treatment did not cause adverse effects on body weight gain, feed and water consumption, hematological and biochemical profiles, or histopathological analysis of liver and kidney. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive parameters, such as sperm production, number of sperm in the epididymis, and sperm morphology. These results demonstrate the absence of subacute toxicity as a result of the oral treatment with EJD for 28 days in adult male rats. However, other studies should be performed to evaluate the total safety of this plant. PMID:24348699

  18. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI) mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH) mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice. PMID:26881124

  19. Prolonged exposure to a low-dose of bisphenol A increases spontaneous motor activity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Kazuo; Takata, Tomoyo; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical, on spontaneous motor activity in adult male rats. The rats were implanted intraperitoneally with mini-osmotic pumps containing either BPA (50 μg/kg body weight per day) in sesame oil (BPA-treated group) or sesame oil only (vehicle-treated group). Spontaneous motor activity during a 24-h period was measured over 5 days from day 9 to day 13 after implantation using an animal movement analysis system. Spontaneous motor activity during the last 2 h of the dark phase and during the first 1-h of the light phase was increased in the BPA-treated group. Total spontaneous motor activity during the 12-h light phase, but not the 12-h dark phase, was higher in the BPA-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group. These findings suggest that BPA may induce hyperactivity in adult male rats during the 12-h light phase, especially during the 2 h immediately preceding sleep-onset and 1 h immediately following sleep-onset.

  20. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI) mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH) mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice. PMID:26881124

  1. Temperament moderates the influence of periadolescent social experience on behavior and adrenocortical activity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Caruso, M J; McClintock, M K; Cavigelli, S A

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant behavioral and physiological maturation, particularly related to stress responses. Animal studies that have tested the influence of adolescent social experiences on stress-related behavioral and physiological development have led to complex results. We used a rodent model of neophobia to test the hypothesis that the influence of adolescent social experience on adult behavior and adrenocortical function is modulated by pre-adolescent temperament. Exploratory activity was assessed in 53 male Sprague-Dawley rats to classify temperament and then they were housed in one of the three conditions during postnatal days (PND) 28-46: (1) with familiar kin, (2) with novel social partners, or (3) individually with no social partners. Effects on adult adrenocortical function were evaluated from fecal samples collected while rats were individually-housed and exposed to a 1-hour novel social challenge during PND 110-114. Adolescent-housing with novel or no social partners led to reduced adult glucocorticoid production compared to adolescent-housing with familiar littermates. Additionally, highly-exploratory pre-weanling rats that were housed with novel social partners during adolescence exhibited increased exploratory behavior and a more rapid return to basal glucocorticoid production in adulthood compared to those housed with familiar or no social partners during adolescence and compared to low-exploratory rats exposed to novel social partners. In sum, relatively short-term adolescent social experiences can cause transient changes in temperament and potentially longer-term changes in recovery of glucocorticoid production in response to adult social challenges. Furthermore, early temperament may modulate the influence of adolescent experiences on adult behavioral and adrenocortical function.

  2. Impact of maternal morphine and saline injections on behavioral responses to a cold water stressor in adult male and female progeny.

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Schindler, Cheryl J; Vathy, Ilona

    2002-04-15

    The purpose of the present study was to test the effects of maternal morphine and saline injections on chronic cold water stress responses in three groups of adult male and female rats: prenatally morphine-exposed adult progeny, prenatally saline-exposed adult progeny, and control groups. All male rats were gonadally intact, and female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) in adulthood, and half of them were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB). All animals were exposed to a cold water stressor daily for 2 weeks and tested before (baseline) and after (stress effects) the chronic cold water stressor in a swim test and an open field test. In the swim test, both adult males and OVX, EB-treated adult females born to mothers injected with morphine or saline displayed more floating behavior during the swim test than their controls, both before and after the cold water stressor. Male rats exposed to morphine or saline prenatally also spent more time struggling during the swim tests than controls, and this was further increased after the cold water stressor. In the open field test, males and OVX, EB-treated females born to morphine- or saline-injected mothers were less active and displayed fewer rearings than controls. No differences were observed in OVX females as a result of prenatal injections. Thus, the present study demonstrates that maternal injections, regardless of injection content, induce long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness in adult progeny.

  3. Development of dimethandrolone 17beta-undecanoate (DMAU) as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Barbara J; Engbring, Jean A; Gropp, David; Hild, Sheri Ann

    2011-01-01

    Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen with progestational activity that is in development for therapeutic uses in men. We hypothesized that because of its dual activity, DMAU might have potential as a single-agent oral hormonal contraceptive. To test this possibility, adult male rabbits (5/group) of proven fertility were treated orally with vehicle or DMAU at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/d for 12 or 13 weeks. Semen and blood samples were collected every other week through week 30. Sperm were decreased (P < .05) in semen samples from DMAU-treated rabbits at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d at weeks 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 compared to week 0 (prior to treatment). The percentage of forward progressive motile sperm in those rabbits that still had measurable sperm was also reduced by DMAU treatment at 2.5 mg/kg/d at weeks 14, 16, 18, and 20 and at 5.0 mg/kg/d at week 18 (P < .05). At 1.0 mg/kg/d only 1 rabbit had reduced sperm numbers and motility. A mating trial was performed at week 15. The number of bred males that were fertile was 4 of 4 in the vehicle-treated group and 4 of 5, 0 of 4, and 2 of 5 in the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/d DMAU treatment groups. By week 22, sperm numbers and forward progressive motility increased, and they returned to pretreatment levels in all DMAU-treated rabbits by week 30. All bred males were fertile at week 31. Serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly suppressed in DMAU (1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg/d)-treated rabbits during the 12-week dosing interval, but were comparable to pretreatment levels after cessation of dosing. These data indicate that DMAU suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in severe oligospermia in the majority of rabbits in the 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d dosing groups. Infertility was observed when sperm numbers decreased to about 10% of pretreatment levels. In

  4. Development of dimethandrolone 17beta-undecanoate (DMAU) as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Barbara J; Engbring, Jean A; Gropp, David; Hild, Sheri Ann

    2011-01-01

    Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen with progestational activity that is in development for therapeutic uses in men. We hypothesized that because of its dual activity, DMAU might have potential as a single-agent oral hormonal contraceptive. To test this possibility, adult male rabbits (5/group) of proven fertility were treated orally with vehicle or DMAU at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/d for 12 or 13 weeks. Semen and blood samples were collected every other week through week 30. Sperm were decreased (P < .05) in semen samples from DMAU-treated rabbits at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d at weeks 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 compared to week 0 (prior to treatment). The percentage of forward progressive motile sperm in those rabbits that still had measurable sperm was also reduced by DMAU treatment at 2.5 mg/kg/d at weeks 14, 16, 18, and 20 and at 5.0 mg/kg/d at week 18 (P < .05). At 1.0 mg/kg/d only 1 rabbit had reduced sperm numbers and motility. A mating trial was performed at week 15. The number of bred males that were fertile was 4 of 4 in the vehicle-treated group and 4 of 5, 0 of 4, and 2 of 5 in the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/d DMAU treatment groups. By week 22, sperm numbers and forward progressive motility increased, and they returned to pretreatment levels in all DMAU-treated rabbits by week 30. All bred males were fertile at week 31. Serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly suppressed in DMAU (1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg/d)-treated rabbits during the 12-week dosing interval, but were comparable to pretreatment levels after cessation of dosing. These data indicate that DMAU suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in severe oligospermia in the majority of rabbits in the 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d dosing groups. Infertility was observed when sperm numbers decreased to about 10% of pretreatment levels. In

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and physiological stress among adult, male potato cultivators of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2015-03-01

    A total of 70 male potato cultivators were selected randomly from the villages of West Bengal, India, to evaluate musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), thermal stress, and physiological stress and were compared with 70 controls from the urban sector of West Bengal. Modified Nordic questionnaire studies and a posture analysis were performed in for the male potato cultivators by the Rapid Entire Body Assessment method. Most of the participants suffered discomfort at different parts of the body, especially in the lower back, knee, ankle, and feet regions. Potato cultivators suffered maximum discomfort during spading, planting seeds, weeding, picking crops, and sprinkling water. Therefore, it can be concluded that prolonged work activity, high repetitiveness, and remaining constantly in an awkward posture for a prolonged period of time may lead to MSDs. This study also revealed that a significant physiological load is exerted on the potato cultivators, as shown by increased heart rates.

  6. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (p<0.05) and blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.001) decreased after short term fasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in adult male rhesus monkeys which were fasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after 48h fasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  7. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (p<0.05) and blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.001) decreased after short term fasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in adult male rhesus monkeys which were fasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after 48h fasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons. PMID:26138506

  8. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s. Data and Methods We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980–2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time. Conclusion Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005–2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality

  9. Effects of housing condition and early corticosterone treatment on learned features of song in adult male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mahin; Jimenez, Pedro; Martinez, Luis A; Carruth, Laura L

    2014-03-01

    Early developmental stress can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on an animal. Developmental stress and early corticosterone (Cort) exposure affect song quality in many songbirds. Early housing condition can act as a stressor and affect the growth of nestlings and adult song, and improvements in housing condition can reverse adverse effects of early stress exposure in rodents. However, little is known about this effect in songbirds. Therefore, we took a novel approach to investigate if housing condition can modify the effects of early Cort exposure on adult song in male zebra finches. We manipulated early housing conditions to include breeding in large communal flight cages (FC; standard housing condition; with mixed-sex and mix-aged birds) versus individual breeding cages (IBC, one male-female pair with small, IBC-S, or large clutches, IBC-L) in post-hatch Cort treated male birds. We found that Cort treated birds from IBC-S have higher overall song learning scores (between tutor and pupil) than from FC but there is no difference between these groups in the No-Cort treated birds. When examining the effects of Cort within each housing condition, overall song learning scores decreased in Cort treated birds from flight cages but increased in birds from IBC-S compared to controls. Likewise, the total number of syllables and syllable types increased significantly in Cort treated birds from IBC-S, but decreased in FC-reared birds though this effect was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that the effects of early Cort treatment on learned features of song depend on housing condition.

  10. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  11. Preweaning growth hormone treatment ameliorates adipose tissue insulin resistance and inflammation in adult male offspring following maternal undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C M; Li, M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

    2013-08-01

    It is well established that early-life nutritional alterations lead to increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adult life. Although it is clear that obesity gives rise to chronic low-grade inflammation, there is little evidence regarding the role of inflammation in the adipose tissue of undernourished (UN) offspring. GH reduces fat mass and has antiinflammatory properties. The present study examined the effect of maternal UN on adipose inflammation in adult offspring and whether GH treatment during a critical period of developmental plasticity could ameliorate metabolic dysfunction associated with a poor start to life. Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to chow (C) or UN (50% ad libitum; UN) diet throughout gestation. Male C and UN pups received saline (control saline [CS]/UN) or GH (2.5 μg/g/d; control growth hormone [CGH]/undernourished growth hormone [UNGH]) from days 3-21. Postweaning males were further randomized and fed either chow or high-fat diet until day 160. An ex vivo glucose uptake assay demonstrated adipose tissue from UN offspring displayed attenuated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake compared with CS, CGH, and UNGH. This was associated with increased insulin receptor, glucose transporter 4, and insulin receptor substrate 1 gene expression. Furthermore, UN demonstrated enhanced TNFα and IL-1β secretion from adipose explants and stromal vascular fraction cultures accompanied by increased adipose tissue gene expression of several key proinflammatory genes and markers of macrophage infiltration. Overall, UN offspring displayed a more potent immunophenotype, which correlated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Preweaning GH treatment negates these detrimental effects, indicating the potential for reversing metabolic dysfunction in UN adult offspring.

  12. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B.; McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B.R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  13. Piloting PrePex for Adult and Adolescent Male Circumcision in South Africa – Pain Is an Issue

    PubMed Central

    Lebina, Limakatso; Taruberekera, Noah; Milovanovic, Minja; Hatzold, Karin; Mhazo, Miriam; Nhlapo, Cynthia; Tshabangu, Nkeko; Manentsa, Mmatsie; Kazangarare, Victoria; Makola, Millicent; Billy, Scott; Martinson, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS have recommended the scale-up of Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) in countries with high HIV and low MMC prevalence. PrePex device circumcision is proposed as an alternate method for scaling up MMC. Objective Evaluate safety and feasibility of PrePex in South Africa. Design A multisite prospective cohort PrePex study in adults and adolescents at three MMC clinics. Participants were followed-up 8 times, up to 56 days after PrePex placement. Results In total, 398 PrePex circumcisions were performed (315 adults and 83 adolescents) their median ages were 26 (IQR: 22–30) and 16 years (IQR: 15–17), respectively. The median time for device placement across both groups was 6 minutes (IQR: 5–9) with the leading PrePex sizes being B (30%) and C (35%) for adults (18–45 years), and A (31%) and B (38%) for adolescents (14–17 years). Additional sizes (size 12–20) were rarely used, even in the younger age group. Pain of device application was minimal but that of removal was severe. However, described pain abated rapidly and almost no pain was reported 1 hour after removal. The Adverse Events rate were experienced by 2.7% (11/398) of all participants, three of which were serious (2 displacements and 1 self-removal requiring prompt surgery). None of the Adverse Events required hospitalization. The majority of participants returned to work within a day of device placement. Conclusion Our study shows that PrePex is a safe MMC method, for males 14 years and above. PrePex circumcision had a similar adverse event rate to that reported for surgical MMC, but device removal caused high levels of pain, which subsided rapidly. PMID:26405786

  14. Consistent condom use among Thai heterosexual adult males in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Janepanish, Poolsuk; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang

    2011-04-01

    Thai heterosexual males between 20 and 39 years old are at increased risk for HIV infection. Consistent condom use is effective against HIV transmission, but little is known about determinants of consistent condom use for these males. The purpose of this study is to explore determinants of consistent condom use for this population. The determinants of interest are age, educational level, marital status, income, and concepts from the theory of planned behavior: attitude toward condom use, subjective norm about consistent condom use, perceived behavioral control (PBC) of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently. We used a cross-sectional descriptive research design with a convenience sample of 400 heterosexual Thai males between 20 and 39 years. Our sample had a mean age of 28.71 years (SD = 6.33). During the last three months, 39.5% reported using condoms consistently, 23% reported using condoms inconsistently, and 37.5% reported never using condoms. The results from the regression analyses revealed that marital status, income, subjective norm about consistent condom use, PBC of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently were determinants of consistent condom use. Also the effect of subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use on consistent condom use was mediated by intention to use condoms consistently. These results suggest that interventions to increase consistent condom use should focus on enhancing intention to use condoms consistently by promoting subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use.

  15. Adult exercise effects on oxidative stress and reproductive programming in male offspring of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mery; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Ibáñez, Carlos; Vega, Claudia C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Exercise improves health but few data are available regarding benefits of exercise in offspring exposed to developmental programming. There is currently a worldwide epidemic of obesity. Obesity in pregnant women predisposes offspring to obesity. Maternal obesity has well documented effects on offspring reproduction. Few studies address ability of offspring exercise to reduce adverse outcomes. We observed increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm function in rat offspring of obese mothers. We hypothesized that regular offspring exercise reverses adverse effects of maternal obesity on offspring sperm quality and fertility. Female Wistar rats ate chow (C) or high-energy, obesogenic diet (MO) from weaning through lactation, bred at postnatal day (PND) 120, and ate their pregnancy diet until weaning. All offspring ate C diet from weaning. Five male offspring (different litters) ran on a wheel for 15 min, 5 times/week from PND 330 to 450 and were euthanized at PND 450. Average distance run per session was lower in MO offspring who had higher body weight, adiposity index, and gonadal fat and showed increases in testicular oxidative stress biomarkers. Sperm from MO offspring had reduced antioxidant enzyme activity, lower sperm quality, and fertility. Exercise in MO offspring decreased testicular oxidative stress, increased sperm antioxidant activity and sperm quality, and improved fertility. Exercise intervention has beneficial effects on adiposity index, gonadal fat, oxidative stress markers, sperm quality, and fertility. Thus regular physical exercise in male MO offspring recuperates key male reproductive functions even at advanced age: it's never too late. PMID:25502750

  16. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide reduces motor activity after an immune challenge in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Taricano, Marina; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Palermo-Neto, João; Bernardi, Maria Martha

    2010-07-29

    Prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure causes reproductive, behavioral and neurochemical injuries in both the mother and pups. Previous investigations by our group showed that prenatal LPS administration (100 microg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 9.5 impaired the male offspring's social behavior in infancy and adulthood. In the present study, we investigated whether these social behavioral changes were associated with motor activity impairment. Male rat pups treated prenatally with LPS or not were tested for reflexological development and open field general activity during infancy. In adulthood, animals were tested for open field general activity, haloperidol-induced catalepsy and apomorphine-induced stereotypy; striatal dopamine levels and turnover were also measured. Moreover, LPS-treated or untreated control pups were challenged with LPS in adulthood and observed for general activity in the open field. In relation to the control group, the motor behavior of prenatally treated male pups was unaffected at basal levels, both in infancy and in adulthood, but decreased general activity was observed in adulthood after an immune challenge. Also, striatal dopamine and metabolite levels were decreased in adulthood. In conclusion, prenatal LPS exposure disrupted the dopaminergic system involved with motor function, but this neurochemical effect was not accompanied by behavioral impairment, probably due to adaptive plasticity processes. Notwithstanding, behavioral impairment was revealed when animals were challenged with LPS, resulting in enhanced sickness behavior.

  17. Simultaneous subchronic exposure to selenium and diazinon as possible risk factor for osteoporosis in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and its main health outcome, fragility fractures, are large and escalating health problems. Skeletal damage may be the critical result of low-level prolonged exposure to several xenobiotics in the general population, but the mechanisms of their adverse effects are not clearly understood. The current study was aimed to investigate the possible ability of simultaneous subchronic peroral administration of selenium (Se) and diazinon (DZN) to induce changes in bone of adult male rats. In our study, twenty 1-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups. In the first group, young males were exposed to 5 mg Na2SeO3/L and 40 mg of DZN/L in drinking water, for 90 days. Ten 1-month-old males without Se and DZN intoxication served as a control group. At the end of the experiment, macroscopic and microscopic structures of the femurs were analysed using analytical scales, sliding instrument, and polarized light microscopy. Results The body weight, femoral length and cortical bone thickness were significantly decreased in rats simultaneously exposed to Se and DZN (P < 0.05). These rats also displayed different microstructure in the middle part of the compact bone where vascular canals expanded into central area of substantia compacta. The canals occurred only near endosteal surfaces in rats from the control group. Additionally, a smaller number of primary and secondary osteons, as well as a few resorption lacunae were observed near endosteal surfaces in rats simultaneously administered to Se and DZN. The resorption lacunae as typical structures of bone resorption manifestation are connected with an early stage of osteoporosis. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that area, perimeter, maximum and minimum diameters of primary osteons’ vascular canals were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the Se-DZN-exposed rats. On the other hand, all measured variables of Haversian canals and secondary osteons were

  18. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract on morphological and functional changes in adult male gonads of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy; De, Neela; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2011-09-01

    Green tea, prepared from the steamed and dried leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis, is known for its antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, its effects on male gonadal functions have not been explored adequately and the present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea extract on gonads of adult male albino rats. Results of in vivo studies showed that green tea extract (GTE) at mild (1.25 g%, identical to 5 cups of tea/day), moderate (2.5 g%, identical to 10 cups of tea/day) and high (5.0 g%, identical to 20 cups of tea/day) doses, for a period of 26 days, altered morphology and histology of testis and accessory sex organs. A significant dose-dependent decrease in the sperm counts, inhibited activities of testicular delta(5)3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta5-3beta3-HSD and 17beta3-HSD respectively) and decreased serum testosterone level were noticed. Significant increase in serum LH level was observed after moderate and high doses; serum FSH level also increased but not significantly. Histopathological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis evidenced by preferential loss of matured and elongated spermatids. Results of this study showed that GTE at relatively high dose may cause impairment of both the morphological and normal functional status of testis in rodents and thus its consumption at relatively high doses raises concern on male reproductive function in spite of its other beneficial effects.

  19. Alterations in male sexual behaviour, attractiveness and testosterone levels induced by an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    PubMed

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2008-06-26

    Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed controls. The temporary restriction (Previous CR) failed to alter sexual behaviour, partner preference and levels of testosterone and leptin. The moderately 25% CR males did not demonstrate an impairment in sexual behaviour but did demonstrate a reduced level of attractiveness to females in one measure of partner preference. Sexual performance was affected by a substantial CR, as the CR 50% group exhibited a longer latency to the first intromission, indicating alteration in sexual arousal. Females also consistently demonstrated a clear preference for the control group compared to the CR 50% group. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the overall reproductive potential of the substantially CR animals. Testosterone levels were equally suppressed by both the 25% and 50% CR, while leptin levels were only reduced in the CR 50% group. Leptin, rather than testosterone, may have influenced the impairment in sexual behaviour only demonstrated by the substantially CR animals. Testosterone, may, however, play a role in modulating the preference of control over CR males, as attractiveness was totally reduced by a substantial CR, and partially reduced by a moderate restricted regimen.

  20. Effects of perinatal bisphenol A exposure during early development on radial arm maze behavior in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Park, Pul; Neese, Steven L.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Schantz, Susan L.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) can affect anxiety behavior. However, no studies have examined whether administration of this endocrine disruptor during the perinatal period has the potential to induce alterations in cognitive behavior in both adult males and females as assessed in an appetitive task. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to different doses of BPA during early development alters performance on the 17-arm radial maze in adulthood in Long-Evans rats. Oral administration of corn oil (vehicle), 4 μg/kg, 40 μg/kg, or 400 μg/kg BPA to the dams occurred daily throughout pregnancy, and the pups received direct oral administration of BPA between postnatal days 1-9. Blood was collected from offspring at weaning age to determine levels of several hormones (thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone). One male and one female from each litter were evaluated on the 17-arm radial maze, a working/reference memory task, in adulthood. Results indicated that after exposure to BPA at both 4 and 400 μg/kg/day, rats of both sexes had decreased levels of FSH at weaning. There were no significant effects of BPA on performance on the radial arm maze in males or females. In conclusion, exposure to BPA during early development had modest effects on circulating hormones but did not affect a spatial learning and memory task. PMID:24440629

  1. Effects of bisphenol-A on male reproductive success in adult Kadaknath chicken.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram P; Shafeeque, Chathathayil M; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Singh, Renu; Kannan, Maharajan; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Raghunandanan, Sajith; Mohan, Jag; Azeez, Parappurath A

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) adversely affects human and animal reproductive success in many ways, but this information is scant on birds. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of BPA in adult Kadaknath chicken using two BPA dosages orally (1 or 5 mg/kg body weight) for seven weeks. In order to assess BPA toxicity, sperm functions, fertilizing ability, serum testosterone concentration and testis histopathology were measured in treated and control chickens. The semen volume was highest in birds exposed to 1mg/kg body weight BPA compared to other groups. 5 mg/kg body weight BPA reduced sperm concentration significantly more than other treatment and controls. However, overall fertility and testis histology were unaffected. These results indicate that BPA adversely affects sperm characteristics in adult kadaknath chicken without affecting fertilization potential.

  2. Transurethral Unroofing of a Symptomatic Imperforate Cowper's Syringocele in an Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Catherine R.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Osterberg, E. Charles

    2016-01-01

    Cystic dilatation of bulbourethral gland ducts (Cowper's gland syringocele) is a rare abnormality. The condition has been described among pediatric populations, but it is uncommon in adults. It can be asymptomatic or present with obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. We report a case of a symptomatic imperforate Cowper's syringocele in a young patient that was successfully managed with transurethral unroofing of the cyst. PMID:27119039

  3. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  4. Effect of adult onset hypothyroidism on behavioral parameters and acetylcholinesterase isoforms activity in specific brain regions of male mice.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Giompres, Panagiotis; Margarity, Marigoula

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal development and function of mammalian central nervous system (CNS); TH dysregulation has been implicated in several cognitive and behavioral deficits related to dysfunctions of neurotransmitter systems. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adult onset hypothyroidism on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and on related behavioral parameters. For this purpose we used adult male Balb/cJ mice that were divided randomly into euthyroid and hypothyroid animal groups. Animals were rendered hypothyroid through administration of 1% w/v KClO4 in their drinking water for 8weeks. At the end of the treatment, learning/memory procedures were examined through step-through passive avoidance task while fear/anxiety was assessed using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open-field (OF) tests. AChE activity was determined colorimetrically in two different fractions, salt-soluble fraction (SS) (containing mainly the G1 isoform) and detergent-soluble fraction (DS) (containing mainly the G4 isoform) in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, midbrain, hippocampus and striatum. Our results indicate that adult onset hypothyroidism caused significant memory impairment and increased fear/anxiety. Moreover, the activity of both isoforms of AChE was reduced in all brain regions examined in a brain region- and isoform-specific manner. PMID:27317840

  5. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  6. Effect of adult onset hypothyroidism on behavioral parameters and acetylcholinesterase isoforms activity in specific brain regions of male mice.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Giompres, Panagiotis; Margarity, Marigoula

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal development and function of mammalian central nervous system (CNS); TH dysregulation has been implicated in several cognitive and behavioral deficits related to dysfunctions of neurotransmitter systems. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adult onset hypothyroidism on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and on related behavioral parameters. For this purpose we used adult male Balb/cJ mice that were divided randomly into euthyroid and hypothyroid animal groups. Animals were rendered hypothyroid through administration of 1% w/v KClO4 in their drinking water for 8weeks. At the end of the treatment, learning/memory procedures were examined through step-through passive avoidance task while fear/anxiety was assessed using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open-field (OF) tests. AChE activity was determined colorimetrically in two different fractions, salt-soluble fraction (SS) (containing mainly the G1 isoform) and detergent-soluble fraction (DS) (containing mainly the G4 isoform) in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, midbrain, hippocampus and striatum. Our results indicate that adult onset hypothyroidism caused significant memory impairment and increased fear/anxiety. Moreover, the activity of both isoforms of AChE was reduced in all brain regions examined in a brain region- and isoform-specific manner.

  7. Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

  8. X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in young adult male patients

    SciTech Connect

    Laureti, S.; Casucci, G.; Santeusanio, F.

    1996-02-01

    X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a genetic disease associated with demyelination of the central nervous system, adrenal insufficiency, and accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in tissue and body fluids. ALD is due to mutation of a gene located in Xq28 that encodes a peroxisomal transporter protein of unknown function. The most common phenotype of ALD is the cerebral form (45%) that develops in boys between 5-12 yr. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) involves the spinal cord and peripheral nerves in young adults (35%). Adrenal insufficiency (Addison`s disease) is frequently associated with AMN or cerebral ALD and may remain the only clinical expression of ALD (8% of cases). The prevalence of ALD among adults with Addison`s disease remains unknown. To evaluate this prevalence, we performed biochemical analysis of very long chain fatty acids in 14 male patients (age ranging from 12-45 yr at diagnosis) previously diagnosed as having primary idiopathic adrenocortical insufficiency. In 5 of 14 patients (35%), elevated plasma concentrations of very long chain fatty acids were detected. None of these patients had adrenocortical antibodies. By electrophysiological tests and magnetic resonance imaging it was determined that two patients had cerebral ALD, one had adrenomyeloneuropathy with cerebral involvement, and two had preclinical AMN. Our data support the hypothesis that ALD is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in children and adults. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Testicular hormones do not regulate sexually dimorphic Pavlovian fear conditioning or perforant-path long-term potentiation in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Anagnostaras, S G; Maren, S; DeCola, J P; Lane, N I; Gale, G D; Schlinger, B A; Fanselow, M S

    1998-04-01

    We recently reported that Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal perforant-path long-term potentiation (LTP) are sexually dimorphic in rats. Males show greater contextual fear conditioning, which depends on the hippocampus, as well as greater hippocampal LTP. In order to examine the role of circulating gonadal hormones in adult male rats, animals were castrated in two experiments, and Pavlovian fear conditioning and in vivo perforant-path LTP were examined. It was found that sexually-dimorphic LTP and fear conditioning are not regulated by the activational effects of testicular hormones in adult male rats. That is, in every respect, castrated male rats were similar to intact male rats in Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal LTP. It is likely that sexual dimorphism in this system is established earlier in development by the organizational effects of gonadal hormones.

  10. Internet worms and global routing instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, James; Ogielski, Andy T.; Premore, B. J.; Yuan, Yougu

    2002-07-01

    We analyze the global BGP routing instabilities observed during the Code Red II and Nimda worm attacks in July and September 2001, respectively. Compelling analysis is shown on the correlation between the observed instabilities and the worm attacks. We analyze router failure modes that can be triggered by the abnormal traffic during the worm attack and how they can lead to global routing instability. Independent research has partially confirmed that such failure modes can and likely do occur in practice. Highly detailed large-scale simulations help close the loop, indicating that such failure modes do in fact trigger the kind of widespread BGP instabilities that were observed empirically.

  11. A Common Worm in a Rare Place.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Mohammed Reza

    2013-11-01

    A case of a 40-year-old female, in whom a 6-meter long worm (Taenia saginata) was found in stomach, is reported here. In this patient, T. saginata upward migration of the worm to the stomach, its rare phenomenon, worm mostly seen in the small intestine. This is mainly because of the high gastric acidity. In this patient, we believe proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use caused hypochlorhydria and coexistence H. pylori infection caused chronic atrophic gastritis, which resulted in the retrograde migration of the tapeworm to the stomach in our patient. PMID:26171346

  12. Serotonin receptors in parasitic worms.

    PubMed

    Mansour, T E

    1984-01-01

    It is evident from the above review that during the last two decades a great deal of interest in investigating the action of serotonin in parasitic worms has been shown by parasitologists as well as by scientists from several other disciplines. What we have initially reported concerning the effect of serotonin on motility and carbohydrate metabolism of F. hepatica has been pursued on several other parasitic worms. The studies so far indicate that serotonin stimulates motility of every species tested among the phylum Platyhelminthes. The indoleamine also stimulates glycogenolysis in the few flatworm parasites that have been investigated. The information in nematodes is scanty and the role of serotonin in these parasites is still open for experimentation. Recent biochemical investigations on F. hepatica and S. mansoni demonstrated that serotonin and related compounds utilize a common class of receptors in plasma membrane particles which I designate as 'serotonin receptors'. These receptors are linked to an adenylate cyclase that catalyses the synthesis of the second messenger, cyclic 3',5'-AMP. Serotonin and its congeners increase the concentration of cyclic AMP in intact parasites whereas antagonists inhibit such an effect. Cyclic AMP stimulates glycogenolysis, glycolysis and some rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes. It activates a protein kinase that may be involved in activation of glycogen phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase. Serotonin-activated adenylate cyclase in S. mansoni is activated early in the life of the schistosomule. The possibility is discussed that the availability of cyclic AMP through serotonin activation in these parasites may be a prelude to the development processes that take place in the parasite. The different components of the serotonin-activated adenylate cyclase in the parasite are the same as those that have been previously described for the host. Binding characteristics of the receptors indicate that the receptors in F. hepatica appear to

  13. Life-cycle of Choniomyzon inflatus Wakabayashi, Otake, Tanaka & Nagasawa, 2013 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae) with the morphological descriptions of the nauplius, copepodid and adult male.

    PubMed

    Otake, Shusaku; Wakabayashi, Kaori; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-02-01

    Choniomyzon inflatus Wakabayashi, Otake, Tanaka & Nagasawa, 2013 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae), an associate of the scyllarid lobster Ibacus novemdentatus Gibbes, was found to pass through at least four developmental stages: nauplius, copepodid I (CI), copepodid II or later (CII+) and adult. Free-living nauplii were observed hatching from the ovisacs of adult females. CI was found on the body surface of both female and male hosts, whereas CII+ and adult were obtained from the female host's egg masses. The life-cycle of this copepod is presumed to be as follows: (i) nauplius develops into CI in the water column; (ii) infective CI settles on body surface of host; (iii) CI moults into the following stage, changing its microhabitat from host's body surface to egg masses; (iv) CII+ develops on egg masses of host until adult stage; and (v) adult female and male mate on the host's egg masses. PMID:26790679

  14. Influence of ecologic factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W; Dubay, Shelli A

    2015-04-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  15. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  16. The effect of red wine consumption on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Michał; Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Stachoń, Małgorzata; Kołota, Aleksandra; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Malik, Agnieszka; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rusaczonek, Anna; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Very little is known about the effects of red wine consumption on male reproductive functions. Here we report the effect of regular drinking of different types of red wine on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats. Dry red wine (D-RW) exerted higher antioxidant activity and was characterized by higher concentration of phenolic compounds compared to semi-dry (SD-RW), sweet (S-RW) and semi-sweet (SS-RW) wines. No differences in total antioxidant status of rat plasma after six weeks of drinking of the wines were detected. Increased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone levels in S-RW versus control and D-RW (5.26 vs. 3.06 and 3.21 ng mL(-1)) groups were found. The plasma testosterone concentration was lower in D-RW compared to control, SD-RW, S-RW and SS-RW groups (0.25 vs. 1.12, 1.09, 1.54 and 1.25 ng mL(-1)). Higher plasma 17β-estradiol level in S-RW versus SD-RW and SS-RW (10.94 vs. 7.18 and 6.72 pg mL(-1)) group was stated. The prolactin level was higher in plasma of S-RW versus D-RW and SS-RW (17.35 vs. 9.74 and 8.59 ng mL(-1)) rats. The effects of red wine drinking on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system depend on the type and the dose of red wine. Chemical compounds naturally occurring in red wines (i.e. phenolics) may modulate the effects of ethyl alcohol, but also directly affect the male reproduction.

  17. Chryseomonas luteola from Bile Culture in an Adult Male with Severe Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha S; Salunke, Parul P; Parikh, Harshal R; Baveja, Sujata M

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old male was admitted in this hospital with severe jaundice, who had open cholecystectomy done 2 months ago. ERCP was performed and bile was sent for culture. It grew Chryseomonas luteola in pure culture. He underwent hepaticojejunostomy after 1 month. Total bilirubin improved gradually. His condition was stable on discharge. Prompt diagnosis of non-fermenters is required, as some of them are resistant to multiple antibiotics. Clinician