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Sample records for adult mallards anas

  1. Aroclor 1242 and reproductive success of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-four pairs of adult mallards were fed a diet containing 0 or 150 ppm of the PCB Aroclor 1242 for 12 weeks during which egg laying was induced. Laying started in both groups an average of 33 days after PCB treatment began. All hens were allowed to lay a 20-egg clutch; 15 eggs from each clutch were artificially incubated. Eleven hens from each group completed the clutch. There was no difference between the two groups in the time taken to lay the clutch, nor was there a difference in fertility, embryo mortality, or hatching success. Eggshell thickness decreased 8.9% with PCB ingestion; eggs from hens fed PCB contained an average of 105 ppm PCB wet wt. No difference in survival or weight gain to 3 weeks of age was observed between young mallards from eggs laid by PCB-treated hens and control hens.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Hudson River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sean S; Skinner, Lawrence C

    2016-09-01

    The Hudson River, NY, USA is contaminated for over 300 km with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from two General Electric (GE) capacitor plants. We collected adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from four different areas of the river; an area upstream of the GE plants (n = 38), two areas directly downstream of the GE plants (n = 41, n = 38), and an area more than 100 km downstream in the freshwater tidal river (n = 20). Collections occurred during July and August (2008) when ducks were flightless to ensure ducks were "resident" and exposures were local. Fat and muscle tissue were analyzed for PCBs. PCBs were detected in all samples, and mallards below the GE plant sites on the Hudson River had orders of magnitude higher concentrations of PCBs than those above the plants. Juvenile mallards from areas directly downstream of the GE plant sites tended to have higher PCB concentrations in fat than adults. The patterns of PCB congeners and homolog groups varied across the study areas, with areas directly downstream of the GE plants dominated by tetra-chloro biphenyls whereas samples from upstream and the freshwater tidal river tended towards higher chlorinated congeners. Congener patterns between male and female and juvenile and adult mallards were generally similar within study areas, with the exception of one area downstream of the GE plants where adult birds exhibited different patterns than juveniles. Evidence of PCBs from the GE plant sites was detected in the tidal Hudson River, more than 100 km downstream of the plant sites. More than 90% of the ducks collected in areas downstream of the GE plants but above the tidally influenced river exceed the USFDA tolerance level for PCBs in poultry, which should be a concern for consumers of waterfowl taken in proximity to the upper Hudson River. PMID:27317495

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Hudson River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sean S; Skinner, Lawrence C

    2016-09-01

    The Hudson River, NY, USA is contaminated for over 300 km with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from two General Electric (GE) capacitor plants. We collected adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from four different areas of the river; an area upstream of the GE plants (n = 38), two areas directly downstream of the GE plants (n = 41, n = 38), and an area more than 100 km downstream in the freshwater tidal river (n = 20). Collections occurred during July and August (2008) when ducks were flightless to ensure ducks were "resident" and exposures were local. Fat and muscle tissue were analyzed for PCBs. PCBs were detected in all samples, and mallards below the GE plant sites on the Hudson River had orders of magnitude higher concentrations of PCBs than those above the plants. Juvenile mallards from areas directly downstream of the GE plant sites tended to have higher PCB concentrations in fat than adults. The patterns of PCB congeners and homolog groups varied across the study areas, with areas directly downstream of the GE plants dominated by tetra-chloro biphenyls whereas samples from upstream and the freshwater tidal river tended towards higher chlorinated congeners. Congener patterns between male and female and juvenile and adult mallards were generally similar within study areas, with the exception of one area downstream of the GE plants where adult birds exhibited different patterns than juveniles. Evidence of PCBs from the GE plant sites was detected in the tidal Hudson River, more than 100 km downstream of the plant sites. More than 90% of the ducks collected in areas downstream of the GE plants but above the tidally influenced river exceed the USFDA tolerance level for PCBs in poultry, which should be a concern for consumers of waterfowl taken in proximity to the upper Hudson River.

  4. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Fleming, W J; Bunck, C M

    1989-04-01

    In winter, pen-reared and wild black ducks (Anas rubripes), and game farm and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), maintained on pelleted feed, were sham-dosed or given one number 4 lead shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional lead shot. This dosing regimen also was repeated in summer using pen-reared black ducks and game farm mallards. Based upon mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and protoporphyrin concentration, black ducks and mallards were found to be equally tolerant to lead shot. However, captive wild ducks were more sensitive than their domesticated counterparts, as evidenced by greater mortality and weight loss following lead shot administration. This difference may be related to stress associated with captivity and unnatural diet. PMID:2716097

  5. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    In winter, pen-reared and wild black ducks (Anas rubripes), and game farm and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), maintained on pelleted feed, were sham-dosed or given one number 4 lead shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional lead shot. This dosing regimen also was repeated in summer using pen-reared black ducks and game farm mallards. Based upon mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and protoporphyrin concentration, black ducks and mallards were found to be equally tolerant to lead shot. However, captive wild ducks were more sensitive than their domesticated counterparts, as evidenced by greater mortality and weight loss following lead shot administration. This difference may be related to stress associated with captivity and unnatural diet.

  6. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Hill, Nichola J; Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Hobson, Keith A; Herring, Garth; Cardona, Carol J; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Boyce, Walter M

    2012-12-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories. PMID:22971007

  7. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herring, Garth; Hobson, Keith; Cardona, Carol J.; Runstadler, Jonathan; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories.

  8. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Hill, Nichola J; Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Hobson, Keith A; Herring, Garth; Cardona, Carol J; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Boyce, Walter M

    2012-12-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories.

  9. Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): I. Initial preference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Lee, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Wild and game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) raised in pure strain and mixed groups were tested for initial mate preference in a choice test. Female mallards showed no significant preference but males of either strain raised with females of their own strain significantly preferred female models of their own strain during the test. Males raised with females of the other strain merely showed attenuation of their preference for female models of their own strain and did not show preference for female models of the other strain. Game-farm mallards approached models significantly sooner than wild mallards and there was a significant sex X mate interaction.

  10. Behavior of mallard ducklings from adults exposed to selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Gold, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pairs of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 1, 2, 4 or 8 ppm selenium in the form of seleno-DL-methionine. Ducklings from these pairs were fed an untreated diet from hatching through 6 d of age, at which time their avoidance of a fright stimulus was tested. Selenium had no effect on the ducklings' response to the fright stimulus.

  11. Lincoln estimates of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) abundance in North America

    PubMed Central

    Alisauskas, Ray T; Arnold, Todd W; Leafloor, James O; Otis, David L; Sedinger, James S

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of range-wide abundance, harvest, and harvest rate are fundamental for sound inferences about the role of exploitation in the dynamics of free-ranging wildlife populations, but reliability of existing survey methods for abundance estimation is rarely assessed using alternative approaches. North American mallard populations have been surveyed each spring since 1955 using internationally coordinated aerial surveys, but population size can also be estimated with Lincoln's method using banding and harvest data. We estimated late summer population size of adult and juvenile male and female mallards in western, midcontinent, and eastern North America using Lincoln's method of dividing (i) total estimated harvest, , by estimated harvest rate, , calculated as (ii) direct band recovery rate, , divided by the (iii) band reporting rate, . Our goal was to compare estimates based on Lincoln's method with traditional estimates based on aerial surveys. Lincoln estimates of adult males and females alive in the period June–September were 4.0 (range: 2.5–5.9), 1.8 (range: 0.6–3.0), and 1.8 (range: 1.3–2.7) times larger than respective aerial survey estimates for the western, midcontinent, and eastern mallard populations, and the two population estimates were only modestly correlated with each other (western: r = 0.70, 1993–2011; midcontinent: r = 0.54, 1961–2011; eastern: r = 0.50, 1993–2011). Higher Lincoln estimates are predictable given that the geographic scope of inference from Lincoln estimates is the entire population range, whereas sampling frames for aerial surveys are incomplete. Although each estimation method has a number of important potential biases, our review suggests that underestimation of total population size by aerial surveys is the most likely explanation. In addition to providing measures of total abundance, Lincoln's method provides estimates of fecundity and population sex ratio and could be used in integrated population

  12. The susceptibility of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) to Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Duncan, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Most strains of Clostridium botulinum type C, after having lost their capacity to produce their dominant toxin (C1) as a result of being "cured" of their prophages, continue to produce C2, a trypsin-activable toxin reported by other investigators. While of relatively low toxicity when administered perorally to the adult mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), it was highly toxic when given parenterally. By the intravenous route, for example, it was more than 1,000 times as toxic as C1 toxin by the same route, when compared on the basis of mouse intraperitoneal toxicity. The cause of death in every instance was massive pulmonary edema and hemorrhage rather than the respiratory paralysis that occurs in C1 intoxication.

  13. Inflammatory markers following acute fuel oil exposure or bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelly A; Tell, Lisa A; Mohr, F Charles

    2012-12-01

    Adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were orally dosed with bunker C fuel oil for 5 days, and five different inflammatory markers (haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin, ceruloplasmin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and plasma iron) were measured in blood plasma prior to and 8, 24, 48, and 72 hr following exposure. In order to contrast the response to fuel oil with that of a systemic inflammatory response, an additional five ducks were injected intramuscularly with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oil-treated birds had an inflammatory marker profile that was significantly different from control and LPS-treated birds, showing decreases in mannan-binding lectin-dependent hemolysis and unsaturated iron-binding capacity, but no changes in any of the other inflammatory markers. Birds treated with oil also exhibited increased liver weights, decreased body and splenic weights, and decreased packed cell volume.

  14. Precocial hindlimbs and altricial forelimbs: partitioning ontogenetic strategies in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Dial, Terry R; Carrier, David R

    2012-11-01

    Precocial development, in which juveniles are relatively mature at hatching or birth, is more common among vertebrates than altricial development, and is likely to be the basal condition. Altricial development characterizes many birds and mammals and is generally viewed as an alternate strategy, promoting fast growth rates, short developmental periods and relatively poor locomotor performance prior to attaining adult size. Many aquatic birds such as Anseriformes (ducks, geese and swans), Charadriformes (gulls and terns) and Gruiformes (rails) undergo distinctive developmental trajectories, in that hatchlings are able to run and swim the day they hatch, yet they do not begin to fly until fully grown. We hypothesized that there should be tradeoffs in apportioning bone and muscle mass to the hindlimb and forelimb that could account for these patterns in locomotor behavior within the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Growth of the musculoskeletal system in the forelimbs and hindlimbs was measured and compared with maximal aquatic and terrestrial sprint speeds and aerial descent rates throughout the 2-month-long mallard ontogenetic period. At 30 days post hatching, when body mass is 50% of adult values, hindlimb muscle mass averages 90% and forelimb muscle mass averages 10% of adult values; similarly, bone growth (length and width) in the hindlimbs and forelimbs averages 90 and 60% of adult values, respectively. The attainment of mallard locomotor performance parallels the morphological maturation of forelimb and hindlimb morphometrics - hindlimb performance initiates just after hatching at a relatively high level (~50% adult values) and gradually improves throughout the first month of development, while forelimb performance is relatively non-existent at hatching (~10% adult values), experiencing delayed and dramatic improvement in function, and maturing at the time of fledging. This divergence in ontogenetic strategy between locomotor modules could allow developing

  15. Lead contamination in the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Tirelli, E.; Maestrini, N.; Govoni, S.; Catelli, E.

    1996-05-01

    The main cause of lead poisoning in waterfowl is due to ingestion of spent lead shot in areas of high hunting pressure . Italian literature on this subject is very scarce and the few available studies concern episodic cases. to contribute to the assessment of the impact of lead shot in waterfowl in Italy, systematic research has been carried out on shorebirds caught for ringing in Tiscany and are continuing on dabbling and diving ducks by checking the presence of lead in blood samples and lead shot in the gizzard. This study targets the mallard duck. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Embryotoxicity of Corexit 9500 in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Finch, Bryson E; Smith, Philip N

    2012-04-01

    Embryotoxicity of the oil dispersant Corexit 9500 was examined using fertilized mallard duck eggs. Corexit 9500 was topically applied below the air cell to eggs in volumes ranging from 0 to 100 μL on day 3 of incubation. The highest incidence of mortality occurred at developmental stage 4, one day post-Corexit 9500 application. Hatching success was significantly decreased among eggs treated with ≥ 20 μL of Corexit 9500 as compared to controls (P ≤ 0.047). No egg treated with ≥ 40 μL successfully hatched. The application volume resulting in 50% mortality (corrected for control survival) was determined to be 15.5 μL. Developmental stage at embryo death was also significantly decreased compared to controls in eggs exposed to 40 μL (P = 0.0042) and above.

  17. Early imprinting in wild and game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): genotype and arousal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Shapiro, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Early imprinting was studied under laboratory conditions in five lines of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with different degrees of wildness obtained through pedigreed breeding. Data were analyzed by the least squares method. Wild ducklings imprinted better than game-farm (domesticated) ducklings, and heterosis was demonstrated to exist in imprinting traits. Nonadditive genetic variations and genotype-environmental interactions are discussed as possible causes for the heterosis observed. Differences in imprinting between genetic lines are attributed, at least partly, to differences in arousal level during the ducklings' first exposure to the imprinting stimulus.

  18. Tracking Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with GPS Satellite Transmitters Along Their Migration Route Through Northeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Ki-Sup; Kim, Seol-Hee; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Jeong, Jipseol; Wang, Seung-Jun; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Yu, Seung-do; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Mo, In-Pil

    2016-05-01

    In this study, Global Positioning System satellite transmitters were attached to three mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in South Korea to track their migration routes, stopover sites, breeding sites, and migration patterns. We successfully tracked only one mallard (no. 108917) from November 15, 2011, to November 29, 2013, and determined separate migration routes in two cases of spring migration and one case of fall migration. The mallard repeatedly migrated to the same final destination, even though the travel path varied. We identified six stopover sites: Hunhe River, Liaohe River, Yinma River, Yalu River, Songjeon Bay, and Dahuofang Reservoir in China and South Korea. The wintering sites of two migration cases were discovered to be identical (Gokgyo River in Asan, South Korea). The terminal sites, which were presumed to be breeding grounds, were the same in both cases (Hinggan League in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China). On the basis of the migration routes identified in this study, we suggest that future efforts to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) should not only include avian influenza surveillance but also implement flyway-based strategies, with regard to all countries affected by potential HPAI outbreaks. PMID:27309072

  19. Transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Mateman, A Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards.

  20. Exposure of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to the hepatotoxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sipia, V.O.; Franson, J.C.; Sjovall, O.; Pflugmacher, S.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Rocke, T.E.; Meriluoto, J.A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Nodularin (NODLN) is a cyclic pentapeptide hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, which forms extensive blooms during the summer in the Baltic Sea. Nodularin was detected in liver, muscle and/or feather samples of several common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic Sea) in 2002-2005. Published information on the adverse effects of NODLN in marine birds is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of NODLN, and determine the concentrations of NODLN in liver and muscle tissue in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to N. spumigena. Mallards received a single or multiple exposure via oral gavage with an aqueous slurry containing toxic N. spumigena. Dosages ranged from 200 to 600 ??g NODLN per kg body weight (bw). There were minimal histopathological changes in liver tissue, and brain cholinesterase activity did not differ among treatment groups. Concentrations of NODLN measured by LC-MS in liver varied between approximately 3-120 ??g kg-1 dry weight (dw) and ducks receiving multiple exposures had significantly greater liver toxin levels than ducks receiving the two lowest single exposures. In muscle, NODLN concentrations were approximately 2-6 ??g kg-1 dw, but did not differ significantly among exposure groups. This is the first in vivo lab study examining the effects and bioaccumulation of NODLN from N. spumigena in birds. The mallards in this study were resistant to adverse effects and did not bioaccumulate substantial levels of NODLN at the doses given. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Tracking Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with GPS Satellite Transmitters Along Their Migration Route Through Northeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Ki-Sup; Kim, Seol-Hee; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Jeong, Jipseol; Wang, Seung-Jun; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Yu, Seung-do; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Mo, In-Pil

    2016-05-01

    In this study, Global Positioning System satellite transmitters were attached to three mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in South Korea to track their migration routes, stopover sites, breeding sites, and migration patterns. We successfully tracked only one mallard (no. 108917) from November 15, 2011, to November 29, 2013, and determined separate migration routes in two cases of spring migration and one case of fall migration. The mallard repeatedly migrated to the same final destination, even though the travel path varied. We identified six stopover sites: Hunhe River, Liaohe River, Yinma River, Yalu River, Songjeon Bay, and Dahuofang Reservoir in China and South Korea. The wintering sites of two migration cases were discovered to be identical (Gokgyo River in Asan, South Korea). The terminal sites, which were presumed to be breeding grounds, were the same in both cases (Hinggan League in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China). On the basis of the migration routes identified in this study, we suggest that future efforts to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) should not only include avian influenza surveillance but also implement flyway-based strategies, with regard to all countries affected by potential HPAI outbreaks.

  2. Transfer of Maternal Antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.; Mateman, A. Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocinogenic Strain Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, Isolated from Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Jimenez, Juan J.; Borrero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Frantzen, Cyril; Herranz, Carmen; Nes, Ingolf F.; Cintas, Luis M.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The assembly contains 2,836,724 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%. The genome is predicted to contain 2,654 coding DNA sequences (CDSs) and 50 RNAs. PMID:27417838

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocinogenic Strain Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, Isolated from Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Jimenez, Juan J; Borrero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Frantzen, Cyril; Herranz, Carmen; Nes, Ingolf F; Cintas, Luis M; Diep, Dzung B; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The assembly contains 2,836,724 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%. The genome is predicted to contain 2,654 coding DNA sequences (CDSs) and 50 RNAs. PMID:27417838

  5. Reproductive success and nest attentiveness of mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos fed aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A dietary dosage of 25 ppm Aroclor 1254 fed to 9 mo. old mallards Anas platyrhynchos for at least 1 mo. before egg-laying had no detrimental effect on reproductive success or nest attentiveness when hens were allowed to incubate their own eggs. The treatment caused no effect on number of hens laying, date of 1st egg laid or clutch size. Fertility of eggs was greater among Aroclor-treated birds (87.7%) than among controls (73.2%). Aroclor may have stimulated males to come into reproductive condition sooner than controls. Hatching of fertile eggs and survival of ducklings to 3 wk of age were similar in treated and control groups. The number of times off the nest per day and total time off the nest per day were the same for control and Aroclor-treated hens in days 14-17 of incubation.

  6. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D J

    1979-09-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil. PMID:513150

  7. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil.

  8. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  9. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Link, W.A.; Olsen, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was Iympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 :g/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 ug/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 ug/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney <5 ug/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  10. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; McKernan, Moira A; Eisenreich, Karen M; Link, William A; Olsen, Glenn H; Hoffman, David J; Knowles, Kathy A; McGowan, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 microg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 microg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 microg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 microg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  11. Marbofloxacin disposition after intravenous administration of a single dose in wild mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Montijano, Marino; de Lucas, J Julio; Rodríguez, Casilda; González, Fernando; San Andrés, Manuel Ignacio; Waxman, Samanta

    2012-03-01

    Marbofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone developed specifically for veterinary use, has demonstrated considerable pharmokinetic variation among avian species. The goal of this study was to determine the disposition kinetics of marbofloxacin in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after a single intravenous injection. Six wild mallard ducks were used in the study. Marbofloxacin was injected at a dose of 2 mg/kg into the basilic vein, and blood was subsequently collected at regular intervals from each bird. Plasma marbofloxacin concentrations were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The volume of distribution at steady state was 1.78 +/- 0.37 L/kg, and the total plasma clearance was 0.59 +/- 0.08 L/kg per hour. Marbofloxacin had a relatively short permanence, with a elimination half-life of 2.81 +/- 1.20 hours, a terminal half-life of 2.43 +/- 0.61 hours, and a mean residence time of 2.99 +/- 0.52 hour. The maximum observed concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) were 1.34 +/- 0.27 microg/mL and 3.75 +/- 0.56 microg x h/mL, respectively. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Cmax, and AUC have been used to predict the clinical efficacy of a drug in treating bacterial infections, with a Cmax: MIC value of 10 and an AUC: MIC ratio of 125-250 associated with optimal bactericidal effects. By using the study data and MIC breakpoints of 0.125 microg/mL or 0.2 microg/mL, values derived for Cmax: MIC were 9.37 +/- 0.99 and 5.85 +/- 0.62, respectively, and for AUC: MIC were 29.99 +/- 4.51 and 18.74 +/- 2.82, respectively. By using MIC values of 0.125 and 0.2 microg/mL and a target AUC: MIC = 125, the calculated optimal daily marbofloxacin dosages for mallard ducks were 9.24 and 14.78 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that, primarily because of the high total plasma clearance observed, the marbofloxacin dose for treatment of bacterial diseases in mallard ducks should be increased after intravenous administration. Intravenous doses

  12. Sources of variation in breeding-ground fidelity of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Nichols, J.D.; Tautin, J.; Voelzer, J.E.; Smith, G.W.; Benning, D.S.; Bentley, V.R.; Bidwell, J.K.; Bollinger, K.S.; Brazda, A.R.; Buelna, E.K.; Goldsberry, J.R.; King, R.J.; Roetker, F.H.; Solberg, J.W.; Thorpe, P.P.; Wortham, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Generalizations used to support hypotheses about the evolution of fidelity to breeding areas in birds include the tendency for fidelity to be greater in adult birds than in yearlings. In ducks, in contrast to most bird species, fidelity is thought to be greater among females than males. Researchers have suggested that fidelity in ducks is positively correlated with pond availability. However, most estimates of fidelity on which these inferences have been based represent functions of survival and recapture-resighting probabilities in addition to fidelity. We applied the modeling approach developed by Burnham to recapture and band recovery data of mallard ducks to test the above hypotheses about fidelity. We found little evidence of sex differences in adult philopatry, with females being slightly more philopatric than males in one study area, but not in a second study area. However, yearling females were more philopatric than yearling males in both study areas. We found that adults were generally more philopatric than yearlings. We could find no relationship between fidelity and pond availability. Our results, while partially supporting current theory concerning sex and age differences in philopatry, suggest that adult male mallards are more philopatric than once thought, and we recommend that other generalizations about philopatry be revisited with proper estimation techniques.

  13. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  14. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, T.M.; Burgess, E.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  15. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  16. Weights of wild mallard Anas platyrhynchos, gadwall A. strepera, and blue-winged teal A. discors during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, John T.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Sharp, David E.

    1990-01-01

    During 1976-81 we weighed several thousands of wild Mallard, Gadwall, and Blue-winged Teal in central North Dakota to examine duckling growth patterns, adult weights, and the factors influencing them. One-day-old Mallard and Gadwall averaged 32.4 and 30.4 g, respectively, a reduction of 34% and 29% from fresh egg weights. In all three species, the logistic growth curve provided a good fit for duckling growth patterns. Except for the asymptote, there was no difference in growth curves between males and females of a species. Mallard and Gadwall ducklings were heavier in years when wetland area was extensive or had increased from the previous year. Weights of after-second-year females were greater than yearlings for Mallard but not for Gadwall or Blue-winged Teal. Adult Mallard females lost weight continuously from late March to early July. Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal females, which nest later than Mallard, gained weight after spring arrival, lost weight from the onset of nesting until early July, and then regained some weight. Females of all species captured on nests were lighter than those captured off nests at the same time. Male Mallard weights decreased from spring arrival until late May. Male Gadwall and Blue-winged Teal weights increased after spring arrival, then declined until early June. Males of all three species then gained weight until the end of June. Among adults, female Gadwall and male Mallard and Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years when wetland area had increased from the previous year; female Blue-winged Teal were heavier in years with more wetland area.

  17. DDT homologues and PCBs in eggs of great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) from Lake Maggiore (Italy).

    PubMed

    Galassi, S; Saino, N; Melone, G; Croce, V

    2002-09-01

    DDT homologues and PCBs were determined in eggs of two stationary species, great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), in three breeding areas of Lake Maggiore in 1998. As expected, much higher contamination levels of both DDTs and PCBs were found in the fish-eating great crested grebe than in the mallard. In many eggs these values exceeded the safety thresholds proposed for aquatic bird protection. However, no significant correlation could be found between the two classes of pollutants and shell thickness in great crested grebe eggs. While a DDT manufacturer was detected as the main source of DDT pollution in the Lake Maggiore environment, the reason for the surprisingly high PCB level remains unknown.

  18. Nematodes in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758) and the common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758) (Anatidae) from Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Daria I; Yakovleva, Galina A; Ieshko, Evgeny P

    2015-10-01

    There are first data on nematodes of Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 (mallard) and Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758 (common goldeneye) from Northern Europe (Ladoga Lake region). The ducks were found to be infected with nine nematode species. A. platyrhynchos hosted eight nematode species and B. clangula was host to four nematode species. All species except Capillaria anatis were found in the region for the first time. Nematodes Amidostomum acutum, Streptocara crassicauda, and Tetrameres fissispina parasitized on both hosts and were the most abundant. The biggest number of parasites revealed was biohelminths with a direct life cycle.

  19. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone in laying and nonlaying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Bluhm, C K; Phillips, R E; Burke, W H

    1983-03-01

    Temporal changes of circulating serum hormones were measured to compare the reproductive endocrinology of laying and nonlaying mallards. In this study all sixteen control mallards left with their mates laid eggs, while only one of sixteen mallards stressed by daily movement into new pens, laid eggs. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in stressed nonlaying mallards than in laying mallards over the 7-week period. Within 1 week of the rotation treatment, LH concentrations in stressed mallards averaged (means +/- SEM) 2.72 +/- 0.19 ng/ml and were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than LH levels in the controls (3.62 +/- 0.18 ng/ml). After 7 weeks, injections of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) induced a greater change in circulating LH levels in stressed mallards (2.1 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) than in breeding control mallards (0.9 +/- 0.2 ng/ml). These data demonstrate that the lack of reproduction in stressed mallards was associated with LHRH-sensitive pituitary pools of LH, despite their low concentrations of serum LH. These data suggest that the block in reproduction is a failure of the hypothalamus to produce or release releasing hormones. The serum hormone levels of the control mallards varied temporally with stages in the nesting cycle. LH levels increased with the onset of nesting activity, and showed marked fluctuations during the laying period. LH levels fell at the onset of incubation but increased after loss of clutch. Estradiol levels were highest prior to the laying of the first egg and their peak coincided with the initial nest building behavior of the females. Progesterone levels increased sharply with the laying of the 2nd-4th eggs, decreased sharply with the laying of the 6th egg, and then increased slightly at the end of the nesting cycle. Prolactin levels were initially low but gradually increased with laying and incubation activity, declined with loss of

  20. Biochemical identification of the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, and black duck, A. rubripes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Noe, L.A.; Henny, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. 1. Eleven tissue systems from mallards and black ducks were examined for soluble proteins, lactate dehydrogenases and non-specific esterases through discontinuous polyacrylamide techniques. 2. 2. Biochemical relationships between the black duck and mallard are extremely similar. 3. 3. Hemoglobins and lactate dehydrogenase appear to be common in electrophoretic mobility between the two species. 4. 4. Approximately 89% of the soluble proteins and 58% of the non-specific esterases are common among the two species, indicating both biochemical similarity at the genus level and species-specificity.

  1. Humid microclimates within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) can potentially facilitate long distance dispersal of propagules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan, Neil E.; Kelly, Tom C.; Davenport, John; Jansen, Marcel A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Birds as carriers of propagules are major agents in the dispersal of plants, animals, fungi and microbes. However, there is a lack of empirical data in relation to bird-mediated, epizoochorous dispersal. The microclimate found within the plumage likely plays a pivotal role in survival during flight conditions. To investigate the potential of epizoochory, we have analysed the microclimatic conditions within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Under similar ambient conditions of humidity and temperature, a sample of mallards showed a consistent microclimatic regime with variation across the body surface. The highest (mean) temperature and specific humidity occurred between feathers of the postpatagium. The lowest humidity was found between feathers of the centre back and the lowest temperature in the crissum. Observed differences in plumage depth and density, and distance from the skin, are all likely to be determining factors of microclimate condition. Specific humidity found within the plumage was on average 1.8-3.5 times greater than ambient specific humidity. Thus, the plumage can supply a microclimate buffered from that of the exterior environment. Extrapolating survival data for Lemna minor desiccation at various temperature and humidity levels to the measured plumage microclimatic conditions of living birds, survival for up to 6 h can be anticipated, especially in crissum, crural and breast plumage. The results are discussed in the context of potential long distance epizoochorous dispersal by A. platyrhynchos and similar species.

  2. Response of adult mallard ducks to ingested South Louisiana crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, N.C.; Dieter, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed South Louisiana crude oil as 0.25 and 2.5% of the total diet for 26 weeks to assess the chronic effects of oil ingestion. Additional birds were fed diets containing either 1.0% of a paraffin mixture or clean feed. No birds died during the study, nor were their body weights significantly depressed. Oviduct weight at necropsy was greatly reduced in hens on the 2.5% oil diet and also was significantly reduced in hens on the 0.25% oil diet when compared with controls. Male reproductive organs were not atrophied by treatment. Hens on oil-treated diets laid fewer eggs than those on the control diet; however, eggs from treated hens hatched as well as those from controls when artificially incubated. Pathological or biochemical alterations were no greater in the treated birds than in controls.

  3. Effects of dispersant and crude oil ingestion on mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos)

    SciTech Connect

    Eastin, W.C. Jr.; Rattner, B.A.

    1982-09-01

    Four-day old ducklings were fed Prudhoe Bay crude oil, the dispersant Corexit, or both. Hematocrits were determined and plasma analyzed for glucose, total proteins, triglycerides, cholesterol, sodium and activities of ornithine carbamyl transferase and alanine aminotransferase. Results show that mallard ducklings can probably ingest low levels of dispersant alone, or in combination with crude oil, for nine weeks without overt or marked biochemical indications of toxicity. (JMT)

  4. Reproductive effects and duckling survivability following chronic dosing with tungsten-iron and tungsten-polymer shot in adult game-farm mallards.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R R; Fitzgerald, S D; Aulerich, R J; Balander, R J; Powell, D C; Tempelmen, R J; Stevens, W; Bursia, S J

    2001-07-01

    Tungsten-iron and tungsten-polymer shot were given conditional approval for waterfowl hunting by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service based partly on the results of a 30-day acute toxicity trial utilizing mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Final approval of the two tungsten-containing shot was contingent on the results of a 150-day study that assessed the health and reproductive effects of tungsten-iron and tungsten-polymer shot in adult mallards. Reproductive data are presented in this paper. Sixteen male and 16 female adult mallards were dosed orally with eight #4 steel shot (control), eight #4 tungsten-iron shot, or eight #4 tungsten-polymer shot on days 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 of a 150-day trial (26 January 1998 to 25 June 1998). Reproductive performance was assessed during the last 90 days (day 61 to day 150) of the trial. There were no significant differences in egg production and fertility and hatchability of eggs from tungsten-iron- and tungsten-polymer-dosed ducks compared to control ducks. There was no evidence of differences in percent survivability and body weight of ducklings from tungsten-iron and tungsten-polymer mallards compared to ducklings from control ducks. Tungsten-iron or tungsten-polymer shot repeatedly administered to adult mallards during the 150 day trial did not adversely affect reproduction or their offspring.

  5. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil. 2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds. 3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil. 4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  6. Behaviour patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos pairs and broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively examined Mallard behaviour in North America during the breeding season. We estimated diurnal time budgets of unmarked Mallard males, females, and broods from over 1,200 hours of observations at two study areas in western Minnesota and south-central North Dakota during 1988-91. Paired males spent less time feeding and more time alert than did females. Both pair members were engaged in the same behaviour about 67% of the time; the male was always most likely to be doing the same thing as the female, but when the male was resting on water or alert, the female was most likely to be feeding. Females with broods spent less time feeding and more time alert and in locomotion than did females without broods. Behaviour of brood females did not differ with brood age or size. Females temporarily left their broods alone 45 times - about once for each 11 hours of observation. Female absences ranged from 2 to >80 minutes (x>27 min); length of absence was not related to brood age or size. Broods of all ages (a few days old to near fledging) and sizes (1-10 ducklings) were left alone on land and water; broods mostly rested and fed during female absences. Brood females spent less time feeding and more time alert than did broods. Females and their broods were engaged in the same behaviour 6267% of the time; the female was always most likely to be doing the same behaviour as her brood, but when the female was resting on water, the brood was most likely to be feeding, and when the female was alert, the brood was most likely to be feeding (North Dakota site) or resting on land (Minnesota site). Daily activity patterns varied between sites for both pairs and broods. Feeding and resting behaviour showed opposite daily patterns, suggesting that time allocated to feeding constrained time spent resting. Differences between sites and years in time spent feeding by pairs and broods probably reflected varying water conditions and food availability. In light of

  7. Teratogenic effects of external egg applications of methyl mercury in the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.

    1979-01-01

    The embryotoxic potential of external applications of methyl mercury on mallard eggs was investigated to assess the possible impact of mercury transferred from the plumage of effluent-contaminated aquatic birds to their eggs. Eggs were treated on day 3 of development with microliter applications of methyl mercury that was dissolved with ethyl acetate into an aliphatic hydrocarbon vehicle. Mercury analysis by atomic absorption indicated that almost half of the mercury applied entered the eggs past the shell membranes within several days of treatment. Most mortality occurred within this period at doses of 9 microgram of mercury per egg or higher. Decreased embryonic growth resulted with similar doses. A significant incidence of malformations occurred at a dose of 1 microgram per egg. These malformations were mainly minor skeletal aberrations and incomplete ossification. With higher doses of mercury, defects included gross external ones such as micromella, gastroschisis, and eye and brain defects. Application of the aliphatic hydrocarbon vehicle did not result in any of these defects.

  8. Biomimicry of multifunctional nanostructures in the neck feathers of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) drakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-04-01

    Biological systems serve as fundamental sources of inspiration for the development of artificially colored devices, and their investigation provides a great number of photonic design opportunities. While several successful biomimetic designs have been detailed in the literature, conventional fabrication techniques nonetheless remain inferior to their natural counterparts in complexity, ease of production and material economy. Here, we investigate the iridescent neck feathers of Anas platyrhynchos drakes, show that they feature an unusual arrangement of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals and further exhibit a superhydrophobic surface, and mimic this multifunctional structure using a nanostructure composite fabricated by a recently developed top-down iterative size reduction method, which avoids the above-mentioned fabrication challenges, provides macroscale control and enhances hydrophobicity through the surface structure. Our 2D solid core photonic crystal fibres strongly resemble drake neck plumage in structure and fully polymeric material composition, and can be produced in wide array of colors by minor alterations during the size reduction process.

  9. Biomimicry of multifunctional nanostructures in the neck feathers of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) drakes.

    PubMed

    Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-04-22

    Biological systems serve as fundamental sources of inspiration for the development of artificially colored devices, and their investigation provides a great number of photonic design opportunities. While several successful biomimetic designs have been detailed in the literature, conventional fabrication techniques nonetheless remain inferior to their natural counterparts in complexity, ease of production and material economy. Here, we investigate the iridescent neck feathers of Anas platyrhynchos drakes, show that they feature an unusual arrangement of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals and further exhibit a superhydrophobic surface, and mimic this multifunctional structure using a nanostructure composite fabricated by a recently developed top-down iterative size reduction method, which avoids the above-mentioned fabrication challenges, provides macroscale control and enhances hydrophobicity through the surface structure. Our 2D solid core photonic crystal fibres strongly resemble drake neck plumage in structure and fully polymeric material composition, and can be produced in wide array of colors by minor alterations during the size reduction process.

  10. Organochlorine residues in adult mallard and black duck wings, 1981-1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Bunck, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten organochlorine compounds were identified in pools of black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wings from the 1981-82 hunting season. Most organochlorine compounds occurred very infrequently. Among those compounds positively identified by mass spectrometry, DDE and, secondarily, PCB had the highest frequencies of occurrence. Other compounds, positively identified and occurring less frequently, included DDT, DDD, DDMU, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, cis-chlordane and mirex. Compounds looked for but not positively identified include oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, endrin, hexachlorobenzene and toxaphene. PCB levels in black duck wings declined between the 1979-80 and 1981-82 collections. PCB levels in black duck wings from the northern region of the Atlantic Flyway were higher than those in wings from the southern region. Mean DDE residues in mallard wings declined between collections and differed among flyways and regions. PCB levels in mallard wings differed only among flyways and regions.

  11. Use of a portable tower and remote-controlled launcher to improve physical conditioning in a rehabilitating wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Pollard-Wright, Holly M; Wright, Mark T; Warren, Jeffrey M

    2010-12-01

    Prerelease reconditioning improves the chance of survival of rehabilitating raptors. Reconditioning may also help to rehabilitate waterfowl, including those that are threatened or endangered, especially if the birds are released during periods of migration. A flying harness, creance, remote-controlled launcher, and portable tower were used to create a means of reconditioning a rehabilitating 5-month-old female wild mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) that had been housed in a rehabilitation center for 7 weeks while recovering from an injury. Pre- and postflight serum lactate levels, body condition index scores, and controlled flight distances were used to assess the bird's degree of conditioning. Postflight serum lactate levels never returned to preflight levels and were not deemed a reliable indicator of physical fitness. However, the mallard showed an increase in endurance and strength as well as improved body condition index scores over the course of the reconditioning program.

  12. Biomimicry of multifunctional nanostructures in the neck feathers of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) drakes.

    PubMed

    Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems serve as fundamental sources of inspiration for the development of artificially colored devices, and their investigation provides a great number of photonic design opportunities. While several successful biomimetic designs have been detailed in the literature, conventional fabrication techniques nonetheless remain inferior to their natural counterparts in complexity, ease of production and material economy. Here, we investigate the iridescent neck feathers of Anas platyrhynchos drakes, show that they feature an unusual arrangement of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals and further exhibit a superhydrophobic surface, and mimic this multifunctional structure using a nanostructure composite fabricated by a recently developed top-down iterative size reduction method, which avoids the above-mentioned fabrication challenges, provides macroscale control and enhances hydrophobicity through the surface structure. Our 2D solid core photonic crystal fibres strongly resemble drake neck plumage in structure and fully polymeric material composition, and can be produced in wide array of colors by minor alterations during the size reduction process. PMID:24751587

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype Ib Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Sobolev, Ivan A.; Glushchenko, Alexandra V.; Shestopalov, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus isolate, NDV/Yakutiya/mallard/852/2011, isolated from a mallard in Russia. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into class II genotype Ib. PMID:26634762

  14. An attempt to age mallards using eye lens proteins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ludke, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of insoluble protein content of eye lenses from 59 known-age mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) indicated a slight increase between 8-9 months and 7 years of age. Nearly a complete overlapping of the insoluble protein content of individuals of different ages was apparent showing that the technique cannot be used to separate adult year classes of mallards. These results are contrary to findings reported for selected mammalian species; a possible explanation for the dissimilarity is discussed.

  15. Differential Viral Fitness Between H1N1 and H3N8 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Helena Lage; Vangeluwe, Didier; Van Borm, Steven; Poncin, Olivier; Dumont, Nathalie; Ozhelvaci, Orkun; Munir, Muhammad; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Homosubtypic and heterosubtypic immunity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) play an important role in the avian influenza virus (AIV) diversity. The mechanisms of AIV replication among wild birds and the role of immunity in AIV diversity have thus not been completely clarified. During the monitoring of AI circulation among wild waterfowl in 2007-2008, two viruses (H3N8 and H1N1) were isolated from ducks caught in a funnel trap located in La Hulpe wetland in Belgium. H3N8 viruses were revealed to be more prevalent in the mallard population than was H1N1, which might suggest a better adaptation to this species. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we characterized both isolated viruses biologically by experimental inoculation. Virus excretion and humoral response induced by both isolated viruses were evaluated in mallards after a first infection followed by a homo-or heterosubtypic reinfection under controlled experimental conditions. The H1N1 virus had a delayed peak of excretion of 4 days compared to the H3N8, but the virus shedding was more limited, earlier, and shorter after each reinfection. Moreover, the H3N8 virus could spread to all ducks after homo- or heterosubtypic reinfections and during a longer period. Although the humoral response induced by both viruses after infection and reinfection could be detected efficiently by competitive ELISA, only a minimal H1 antibody response and almost no H3-specific antibodies could be detected by the HI test. Our results suggest that the H3N8 isolate replicates better in mallards under experimental controlled conditions. PMID:27309085

  16. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  17. Toxicity of Lead and Proposed Substitute Shot to Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Andrews, R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Young, L.T.

    1974-01-01

    Poisoning of North American waterfowl resulting from the ingestion of lead shot by ducks, geese, and swans causes an estimated annual mortality of 2 to 3% of the population (Bellrose 1959). To alleviate this problem the search for a suitable substitute for lead has been underway since the early 1950's. Proposed substitutes for lead shot were evaluated in a series of acute toxicity tests with pen-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Most candidate materials were as toxic to ducks as commercial lead shot. Coating or alloying lead with other metals only delayed mortality among dosed ducks. The reputedly 'disintegrable' lead shot with the water-soluble binder and the lead containing biochemical additives were also as toxic to mallards as the commercial lead shot. Mortality was not significantly different among lead-dosed adult or first-year hen and drake pen-reared mallards; lead-dosed adult, wild mallards of both sexes; and lead-dosed adult, male black ducks (Anas rubripes). The ingestion of one lead shot, size 4, by each of 80 pen-reared mallards caused an average 19% mortality. The presence and type of grit in the gizzard had a measurable effect on erosion of ingested shot and on shot retention among dosed mallards. Significantly fewer lead-dosed ducks died when fed crushed oystershell grit than when fed either quartz grit or no grit.

  18. Spring-summer survival rates of yearling versus adult mallard females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.E.; Blohm, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and cause of mortality in wildlife populations is imperative for developing management strategies that protect or improve the status of these populations. Age- and sex-specific population parameter estimates provide the most useful information for this purpose. Numerous studies have provided information about survival rates in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but little is known about age-related differences in female survival during the breeding period. We examined band-recovery data for female mallards banded in southern portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba during spring and summer 1981-85. We used band-recovery models to test the hypothesis that yearling females would exhibit higher survival compared with that of older females during spring-summer. There was evidence (P = 0.08) that spring-summer survival rates of yearling females (0.728) were higher than that of older females (0.574). These findings support the hypothesis that age-specific differences in nesting behavior (e.g., later nest initiation and fewer nesting attempts by yearlings) influence losses to predators and are responsible for the difference in spring-summer survival. Management treatments that increase nest success, and consequently reduce the need for prolonged nesting, will increase mallard survival during spring-summer.

  19. Age determination of mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.; Dane, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for distinguishing adult from yearling wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), from late winter through the nesting season, was developed by applying discriminant analysis procedures to selected wing feather characters of 126 yearlings and 76 adults (2-year-olds) hand-reared from wild eggs during 1974, 1975, and 1977. Average values for feather characters generally increased as the birds advanced from yearlings to adults. Black-white surface area of greater secondary covert 2 was the single most reliable aging character identified during the study. The error rate was lowest in females (3%) when discriminant functions were used with measurements of primary 1 weight and black-white area of greater secondary covert 2 and in males (9%) when the functions were used with black-white area of greater secondary coverts 1, 2, and 3. Methodology precludes aging of birds in the field during capture operations.

  20. Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos)-mediated dispersal of Lemnaceae: a contributing factor in the spread of invasive Lemna minuta?

    PubMed

    Coughlan, N E; Kelly, T C; Jansen, M A K

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to predict and manage the spread of alien, invasive plants is limited by a lack of understanding of dispersal potential. Invasive Lemna minuta has spread within a few decennia throughout Europe. However, the mechanism by which the species continues to spread remains a matter of speculation. In this study, hypothesised epizoochorous transport of L. minuta propagules by mallard ducks was investigated. Landolt (Biosystematic investigations in the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) (Vol. 2), The family of Lemnaceae - a monographic study (Vol. 1), 1986, Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Der Eidg. Techniasche Hochschule, Stiftung Rübel, Zürich, Switzerland) referred to desiccation as the key limitation of the "colonization capability" of Lemnaceae. Therefore, we analysed retention of viability in L. minuta kept outside the liquid growth medium. Our data show prolonged viability of L. minuta fronds inserted between the feathers of a mallard duck. Consistently, the relative humidity between feathers ranged between 65% and 90%. Taking together evidence of entanglement and retention of L. minuta between the feathers of live ducks, with retention of viability, we consider it likely that mallards contribute to L. minuta dispersal. These data have implications for the management strategy of this invasive species.

  1. Characterization of duck H5N1 influenza viruses with differing pathogenicity in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yinghua; Wu, Peipei; Peng, Daxin; Wang, Xiaobo; Wan, Hongquan; Zhang, Pinghu; Long, Jinxue; Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Xiufan

    2009-12-01

    A number of H5N1 influenza outbreaks have occurred in aquatic birds in Asia. As aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses and do not usually show clinical disease upon infection, the repeated H5N1 outbreaks have highlighted the importance of continuous surveillance on H5N1 viruses in aquatic birds. In the present study we characterized the biological properties of four H5N1 avian influenza viruses, which had been isolated from ducks, in different animal models. In specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, all four isolates were highly pathogenic. In SPF mice, the S and Y isolates were moderately pathogenic. However, in mallard ducks, two isolates had low pathogenicity, while the other two were highly pathogenic and caused lethal infection. A representative isolate with high pathogenicity in ducks caused systemic infection and replicated effectively in all 10 organs tested in challenged ducks, whereas a representative isolate with low pathogenicity in ducks was only detected in some organs in a few challenged ducks. Comparison of complete genomic sequences from the four isolates showed that the same amino acid residues that have been reported to be associated with virulence and host adaption/restriction of influenza viruses were present in the PB2, HA, NA, M and NS genes, while the amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site were diverse. From these results it appeared that the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses was increased for ducks and that amino acid substitutions at the HA cleavage site might have contributed to the differing pathogenicity of these isolates in mallards. A procedure for the intravenous pathogenicity index test in a mallard model for assessing the virulence of H5/H7 subtype avian influenza viruses in waterfowl is described.

  2. Field confirmation of modified pressurized solvent extraction vessels for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in blood samples from Great Lakes Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Haskins, Stacey D; Kelly, David G; Weir, Ron D

    2013-06-01

    Miniaturized pressurized solvent extraction vessels were used to examine polychlorinated biphenyl congener (PCB) concentrations in 0.2 g sample sizes of whole blood, liver, heart and breast tissue sampled from twelve Great Lakes Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). This study successfully supported the blood extraction method, previously validated only using laboratory prepared blood samples, using field samples. In situ clean-up offered excellent sample throughput without degradation of GC-MS performance; using this method, extraction, instrument analysis and data interpretation for 100 samples could be accomplished within a one to two week time period. Results indicated contamination in the blood (∑PCB = 1.9-13 ng g(-1) ww), liver (∑PCB = 0.8-11 ng g(-1) ww), breast (∑PCB = <0.1-9 ng g(-1) ww) and heart tissue (∑PCB = <0.1-6 ng g(-1) ww). Quality control included the analysis of blank samples, NIST SRM 1589a and a duplicate of each sample type (blood or tissue). All blank samples were below the method detection limit, SRM values were within 70% of their certified values and duplicates were within 70% of each other. Correlations were examined for the suite of analysed congeners between blood and various tissues; within select individuals a strong and significant correlation was observed. TEQs were calculated and compared against known toxicity data for bird species. Based on the PCB levels found in this study, no adverse health effects are expected in the birds themselves. ∑PCB concentrations in the breast tissue were also compared against both the Canadian and American guidelines for the consumption of edible poultry and based on these values, the Mallards used in this research would be safe for human consumption.

  3. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium (Se) and dietary protein in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.

    1994-01-01

    High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Earlier studies have compared toxicities of Se as selenite and as seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards. This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione with 30 ppm in the diet. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver. In a subsequent experiment with 30% dietary protein Se as L was less toxic.

  4. Tolerance of adult mallards to subacute ingestion of crude petroleum oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male mallards were fed untreated mash or mash containing 1.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil for 7 days ad lib. During the initial 24 h of exposure to crude petroleum oil, ducks consumed less mash (P less than 0.05) and lost approx. 3.5% of their initial body weight (P less than 0.05), however, neither intake nor body weight differ between groups on days 2-7. Plasma samples collected between 09.00 and 10.00 h on days 0, 1, 3, or 7 indicated that corticosterone, glucose, thyroxine, total protein, and uric acid concentrations, and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) were not affected by treatment. These findings suggest that adult mallards may be able to tolerate large quantities of crude petroleum oil mixed in their diet (approx. 25 ml over a 7-day period) without overt or biochemical indications of distress.

  5. Plasma luteinizing hormone and the development of ovarian follicles after loss of clutch in female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donham, R.S.; Dane, C.W.; Farner, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma level of LH and the extent of development of ovarian follicles were analyzed in incubating female Mallards. In both wild and game-farm stock, incubation was associated with a significant decline in plasma levels of LH from those of laying females. Within 1 day after removal of eggs, LH levels had increased to levels indistinguishable from those of laying females. The mean diameter of the largest follicle in wild females on the tenth day of incubation was 5.3 mm; it was 5.2 mm in game-farm stock at the same stage. Three days following removal of eggs, the mean of the largest follicles of wild-stock hens had increased to 14.0 mm and those of game-farm stock to 12.7 mm.

  6. Embryotoxicity of mixtures of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico and Corexit 9500 in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Faust, Derek R; Smith, Philip N

    2012-06-01

    Dispersants are applied to marine crude oil spills to enhance microbial degradation and reduce impacts of crude oils on ecosystems. In summer 2010, the dispersant Corexit 9500 was applied to crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. The co-occurrence of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with nesting efforts of birds in the Gulf region may have resulted in exposure of adult birds, and subsequently bird eggs, to combinations of crude oil and Corexit 9500. The objective of this study was to examine the embryotoxicity of 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico and Corexit 9500 applied to mallard duck eggs. Combinations of weathered crude oil and Corexit 9500 were applied to eggshells of mallard ducks via paintbrush in varying masses ranging from 0.1 to 59.9 mg and 0.1 to 44.9 mg for 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures, respectively. Conservatively derived median lethal applications for 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures of weathered crude oil and Corexit 9500 were 21.3±4.9 mg/egg (321.8 μg/g egg) and 33.1±11.8 mg/egg (517.0 μg/g egg), respectively. Spleen mass of hatchlings exposed to the 50:1 mixture was the only physiological measure significantly different from controls of both mixtures. Results indicated that decreasing ratios of dispersant relative to weathered crude oil decreased toxicity to mallard embryos. In comparison to treatments of eggs with weathered crude oil alone, toxicity increased when the oil to dispersant ratio was 50:1, but decreased with the mixture that contained more dispersant (10:1). PMID:22542232

  7. Embryotoxicity of mixtures of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico and Corexit 9500 in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Faust, Derek R; Smith, Philip N

    2012-06-01

    Dispersants are applied to marine crude oil spills to enhance microbial degradation and reduce impacts of crude oils on ecosystems. In summer 2010, the dispersant Corexit 9500 was applied to crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. The co-occurrence of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with nesting efforts of birds in the Gulf region may have resulted in exposure of adult birds, and subsequently bird eggs, to combinations of crude oil and Corexit 9500. The objective of this study was to examine the embryotoxicity of 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico and Corexit 9500 applied to mallard duck eggs. Combinations of weathered crude oil and Corexit 9500 were applied to eggshells of mallard ducks via paintbrush in varying masses ranging from 0.1 to 59.9 mg and 0.1 to 44.9 mg for 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures, respectively. Conservatively derived median lethal applications for 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures of weathered crude oil and Corexit 9500 were 21.3±4.9 mg/egg (321.8 μg/g egg) and 33.1±11.8 mg/egg (517.0 μg/g egg), respectively. Spleen mass of hatchlings exposed to the 50:1 mixture was the only physiological measure significantly different from controls of both mixtures. Results indicated that decreasing ratios of dispersant relative to weathered crude oil decreased toxicity to mallard embryos. In comparison to treatments of eggs with weathered crude oil alone, toxicity increased when the oil to dispersant ratio was 50:1, but decreased with the mixture that contained more dispersant (10:1).

  8. The effects of ingested petroleum on the maphthalene-metabolizing properties of the liver tissue in seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorsline, J.; Holmes, W.N.; Cronshaw, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hepatic mixed function oxidase activities were estimated in seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) that had been consuming food contaminated with one of five different types of crude oil. After 50 days of exposure to contaminated food, enzyme activities of liver microsomal preparations were assessed in terms of their naphthalenemetabolizing properties in vitro. Although dose-dependent increases in the total hepatic enzyme activities (nmole naphthalene metabolized per minute per unit mass body weight) were observed in birds consuming food contaminated with each type of crude oil, three patterns of response were apparent. Crude oils from South Louisiana and Kuwait stimulated large and significant increases in the specific activity of the enzyme system (nmole naphthalene metabolized per minute per unit mass microsomal protein), whereas little or no increase in either microsomal protein content or relative liver weight were observed. In contrast, two crude oils from Santa Barbara, Calif., induced only small increases in specific activity but significant increases occurred in hepatic microsomal protein concentration and relative liver weight. The crude oil from Prudhoe Bay, Ala., evoked intermediate patterns of response. The possible significance of these data is discussed in relation to the survival of seabirds consuming petroleum-contaminated food and drinking water.

  9. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  10. Factors affecting the distribution of mallards wintering in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the principal wintering area for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ) in the Mississippi Flyway. Here the authors consider it a distinct habitat, i.e., fitness is relatively homogeneous among ducks within the MAV but different from that of ducks in other such habitats. They analyzed recovery distributions of mallards banded preseason (July-September 1950-1980) to test hypotheses concerning the effects of winter temperatures, precipitation, and population levels on mallard winter distribution. When two groups of years that comprised extremes of warm and cold winter weather were compared, recovery distributions of all four age and sex classes (adult males and females, young males and females) differed significantly; recoveries were located farther south in cold years. The authors concluded that temperature, water conditions, and population size affect the habitat suitability of mallard wintering areas and that mallards exhibit considerable flexibility in winter distribution associated with these factors.

  11. Identification of in vitro cytochrome P450 modulators to detect induction by prototype inducers in the mallard duckling (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renauld, A.E.; Melancon, M.J.; Sordillo, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Seven modulators of mammalian monooxygenase activity were evaluated for their ability to selectively stimulate or inhibit in vitro monooxygenase activities of hepatic microsomes from mallard ducklings treated with phenobarbital, ?-naphthoflavone, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl or vehicle. Microsomes were assayed fluorometrically for four monooxygenases: benzyloxy, ethoxy, methoxy, and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, in combination with each of the seven modulators. Four combinations: ?-naphthoflavone and 2-methylbenzimidazole with benzyloxyresorufin, and Proadifen with methoxy- and ethoxyresorufin, respectively, were evaluated further. ?-naphthoflavone-treated groups were clearly distinguished from the corn oil vehicle control group by all of the assays and by the effects of the modulators in three of the four assay/modulator combinations. Enzyme activities of the phenobarbital and saline groups were statistically similar (P ?.05) when assayed without modulator added, but each assay/modulator combination distinguished between these groups. The PCB-treated group was distinguished from the corn oil vehicle control group only for BROD activity, with or without the presence of modulator. Graphing of per cent modulation of BROD activity versus initial BROD activity provided the clearest distinction between all of the study groups. Identification of these selective in vitro modulators may improve detection and measurement of low level cytochrome P450 induction in avian species.

  12. A solitary case of duck plague in a wild mallard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wobeser, G.; Docherty, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Duck plague was diagnosed on the basis of pathology and virus isolation in a wild female mallard Anas platyrhynchos found dead near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Day-old Pekin ducklings and one of two adult mallards died with lesions typical of duck plague following inoculation of tissue from the wild bird. This is believed to be the only reported case of duck plague in a wild bird since a major outbreak occurred in South Dakota in 1973, and the fourth such report in North America.

  13. Marsh nesting by mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Talent, L.G.; Dwyer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Nest-site selection by mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) hens was studied on a 52-km2, privately owned area in the Missouri Coteau of south-central North Dakota during 1974-77. Sixty-six percent of 53 nests initiated by radio-marked and unmarked hens were in wetlands in dense stands of emergent vegetation and usually within 50 m of the wetland edge. These findings and other sources of information suggest that significant numbers of mallards breeding in the Prairie Pothole Region nest in marsh habitat. Potential factors contributing to mallard use of marsh habitat for nesting purposes are discussed. Management considerations associated with marsh nesting by mallards are described and research needs are identified.

  14. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

  15. Avoidance of selenium-treated food by mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Sanderson, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Adult, male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were given a choice between a control diet and a diet containing 5, 10 or 20 ppm selenium as selenomethionine dissolved in water and mixed into the diet. At 10 and 20 ppm, selenium-treated diets were avoided. Avoidance appeared to be caused by a conditioned response, probably to illness caused by the selenium and not to an aversion to the taste of the selenium.

  16. Comparative productivity of American black ducks and mallards nesting on Chesapeake Bay Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Stotts, D.B.; Pendleton, G.W.; Hines, J.E.; Stotts, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors estimated laying dates, clutch sizes, and nest success rates of sympatrically breeding populations of American black ducks (Anas rubripes ) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ) on Chesapeake Bay islands between 1986 and 1989. Neither average laying date nor clutch size differed between black ducks and mallards. Nest success rates were higher for mallards in 2 of 4 years, but were area dependent.

  17. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Szarek, Józef; Strzyżewska, Emilia; Felsmann, Mariusz

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n=60) and Coot (n=50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006-2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n=5) and high concentrations (Mallards n=18 and Coots n=17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions.

  18. A Panel of Stably Expressed Reference Genes for Real-Time qPCR Gene Expression Studies of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Helin, Anu S; Wille, Michelle; Atterby, Clara; Järhult, Josef D; Fridlund, Jimmy S; Waldenström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Determining which reference genes have the highest stability, and are therefore appropriate for normalising data, is a crucial step in the design of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) gene expression studies. This is particularly warranted in non-model and ecologically important species for which appropriate reference genes are lacking, such as the mallard--a key reservoir of many diseases with relevance for human and livestock health. Previous studies assessing gene expression changes as a consequence of infection in mallards have nearly universally used β-actin and/or GAPDH as reference genes without confirming their suitability as normalisers. The use of reference genes at random, without regard for stability of expression across treatment groups, can result in erroneous interpretation of data. Here, eleven putative reference genes for use in gene expression studies of the mallard were evaluated, across six different tissues, using a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection model. Tissue type influenced the selection of reference genes, whereby different genes were stable in blood, spleen, lung, gastrointestinal tract and colon. β-actin and GAPDH generally displayed low stability and are therefore inappropriate reference genes in many cases. The use of different algorithms (GeNorm and NormFinder) affected stability rankings, but for both algorithms it was possible to find a combination of two stable reference genes with which to normalise qPCR data in mallards. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies in ducks. The fact that nearly all previous studies of the influence of pathogen infection on mallard gene expression have used a single, non-validated reference gene is problematic. The toolkit of putative reference genes provided here offers a solid foundation for future studies of gene expression in mallards and other waterfowl.

  19. Mercury accumulation in mallards fed methylmercury with or without added DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    Adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or diets containing 1 ppm methylmercury chloride, 5 ppm methylmercury chloride, 1 ppm methylmercury chloride plus 5 ppm DDE, or 5 ppm methylmercury chloride plus 5 ppm DDE. The presence of DDE in the diet did not affect retention of mercury in breast muscle or eggs. There was a good correlation between the levels of mercury in the breast muscle of females and their eggs, and this correlation was unaffected by the presence of DDE in the diet. This correlation suggests that one could predict mercury levels in female mallards in the field when only eggs have been collected and vice versa.

  20. A Panel of Stably Expressed Reference Genes for Real-Time qPCR Gene Expression Studies of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Helin, Anu S.; Wille, Michelle; Atterby, Clara; Järhult, Josef D.; Fridlund, Jimmy S.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Determining which reference genes have the highest stability, and are therefore appropriate for normalising data, is a crucial step in the design of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) gene expression studies. This is particularly warranted in non-model and ecologically important species for which appropriate reference genes are lacking, such as the mallard—a key reservoir of many diseases with relevance for human and livestock health. Previous studies assessing gene expression changes as a consequence of infection in mallards have nearly universally used β-actin and/or GAPDH as reference genes without confirming their suitability as normalisers. The use of reference genes at random, without regard for stability of expression across treatment groups, can result in erroneous interpretation of data. Here, eleven putative reference genes for use in gene expression studies of the mallard were evaluated, across six different tissues, using a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection model. Tissue type influenced the selection of reference genes, whereby different genes were stable in blood, spleen, lung, gastrointestinal tract and colon. β-actin and GAPDH generally displayed low stability and are therefore inappropriate reference genes in many cases. The use of different algorithms (GeNorm and NormFinder) affected stability rankings, but for both algorithms it was possible to find a combination of two stable reference genes with which to normalise qPCR data in mallards. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies in ducks. The fact that nearly all previous studies of the influence of pathogen infection on mallard gene expression have used a single, non-validated reference gene is problematic. The toolkit of putative reference genes provided here offers a solid foundation for future studies of gene expression in mallards and other waterfowl. PMID:26886224

  1. A decoy trap for breeding-season mallards in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, D.E.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    A modified decoy trap was effective for capturing wild adult male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during the 1980-81 breeding seasons in North Dakota. Key features contributing to the trap's success included a central decoy cylinder, large capture compartments with spring-door openings, an adjustable trigger mechanism with a balanced door attachment that was resistant to trap movement, and the use of F1, wild-stock or game-farm female decoys.

  2. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Because consumption of lead-contaminated sediment has been suspected as the cause of waterfowl mortality in the Coeur d?Alene River basin in Idaho, we studied the bioavailability and toxicity of this sediment to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In experiment 1, one of 10 adult male mallards died when fed a pelleted commercial duck diet that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 3,400 μg/g lead in the sediment). Protoporphyrin levels in the blood increased as the percentage of lead-contaminated sediment in the diet increased. Birds fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment exhibited atrophy of the breast muscles, green staining of the feathers around the vent, viscous bile, green staining of the gizzard lining, and renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment had means of 6.1 μg/g of lead in the blood and 28 μg/g in the liver (wet-weight basis) and 1,660 μg/g in the feces (dry-weight basis). In experiment 2, we raised the dietary concentration of the lead-contaminated sediment to 48%, but only about 20% sediment was actually ingested due to food washing by the birds. Protoporphyrin levels were elevated in the lead-exposed birds, and all of the mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment had renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. The concentrations of lead in the liver were 9.1 μg/g for mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment and 16 μg/g for mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment. In experiment 3, four of five mallards died when fed a ground corn diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 4,000 μg/g lead in this sample of sediment), but none died when the 24% lead-contaminated sediment was mixed into a nutritionally balanced commercial duck diet; estimated actual ingestion rates for sediment were 14% and 17% for the corn and commercial diets. Lead exposure caused elevations in protoporphyrin, and four of the five mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment in a commercial diet and all five

  3. Re-exposure of mallards to selenium after chronic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, G.H. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-09-01

    Adult male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 15 ppm selenium as seleno-D,L-methionine for 21 weeks. After this initial exposure, the mallards were fed untreated food for 12 weeks, then were re-exposed to selenium at 100 ppm for five weeks. During re-exposure to 100 ppm selenium, the birds that had previously been exposed to 15 ppm selenium and those that had not previously been exposed did not differ in percentage of mortality, weight loss in survivors, selenium concentrations in the livers of survivors, or selenium concentrations in the livers of birds that died. When the data from the birds that had previously been exposed to 15 ppm selenium were combined in the livers of birds that had died on the 100-ppm selenium treatment did not differ from the concentrations in the livers of birds that had survived.

  4. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  5. Ontogeny of aerodynamics in mallards: comparative performance and developmental implications.

    PubMed

    Dial, Terry R; Heers, Ashley M; Tobalske, Bret W

    2012-11-01

    Wing morphology correlates with flight performance and ecology among adult birds, yet the impact of wing development on aerodynamic capacity is not well understood. Recent work using chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), a precocial flier, indicates that peak coefficients of lift and drag (C(L) and C(D)) and lift-to-drag ratio (C(L):C(D)) increase throughout ontogeny and that these patterns correspond with changes in feather microstructure. To begin to place these results in a comparative context that includes variation in life-history strategy, we used a propeller and force-plate model to study aerodynamic force production across a developmental series of the altricial-flying mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). We observed the same trend in mallards as reported for chukar in that coefficients of vertical (C(V)) and horizontal force (C(H)) and C(V):C(H) ratio increased with age, and that measures of gross-wing morphology (aspect ratio, camber and porosity) in mallards did not account for intraspecific trends in force production. Rather, feather microstructure (feather unfurling, rachis width, feather asymmetry and barbule overlap) all were positively correlated with peak C(V):C(H). Throughout ontogeny, mallard primary feathers became stiffer and less transmissive to air at both macroscale (between individual feathers) and microscale (between barbs/barbules/barbicels) levels. Differences between species were manifest primarily as heterochrony of aerodynamic force development. Chukar wings generated measurable aerodynamic forces early (<8 days), and improved gradually throughout a 100 day ontogenetic period. Mallard wings exhibited delayed aerodynamic force production until just prior to fledging (day 60), and showed dramatic improvement within a condensed 2-week period. These differences in timing may be related to mechanisms of escape used by juveniles, with mallards swimming to safety and chukar flap-running up slopes to take refuge. Future comparative work should test

  6. Ontogeny of aerodynamics in mallards: comparative performance and developmental implications.

    PubMed

    Dial, Terry R; Heers, Ashley M; Tobalske, Bret W

    2012-11-01

    Wing morphology correlates with flight performance and ecology among adult birds, yet the impact of wing development on aerodynamic capacity is not well understood. Recent work using chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), a precocial flier, indicates that peak coefficients of lift and drag (C(L) and C(D)) and lift-to-drag ratio (C(L):C(D)) increase throughout ontogeny and that these patterns correspond with changes in feather microstructure. To begin to place these results in a comparative context that includes variation in life-history strategy, we used a propeller and force-plate model to study aerodynamic force production across a developmental series of the altricial-flying mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). We observed the same trend in mallards as reported for chukar in that coefficients of vertical (C(V)) and horizontal force (C(H)) and C(V):C(H) ratio increased with age, and that measures of gross-wing morphology (aspect ratio, camber and porosity) in mallards did not account for intraspecific trends in force production. Rather, feather microstructure (feather unfurling, rachis width, feather asymmetry and barbule overlap) all were positively correlated with peak C(V):C(H). Throughout ontogeny, mallard primary feathers became stiffer and less transmissive to air at both macroscale (between individual feathers) and microscale (between barbs/barbules/barbicels) levels. Differences between species were manifest primarily as heterochrony of aerodynamic force development. Chukar wings generated measurable aerodynamic forces early (<8 days), and improved gradually throughout a 100 day ontogenetic period. Mallard wings exhibited delayed aerodynamic force production until just prior to fledging (day 60), and showed dramatic improvement within a condensed 2-week period. These differences in timing may be related to mechanisms of escape used by juveniles, with mallards swimming to safety and chukar flap-running up slopes to take refuge. Future comparative work should test

  7. Black duck-mallard interactions on breeding areas in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Corr, P.O.; McAuley, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) pairs (2-4) and broods (1-2) have occurred sporadically each year during recent (1977-86) waterfowl investigations in Maine. State-wide brood counts (1956-1986) for 36 wetlands in Maine depict an average increase of 1-3 mallard broods. Broods occurred mostly on man-made impoundments. Numbers of mallards captured during banding (as a percentage of combined mallards, American black ducks [Anas rubripes] and hybrids) have increased from 4.3 to 28.7% in southern Maine, 3.6 to 9.1% in central Maine, and 0.5 to 2.6% in eastern Maine during the last 3 or 4 decades. The percentage of mallards captured in northern Maine in the last decade averaged 11.8%. The occurrence of mallard x black duck hybrids handled during pre-season banding has been variable among decades, but < 2.0% for all the banding sites. Mixed-species pairs, usually a male mallard and a female black duck have been recorded. . Survival of mallard ducklings to fledging (4/brood) approximates that of black ducks, but our sample of broods (N=7) was small. Paired, male, black ducks aggressively drove away intruding mallards and conspecifics. The role of mallard releases and small marsh construction is implicated in the establishment of the 657 mallard pairs estimated as breeding in Maine.

  8. Reproduction and health of mallards fed endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Hulse, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of 0, 1 and 3 ppm endrin in dry duck mash were fed to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) starting in December, and health and reproduction were measured the following spring and summer. One male fed 3 ppm endrin died with 2.0 ppm endrin (wet weight), a diagnostically lethal level, in its brain. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin reproduced as well as, if not better than, controls. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin had significantly greater hatching success of fertile eggs than did those fed 0 or 3 ppm, and their clutches hatched significantly earlier than did those of birds fed 3 ppm. Mallards fed 3 ppm endrin appeared to reproduce more poorly than controls, but this finding must be regarded with caution because the results of statistical tests often were not significant. Endrin accumulated in eggs to a mean of 1.1 and 2.9 ppm (wet weight) when fed to hens at 1 and 3 ppm. The concentration of endrin in the cacasses of adults was similar to that in eggs, but the concentration in the fat of adults was about 4 to 7 times higher than in eggs.

  9. Brain acetycholinesterase activity in botulism-intoxicated mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that died of botulism was compared with euthanized controls. AChE levels for both groups were within the range reported for normal mallards, and there was no significant difference in mean AChE activity between birds that ingested botulism toxin and died and those that did not.

  10. Diet and gut morphology of male mallards during winter in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, R.E.; Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.; Ankney, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    A free-ranging Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population was investigated during winter (December-January 1996-1999) below the Garrison Dam, North Dakota, USA, to relate diet to gut morphology variation in males. Four explanatory variables (fish consumption, male age, winter, and body size) were evaluated as to whether they influenced five response variables associated with gut characteristics of Mallards. Response variables were lower gastro-intestinal tract mass (LGIT), dry liver mass, dry gizzard mass, small intestine length, and ceca length. Diets of Mallards were comprised primarily of Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) and concomitantly variation in gizzard mass was small. LGIT mass of juveniles was larger than that of adults, greater for those that consumed fish, and greater during the coldest and snowiest winter. Liver mass and small intestine length of Mallards that consumed fish were greater than those that did not. Mallards may maintain lengthy intestines to increase digestive efficiency. Gut size variation was not entirely attributable to dietary composition but also influenced by body size and environmental conditions such that over-winter survival is maximized.

  11. Reproduction in mallards fed selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Weller, D.M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 1, 5, 10, 25 or 100 ppm selenium as sodium selenite, a diet containing 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine or a control diet. There were no effects of 1, 5 or 10 ppm selenium as sodium selenite on either weight or survival of adults or on reproductive success, and there did not appear to be a dose-response relationship at these lower levels. The 100 ppm selenium diet killed 11 of 12 adults; one adult male fed 25 ppm selenium died. Selenium at 25 and 100 ppm caused weight loss in adults. Females fed 25 ppm selenium took longer to begin laying eggs and intervals between eggs were longer than in females in other treatment groups. Hatching success appeared to be reduced in birds fed 10 ppm selenium at selenomethionine, but the reduction was not statistically significant. The survival of ducklings and the mean number of 21-d-old ducklings produced per female were reduced in the 25 ppm selenium as sodium selenite group and the 10 ppm selenium as selenomethionine group. Egg weights were not affected by any selenium treatment, but 25 ppm selenium lowered the Ratcliffe Index. Duckling weights at hatching and at 21 d of age were reduced 28 and 36%, respectively, in birds fed 25 ppm selenium, as compared with controls. Body weights measured on day 21 were lower for ducklings fed 10 ppm selenium as selenomethionine than in some other groups. Selenium in concentrations of 10 and 25 ppm as sodium selenite caused mainly embryotoxic effects, whereas 10 ppm as selenomethionine was more teratogenic, causing hydrocephaly, bill defects, eye defects (microphthalmia and anophthalmia) and foot and toe defects, including ectrodactyly. Selenomethionine was much more readily taken up by mallards and passed into their eggs than was sodium selenite, and a greater proportion of the selenium in the eggs ended up in the white when selenomethionine was fed. Adult males accumulated more selenium than did females, probably because of the

  12. Effects of mild cold stress on the survival of seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) maintained on food contaminated with petroleum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, W.N.; Gorsline, J.; Cronshaw, J.

    1979-01-01

    (1) Seawater-adapted Mallard ducks maintained in the laboratory will freely consume food that has been contaminated with either any one of a variety of crude oils or a petroleum derivative such as No. 2 fuel oil. (2) During a 100-day experimental period total masses of petroleum equivalent to 50% of the mean body weight were consumed by some birds and many showed no apparent symptoms of distress. (3) The consumption of petroleum-contaminated food was frequently accompanied by a persistent hyperphagia but no clear patterns of change in body weight were associated with this condition. (4) Among those birds that survived the 100-day experimental period only small changes in mean body weight were observed between successive weighings and in most instances these represented less than 10% of the previously recorded weight. (5) In all groups, including those maintained on uncontaminated food, most of the mortality occurred following exposure to continuous mild cold stress. The total number of deaths in the groups given petroleum-contaminated food, however, was always higher than that among birds given uncontaminated food. (6) The spate of mortality that occurred in groups given petroleum-contaminated food usually occurred earlier, lasted longer, and involved more birds than it did among groups fed uncontaminated food. (7) The pattern of each episode of mortality was sometimes quantitatively related to the concentration of petroleum in the food and a striking range of relative toxicities were observed among the crude oils from different geographic regions. (8) Throughout the experiment, the mean body weight of the birds that died was always significantly less than that of the survivors in the same group; in all instances most of the loss in weight occurred during the 2 weeks preceding death. (9) Autopsy revealed that adrenal hypertrophy and lymphoepithelial involution were characteristic in all of the birds that died, suggesting that a high level of adrenocortical

  13. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  14. Mathematics and mallard management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Waterfowl managers can effectively use simple population models to aid in making management decisions. We present a basic model of the change in population size as related to survival and recruitment. A management technique designed to increase survival of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by limiting harvest on the Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, is used to illustrate the application of models in decision making. The analysis suggests that the management technique would be of limited effectiveness. In a 2nd example, the change in mallard population in central North Dakota is related to implementing programs to create dense nesting cover with or without supplementary predator control. The analysis suggests that large tracts of land would be required to achieve a hypothetical management objective of increasing harvest by 50% while maintaining a stable population. Less land would be required if predator reduction were used in combination with cover management, but questions about effectiveness and ecological implications of large scale predator reduction remain unresolved. The use of models as a guide to planning research responsive to the needs of management is illustrated.

  15. Flightless and post-molt survival and movements of female mallards molting in Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Mauser, David M.; Yee, Julie L.; Blehert, David S.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Flightless and post-molt survival and movements were studied during August-May, 2001-2002, 2002- 2003 and 2006-2007 for 181 adult female Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Birds were radiotagged just before or early in their flightless period on four wetlands that differed in size on Klamath Basin (KB) National Wildlife Refuge complex. Flightless survival varied among years but was higher on two larger than two smaller wetlands; 30-day survival ranged from 11% (SE = 6.5%) on a small wetland in 2006 to 93% (SE = 6.5%) on a large wetland in 2001, and averaged 76.8% (SE = 6.1%). Most flightless mortality was from avian botulism (64%) and predation (26%). Of the 81 radiotagged Mallards that did not die in KB, 80% moved to the Central Valley of California (CVCA) before 31 January, 16% wintered in unknown areas, and 4% remained in KB through 31 January. Mallards departed KB 21 August-13 January (average: 11 Nov 2001, 25 Oct 2002, 19 Nov 2006). Post-molt survival during August-March in KB (20.7%, SE = 6.3%) was lower than in CVCA during this (62.9%, SE = 10.1%) and an earlier study. Survival in KB was consistently high only for females that molted in large permanent marshes, and although the impact of poor survival of molting females on Mallard population dynamics is unknown, KB water management plans should be developed that maintain these habitats.

  16. Effects of weather on habitat selection and behavior of mallards wintering in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Krapu, G.L.; Crawford, R.D.; Hay, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Sex and age ratios, habitat selection, spatial characteristics, and time budgets of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering on the Platte River in south central Nebraska were studied from mid-December to early April 1978-1980. The proportion of females and subadults in the population increased substantially from a cold to a mild winter. Radio-tagged Mallards shifted from riverine to canal roost sites during the coldest periods of the winter, seemingly because of more favorable microclimatic conditions there. Subadults ranged over larger areas during winter than did adults. Activity patterns varied with weather conditions, time of day, and habitat type. During cold periods, energetically costly activities such as aggression and courtship decreased at roost sites and the intensity of foraging activities in fields increased. Mallards were more active at riverine than canal sites during both years. High energy requirements and intense competition for scarce food appear to be primary factors limiting the northernmost distribution of Mallards in winter and causing their skewed sex and age ratios.

  17. The relationship between harvest and survival rates of mallards: A straightforward approach with partitioned data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    We randomly partitioned mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bandings and recoveries from each of a number of selected reference areas into 2 groups and estimated survival and harvest rates for each area and group. This procedure produced independent vectors of survival- and harvest-rate estimates, which were used to test the general hypothesis that mallard survival and harvest rates were inversely related. We used Spearman rank correlation analysis and z-test contrasts between survival rates from years of high vs. low harvest rates. We also conducted computer simulation experiments to gain insight into the ability of these analyses to detect the relationship of interest. The data analyses suggested that survival and harvest rates of young females were inversely related, at least for the 5 areas included in the analysis. However, for young males and adults of both sexes, the analyses provided no evidence of an inverse relationship between survival and harvest rates, except possibly in a few specific areas.

  18. Toxicity of white phosphorus to waterfowl: acute exposure in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Gustafson, M.; Klein, P.; Karouna-Renier, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand extensive, white phosphorus (P4)-induced waterfowl mortality at Eagle River Flats, Fort Richardson, Alaska, we conducted a number of acute toxicity tests using penned mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in 1993 and 1994. The 24-hr median lethal dose (LD50) for P4 dissolved in oil was 6.46 mg/kg in adult males and 6.96 mg/kg in adult females. Although the median lethal doses were not statistically different, the female dose-response curve had a statistically shallower slope than that of males. The LD50 for the ecologically more relevant pelletized form of P4 in adult males was 4.05 mg/kg. In mallards, one mechanism of P4 toxicity caused rapid (3 to 10 hr) mortality and had signs consistent with anoxia. A second, slower acting mechanism resulted in hepatic and renal pathology including extensive fat deposition in the liver and cellular necrosis. White phosphorus accumulated in adipose tissues, but only for a few days.

  19. Homing to nest baskets by wild female mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, H.A.; Lee, F.B.

    1974-01-01

    A high rate of homing to nest baskets by adult female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was observed in prairie potholes of North Dakota. One hundred and thirteen female mallards were caught on nest baskets, banded, and marked with nasal saddles. Forty-six percent homed at least once to nest baskets in the marshes where they were previously captured. Two-thirds of the returnees were observed in the same baskets where they had been caught. The observed rate of homing by previously successful nesters (52 percent) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than by unsuccessful nesters (16 percent). Nesting success was 83 percent in the year of marking and 90 percent in subsequent years. Seven (5 percent) of an estimated 140 marked female 1-day-old ducklings that hatched in nest baskets were recaptured as nesting adults in baskets. Five of these hens returned to their natal marshes, and two others were found within 2 km of their natal marshes. Band recovery data indicated that 91 percent of the hunting mortality occurred within 10 km of the banding locations. Information on estimated rate of annual survival and the observed rate of homing suggests that nearly all surviving marked adults returned to within 10 km of the marshes where they were banded.

  20. Homing and reproductive habits of mallards, gadwalls, and blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, John T.; Duebbert, Harold F.; Sharp, David E.

    1990-01-01

    We studied mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), and blue-winged teal (A. discors) populations on 2 study areas of 22.6-km2 each in central North Dakota during 1976-81. Data regarding rates of return of females to natal or previously used nesting areas, nest site selection, and productivity of hens of different ages were collected from 1,166 nasal-marked and 2,142 banded hens of the 3 species and from 740 web-tagged mallard and gadwall young. In spring, yearling mallard and gadwall hens arrived at the breeding site later than older hens. Yearling gadwall hens initiated nesting about 1 week later than 2-year-old hens, and 2-year-old hens began nesting about 1 week later than hens older than 2 years. Gadwall hens older than 2 years also had a longer nesting season. Mallard and gadwall nest densities were highest in those cover types with the highest visual obstruction ratings. Cover preference in descending order of use was seeded nesting cover, odd areas, roadside, dry wetland, and canal-side. Blue-winged teal nest densities were highest in dry wetland and roadside. Nesting success was different among years, but not among cover types. There was no population increase at any cover type due to homing hens. Overall nesting success was 11, 10, and 23% for mallards, gadwalls, and blue-winged teal, respectively. Recruitment of fledged young was similar for yearling and adult mallard females. Production from yearling gadwall hens was a meager 0.2 young fledged/female. Clutch size was not different between yearling and adult mallard and blue-winged teal hens, but clutch size for all 3 species declined as the nesting season advanced. More ≥1-year-mallard hens and ≥2-year-old gadwall hens that nested successfully 1 year returned to the study areas the following year than did unsuccessful hens. Gadwall hen return rates also increased with age. Blue-winged teal hen return rates averaged 4% and were not related to hen success or hen age. Mallard and gadwall

  1. Mate loss in winter and mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lercel, Barbara A.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cox, Robert R.

    1999-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) frequently pair during winter, and duck hunting seasons have been extended until the end of January in several southern states in the Mississippi Flyway. Therefore, we simulated dissolution of pair bonds from natural or hunting mortality by removing mates of wild-strain, captive, yearling female mallards in late January 1996 and early February 1997 to test if mate loss in winter would affect subsequent pair formation and reproductive performance. Most (97%) widowed females paired again. Nesting and incubation frequencies, nest-initiation date, days between first and second nests, and egg mass did not differ (P > 0.126) between widowed and control (i.e., no mate loss experienced) females in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, widowed females laid 1.91 fewer eggs in first nests (P = 0.014) and 3.75 fewer viable eggs in second nests (P = 0.056). Computer simulations with a mallard productivity model (incorporating default parameters [i.e., average environmental conditions]) indicated that the observed decreased clutch size of first nests, fewer viable eggs in second nests, and these factors combined had potential to decrease recruitment rates of yearling female mallards 9%, 12%, and 20%. Our results indicate that winter mate loss could reduce reproductive performance by yearling female mallards in some years. We suggest caution regarding extending duck hunting seasons in winter without concurrent evaluations of harvest and demographics of mallard and other duck populations.

  2. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  3. A model of the productivity of the mallard duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Sparling, D.W.; Cowardin, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a stochastic computer model that simulates recruitment of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) under different habitat conditions and management scenarios. The model incorporates several environmental phenomena and biological relations that affect mallard recruitment. Major events include arrival of mallards in the spring, daily survival of hens, initiation of nests, selection of nest sites, survival of nests until hatching, and survival of broods until fledging. The model was originally developed as a tool for synthesizing the results of research. Subsequently, we applied the model to a variety of management situations. We also describe the sources of estimates used in the model, evaluate its sensitivity to input parameters, and review some practical applications.

  4. A survey for mallard pairs in the Atlantic flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heusmann, H.W.; Sauer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    During 1989-1992, spring surveys of randomly selected, 1-km2 plots, stratified by physiographic strata, were conducted in the Atlantic flyway from New Hampshire to Virginia, to estimate mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) pairs. All potential waterfowl habitat in each plot was checked by ground crews. The adjusted mean mallard pair estimate over the 4-year period was 300,849 (range 271,193-320,642, mean SE 22,455) for the region surveyed. Ground plot checks are a practical way to survey mallard pairs in the upper Atlantic flyway.

  5. Population ecology of the mallard IV: A review of duck hunting regulations, activity, and success, with special reference to the mallard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.M.; Carney, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    This, the fourth in a series of reports on the mallard, (Anas platyrhynchos), deals at length with the harvest of mallards by waterfowl hunters. Long-term summaries of duck hunting regulations (19481974), Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp sales (1934-1974), Hunter Questionnaire (1952-1974), Duck Wing Collection (1960-1974), and Hunter Performance (1965-1972) Survey data for the United States are presented and discussed. Similar data from Canada are also summarized. Mallard harvest figures for 1961-1974 are presented by Mallard Harvest Area, of which 100 are defined for the United States and 14 for Canada, as well as by State or Province and flyway. During the 23-year period beginning in 1952, an average of 1.6 million adult and 0.2 million junior waterfowl hunters accumulated almost 12.3 million hunter-days of recreation and a harvest of 11.2 million ducks each year. Hunter reports indicate that mallards made up about 43% (5.5 million annually) of the ducks taken before 1960, when mallard regulations were less restrictive; the Duck Wing Survey indicates that mallards have made up 33% of the harvest (3.6 million annually) since 1960. The age and sex compositions and the chronological distribution of the mallard harvest are examined in detail. Among the patterns noted are peak harvests during the first few days of the season in many States, alternately increasing and decreasing annual age ratios, and sex ratios that suggest differential migration of adult drakes and hunter selectivity for males. It is estimated that almost 19% of the ducks shot down are not retrieved. Relationships between duck hunting regulations and hunter behavior are examined briefly. Hunter compliance with mallard bag limits, hunter selectivity of mallards by sex, and, to a lesser extent, the size of the unretrieved kill are all sensitive to the particular bag limit regulations in effect. Survey data are also examined for relationships between harvest and various hunting regulations: starting time

  6. Experimentally induced selenosis of adult mallard ducks: clinical signs, lesions, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D; Raisbeck, M F

    1997-07-01

    Selenosis is thought to be a significant problem among waterfowl populations in selenium-contaminated wetlands in the western United States. Chemical analysis of avian tissues is currently the principal basis for diagnosis. The purpose of these two 150-day studies was to establish whether morphological criteria for selenosis could be developed to supplement chemical analysis. Forty-eight flightling male mallard ducks were fed either a proprietary waterfowl ration (< 1 ppm selenium) or the same ration amended to contain 10, 25, and 60 ppm selenium supplied as seleno-L-methionine (n = 12/group). In a separate study, 12 birds fed twice daily were offered either a proprietary ration or a selenium-supplemented ration (120 microg/g) for one of two daily feedings. Selenium in whole blood increased from baseline concentrations (< 0.4 microg/ml) to means of 4.5, 8.9, and 16.0 microg/ml in the 10-, 25-, and 60-ppm groups, respectively. All birds in the 60-ppm-dose group rapidly lost weight and were killed (11/12) or died (1/12) between 22 and 50 days of dietary exposure. In addition to emaciation, six of 12 birds (50%) fed the 60-microg/g diet developed mild to moderate generalized hepatopathy with single-cell necrosis, karyomegaly of hepatocytes, hyperplastic bile duct epithelium, and/or iron accumulation in Kupffer cells. The principal lesions in birds exposed to other dietary concentrations of selenium involved integumentary structures containing hard keratin. Gross lesions developed after 76 days of dietary exposure and consisted of bilaterally symmetrical alopecia of the scalp and dorsal cervical midline, broken or lost digital nails, and necrosis of the tip of the beak (maxillary nail). One or more of these three lesions were present in 0/12 birds (0%) fed 10 ppm selenium, 5/12 birds (42%) fed 25 ppm selenium, and 4/9 (44%) birds fed a split-feed diet containing 120 ppm selenium. Controls were unaffected. Histologic lesions in digital and maxillary nails consisted of

  7. Premigrational movements and behavior of young mallards and wood ducks in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.; Cowardin, L.M.; Tester, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Movements and behavior of 89 young mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 48 young wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were monitored on a 932-km2 study area in north-central Minnesota in late summer and fall, 1972-74, with telemetry, visual observation, and aerial surveys. Initial flights of both species were confined to the natal (brood) marsh; first flights away from the natal marsh occurred in the third week after fledging in both species. First flights of young mallards and wood ducks away from their natal marshes were not significantly different between the sexes (mallard, mean = 4.95 km for females and 5.83 km for males; wood ducks, mean = 2.31 km for females and 2.64 km for males). However, flights away from the brood marshes by wood ducks were significantly shorter than for mallards.As young mallards and wood ducks grew, their daytime use of the natal marshes decreased in an irregular pattern as both species began daily flights between day- and night-use areas. Locally reared mallards made longer daily flights between use areas than did wood ducks, but wood ducks changed use areas with greater frequency before 1 October. Despite often extensive movements, most locally reared mallards and wood ducks remained in the vicinity of their brood marshes throughout fall until migration.Movement of young birds to new habitat was not the result of random searching and thus fortuitous discovery of nearby areas. Instead, birds seemed to learn of new habitat and develop movement patterns by associating with other birds; locally reared young always moved in the company of flocks of conspecifics that included adults and older immatures.Differences in movement patterns between the sexes of young birds and between young and adult birds cause them to be differentially distributed by age and sex on and near the breeding grounds. These differences are ultimately reflected in the distribution of the hunter harvest. We have interpreted generalizations about such phenomena, developed from

  8. Re-exposure of mallards to selenium after chronic exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Adult male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 15 ppm selenium as seleno-D,L-methionine for 21 weeks. After this initial exposure, the mallards were fed untreated food for 12 weeks, then were re-exposed to selenium at 100 ppm for five weeks. During re-exposure to 100 ppm selenium, the birds that had previously been exposed to 15 ppm selenium and those that had not previously been exposed did not differ in percentage of mortality (14.7 and 14.3%), weight loss in survivors (39.3 and 41.20%), selenium concentrations in the livers of survivors (35 and 53 ppm, wet weight), or selenium concentrations in the livers of birds that died (35 and 40 ppm, respectively). When the data from the birds that had previously been exposed to 15 ppm selenium were combined with the data from the birds that had not previously been exposed, selenium concentrations in the livers of birds that had died on the 100-ppm selenium treatment (38 ppm) did not differ from the concentrations in the livers of birds that had survived (43 ppm).

  9. Reproduction in mallards exposed to dietary concentrations of methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Gary H; Hoffman, David J; Klimstra, Jon D; Stebbins, Katherine R

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to use mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) tested under controlled conditions to determine how much harm to reproduction resulted from various concentrations of mercury in eggs. Breeding pairs of mallards were fed a control diet or diets containing 1, 2, 4, or 8 microg/g mercury, as methylmercury chloride. Mean concentrations of mercury in eggs laid by parents fed 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 microg/g mercury were 0.0, 1.6, 3.7, 5.9, and 14 microg/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. There were no signs of mercury poisoning in the adults, and fertility and hatching success of eggs were not affected by mercury. Survival of ducklings and the number of ducklings produced per female were reduced by the 4 and 8-microg/g dietary mercury treatments (that resulted in 5.9 and 14 microg/g mercury in their eggs, respectively). Ducklings from parents fed the various mercury diets were just as heavy as controls at hatching, but by 6 days of age ducklings whose parents had been fed 4 or 8 microg/g mercury weighed less than controls. Because we do not know if absorption of mercury from our diets would be the same as absorption from natural foods, the mercury concentrations we report in eggs may be more useful in extrapolating to possible harmful effects in nature than are the dietary levels we fed. We conclude that mallard reproduction does not appear to be particularly sensitive to methylmercury.

  10. Reproduction in mallards exposed to dietary concentrations of methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to use mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) tested under controlled conditions to determine how much harm to reproduction resulted from various concentrations of mercury in eggs. Breeding pairs of mallards were fed a control diet or diets containing 1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/g mercury, as methylmercury chloride. Mean concentrations of mercury in eggs laid by parents fed 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/g mercury were 0.0, 1.6, 3.7, 5.9, and 14 μg/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. There were no signs of mercury poisoning in the adults, and fertility and hatching success of eggs were not affected by mercury. Survival of ducklings and the number of ducklings produced per female were reduced by the 4 and 8-μg/g dietary mercury treatments (that resulted in 5.9 and 14 μg/g mercury in their eggs, respectively). Ducklings from parents fed the various mercury diets were just as heavy as controls at hatching, but by 6 days of age ducklings whose parents had been fed 4 or 8 μg/g mercury weighed less than controls. Because we do not know if absorption of mercury from our diets would be the same as absorption from natural foods, the mercury concentrations we report in eggs may be more useful in extrapolating to possible harmful effects in nature than are the dietary levels we fed. We conclude that mallard reproduction does not appear to be particularly sensitive to methylmercury.

  11. Acute aspergillosis in mallards at Oahe seep near Pierre, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bair, W.C.; Simpson, S.G.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Aspergillosis was diagnosed at the cause of death of 158 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in January and February 1985 and 11 mallards in December 1985 near Pierre, SD. Isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from carcass tissues confirmed the diagnosis. The sex ratio of mallards dead from aspergillosis in January and February 1985 was significantly different from the sex ratio in the local population at that time. The source of the fungus was not determined, but severe weather caused physiologically stressed mallards to feeds on corn stored in open piles on the ground, a likely source of the Aspergillus fungus.

  12. Effects of lead shot ingestion on selected cells of the mallard immune system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The immunologic effects of lead were measured in game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that ingested lead shot while foraging naturally, mallards intubated with lead shot, and unexposed controls. Circulating white blood cells (WBC) declined significantly in male mallards exposed to lead by either natural ingestion or intubation, but not females. Spleen plaque-forming cell (SPFC) counts were significantly lower in mallards intubated with lead pellets compared to controls. Declines in WBC and SPFC means with increasing tissue lead concentrations provide further evidence that lead exposure reduced immunologic cell numbers. Hormonal activity and diet may have influenced the immunologic effects of lead exposure in this study.

  13. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, Daniel J.; Snyder, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Hatch year (HY) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Basin had higher concentrations of lead in their blood than HY Western Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) (geometric means 0.98 versus 0.28 I?g/g, wet weight). The pattern for adults of both species was similar, although geometric means (1.77 versus 0.41 I?g/g) were higher than in HY birds. HY mallards captured in the CDA River Basin in 1987 contained significantly lower lead concentrations in their blood than in 1994a??95 (0.36 versus 0.98 I?g/g); however, some very young mallards were sampled in 1987, and concentrations in adults were not significantly different in 1987, 1994, or 1995 (1.52, 2.07, 1.55 I?g/g, respectively). Both species in the CDA River Basin in 1994a??95 showed significantly reduced red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to the reference areas: Canada geese (HY a??65.4 to a??86.0%, adults a??82.3%), and mallards (HY a??90.7 to a??95.5%, adults a??94.1%). Canada goose goslings were divided into size classes, and the two smaller classes from the CDA River Basin had significantly elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (protoporphyrin) levels compared to the reference area (15.2?? and 6.9??). HY and adult mallards both had significantly elevated protoporphyrin (5.9?? and 7.5??). Recognizing that interspecific differences exist in response and sensitivity to lead, it appears (at least for hemoglobin and hematocrit) that Canada geese were more sensitive to lead than mallards, i.e., adverse hematologic effects occur at lower blood lead concentrations. Only Canada geese from the CDA River Basin, in spite of lower blood lead concentrations, had significantly reduced mean hemoglobin and hematocrit values. No euthanized Canada geese (all HYs) from CDA River Basin were classified as clinically lead poisoned, but 38 Canada geese found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study succumbed to lead poisoning between 1992 and

  14. An unusual pleomorphic sarcoma in a hybrid mallard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    An unusual pleomorphic sarcoma from a hybrid mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is described. Rhabdomyosarcoma was considered in the original differential diagnoses but rejected due to lack of specific characteristics generally seen in these tumors. The histologic characteristics described are consistent with mammalian sarcomas recorded in the literature as malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

  15. Population ecology of the mallard: VII. Distribution and derivation of the harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munro, Robert E.; Kimball, Charles F.

    1982-01-01

    This is the seventh in a series of comprehensive reports on population ecology of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in North America. Banding records for 1961-1975 were used, together with information from previous reports in this series, to estimate annual and average preseason age and sex structure of the mallard population and patterns of harvest distribution and derivation. Age ratios in the pre-season population averaged 0.98 immatures per adult and ranged from 0.75 to 1.44. The adult male per female ration averaged 1.42. The young male per female ratio average 1.01. Geographic and annual differences in recovery distributions were associated with age, sex, and years after banding. Such variation might indicate that survival or band recovery rates, or both, change as a function of number of years after banding, and that estimates of these rates might thus be affected. Distribution of the mallard harvest from 16 major breeding ground reference areas to States, Provinces, and flyways is tabulated and illustrated. Seasonal (weekly) breeding ground derivation of the harvest within States and Provinces from the 16 reference areas also is tabulated. Harvest distributions, derivation, and similarity of derivation between harvest areas are summarily illustrated with maps. Derivation of harvest appears to be consistent throughout the hunting season in the middle and south central United States, encompassing States in both the Central and Mississippi flyways. However, weekly derivation patterns for most northern States suggest that early dates of hunting result in relatively greater harvest of locally derived mallard, in contrast to birds from more northern breeding areas.

  16. Evaluation of a mallard HSI model for the Lower Mississippi Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Brown, M.W.; Nassar, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated a habitat suitability (HSI) model developed for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in the Lower Mississippi Valley by comparing mallard densities obtained from aerial surveys with habitat suitability indices derived from satellite imagery for 25, 256km2 sampling units. Regression models that related mallard densities to habitat suitability indices accounted for only 29% of the variability in the data and the 95% confidence interval of predicted mallard densities included zero for most habitat suitability indices evaluated. Thus, we conclude that the published HSI model is a poor predictor of wintering mallard density in the Lower Mississippi Valley. We suggest model revision to allow users to remotely obtain model inputs for habitat characteristics at landscape scales. Further, we suggest the model be revised to consider yearly variation in habitat and flood conditions that better reflect the ability of an area to support wintering mallards.

  17. Feeding ecology of mallards wintering in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Krapu, G.L.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Food use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering on the Platte River in south central Nebraska was determined from mid-December to early March 1978-80. Mallards foraged in river channels, irrigation drainage canals, and agricultural areas. Plant matter formed 97% of the diet (dry weight) and diets did not vary between sexes (P > 0.05). Waste corn was the principal food consumed and formed 46 and 62% of the diets of males and females, respectively. Milo, common duckweed (Lemna minor), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa muricata) composed most of the remaining plant matter ingested. Mallards fed intensively in riparian wetland habitat to obtain invertebrates, but few were consumed because of limited abundance. Dietary protein was lower than reported among mallards wintering in Louisiana. Field feeding occurred primarily in grazed corn stubble and cattle feedlots. The distances traveled to feed, and the duration and timing of feeding varied with snow cover and season phenology. Competition for food was markedly higher during the cold winter of 1979 when heavy snow cover was present.

  18. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    PubMed

    Söderquist, Pär; Norrström, Joanna; Elmberg, Johan; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gunnarsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males). Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds. PMID:25514789

  19. Modeling annual mallard production in the prairie-parkland region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists have proposed several environmental factors that might influence production of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) nesting in the prairie-parkland region of the United States and Canada. These factors include precipitation, cold spring temperatures, wetland abundance, and upland breeding habitat. I used long-term historical data sets of climate, wetland numbers, agricultural land use, and size of breeding mallard populations in multiple regression analyses to model annual indices of mallard production. Models were constructed at 2 scales: a continental scale that encompassed most of the mid-continental breeding range of mallards and a stratum-level scale that included 23 portions of that same breeding range. The production index at the continental scale was the estimated age ratio of mid-continental mallards in early fall; at the stratum scale my production index was the estimated number of broods of all duck species within an aerial survey stratum. Size of breeding mallard populations in May, and pond numbers in May and July, best modeled production at the continental scale. Variables that best modeled production at the stratum scale differed by region. Crop variables tended to appear more in models for western Canadian strata; pond variables predominated in models for United States strata; and spring temperature and pond variables dominated models for eastern Canadian strata. An index of cold spring temperatures appeared in 4 of 6 models for aspen parkland strata, and in only 1 of 11 models for strata dominated by prairie. Stratum-level models suggest that regional factors influencing mallard production are not evident at a larger scale. Testing these potential factors in a manipulative fashion would improve our understanding of mallard population dynamics, improving our ability to manage the mid-continental mallard population.

  20. Evaluation of a mallard productivity model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Cowardin, L.M.; Sparling, D.W.; Verner, J.; Morrison, L.M.; Ralph, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    A stochastic model of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) productivity has been developed over a 10-year period and successfully applied to several management questions. Here we review the model and describe some recent uses and improvements that increase its realism and applicability, including naturally occurring changes in wetland habitat, catastrophic weather events, and the migrational homing of mallards. The amount of wetland habitat influenced productivity primarily by affecting the renesting rate. Late snowstorms severely reduced productivity, whereas the loss of nests due to flooding was largely compensated for by increased renesting, often in habitats where hatching rates were better. Migrational homing was shown to be an important phenomenon in population modeling and should be considered when evaluating management plans.

  1. Predicting mercury concentrations in mallard eggs from mercury in the diet or blood of adult females and from duckling down feathers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of Hg concentrations in avian eggs can be used to predict possible harm to reproduction, but it is not always possible to sample eggs. When eggs cannot be sampled, some substitute tissue, such as female blood, the diet of the breeding female, or down feathers of hatchlings, must be used. When female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing methylmercury chloride, the concentration of Hg in a sample of their blood was closely correlated with the concentration of Hg in the egg they laid the day they were bled (r2=0.88; p<0.001). Even when the blood sample was taken more than two weeks after an egg was laid, there was a strong correlation between Hg concentrations in female blood and eggs (r2=0.67; p<0.0002). When we plotted the dietary concentrations of Hg we fed to the egg-laying females against the concentrations of Hg in their eggs, the r2 value was 0.96 (p<0.0001). When the concentrations of Hg in the down feathers of newly hatched ducklings were plotted against Hg in the whole ducklings, the r 2 value was 0.99 ( p<0.0003). Although measuring Hg in eggs may be the most direct way of predicting possible embryotoxicity, our findings demonstrate that measuring Hg in the diet of breeding birds, in the blood of egg-laying females, or in down feathers of hatchlings all can be used to estimate what concentration of Hg may have been in the egg.

  2. Methylmercury: Reproductive and behavioral effects on three generations of mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Three generations of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury in the form of methylmercury. The levels of mercury in adult tissues and eggs remained about the same over 3 generations. The methylmercury diet had no effect on adult weights or weight changes during the reproductive season. Females fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury laid a greater percentage of their eggs outside their nestboxes than did controls, and also laid fewer eggs and produced fewer ducklings. Methylmercury in the diet appeared to result in a small amount of eggshell thinning. Ducklings from parents fed methylmercury were less responsive than, controls to tape-recorded maternal calls, but were hyper-responsive to a frightening stimulus in avoidance tests; there were no significant differences in locomotor activity in an open-field test.

  3. Effects of boron and selenium on mallard reproduction and duckling growth and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.; Smith, G.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Rosscoe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Boron (B) and selenium (Se) sometimes occur together in high concentrations in the environment and can accumulate in plants and invertebrates consumed by waterfowl. One hundred twenty-six pairs of breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets supplemented with B (as boric acid) at 0, 450, or 900 ppm, in combination with Se (as seleno-DL-methionine) at 0, 3.5, or 7 ppm, in a replicated factorial experiment. Ducklings produced received the same treatment combination as their parents. Boron and Se accumulated in adult liver, egg, and duckling liver. In adults, B and Se caused weight loss, and B decreased hemoglobin concentration, egg weight, and egg fertility. Both B and Se reduced hatching success and duckling weight, and B reduced duckling growth and duckling production, and caused several alterations in duckling liver biochemistry. Duckling survival was not reduced by B or Se, and neither B nor Se had histopathologic effects on adult or duckling liver, kidney, or spleen. There was little evidence of interaction between B and Se. This study demonstrated that B and Se, in the chemical forms and at the dietary levels administered in this study, can adversely affect mallard reproduction and duckling growth.

  4. Evaluation of aerial transects for counting winter mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.; Brown, M.W.; Nassar, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Winter waterfowl surveys rarely use sampling methods, and little is known about the precision and biases of their population estimates. Consequently, we developed aerial transect surveys (n=5) in 4 strata comprising 16 substrata in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley during winters 1987-88 through 1989-90 to estimate mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population indices and determine regional patterns of habitat use. Mallard population indices ranged from 1,147,628 (SE=192,341) in December 1988 to 1,790,708 (SE=179,406) in January 1988. Coefficients of variation (CV's) for early winter surveys averaged 0.15 and those for late winter surveys averaged 0.10. During early winter, 59-69% of mallards were on wetlands with water regimes managed for waterfowl; whereas in late winter, 52-79% used wetlands with unmanaged water regimes. Late winter was wet during 1987-88 and 1988-89, and most mallards (62-68%) were on naturally flooded croplands. Use of forested wetlands (3-11%) and moist-soil habitats (3-29%) varied among surveys but was not correlated with water conditions. The number of mallards using naturally flooded croplands (e.g., >1,100,000 in Jan 1988) illustrated the extent of habitat use on private lands. We recommend transect surveys (e.g., 5-yr intervals) for evaluating responses of mallard populations to management programs and as a sampling framework for integrating regional waterfowl research and management data.

  5. Selenium accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, G.H. )

    1993-04-01

    Five female mallards (Anas platyhynchos) that had just started egg laying were first fed a diet containing 15 ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine for 20 d and then an untreated diet for 20 d. Selenium levels in eggs peaked (to about 13-20 ppm) in about two weeks on the treated diet and leveled off at a low level (< 5 ppm) after about 10 d back on the untreated diet. Selenium levels in egg whites responded faster than levels in yolks to the females' consumption of treated and untreated diets.

  6. A field test for differences in condition among trapped and shot mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.; Shaiffer, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    We tested predictions from the condition bias hypothesis (Weatherland and Greenwood 1981) regarding the effects of sampling methods of body weights of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) at White River National Wildlife Refuge (WRNWR), Arkansas, during 24 November-8 December 1985. Body weights of 84 mallards caught with unbaited rocket nets in a natural wetland were used as experimental controls and compared to the body weights of 70 mallards captured with baited rocket nets, 86 mallards captured with baited swim-in traps, and 130 mallards killed by hunters. We found no differences (P > 0.27) in body weight among sampling methods, but body condition (wt/wing length) of the birds killed by hunters was less (P 0.75 for differences > 50 g. The condition bias hypothesis probably applies to ducks killed by hunters but not to trapping operations when substantial (> 20 at 1 time) numbers of birds are captured.

  7. Impaired reproduction of mallards fed an organic form of selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gold, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    We fed mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) diets supplemented with 0-, 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, or 16-ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine. We fed another group of mallards a diet containing 16-ppm selenium as selenocystine. Females fed the control diet produced a mean of 8.1 ducklings that survived to 6 days of age, which was significantly greater than the 4.6 young produced by females fed 8-ppm selenium as selenomethionine and the zero surviving young of females fed 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine. Selenocystine did not impair reproduction. Diets containing 8- and 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine caused malformations in 6.8 and 67.9%, respectively, of unhatched eggs compared with 0.6% for controls. The most common malformations were of eyes, bill, legs, and feet. Selenium did not affect the onset or frequency of egg laying, egg size, shell thickness, fertility of eggs, or sex ratio of ducklings. Reduced survival and growth occurred in ducklings hatched from groups whose parents had received 8- or 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine, even though all ducklings were fed a control diet. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and liver of adults could be predicted from dietary concentrations. We conclude that the dietary threshold of selenium as selenomethionine necessary to impair reproduction is between 4 and 8 ppm. It is difficult to identify 1 level of selenium in eggs that will be diagnostic of reproductive impairment in the field because different chemical forms of selenium appear to have different toxicities in eggs. However, when eggs from a wild population contain .gtoreq. 1-ppm selenium on a wet-weight basis, reproductive impairment may be possible and should be evaluated in that population. At 5-ppm selenium in eggs, reproductive impairment is much more likely to occur.

  8. Modified transmitter attachment method for adult ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Brandt, D.A.; Krapu, G.L.; Buhl, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The value of radio telemetry for waterfowl research depends on the availability of suitable methods of attaching transmitters. In previous studies, external transmitters attached to adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with sutures and glue did not stay on birds reliably. In an attempt to improve transmitter retention, a method of attachment was tested in which 4-g transmitters were attached mid-dorsally with sutures and with a stainless steel anchor-shaped wire inserted subcutaneously (anchor transmitters). Field tests indicated that all of 26 female Mallards and 63 of 65 female Gadwalls (Anas strepera) retained their anchor transmitters during 4369 bird-days of monitoring during nesting and brood rearing. Survival rates of females with anchor transmitters compared favorably with those reported from other studies. In this study, females with and without anchor transmitters did not differ with respect to survival rates of their ducklings. The anchor transmitter may be suitable for a variety of field studies on numerous species.

  9. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted.

  10. Enhanced reproduction in mallards fed a low level of methylmercury: An apparent case of hormesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 mg/g mercury (Hg) in the form of methylmercury chloride. There were no effects of Hg on adult weights and no overt signs of Hg poisoning in adults. The Hg-containing diet had no effect on fertility of eggs, but hatching success of eggs was significantly higher for females fed 0.5 ??g/g Hg (71.8%) than for controls (57.5%). Survival of ducklings through 6 d of age was the same (97.8%) for controls and mallards fed 0.5 ??g/g mercury. However, the mean number of ducklings produced per female was significantly higher for the pairs fed 0.5 ??g/g Hg (21.4) than for controls (16.8). Although mercury in the parents' diet had no effect on mean duckling weights at hatching, ducklings from parents fed 0.5 mg/g Hg weighed significantly more (mean = 87.2 g) at 6 d of age than did control ducklings (81.0 g). The mean concentration of Hg in eggs laid by parents fed 0.5 ??g/g mercury was 0.81 ??g/g on a wet-weight basis. At this time, one cannot rule out the possibility that low concentrations of Hg in eggs may be beneficial, and this possibility should be considered when setting regulatory thresholds for methylmercury. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  11. Outcome of aggressive interactions between American black ducks and mallards during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Longcore, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) numbers have declined during the past several decades, while mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have expanded their range eastward. Competitive exclusion of black ducks from wetlands by mallards has been proposed as a principal cause of the decline. We studied a sympatric population of black ducks and mallards in Maine during the early breeding season to document behavior and interactions. We observed 832 aggressive interactions; most (72%) were between members of the same species. When a choice was available, both species interacted more often with conspecifics than with the other species (P < 0.028). On wetlands that both species occupied simultaneously, numbers of interspecific interactions initiated by each species were similar (P = 0.47). The proportion of won (initiator displaces recipient of attack), lost (initiator displaced), and ?no change? outcomes of these interactions were different (P < 0.0001). Black ducks displaced mallards during 87.2%, lost none, and no change occurred during 12.8% of the interactions they initiated with mallards. Mallards displaced black ducks during 63.3%, were displaced by the black duck during 15%, and no change occurred during 21.7% of the interactions they initiated with black ducks. Displacement from wetlands was rare (38 of 229 interspecific interactions) and was equal between species. Mallards were neither more aggressive than nor behaviorally superior to black ducks.

  12. Movements and habitat use of mallard broods in northeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, D.M.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    To increase recruitment of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wildlife managers must understand the habitat and space needs of mallard broods. During 1989-90, we examined the movements, home range, and habitat use of 27 radio-marked mallard broods on Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, California. Twelve of the 27 broods made 22 relocation movements (>1,000 m in 24 hr) in the first week (n = 6) and after the fourth (n = 16) week of life. Mean home range size was 0.93 km2 (SE = 0.25) and did not differ between years (P = 0.26). Brood-rearing females selected seasonally flooded wetlands with a cover component and avoided open or permanently flooded habitats. In 1989, broods hatched in permanent wetlands were less successful in fledging (P = 0.006) radio-marked ducklings than broods from seasonal wetlands, suggesting habitat availability or movement to preferred habitats may affect duckling survival.

  13. Survival of postfledging mallards in northcentral Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Ronald E.; Sargeant, Glen A.

    1999-01-01

    Effective, economical management of waterfowl populations requires an understanding of age-, sex-, and cause-specific forces of mortality. We used radio telemetry to estimate survival rates of immature mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from fledging to autumn migration in northcentral Minnesota. We monitored 48 females and 42 males during 1972-74 and observed 31 deaths during 2,984 exposure-days. We attributed 7 deaths to predation and 24 to hunting. Survival rates were 0.86 (SE=0.047) for the postfledging-prehunting period, 0.29 (SE=0.107) from the onset of hunting to migration, and 0.25 (SE=0.094) for both periods combined. Natural mortality of fledged young had a negligible effect on recruitment to migration. Reducing natural mortality of fledged juvenile mallards would not have been a feasible means of increasing recruitment. Management strategies that increased nest success, increased brood survival, or decreased hunting mortality would more likely have produced meaningful gains in recruitment and are worthy subjects for continuing study. In northcentral Minnesota, changes in waterfowl habitats, predator populations, and hunting pressure have probably not changed the relative importance of hunting and nonhunting mortality to fledged juvenile mallards since our data were collected.

  14. Band reporting rates for mallards with reward bands of different dollar values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Blohm, R.J.; Reynolds, R.E.; Trost, R.E.; Hines, J.E.; Bladen, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Adult male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ) were banded in summer 1987 with reward bands of different dollar values (0-$400) to determine the lowest dollar value that would yield a reporting rate approaching 1.0. During the 1987-88 and 1988-89 hunting seasons, rewards of between 50 and $100 were required to yield a reporting rate near 1.0. We estimated reporting rate of standard bands to be 0.32. Reward bands with 5 and $10 values produced reporting rates that were 1.5-2.0 times as large as those of standard bands. We developed a linear-logistic model to predict reporting rate as a function of the dollar value of reward bands.

  15. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  16. Haldane's rule and American black duck x mallard hybridization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.; Sargeant, G.A.; Shutler, D.

    2004-01-01

    Species ratios and rangewide distributions of American black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L., 1758) have undergone recent changes. Mechanisms behind these changes are not known with certainty, but recent investigations have focused on the possibility of competitive exclusion and the consequences of hybridization. Consequences of hybridization have been difficult to assess because of the difficulty in identifying hybrids beyond the F1 generation and lack of means to quantify introgression in wild populations. We documented a postmating isolating mechanism between the two species that follows Haldane's rule in controlled, interspecific matings in captive populations. Hybridization reduces the proportion of F1 females available to return to the breeding grounds in the subsequent year. This effect, although likely small in overall population consequences in any year, may be of local significance and may contribute to recent reports of range shifts in both American black ducks and mallards. ?? 2004 NRC.

  17. Wild Mallards Have More “Goose-Like” Bills Than Their Ancestors: A Case of Anthropogenic Influence?

    PubMed Central

    Söderquist, Pär; Norrström, Joanna; Elmberg, Johan; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gunnarsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males). Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more “goose-like” bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds. PMID:25514789

  18. Minor differences in body condition and immune status between avian influenza virus-infected and noninfected mallards: a sign of coevolution?

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel; Matson, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host. PMID:25691969

  19. Stump and tree nesting by mallards and black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Cummings, G.E.; Reed, P.B.

    1967-01-01

    Studies conducted 1961-65 at the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge in New York demonstrated that mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes) make extensive use of stumps and dead snags for nest sites. Nest densities in timbered habitats compared favorably with those in untimbered habitats. Nest success was generally higher in timbered than in untimbered areas, except for a newly flooded impoundment where nest success was poor. A simple artificial nest structure was used to increase the number of available nest sites in some of the timbered habitats. Development of stump-nesting populations of ducks may furnish a means of increasing waterfowl production in forested areas.

  20. Summer foods of American widgeon, mallards, and a green-winged teal near Great Slave Lake, N.W.T

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Foods found in three species of dabbling ducks collected during summer from bog ponds, and sedge pools in taiga on the north side of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, are described. Animal material in the esophageal contents of 10 adult American Widgeons (Mareca americana) averaged 31 i?? 34 per cent (P<0.05) by volume. A significantly higher percentage of animal material was found in Class I and II widgeon ducklings (66 i?? 22 per cent) than in Class IIIa ducklings and flying juveniles (12 i?? 20 per cent) of this species. Animal material comprised 87 i?? 35 per cent of esophageal contents from five Class II and flying juvenile Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 100 per cent of that from an adult female Green-winged Teal (A. carolinensis).

  1. Autumn migration of of Mississippi Flyway mallards as determined by satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Asante, Kwasi; Naylor, Luke W.

    2012-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to study autumn migration timing, routes, stopover duration, and final destinations of mallardsAnas platyrhynchos captured the previous spring in Arkansas from 2004 to 2007. Of those mallards that still had functioning transmitters on September 15 (n  =  55), the average date when autumn migration began was October 23 (SE  =  2.62 d; range  =  September 17–December 7). For those mallards that stopped for >1 d during migration, the average stopover length was 15.4 d (SE  =  1.47 d). Ten mallards migrated nonstop to wintering sites. The eastern Dakotas were a heavily utilized stopover area. The total distance migrated per mallard averaged 1,407 km (SE  =  89.55 km; range  =  142–2,947 km). The average time spent on migration per individual between September 15 and December 15 was 27 d (SE  =  2.88 d; range  =  2–84 d). The state where most mallards were located on December 15 was Missouri (11) followed by Arkansas (8), while 5 mallards were still in Canada, and only 8 of 43 females and 0 of 10 males were present in Arkansas. The eastern Dakotas are a heavily utilized migration stopover for midcontinent mallards that may require more attention for migration habitat management. The reasons for so few mallards, especially male mallards, returning to Arkansas the following year deserves further research..

  2. Post-breeding activities of mallards and wood ducks in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Kirby, R.E.; Ball, I.J.; Riechmann, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to monitor the post-breeding activities of 129 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 118 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) on a 932-km2 area in north-central Minnesota from 1968 to 1974. Upon completion of breeding activities and before the flightless period, all mallard drakes departed the area; this exodus peaked during early June. Of the non-brood hens 8 of 23 remained on the area, whereas 26 of 51 of the hens raising broods spent the flightless period on their breeding areas. Thirty-nine percent of the mallard hens on the area in the spring were present at the beginning of their flightless period. Fifty percent of the drake wood ducks and 41 percent of the hens left the breeding area before flightlessness. Their timing was similar to that of mallards. The flightless period began in mid-June for wood duck drakes and lasted into early October for some mallard hens. All late molting mallard and wood duck hens reared broods that same year. A minimum of 35 percent of the spring mallard hens remained on the area at the beginning of hunting season (early October). About 17 percent of the wood duck males and 42 percent of the females breeding locally remained on the area until hunting began. Eleven of 51 mallards and 4 of 25 wood ducks that reared broods were killed on the study area compared with 2 of 23 for non-brood mallards and 1 of 20 for non-brood wood duck hens. Principal habitats used by post-breeding mallards were bays of large lakes and river marshes. Wood ducks tended to use similar habitat but also frequented small woodland ponds. During the flightless period both species remained mostly in areas with abundant emergent cover.

  3. Main and interactive effects of arsenic and selenium on mallard reproduction and duckling growth and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.; Spann, J.W.; Smith, G.J.; Rosscoe, R.

    1994-01-01

    Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) occur together in high concentrations in the environment and can accumulate in aquatic plants and invertebrates consumed by waterfowl. Ninety-nine pairs of breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets supplemented with As (sodium arsenate) at 0, 25, 100, or 400 ug/g, in combination with Se (seleno-DL-methionine) at 0 or 10 ug/g, in a replicated factorial experiment. Ducklings produced were placed on the same treatment combination as their parents. Arsenic accumulated in adult liver and egg, reduced adult weight gain and liver weight, delayed the onset of egg laying, decreased whole egg weight, and caused eggshell thinning. Arsenic did not affect hatching success and was not teratogenic. In ducklings, As accumulated in the liver and reduced body weight, growth, and liver weight. Arsenic did not increase duckling mortality, but it did decrease overall duckling production. Selenium accumulated in adult liver and egg, was teratogenic, and decreased hatching success. Selenium did not affect adult weight, liver weight, survival, onset of egg laying, egg fertility, egg weight, or eggshell thickness. In ducklings, Se accumulated in the liver and reduced body weight and growth, and increased liver weight. Selenium increased duckling mortality and decreased overall duckling production. Antagonistic interactions between As and Se occurred whereby As reduced Se accumulation in liver and egg, and alleviated the effects of Se on hatching success and embryo deformities. It was demonstrated that As and Se, in the chemical forms and at the dietary levels administered in this study, can adversely affect mallard reproduction and duckling growth and survival, and that As can alleviate toxic effects of Se.

  4. Novel foraging in the swash zone on Pacific sand crabs (Emerita analoga, Hippidae) by mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been observed foraging on intertidal Pacific sand crabs (Hippidae, Emerita analoga) in the swash zone of sandy beaches around Coal Oil Point Reserve, California, and several other beaches on the west coast since at least November 2010. Unlike foraging shorebirds, Mallards do not avoid incoming swashes. Instead, the incoming swash lifts and deposits them down the beach. Shorebirds and diving ducks commonly feed on sand crabs, but sand crabs appear to be a novel behavior and food source for Mallards. Previous surveys of beaches did not report foraging Mallards on regional beaches, whereas foraging Mallards were common in contemporary (recent) surveys and anecdotal reports. Observations of this potentially new behavior were separated by as much as 1,300 km, indicating that this was not a local phenomenon. Mallards foraged singly, in pairs, and in flocks. An expansion of diet to sand crabs carries risks of exposure to surf, human disturbance, high salt intake, and transmission of acanthocephalan and trematode parasites for Mallards but has the benefit of providing a dependable source of animal protein.

  5. Daily movements of female mallards wintering in Southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, P.T.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R.; Davis, B.E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding daily movements of waterfowl is crucial to management of winter habitats, especially along the Gulf Coast where hunting pressure is high. Radio-telemetry was used to investigate movements of female Mallards (Anas platyrchychos) wintering in southwestern Louisiana. Movement distances were analyzed from 2,455 paired locations (diurnal and nocturnal) of 126 Mallards during winters 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to assess effects of winter, female age, areas closed (Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge [LAC], Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge [CAM], Amoco Pool [AMOCO] or open to hunting [OPEN]), and habitat type, including all interactions. Movement distances from the various land management categories were not consistent by age, date, or by winter. Flight distances from LAC increased with date, whereas those from CAM and OPEN did not vary significantly by date. Female Mallards moved short distances between diurnal and nocturnal sites (ranging from 3.1 to 15.0 km by land management category), suggesting that they are able to meet their daily energy requirements within a smaller area than Northern Pintails (Anas acuta, hereafter Pintails), and thus minimize transit energy costs.

  6. Effects of dietary nickel on mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups and were fed breeder mash containing 0, 12.5, 50.0, 200.0, or 800.0 ppm Ni (as the sulfate) for 90 d. Ni ingestion had no effect on egg production, hatchability, or survival of ducklings. After 90 d birds were bled, sacrificed, and necropsied. There were no significant differences in hematocrit; concentrations of hemoglobin, plasma triglyceride, and cholesterol; of plasma activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase. A black tarry feces was noted in the high Ni dose group at necropsy, but no gross or histopathologic lesions were observed. Although absolute concentrations of Ni in tissues were low, there were significant accumulations in kidneys of birds fed Ni at all dietary levels and in feathers, blood, and livers of birds fed high doses of Ni compared with controls.

  7. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  8. Effect of certain anesthetic agents on mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, D.R.; Greenwood, R.J.

    1972-01-01

    Four anesthetic agents used in human or veterinary medicine and 3 experimental anesthetic preparations were evaluated for effectiveness in inducing narcosis when administered orally to game-farm mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).Tribromoethanol was the only compound to satisfy criteria of initial tests. Mean duration of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods was 2.4 minutes, 8.7 minutes, and 1.3 hours, respectively, at the median effective dosage for immobilization (ED50; 100 mg./kg. of body weight). The median lethal dosage (LD50) was 400 mg./kg. of body weight.Tribromoethanol was also tested on mallards during the reproductive season. Effects on the hatchability of eggs or the survival of young were not detected.

  9. Mallard duckling growth and survival in relation to aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Hanson, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Euliss, N.H.; Johnson, D.H.; Butler, Malcolm G.

    1998-01-01

    Identification and assessment of the relative importance of factors affecting duckling growth and survival are essential for effective management of mallards on breeding areas. For each of 3 years (1993-95), we placed F1-generation wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) females on experimental wetlands and allowed them to mate, nest, and rear broods for 17 days. We manipulated invertebrate densities by introducing fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at high densities in half of the wetlands on which broods were confined. Day-17 body mass of surviving ducklings (n = 183) was greater for ducklings that were heavier at hatch; the difference averaged 1.7 g at day 17 for each 1.0 g at hatch (P = 0.047). Growth ratio (the proportion of body mass attained by ducklings when they were last measured relative to that predicted for wild female mallard ducklings) also was positively related to body mass at hatch (P = 0.004). Mean day-17 body mass and mean growth ratio of ducklings per brood (each adjusted for body mass at hatch) were positively related to numbers of aquatic invertebrates (Ps < 0.001) and negatively related to variance in the daily minimum air temperature during the exposure period (Ps < 0.020). Early growth of mallards was more sensitive to variation in numbers of invertebrates than to air temperature or biomass of invertebrates. Duckling survival was positively related to growth ratio (P < 0.001). Our study provides parameter estimates that are essential for modeling growth and survival of mallard ducklings. We emphasize the need for conserving brood-rearing wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region that are capable of supporting high densities of aquatic invertebrates.

  10. Survival of wood duck and mallard broods in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, I.J.; Gilmer, D.S.; Cowardin, L.M.; Riechmann, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Duckling survival in wood duck (Aix sponsa) and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) broods was estimated from data obtained from 71 radio-marked brood hens on a study area in north-central Minnesota. Radio-marked hens produced 30 broods during the study, and 41 hens already leading broods were captured and radio-marked. Production estimates based on brood size counts were inflated by about 38 percent for wood ducks and 30 percent for mallards if total-brood losses were not taken into account. Mortality during the first 2 weeks of life was most severe, accounting for 86 percent of total recorded mortality in wood ducks and 70 percent in mallards. Rearing success was about 41 percent for wood ducks and 44 percent for mallards. Duckling survival was negatively correlated with distance of overland travel by young broods. Wood ducks had a shorter hen-brood bond than mallards and presence of the hen appeared to affect duckling survival less in wood duck broods than in mallards.

  11. Spring migration of mallards from Arkansas as determined by satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Asante, Kwasi; Naylor, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to document spring migration phenology, routes, stopover regions, and nesting sites of mallards Anas platyrhynchos marked in Arkansas during the winters of 2004-2007. Of the 143 marked mallards that migrated from Arkansas, they did so, on average, by mid-March. Mallards flew over the Missouri Ozarks and 42% made an initial stopover in Missouri, where they used areas that had larger rivers (Mississippi River, Missouri River) embedded in an agricultural landscape. From this stopover region they either migrated directly to the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) or they migrated north to Minnesota where they either moved next to the PPR or to the north and east of the PPR. For those mallards (83%) that stopped for >1 d before entering the PPR, the average length at each stop was 12 d (SE = 0.90 d, range = 2-54 d). Mallards made more stopovers, made shorter migration movements, and took longer to move to the PPR in wetter than drier years. Mallards arrived in the PPR earlier in 2006 x- = 30 March, SE = 2.18 d) than in 2005 x- = 7 April, SE = 2.30 d). Females nested across nine Bird Conservation Regions. Nesting occurred most frequently in South Dakota (n = 9). The average date when females nested was 19 April (SE = 2.44 d, range = 12 March-26 May). Because many mallards headed for the large river corridors in Missouri for their first stopover, this region is an important spring migration stopover of continental importance to mallards and might be considered a focal area for conservation.

  12. Effects of dietary vanadium in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm vanadyl sulfate in the diet were sacrificed after 12 wk on treatment; tissues were analyzed for vanadium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. Vanadium accumulated to higher concentrations in the bone and liver than in other tissues. Concentrations in bones of hens were five times those in bones of drakes, suggesting an interaction between vanadium and calcium mobilization in laying hens. Vanadium concentrations in most tissues were significantly correlated and increased with treatment level. Lipid metabolism was altered in laying hens fed 100 ppm vanadium. Very little vanadium accumulated in the eggs of laying hens.

  13. Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) mallards: II. Pairing success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Lee, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine whether assortative mating occurs in wild and game-farm mallard strains (Anas platyrhynchos). Mallard males of either strain raised with females of their own strain courted females of their own strain more than females of the opposite strain, and these males were only successful in pairing with females of their own strain. Males raised with females of the opposite strain courted wild and game-farm females with equal intensity. They were successful in pairing with females of either strain. While this study does not settle the question of possible gene flow between these two mallard populations, it does indicate that there is a potential barrier to panmixia.

  14. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  15. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert A.; Greenwood, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  16. Use of sentinel mallards for epizootiologic studies of avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as sentinels to study the epizootiology of avian botulism at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Willows, California (USA) from 1986 to 1989. Sentinel mallards were wing-clipped, and 40 to 50 birds were confined in 1.6-ha enclosures in 11 selected wetlands (pools). Enclosures were searched intensively three to four times weekly from July through October. Sick and dead wild and sentinel birds were collected, necropsied, and tested for type C botulism toxin. Botulism epizootics occurred in sentinel mallards in 1986, 1987, and 1989, but only a few isolated cases of botulism were detected in 1988. In most epizootics, botulism also was detected simultaneously in wild birds using the same pool outside the enclosure. Epizootics in sentinels were initiated and perpetuated in the absence of vertebrate carcasses. A sex-specific trend in the probability of intoxication was detected, with males contracting botulism at a higher rate than females. Daily mortality rates of sentinels during botulism epizootics ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0600, with a mean of 0.0190. These rates would result in the daily loss of 0.6 to 60 birds per thousand at risk. The use of sentinel birds provided an effective means of gathering site-specific epizootiologic data.

  17. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  18. Neurotoxic and teratogenic effects of an organophosphorus insecticide (phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl -O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) on mallard development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.

    1984-01-01

    Phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl-O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester (EPN) is one of the 10 most frequently used organophosphorus insecticides and causes delayed neurotoxicity in adult chickens and mallards. Small amounts of organophosphorus insecticides placed on birds' eggs are embryotoxic and teratogenic. For this reason, the effects of topical egg application on EPN were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Mallard eggs were treated topically at 72 hr of incubation with 25 microliter of a nontoxic oil vehicle or with EPN in the vehicle at concentrations of approximately 12, 36, or 108 micrograms/g egg, equivalent to one, three, and nine times the agricultural level of application used to spray crops. Treatment with EPN resulted in 22 to 44% mortality over this dose range by 18 days of development compared with 4 and 5% for untreated and vehicle-treated controls. EPN impaired embryonic growth and was highly teratogenic: 37-42% of the surviving embryos at 18 days were abnormal with cervical and axial scoliosis as well as severe edema. Brain weights were significantly lower in EPN-treated groups at different stages of development including hatchlings. Brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity was inhibited by as much as 91% at 11 days, 81% at 18 days, and 79% in hatchlings. Examination of brain NTE activity during the course of normal development revealed an increase of nearly sixfold from Day 11 through hatching. The most rapid increase occurred between Day 20 and hatching. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited by as much as 41% at 11 days, 47% at 18 days, and 20% in hatchlings. Plasma cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were inhibited and plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased at one or more stages of development. Hatchlings from EPN-treated eggs were weaker and slower to right themselves. Histopathological examination did not reveal demyelination and axonopathy of the spinal cord that was

  19. Effects of external applications of fuel oil on hatchability of mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Wolfe, Douglas A.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the toxicity of oil to incubating eggs. Number 2 fuel oil, a mixture of 9 paraffin compounds, and propylene glycol were applied to the surface of artificially incubated mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs. Embryonic mortality was significantly greater (P 0.01) from the control. Thus, the transfer of even small quantities of oil to the egg surface is sufficient to reduce hatchability.

  20. Flexibility of Continental Navigation and Migration in European Mallards

    PubMed Central

    van Toor, Mariëlle L.; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may not generally correct for displacement during fall migration. Waterbirds such as the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus 1758) are more flexible in their migration behavior than most migratory songbirds, but previous experiments with waterbirds have not yet allowed clear conclusions about their navigation abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring returned to the population’s breeding grounds in the Baltics and Northwest Russia. Contrary to the control animals, the translocated mallards did not continue migration and stayed at Lake Constance. In spring, three types of movement tactics could be observed: 61.5% of the ducks (16 of 26) stayed around Lake Constance, 27% (7 of 26) migrated in a northerly direction towards Sweden and 11.5% of the individuals (3 of 26) headed east for ca. 1,000 km and then north. We suggest that young female mallards flexibly adjust their migration tactics and develop a navigational map that allows them to return to their natal breeding area. PMID:24023629

  1. Flexibility of continental navigation and migration in European mallards.

    PubMed

    van Toor, Mariëlle L; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may not generally correct for displacement during fall migration. Waterbirds such as the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus 1758) are more flexible in their migration behavior than most migratory songbirds, but previous experiments with waterbirds have not yet allowed clear conclusions about their navigation abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring returned to the population's breeding grounds in the Baltics and Northwest Russia. Contrary to the control animals, the translocated mallards did not continue migration and stayed at Lake Constance. In spring, three types of movement tactics could be observed: 61.5% of the ducks (16 of 26) stayed around Lake Constance, 27% (7 of 26) migrated in a northerly direction towards Sweden and 11.5% of the individuals (3 of 26) headed east for ca. 1,000 km and then north. We suggest that young female mallards flexibly adjust their migration tactics and develop a navigational map that allows them to return to their natal breeding area.

  2. Factors affecting winter survival of female mallards in the lower Mississippi alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, B.E.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    The lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (hereafter LMAV) provides winter habitat for approximately 40% of the Mississippi Flyway's Mallard (Anas platyrhynhcos) population; information on winter survival rates of female Mallards in the LMAV is restricted to data collected prior to implementation of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. To estimate recent survival and cause-specific mortality rates in the LMAV, 174 radio-marked female Mallards were tracked for a total of 11,912 exposure days. Survival varied by time periods defined by hunting seasons, and females with lower body condition (size adjusted body mass) at time of capture had reduced probability of survival. Female survival was less and the duration of our tracking period was greater than those in previous studies of similarly marked females in the LMAV; the product-limit survival estimate (??????SE) through the entire tracking period (136 days) was 0.54 ??0.10. Cause-specific mortality rates were 0.18 ??0.04 and 0.34 ??0.12 for hunting and other sources of mortality, respectively; the estimated mortality rate from other sources (including those from avian, mammalian, or unknown sources) was higher than mortality from non-hunting sources reported in previous studies of Mallards in the LMAV. Models that incorporate winter survival estimates as a factor in Mallard population growth rates should be adjusted for these reduced winter survival estimates.

  3. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs you take. ANA testing can produce a “false positive.” This typically signals the presence of antinuclear ... keep looking. In fact, you may have a “false positive” ANA, which means that the evidence is ...

  4. Concentrated nesting of mallards and gadwalls on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.; Sharp, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Island-nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) were studied on a 4.5-ha island in 385-ha Miller Lake in northwestern North Dakota during 1976-80. During the 5-year study, 2,561 duck nests of 9 species were found on Island A located 180 m offshore; 59% were mallard and 34% were gadwall. In patches of shrub cover, which contained the greatest concentrations of nests, densities ranged from 241 to 389 mallard nests/ha and from 139 to 237 gadwall nests/ha. Over 97% of the nests were placed in 4 patches of shrubs totaling about 1 ha of western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)--Woods rose (Rosa woodsii) cover, which composed about 30% of the island's vegetation. Average hatching success was 85% for clutches of all species. Abandonment averaged 14% (348 of 2,426 nests) and was the major cause of egg failure. Only 15 nests (<1%) were destroyed, primarily by ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) or California gulls (L. californicus). A minimum of 15,960 ducklings including 9,300 mallards and 5,150 gadwalls hatched on 4.5-ha Island A. Hatching rates of eggs in successful nests averaged 83% for mallards and 87% for gadwalls. Despite the close spacing of nests, most individual hens maintained normal nesting regimes. Eighty-one percent of the mallard clutches contained 7-13 eggs and 81% of the gadwall clutches contained 8-14 eggs. Island A in Miller Lake provides an outstanding example of the potential for high reproduction levels of mallards and gadwalls nesting in small areas of predator-free habitats.

  5. Influence of body condition on influenza a virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, D.M.; Ip, H.S.; Owen, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ??5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ?? 2011 Arsnoe et al.

  6. Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ±5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl.

  7. Effects of spinning-wing decoys on flock behavior and hunting vulnerability of mallards in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szymanski, M.L.; Afton, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Waterfowl managers in Minnesota and other states are concerned that increased kill rates associated with the use of spinning-wing decoys (SWDs) may negatively affect local breeding populations of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Accordingly, we conducted 219 experimental hunts to evaluate hunting vulnerability of mallards to SWDs during the 2002 duck season in Minnesota. During each hunt, we tested 2 SWD treatments: 1) SWDs turned OFF (control), and 2) SWDs turned ON (experimental) during alternate 15-minute sampling periods that were separated by 5-minute buffer periods. We found that mallard flocks (???1 duck) were 2.91 times more likely to respond (i.e., approach within 40 m of hunters), and sizes of responding mallard flocks were 1.25 times larger, on average, when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. Mallards killed/hour/hunter/hunt averaged 4.71 times higher (P < 0.001) when SWDs were turned ON than OFF. More hatch-year (HY) and after-hatch-year (AHY) mallards were killed when SWDs were turned ON than OFF; however, AHYs were relatively less likely than were HYs to be killed with SWDs turned ON. We found no evidence that SWDs reduced crippling or allowed hunters to harvest relatively more drakes than hens. Using a worst-case scenario model, we predicted that if 47% and 79% of Minnesota hunters had used SWDs in 2000 and 2002, respectively, Minnesota mallard harvests would have increased by a factor of 2. However, increasing use of SWDs by northern hunters may result in a partial redistribution of annual mallard harvests if nai??ve ducks are harvested upon initial exposures to SWDs, and those ducks that survive become habituated to SWDs, as suggested by our results. Our study was confined to a single hunting season in Minnesota and thus did not assess whether vulnerability of mallards to hunters using SWDs varied among years or geographically. A multi-year, flyway-wide study is needed to make stronger and more rigorous inferences regarding potential changes in harvest

  8. Effects of dietary cadmium on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, B.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Moore, J.

    1983-01-01

    Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were fed cadmium in the diet at 0, 5, 10, or 20 ppm from 1 day of age until 12 weeks of age. At 4-week intervals six males and six females from each dietary group were randomly selected, bled by jugular venipuncture, and necropsied. Significant decreases in packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and a significant increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were found at 8 weeks of age in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium. Mild to severe kidney lesions were evident in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium for 12 weeks. No other blood chemistry measurement, hematological parameter, or tissue histopathological measurement indicated a reaction to cadmium ingestion. Body weight, liver weight, and the ratio of the femur weight to length were not affected by dietary cadmium. Femur cadmium concentration In all ducklings 12 weeks of age declined from the values detected at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Liver cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in relation to the increased dietary levels and in relation to the length of time the ducklings were fed the cadmium diets. At 12 weeks of age the cadmium concentration in liver tissue was twice that in the diet.

  9. Body mass and immune function, but not bill coloration, predict dominance in female mallards.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Russell A; Butler, Michael W

    2016-10-01

    Competition over indivisible resources is common and often costly. Therefore, selection should favor strategies, including efficient communication, that minimize unnecessary costs associated with such competition. For example, signaling enables competitors to avoid engaging in costly asymmetrical contests. Recently, bill coloration has been identified as an information-rich signal used by some birds to mediate aggressive interactions and we evaluated this possibility in female mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Specifically, we conducted two rounds of competitive interactions among groups of unfamiliar adult female ducks. By recording all aggressive behaviors exhibited by each individual, as well as the identity of attack recipients, we were able to assign dominance scores and evaluate links between numerous physiological, morphological, and experimental variables that we predicted would influence contest outcome and dominance. Contrary to our predictions, dominance was not linked to any aspect of bill coloration, access to dietary carotenoids during development, two of three measures of immune function, or ovarian follicle maturation. Instead, heavier birds were more dominant, as were those with reduced immune system responses to an experimentally administered external immunostimulant, phytohemagglutinin. These results suggest that visual signals are less useful during the establishment of dominance hierarchies within multi-individual scramble competitions, and that immune function is correlated with contest strategies in competitions for access to limited resources. PMID:27561967

  10. Body mass and immune function, but not bill coloration, predict dominance in female mallards.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Russell A; Butler, Michael W

    2016-10-01

    Competition over indivisible resources is common and often costly. Therefore, selection should favor strategies, including efficient communication, that minimize unnecessary costs associated with such competition. For example, signaling enables competitors to avoid engaging in costly asymmetrical contests. Recently, bill coloration has been identified as an information-rich signal used by some birds to mediate aggressive interactions and we evaluated this possibility in female mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Specifically, we conducted two rounds of competitive interactions among groups of unfamiliar adult female ducks. By recording all aggressive behaviors exhibited by each individual, as well as the identity of attack recipients, we were able to assign dominance scores and evaluate links between numerous physiological, morphological, and experimental variables that we predicted would influence contest outcome and dominance. Contrary to our predictions, dominance was not linked to any aspect of bill coloration, access to dietary carotenoids during development, two of three measures of immune function, or ovarian follicle maturation. Instead, heavier birds were more dominant, as were those with reduced immune system responses to an experimentally administered external immunostimulant, phytohemagglutinin. These results suggest that visual signals are less useful during the establishment of dominance hierarchies within multi-individual scramble competitions, and that immune function is correlated with contest strategies in competitions for access to limited resources.

  11. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  12. Effects of water conditions on clutch size, egg volume, and hatchling mass of mallards and gadwalls in the Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Krapu, G.L.; Buhl, D.A.; Brandt, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between local water conditions (measured as the percent of total area of basins covered by water) and clutch size, egg volume, and hatchling mass of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Gadwalls (A. strepera) on four study sites in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and Minnesota, 1988-1994. We also examined the relationship between pond density and clutch size of Mallards and Gadwalls, using data collected at another North Dakota site, 1966-1981. For Mallards, we found no relationships to be significant. For Gadwalls, clutch size increased with percent basin area wet and pond density; hatchling mass marginally increased with percent basin area wet. These species differences may reflect, in part, that Mallards acquire lipid reserves used to produce early clutches before they reach the breeding grounds, whereas Gadwalls acquire lipid reserves locally; thus Gadwall clutches are more likely to be influenced by local food resources.

  13. Effects of water conditions on clutch size, egg volume, and hatchling mass of mallards and gadwalls in the Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Krapu, Gary L.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Brandt, David A.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between local water conditions (measured as the percent of total area of basins that was covered by water) and clutch size, egg volume, and hatchling mass of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Gadwalls (A. strepera) on four study sites in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and Minnesota, 1988-1994. We also examined the relationship between pond density and clutch size of Mallards and Gadwalls, using data collected at another North Dakota site, 1966-1981. For Mallards, we found no relationships to be significant. For Gadwalls, clutch size increased with percent basin area wet and pond density; hatchling mass marginally increased with percent basin area wet. These species differences may reflect, in part, that Mallards acquire lipid reserves used to produce early clutches before they reach the breeding grounds, whereas Gadwalls acquire lipid reserves locally; thus Gadwall clutches are more likely to be influenced by local food resources.

  14. Movements, Home-Range Size and Habitat Selection of Mallards during Autumn Migration

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Daniel; Avril, Alexis; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Elmberg, Johan; Söderquist, Pär; Norevik, Gabriel; Tolf, Conny; Safi, Kamran; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Wikelski, Martin; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is a focal species in game management, epidemiology and ornithology, but comparably little research has focused on the ecology of the migration seasons. We studied habitat use, time-budgets, home-range sizes, habitat selection, and movements based on spatial data collected with GPS devices attached to wild mallards trapped at an autumn stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Sixteen individuals (13 males, 3 females) were followed for 15–38 days in October to December 2010. Forty-nine percent (SD = 8.4%) of the ducks' total time, and 85% of the day-time (SD = 28.3%), was spent at sheltered reefs and bays on the coast. Two ducks used ponds, rather than coast, as day-roosts instead. Mallards spent most of the night (76% of total time, SD = 15.8%) on wetlands, mainly on alvar steppe, or in various flooded areas (e.g. coastal meadows). Crop fields with maize were also selectively utilized. Movements between roosting and foraging areas mainly took place at dawn and dusk, and the home-ranges observed in our study are among the largest ever documented for mallards (mean  = 6,859 ha; SD = 5,872 ha). This study provides insights into relatively unknown aspects of mallard ecology. The fact that autumn-staging migratory mallards have a well-developed diel activity pattern tightly linked to the use of specific habitats has implications for wetland management, hunting and conservation, as well as for the epidemiology of diseases shared between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:24971887

  15. Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

  16. High survival and homing rate of hand-reared wild-strain mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, F.B.; Kruse, A.D.

    1973-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, 648 (329 males and 319 females) hand-reared wild-strain mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were banded and released at the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Edmunds, North Dakota. The females were also marked with numbered nasal saddles. Liberation was by the gentle release method, and no special effort was made to isolate or condition the ducklings prior to release. Ducklings were placed in an enclosed pond area at 25 to 45 days of age. Altogether, 627 (97 percent) ducklings reached flight age and dispersed gradually into the wild. All had left the release area by 25 November. First-year band recovery reports indicated that 68 (11 percent) of the birds were shot in 15 states. Their migration pattern was similar to that for immature wild mallards banded in North Dakota in 1970.Eighty-nine (33 percent) of a possible 270 marked females returned to Arrowwood Refuge during 1971. When consideration is given to assumed normal natural mortality and crippling loss, an estimated minimum of 43 percent of the surviving females returned to the release area. Returning birds not observed would raise this figure even higher. This potential homing rate is considerably higher than rates reported for other studies using various strains of mallards. Numerous observations of nests and broods indicated that breeding behavior and nesting success were similar to those of wild mallards in the area. The success of this release is attributed to the inherent capability of hand-reared, wild-strain mallards to revert to their wild behavior, and to the high survival to flight age and first fall migration afforded by the gentle release in a sanctuary area. Indications are that releases of this type under the described conditions can be used to increase the breeding population of mallards in a local area.

  17. Methylmercury chloride and selenomethionine interactions on health and reproduction in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or diets containing 10 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride, 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine, or 10 ppm mercury plus 10 ppm selenium. One of 12 adult males fed 10 ppm mercury died and 8 others suffered from paralysis of their legs by the time the study was terminated. However, when the diet contained 10 ppm selenium in addition to the 10 ppm mercury, none of 12 males became sick. In contrast to the protective effect of selenium against mercury poisoning in males, selenium plus mercury was worse than selenium or mercury alone for some measurements of reproductive success. Both selenium and mercury lowered duckling production through reductions in hatching success and survival of ducklings, but the combination of mercury plus selenium was worse than either mercury or selenium alone. Controls produced an average of 7.6 young per female, females fed 10 ppm selenium produced an average of 2.8 young, females fed 10 ppm mercury produced 1.1 young, and females fed both mercury and selenium produced 0.2 young. Teratogenic effects also were worse for the combined mercury plus selenium treatment; deformities were recorded in 6.1% of the embryos of controls, 16.4% for methylmercury chloride, 36.2% for selenomethionine, and 73.4% for the combination of methylmercury chloride and selenomethionine. The presence of methylmercury in the diet greatly enhanced the storage of selenium in tissues. The livers of males fed 10 ppm selenium contained a mean of 9.6 ppm selenium, whereas the livers of males fed 10 ppm selenium plus 10 ppm mercury contained a mean of 114 ppm selenium. However, selenium did not enhance the storage of mercury. The results show that mercury and selenium may be antagonistic to each other for adults and synergistic to young, even within the same experiment.

  18. Wetland use, settling patterns, and recruitment in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, Gary L.; Greenwood, Raymond J.; Dwyer, Chris; Kraft, Kathy M.; Cowardin, Lewis M.

    1997-01-01

    The correlation between number of May ponds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America and size of the continental mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) breeding population the following spring weakened from the 1950s to the 1980s, suggesting possible changes in suitability of prairie ponds for meeting reproductive needs. We studied wetland use and preferences of radioequipped female mallards by reproductive stage (1988-90) in eastern North Dakota and westcentral Minnesota and evaluated effect of land use on pair distribution in eastern North Dakota (1987-91). May pond density varied among years and study areas, with changes in number of temporary and seasonal ponds accounting for 93% of variation in total ponds. During all reproductive stages, semipermanent basins were used most by females, but temporary and seasonal ponds were preferred during prenesting and egg production. Accounting for number of relocations, number of ponds used varied by year, by reproductive stage and with pond density during egg production. Numbers of breeding mallard pairs in stratum 46 in eastern North Dakota increased as May ponds increased from 1963 to 1985, but 33,659 fewer breeding pairs on average were present in 1971-85 than in 1963-70. Number of breeding pairs declined relative to May ponds from the 1960s to the 1980s, probably because fewer pairs settle in temporary and seasonal ponds as the percent of landscape in cropland increases. Waterfowl managers in the PPR should target efforts to increase duck production on landscapes where non-cropped temporarily and seasonally flooded wetland habitats are plentiful, thereby increasing cost effectiveness of management actions taken to increase nest success rate.

  19. Thermoregulatory effects of radiotelemetry transmitters on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakken, G.S.; Reynolds, P.S.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Boysen, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Many telemetry transmitter attachments disrupt downy insulation, and may bias survival studies during cold weather by making ducklings more susceptible to chilling. We compared thermal responses of untreated 1-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to ducklings carrying external sutured backpack or subcutaneously implanted transmitters. Ducklings carrying external transmitters showed areas of increased surface temperature in thermographic images. However, open-circuit respirometry studies at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 C and wind speeds of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 m/s indicated no biologically significant differences in total heat production, net heat production, or short-term body mass loss. These results do not exclude the possibility of other negative effects of transmitters on duckling behavior and survival.

  20. Survival of radio-marked mallard ducklings in northeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, D.M.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of duckling survival are necessary to accurately assess recruitment of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), yet few reliable estimates exist. During 1988-90, we estimated survival rates for 127 radio-marked mallard ducklings from 64 broods on Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, California. In 1988, we restricted the survival estimate to the first 10 days post-hatch (S = 0.18, SE = 0.07). Survival from hatching to 50 days was 0.37 (SE = 0.09) in 1989 and 0.34 (SE = 0.07) in 1990. Total brood loss differed among years (P < 0.05); 81.2% in 1988 (n = 16), 36.8% in 1989 (n = 19), and 37.5% in 1990 (n = 24). Ninety-three percent of mortality occurred during the first 10 days of life. We detected no differences in the proportion of radio-marked ducklings fledged from early-hatched versus late-hatched nests (P = 0.74). During 1989-90, 16 females appeared to lose their entire brood; however, 3 radio-marked ducklings from 2 of these broods were fledged by other brood hens. Of 29 radio-marked ducklings that reached 44 days of life, 6 (20.7%) joined other broods. Habitat enhancement is the key to improving duckling survival because the large number of predator species that consume ducklings makes predator control difficult.

  1. Embryotoxic thresholds of mercury: estimates from individual mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eighty pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed an uncontaminated diet until each female had laid 15 eggs. After each female had laid her 15th egg, the pair was randomly assigned to a control diet or diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ?g/g mercury as methylmercury until she had laid a second set of 15 eggs. There were 20 pairs in each group. After the second set of 15 eggs, the pair was returned to an uncontaminated diet, and the female was permitted to lay another 30 eggs. For those pairs fed the mercury diets, the even-numbered eggs were incubated and the odd-numbered eggs were saved for possible mercury analysis. Mercury in the even-numbered eggs was estimated as the average of what was in the neighboring odd-numbered eggs. Neurological signs of methylmercury poisoning were observed in ducklings that hatched from eggs containing as little as 2.3 ?g/g estimated mercury on a wet-weight basis, and deformities were seen in embryos from eggs containing about 1 ?g/g estimated mercury. Although embryo mortality was seen in eggs estimated to contain as little as 0.74 ?g/g mercury, there were considerable differences in the sensitivity of mallard embryos, especially from different parents, with some embryos surviving as much as 30 or more ?g/g mercury in the egg.

  2. The effect of variable spring water conditions on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Klett, A.T.; Jorde, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) breeding densities in the prairie pothole habitat of eastern North Dakota during 1961-1980 varied from 2.28 birds/km2 in 1977 to 9.47 birds/km2 in 1963 and were correlated with pond abundance (r = 0.543, P < 0.05). The number of basins used by pairs declined with drought, as did home-range size. Nesting activity also varied with the number of ponds holding water/km2, ranging from high (including substantial renesting) under favorable water conditions to low during extreme drought. The span between first and last nest initiations declined by 19 days from a wet to a dry year. With severe drought conditions during spring 1977 on the Medina Study Area, pairs returned to attempt nesting but were unsuccessful, and most abandoned activity centers by mid-May. Although the average clutch size declined by about 0.7 egg from a wet to a dry year on the Interstate Study Area, hatchability of eggs remained constant. We describe the adaptive strategy of Mallards for breeding under variable water conditions and food resources in the semiarid prairie environment of midcontinent North America.

  3. Geographic variation in band reporting rates for mallards based on reward banding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Reynolds, R.E.; Blohm, R.J.; Trost, R.E.; Hines, J.E.; Bladen, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a reward band study on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to estimate and test hypotheses about sources of variation in band reporting rate. We banded 25,398 mallards with standard and 100 reward bands (3 mallards banded with standard bands for every reward-banded mallard) during preseason (Jul-Sep), 1988. We used a series of multinomial models to model the resulting 2,776 band recoveries from 1988 to 1991. Estimates of reporting rate for males shot in 10 harvest areas ranged from 0.29 to 0.46 and averaged 0.38 ( cxa SE = 0.020). We found evidence (P lt 0.01) of geographic variation in reporting rates, but not of smooth latitudinal or longitudinal gradients. There was evidence (P = 0.07) of lower reporting rates for females than males, especially in prairie Canada and the Central Flyway. Except for young males in the northern Atlantic Flyway, estimated harvest rates were lower than historical estimates, as expected from recent restrictive hunting regulations. Patterns of geographic and agesex variation in harvest rates were similar to those obtained using historical band-recovery data.

  4. Pintail and mallard survival in California relative to habitat, abundance, and hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, J.P.; Yee, J.L.; Yarris, G.S.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of habitat, waterfowl abundance, and hunting on winter survival of waterfowl is not well understood. We studied late August-March survival of 163 after-hatch-year (AHY) and 128 hatch-year (HY) female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) radiotagged in Sacramento Valley (SACV) and 885 AHY female northern pintails (A. acuta) radiotagged throughout the Central Valley of California, USA, relative to flooded habitat (HAB), January abundance of each species (JMAL or JPIN), hunter-days (HDY), and a hunting pressure index (HPI) that combined these variables. From EARLY (1987-1994) to LATE (1998-2000), HAB increased 39%, JPIN increased 45%, JMAL increased 53%, HDY increased 21%, duck-hunting season increased from 59 days to 100 days, and the female daily bag limit doubled to 2 for mallards but remained 1 for pintails. Survival (?? SE) was greater during LATE versus EARLY for pintails radiotagged in each region (SACV: 93.2 ?? 2.1% vs. 87.6 ?? 3.0%; Suisun Marsh: 86.6 ?? 3.2% vs. 77.0 ?? 3.7%; San Joaquin Valley: 86.6 ?? 3.1% vs. 76.9 ?? 4.1%) but not for SACV mallards (AHY: 70.6 ?? 7.2% to 74.4 ?? 7.7% vs. 80.1 ?? 7.2% to 82.8 ?? 5.6%; HY: 48.7 ?? 9.1% [1999-2000 only] vs. 63.5 ?? 8.8% to 67.6 ?? 8.0%). Most pintail (72%) and mallard (91%) deaths were from hunting, and lower HPI and higher JPIN or JMAL were associated with reduced mortality. Increased HAB was associated with reduced winter mortality for pintails but not for SACV mallards. Pintail survival rates that we measured were within the range reported for other North American wintering areas, and during LATE were higher than most, even though our study duration was 68-110 days longer. Winter survival rates of SACV mallards were also within the reported range. However, with higher bag limits and longer seasons, mallard survival during LATE was lower than in most other wintering areas, especially during 1999-2000, when high winds on opening weekend resulted in high hunting mortality. Habitat conservation and

  5. Rapid increases in mercury concentrations in the eggs of mallards fed methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    To determine how quickly breeding birds would have to feed in a mercury-contaminated area before harmful concentrations of mercury, as methylmercury, built up in their eggs, we fed female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) a control diet or diets containing 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/g mercury (on what was close to a dry weight basis) as methylmercury chloride for 23 d. After 18 d on their respective mercury diets, the eggs of mallards fed 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/g mercury contained 97.8, 86.0, 89.9, 88.9, and 85.9%, respectively, of the peak concentrations reached after 23 d. Depending on the dietary concentration of mercury, no more than approximately a week may be required for harmful concentrations (0.5–0.8 μg/g, wet weight) to be excreted into eggs.

  6. Effects of chronic ingestion of No. 2 fuel oil on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.; Hensler, G.L.; Heinz, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil was fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings in concentrations of 0.5 and 5.0% of the diet from hatching to 18 wk of age to assess the effects of chronic oil ingestion during early development. Five growth parameters (body weight, wing length, ninth primary length, tarsal length, and bill length) were depressed in birds receiving a diet containing 5% fuel oil. There was no oil-related mortality. The 5% fuel oil diet impaired avoidance behavior of 9-d-old mallard ducklings compared with controls or ducklings fed 0.5% oil. Open-field activity was greatly increased in 16-wk-old ducklings fed 5.0% oil. Liver hypertrophy and splenic atrophy were gross evidences of pathological effects in birds on the 5.0% oil diet. More subtle effects included biochemical lesions that resulted in the elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase activity.

  7. Effects of dietary ABATE? on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Lamont, T.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE? E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE? beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE? than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE? ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE?, ABATE? sulfoxide, or ABATE? sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.

  8. Metabolic response to air temperature and wind in day-old mallards and a standard operative temperature scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakken, G.S.; Reynolds, P.S.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Boysen, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Most duckling mortality occurs during the week following hatching and is often associated with cold, windy, wet weather and scattering of the brood. We estimated the thermoregulatory demands imposed by cold, windy weather on isolated 1-d-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings resting in cover. We measured O-2 consumption and evaporative water loss at air temperatures from 5 degrees to 25 degrees C and wind speeds of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mis. Metabolic heat production increased as wind increased or temperature decreased but was less sensitive to wind than that of either adult passerines or small mammals. Evaporative heat loss ranged from 5% to 17% of heat production. Evaporative heal loss and the ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic heat production was significantly lower in rest phase. These data were used to define a standard operative temperature (T-es) scale for night or heavy overcast conditions. An increase of wind speed from 0.1 to 1 mis decreased T-es by 3 degrees-5 degrees C.

  9. Differences in oxidative stress between young Canada geese and mallards exposed to lead-contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure causes an increase in tissue lipid peroxides and variation in glutathione (GSH) concentration, which can be related to peroxidative damage of cell membranes in Pb poisoned animals. Species and individual variation in sensitivity to Pb poisoning among animals may be due to differential resistance to oxidative stress. We compared the effects of oxidative stress caused by Pb exposure (1.7, 414 and 828 ig/g of diet) for the first six weeks in growing young of two species of waterfowl, Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), with the first species being possibly more sensitive to Pb poisoning based on previous field and laboratory observations. Blood and liver Pb concentrations increased more in mallards than in geese; this may be explained on the basis of body weight, being 3.2 times higher in geese, and hepatic metabolism where GSH-S-transferase activity is 2.9 fold higher in geese and presumably has a role in the binding of Pb to GSH and subsequent biliary excretion. In contrast, mallards showed higher hepatic levels of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR). Although both species showed an increase in hepatic GSH concentration with Pb exposure, the increase of lipid peroxidation with Pb exposure was more significant in geese. Within treatment groups, hepatic GSH concentrations were inversely related to liver Pb concentration in both species, which may correspond to the role of GSH in Pb excretion. Hepatic GSH was also inversely related to hepatic lipid peroxidation, but only in mallards and in agreement with the differences observed in GPX and GR activities. The lower resistance to lipid peroxidation of Canada geese may explain why birds of this species found dead in the field by Pb shot ingestion often have a lower number of shot in the gizzard and lower liver Pb concentrations than mallards.

  10. Description and identification of American Black Duck, Mallard, and hybrid wing plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.; Reed, A.; Dupuis, P.; Obrecht, H.H.; Quist, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    We developed a key to identify wings of hybrids between American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Material for analysis included review of historical descriptions dating from the late 1700's, older museum collections in Europe and North America, wings collected from hunters in North America and Great Britain, birds banded in Canada and the United States, and a flock of propagated hybrids. All first filial generation (F1) American Black Duck x Mallard hybrids were identified correctly with the key. A lower proportion of other hybrid cohorts (i.e., backcrosses of F1, to parental forms (P1), and second and third filial generations (F2, F3, etc.) were identified. We successfully identified a larger portion of male than female hybrids for all hybrid progeny cohorts examined except F1. The new key identified 2.37 times more hybrids in the 1977 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Parts Collection Survey (annual determination of the species, age, and sex composition of the waterfowl harvest using detached wings contributed by hunters) than were identified by standard techniques. The proportion of American Black Duck x Mallard hybrids to the American Black Duck parental population (the ratio: hybrids/[hybrids + American Black Ducks]) may therefore be closer to 0.132 than 0.056, the historically reported value. The hybrid key is suggested for use from North Carolina north in the Atlantic Flyway and Arkansas and Tennessee north in the Mississippi Flyway (areas where other members of the Mallard group will not confound assessment). We provide suggestions for further research that would assist identification of wings in parts collection surveys and permit estimation of the proportional representation of Mallard genes in the American Black Duck gene pool.

  11. Description and identification of American Black Duck, Mallard, and hybrid wing plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Ronald E.; Reed, Austin; Dupuis, Pierre; Obrecht, Holliday H.; Quist, Walter J.

    2000-01-01

    We developed a key to identify wings of hybrids between American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Material for analysis included review of historical descriptions dating from the late 1700's, older museum collections in Europe and North America, wings collected from hunters in North America and Great Britain, birds banded in Canada and the United States, and a flock of propagated hybrids. All first filial generation (F1) American Black Duck - Mallard hybrids were identified correctly with the key. A lower proportion of other hybrid cohorts (i.e., backcrosses of F1 to parental forms (P1), and second and third filial generations (F2, F3, etc.) were identified. We successfully identified a larger portion of male than female hybrids for all hybrid progeny cohorts examined except F1. The new key identified 2.37 times more hybrids in the 1977 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Parts Collection Survey (annual determination of the species, age, and sex composition of the waterfowl harvest using detached wings contributed by hunters) than were identified by standard techniques. The proportion of American Black Duck - Mallard hybrids to the American Black Duck parental population (the ratio: hybrids/[hybrids + American Black Ducks]) may therefore be closer to 0.132 than 0.056, the historically reported value. The hybrid key is suggested for use from North Carolina north in the Atlantic Flyway and Arkansas and Tennessee north in the Mississippi Flyway (areas where other members of the Mallard group will not confound assessment). We provide suggestions for further research that would assist identification of wings in parts collection surveys and permit estimation of the proportional representation of Mallard genes in the American Black Duck gene pool.

  12. Population dynamics of mallards breeding in eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugger, Bruce D.; Coluccy, John M.; Dugger, Katie M.; Fox, Trevor T.; Kraege, Donald K.; Petrie, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in regional population trends for mallards breeding in the western United States indicates that additional research into factors that influence demographics could contribute to management and understanding the population demographics of mallards across North America. We estimated breeding incidence and adult female, nest, and brood survival in eastern Washington in 2006 and 2007 by monitoring female mallards with radio telemetry and tested how those parameters were influenced by study year (2006 vs. 2007), landscape type (agricultural vs. natural), and age (second year [SY] vs. after second year [ASY]). We also investigated the effects of female body condition and capture date on breeding incidence, and nest initiation date and hatch date on nest and brood survival, respectively. We included population parameters in a stage-based demographic model and conducted a perturbation analysis to identify which vital rates were most influential on population growth rate (λ). Adult female survival was best modeled with a constant weekly survival rate (0.994, SE = 0.003). Breeding incidence differed between years and was higher for birds in better body condition. Nest survival was higher for ASY females (0.276, SE = 0.118) than SY females (0.066, SE = 0.052), and higher on publicly managed lands (0.383, SE = 0.212) than agricultural (0.114, SE = 0.058) landscapes. Brood survival was best modeled with a constant rate for the 7-week monitoring period (0.50, SE = 0.155). The single variable having the greatest influence on λ was non-breeding season survival, but the combination of parameters from the breeding grounds explained a greater percent of the variance in λ. Mallard population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in non-breeding survival, nest success, brood survival, and breeding incidence. Future management decisions should focus on activities that improve these vital rates if managers want to increase the production of

  13. Accumulation and loss of arsenic and boron, alone and in combination, in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.; Whitworth, M.R.; Olsen, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    Study was conducted at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center from June to October 1987. Adult mallard ducks were exposed to dietary concentrations of arsenic as sodium arsenate, boron as boric acid, or both; tissue accumulation and loss rates were estimated when the ducks were returned to uncontaminated food.

  14. Comparison of game-farm and wild-strain mallard ducks in accumulation of methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The accumulation of mercury was compared in game-farm and wild-strain mallard ducks fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury in the form of methylmercury dicyandiamide. There were no significant differences between the two strains in levels of mercury that accumulated in blood, kidney, liver, breast muscle, brain, eggs, or ducklings. Mercury levels in blood were significantly correlated with levels in other tissues and eggs, as were levels in down feathers of ducklings with levels in carcasses of ducklings. The results indicate that game-farm mallards are probably suitable substitutes for wild mallards in toxicological work, that blood samples can be used to estimate levels of mercury in other tissues of adults, and that down feathers are predictive of mercury levels in duckling carcasses.

  15. Uptake and retention of dietary cadmium in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Finley, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 2, 20, or 200 ppm of cadmium chloride in the diet were sacrificed at 30-day intervals and tissues were analyzed for cadmium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. The liver and kidney accumulated the highest levels of cadmium. Tissue residues were significantly correlated in all treatment groups and residues increased with treatment level. Hematocrits and hemoglobin concentrations were normal in all groups throughout the study. Little cadmium accumulated in eggs of laying hens, but egg production was suppressed in the group fed 200 ppm.

  16. 1. 'SANTA ANA RIVER IN SANTA ANA CANYON. ORANGE COUNTY.' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'SANTA ANA RIVER IN SANTA ANA CANYON. ORANGE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the northeast taken from the northeast extremity of the canyon, showing, in the middle distance, the confluence of Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, site of the future Prado Dam. File number written on negative: R & H 80 026. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  17. Effects of satellite transmitters on captive and wild mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Foggia, Jennifer R.; Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Humburg, Dale D.; Naylor, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a leading method for studying large-scale movements and survival in birds, yet few have addressed potential effects of the larger and heavier tracking equipment on study subjects. We simultaneously evaluated effects of satellite telemetry equipment on captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess impacts on behavior, body mass, and movement. We randomly assigned 55 captive ducks to one of 3 treatment groups, including a standard body harness group, a modified harness group, and a control group. Ducks in the control group were not fitted with equipment, whereas individuals in the other 2 groups were fitted with dummy transmitters attached with a Teflon ribbon harness or with a similar harness constructed of nylon cord. At the conclusion of the 14-week captive study, mean body mass of birds in the control group was 40–105 g (95% CI) greater than birds with standard harnesses, and 28–99 g (95% CI) greater than birds with modified harnesses. Further, results of focal behavior observations indicated ducks with transmitters were less likely to be in water than control birds. We also tested whether movements of wild birds marked with a similar Teflon harness satellite transmitter aligned with population movements reported by on-the-ground observers who indexed local abundances of mid-continent mallards throughout the non-breeding period. Results indicated birds marked with satellite transmitters moved concurrently with the larger unmarked population. Our results have broad implications for field research and suggest that investigators should consider potential for physiological and behavioral effects brought about by tracking equipment. Nonetheless, results from wild ducks indicate satellite telemetry has the potential to provide useful movement data.

  18. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho was examined on posthatching development of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 6 weeks. Day-old ducklings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, CDARB sediment (3,449 ug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet containing lead acetate equivalent to that found in 24% CDARB. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 1.41 ppm (WW) with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over threefold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.56 ppm with over sixfold elevation of protoporphyrin and lower brain weight. In this group the liver lead concentration was 7.92 ppm (WW), and there was a 40% increase in hepatic reduced glutathione concentration. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 7.97 ppm, and acid-fast inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of four of nine ducklings. The lead acetate positive control group was more adversely affected in most respects than the 24% CDARB group. With a less optimal diet (mixture of two thirds corn and one third standard diet), CDARB sediment was more toxic; blood lead levels were higher, body growth and liver biochemistry (TBARS) were more affected, and prevalence of acid-fast inclusion bodies increased. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated more readily in duckling blood and liver than reported in goslings, but at given concentrations was generally less toxic to ducklings. Many of these effects are similar to ones reported in wild mallards and geese within the CDARB.

  19. Developmental toxicity of lead contaminated sediment to mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho was examined on posthatching development of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 6 weeks. Day-old ducklings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, CDARB sediment (3,449 I?g/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet containing lead acetate equivalent to that found in 24% CDARB. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 1.41 ppm (WW) with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over threefold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.56 ppm with over sixfold elevation of protoporphyrin and lower brain weight. In this group the liver lead concentration was 7.92 ppm (WW), and there was a 40% increase in hepatic reduced glutathione concentration. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 7.97 ppm, and acid-fast inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of four of nine ducklings. The lead acetate positive control group was more adversely affected in most respects than the 24% CDARB group. With a less optimal diet (mixture of two thirds corn and one third standard diet), CDARB sediment was more toxic; blood lead levels were higher, body growth and liver biochemistry (TBARS) were more affected, and prevalence of acid-fast inclusion bodies increased. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated more readily in duckling blood and liver than reported in goslings, but at given concentrations was generally less toxic to ducklings. Many of these effects are similar to ones reported in wild mallards and geese within the CDARB.

  20. Evaluating mallard adaptive management models with time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, P.B.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife practitioners concerned with midcontinent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management in the United States have instituted a system of adaptive harvest management (AHM) as an objective format for setting harvest regulations. Under the AHM paradigm, predictions from a set of models that reflect key uncertainties about processes underlying population dynamics are used in coordination with optimization software to determine an optimal set of harvest decisions. Managers use comparisons of the predictive abilities of these models to gauge the relative truth of different hypotheses about density-dependent recruitment and survival, with better-predicting models giving more weight to the determination of harvest regulations. We tested the effectiveness of this strategy by examining convergence rates of 'predictor' models when the true model for population dynamics was known a priori. We generated time series for cases when the a priori model was 1 of the predictor models as well as for several cases when the a priori model was not in the model set. We further examined the addition of different levels of uncertainty into the variance structure of predictor models, reflecting different levels of confidence about estimated parameters. We showed that in certain situations, the model-selection process favors a predictor model that incorporates the hypotheses of additive harvest mortality and weakly density-dependent recruitment, even when the model is not used to generate data. Higher levels of predictor model variance led to decreased rates of convergence to the model that generated the data, but model weight trajectories were in general more stable. We suggest that predictive models should incorporate all sources of uncertainty about estimated parameters, that the variance structure should be similar for all predictor models, and that models with different functional forms for population dynamics should be considered for inclusion in predictor model! sets. All of these

  1. Interactions between methylmercury and selenomethionine injected into mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimstra, J.D.; Yee, J.L.; Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride and seleno-L-methionine were injected separately or in combinations into mallard eggs (Anas platyrhynchos), and embryo mortality and teratogenic effects (deformities) were modeled using a logistic regression model. Methylmercury was injected at doses that resulted in concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 µg/g Hg in the egg on a wet weight basis and selenomethionine at doses that resulted in concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 µg/g Se in the egg, also on a wet weight basis. When selenomethionine and methylmercury were injected separately, hatching probability decreased in both cases. However, when methylmercury was injected at 1.6 µg/g in combination with selenomethionine at 0.2 µg/g, the presence of the methylmercury resulted in less embryo mortality than had been seen with 0.2 µg/g Se by itself, but it increased the number of deformed embryos and hatchlings. Selenomethionine appeared to be more embryotoxic than equivalent doses of methylmercury when injected into eggs, and both injected methylmercury and selenomethionine were more toxic to mallard embryos than when deposited naturally in the egg by the mother. The underlying mechanisms behind the interactions between methylmercury and selenomethionine and why methylmercury appeared to improve hatching probability of Se-dosed eggs yet increased deformities when the two compounds were combined are unclear. These findings warrant further studies to understand these mechanisms in both laboratory and field settings.

  2. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  3. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on mallard and bobwhite embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil or GB-1111 is a petroleum distillate that is used throughout the United States as a larvicide for mosquito pupae. The oil forms a barrier at the air-water interface, which suffocates air-breathing insects. There are few published studies on non-target effects of GB-1111 but the product label warns that ?GB-1111 is toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.? Fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on days 4 or 11 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3, or 10 times the maximum rate (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated on day 4 or day 11 at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hatching success of bobwhite was only reduced at the highest level of treatment. Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos/ hatchlings, lower body and liver weights of hatchlings and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal P450-associated monooxygenase activity (EROD) in hatchlings. Recommended rates of field application of GB-1111 are potentially toxic to mallard embryos, especially under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap, but unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos.

  4. An extract of Hydrilla verticillata and associated epiphytes induces avian vacuolar myelinopathy in laboratory mallards.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Faith E; Twiner, Michael J; Leighfield, Tod A; Wilde, Susan B; Van Dolah, Frances M; Fischer, John R; Bowerman, William W

    2009-08-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurological disease affecting bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), waterfowl, and other birds in the southeastern United States. The cause of the disease is unknown, but is thought to be a naturally produced toxin. AVM is associated with aquatic macrophytes, most frequently hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and researchers have linked the disease to an epiphytic cyanobacterial species associated with the macrophytes. The goal of this study was to develop an extraction protocol for separating the putative toxin from a hydrilla-cyanobacterial matrix. Hydrilla samples were collected from an AVM-affected reservoir (J. Strom Thurmond Lake, SC) and confirmed to contain the etiologic agent by mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bioassay. These samples were then extracted using a solvent series of increasing polarity: hexanes, acetone, and methanol. Control hydrilla samples from a reference reservoir with no history of AVM (Lake Marion, SC) were extracted in parallel. Resulting extracts were administered to mallards by oral gavage. Our findings indicate that the methanol extracts of hydrilla collected from the AVM-affected site induced the disease in laboratory mallards. This study provides the first data documenting for an "extractable" AVM-inducing agent. PMID:18825730

  5. Effects of Krenite? brush control agent (fosamine ammonium) on embryonic development in mallards and bobwhite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Fosamine ammonium (Krenite) is a highly water-soluble carbamoylphosphonate herbicide used to control woody brush. It has been reported to be teratogenic to avian embryos following spray application of the eggs. The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of Krenite was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). At 96 h of development, eggs were briefly immersed in distilled water or in Krenite formulation in distilled water at concentrations of 1.5, 6.5, or 30% fosamine ammonium. At 6.5% active ingredient (a.i.), Krenite reduced hatching success in bobwhite and mallards to 85 and 33% of that in the distilled-water controls. At 30% a.i., Krenite caused 95 to 100% mortality in both species by the time of hatching. Early embryonic growth was impaired by 30% Krenite in both species. There was no evidence of teratogenesis of the axial skeleton, as reported previously in chickens and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Most abnormal embryos had severe edema and some stunting. Mallard hatchlings from the 1.5 and 6.5% Krenite groups weighed significantly less than controls and had lower plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, with elevated plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was unaffected by Krenite in embryos and hatchlings.

  6. Assessment of the Potential Distance of Dispersal of High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus by Wild Mallards.

    PubMed

    Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Bocian, Łukasz; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Ziętek-Barszcz, Anna; Żółkoś, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    This work presents the results of studies aimed at assessing the median and maximum distances covered by wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 38), hypothetically infected with the high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) during spring migrations, using GPS-GSM tracking and published data on the susceptibility to HPAIV infection and duration of shedding. The model was based on the assumptions that the birds shed virus in the absence of clinical signs during infectious periods (IP) that were assumed to last 1 day (IP1), 4 days (IP4), and 8 days (IP8) and that each day of migration is a hypothetical day of the onset of IP. Using the haversine formula over a sliding timeframe corresponding to each IP, distances were estimated for each duck that undertook migration and then the maximum distance (Dmax) was selected. Ten mallards undertook spring migrations but, due to the loss of signal in the GPS-GSM devices, only three ducks were observed during autumn migrations. The following ranges of Dmax values were calculated for spring migrations: 124-382 km for IP1 (median 210 km), 208-632 km for IP4 (median 342 km), and 213-687 km for IP8 (median 370 km). The present study provides information that can be used as a data source to perform risk assessment related to the contribution of wild mallards in the dispersal of HPAIV over considerable distances. PMID:27309073

  7. Organochlorine accumulation by Sentinel Mallards at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Sobiech, S.A.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Farm-raised l2-month-old female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were released at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana. Five mallards were sacrificed at the start of the study and at approximately 10-day intervals through day 100. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in carcasses increased linearly with time of exposure and exceeded 16 mcg/g wet weight by day 100; PCBs in breast muscle exceeded 3.9 mcg/g by day 100. These PCB values are among the highest recorded for wild or sentinel waterfowl. PCB concentrations in breast muscle (26-523 mcg/g lipid weight) were 50-1,000 times greater than human consumption guidelines for edible poultry in Canada (0.5 mcg/g lipid weight) and 9-176 times greater than consumption guidelines for edible poultry in the United States (3.0 mcg/g lipid weight). Additionally, PCB concentrations in carcass and breast muscle exceeded the threshold of the Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory 'do not eat' category (1.9 mcg/g wet weight) by day 20 and day 50, respectively. Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases including BROD (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), and PROD (pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase) were induced over 5-fold compared to reference mallards. BROD, EROD, and PROD were each significantly correlated to total PCBs and to the toxicity of selected PCB congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

  8. Organochlorine accumulation by sentinel mallards at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Sobiech, S.A.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Farm-raised 12-month-old female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were released at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana. Five mallards were sacrificed at the start of the study and at approximately 10-day intervals through day 100. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in carcasses increased linearly with time of exposure and exceeded 16 g/g wet weight by day 100; PCBs in breast muscle exceeded 3.9 g/g by day 100. These PCB values are among the highest recorded for wild or sentinel waterfowl. PCB concentrations in breast muscle (26a??523 g/g lipid weight) were 50a??1,000 times greater than human consumption guidelines for edible poultry in Canada (0.5 g/g lipid weight) and 9a??176 times greater than consumption guidelines for edible poultry in the United States (3.0 g/g lipid weight). Additionally, PCB concentrations in carcass and breast muscle exceeded the threshold of the Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory do not eat category (1.9 g/g wet weight) by day 20 and day 50, respectively. Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases including BROD (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), and PROD (pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase) were induced over 5-fold compared to reference mallards. BROD, EROD, and PROD were each significantly correlated to total PCBs and to the toxicity of selected PCB congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

  9. Band reporting probablilities of mallards, American black ducks, and wood ducks in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrettson, Pamela R; Raftovich, Robert V; Hines, James; Zimmerman, Guthrie

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of band reporting probabilities are used for managing North American waterfowl to convert band recovery probabilities into harvest probabilities, which are used to set harvest regulations. Band reporting probability is the probability that someone who has shot and retrieved a banded bird will report the band. This probability can vary relative to a number of factors, particularly the inscription on the band and the ease with which it can be reported. Other factors, such as geographic reporting region, and species and sex of the bird may also play a role. We tested whether reporting probabilities of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and American black ducks (black ducks; Anas rubripes) differed from those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and whether band reporting varied geographically or by the sex of the banded bird. In the analysis of spatially comparable wood duck and mallard data, a band reporting probability of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.78) was appropriate for use across species, sex, and reporting region within the United States. In the black duck–mallard comparison, the band reporting probability of black ducks in Eastern Canada (0.50, 95% CI = 0.44–0.57) was lower than in the Eastern United States (0.73, 95% CI = 0.62–0.83). These estimates reflected an increase in overall band reporting probability following the addition of a toll-free telephone number to band inscriptions. Lower reporting in Eastern Canada may be because of cultural, linguistic, or logistical barriers. © 2013 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Extensive Allelic Diversity of MHC Class I in Wild Mallard Ducks.

    PubMed

    Fleming-Canepa, Ximena; Jensen, Shawna M; Mesa, Christine M; Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Roth, Alexa J; Parks-Dely, Julie A; Moon, Debra A; Wong, Janet P; Evseev, Danyel; Gossen, Desolie A; Tetrault, David G; Magor, Katharine E

    2016-08-01

    MHC class I is critically involved in defense against viruses, and diversity from polygeny and polymorphism contributes to the breadth of the immune response and health of the population. In this article, we examine MHC class I diversity in wild mallard ducks, the natural host and reservoir of influenza A viruses. We previously showed domestic ducks predominantly use UAA, one of five MHC class I genes, but whether biased expression is also true for wild mallards is unknown. Using RT-PCR from blood, we examined expressed MHC class I alleles from 38 wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and identified 61 unique alleles, typically 1 or 2 expressed alleles in each individual. To determine whether expressed alleles correspond to UAA adjacent to TAP2 as in domestic ducks, we cloned and sequenced genomic UAA-TAP2 fragments from all mallards, which matched transcripts recovered and allowed us to assign most alleles as UAA Allelic differences are primarily located in α1 and α2 domains in the residues known to interact with peptide in mammalian MHC class I, suggesting the diversity is functional. Most UAA alleles have unique residues in the cleft predicting distinct specificity; however, six alleles have an unusual conserved cleft with two cysteine residues. Residues that influence peptide-loading properties and tapasin involvement in chicken are fixed in duck alleles and suggest tapasin independence. Biased expression of one MHC class I gene may make viral escape within an individual easy, but high diversity in the population places continual pressure on the virus in the reservoir species. PMID:27342841

  11. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in P8 (43.8%), the wetland with the highest density of spent lead pellets (>2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P < 0.01) in sentinel mallards enclosed in P8 (0.25) than T19 (0) and TF (0) in 1986 and remained significantly higher (P < 0.001) during the 4-year study. Both lead exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the fall of 1986 (43.8%; 0.25), before hunting season, than in the spring of 1987 (21.6%; 0.04), after hunting season. We found no significant differences in the rates of lead exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  12. Recovery of cholinesterase activity in mallard ducklings administered organophosphorus pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Bradbury, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticides acephate, dicrotophos, fensulfothion, fonofos, malathion, and parathion were administered to mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for up to 77 d after dosing. In vivo recovery of brain ChE activity to within 2 standard deviations of the mean activity of undosed birds occurred within 8 d, after being depressed an average of 25-58% at 24 h after dosing. In vivo recovery of plasma ChE appeared as fast as or faster than that of brain, but the pattern of recovery was more erratic and therefore statistical comparison with brain ChE recovery was not attempted. In vitro tests indicated that the potential for dephosphorylation to contribute to in vivo recovery of inhibited brain ChE differed among chemical treatments. Some ducklings died as a result of organophosphate dosing. In an experiment in which ducklings within each treatment group received the same dose (mg/kg), the brain ChE activity in birds that died was less than that in birds that survived. Brain ChE activities in ducklings that died were significantly different among pesticide treatments: fensulfothion > parathion> acephate > malathion (p < 0.05).

  13. Blood changes in mallards exposed to white phosphorus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Vann, S.; Grove, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    White phosphorus (P4) has been extensively used by the military for various purposes including marking artillery impacts and as an obscurant. Target practice in an Alaskan tidal marsh during the last four decades has deposited large amounts of P4 particles in sediments and water which have resulted in die-offs of several waterfowl species. Because the toxicity of P4 in birds has not been well documented and because it is quickly excreted or metabolized in living animals, we sought to determine the effects of experimental dosing on blood characteristics in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In two experiments, one employing single doses of 5.4 mg P4/kg body weight in corn oil and the other using daily repeated doses of pelletized P4 at either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, there were significant changes in AST, ALT, LDH, inorganic P, hematocrit and hemoglobin. Other indications of exposure included changes in uric acid, creatinine, and total protein which were consistent with reported liver and kidney damage due to this contaminant. Changes in white blood cells included a greater frequency of thrombocytes and fewer lymphocytes in dosed birds compared to controls. A biomarker of exposure based on LDH activity and hemoglobin is proposed.

  14. Sublethal effects of chronic lead ingestion in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos) fed 1, 5, or 25 ppm lead nitrate were bled and sacrificed at 3-wk intervals. No mortality occurred, and the pathologic lesions usually associated with lead poisoning were not found. Changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration did not occur. After 3-wk ducks fed 25 ppm lead exhibited a 40% inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity that persisted through 12 wk exposure. After 12 wk treatment similar enzyme inhibition was present in the ducks fed 5 ppm lead. At 3 wk there was a small accumulation of lead (less than 1 ppm) in the liver and kidneys of ducks fed 25ppm lead; no further increases occurred throughout the exposure. No significant accumulation of lead occurred the the tibiae or wing bones. Groups of ducks fed 5 and 25 ppm diets for 12 wk were placed on clean feed and examined through a 12 wk posttreatment period. After 3 wk on clean diet delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and lead concentrations in the blood had returned to pretreatment levels. Even though lead concentrations in the blood, soft organs and bone were low, a highly significant negative correlation between blood lead and blood enzyme activity was obtained. This enzyme bioassay should provide a sensitive and precise estimate for monitoring lead in the blood for waterflow.

  15. Effects of mosquito larvicide on mallard ducklings and prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Lawler, S.P.; Dritz, D.; Spring, S.

    2002-01-01

    We determined the effects of a commonly used mosquito (Culicidae) larvicide (California Golden Bear Oil??, also GB-1111) on body mass and survival of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings and on target and nontarget invertebrates. Field studies conducted on natural ponds located in salt marshes in south San Francisco Bay indicated that GB-1111 had an initial impact on potential invertebrate prey of birds that dissipated rapidly 3 days post-spray. Over-spray, spray drift, or treatment of more extensive areas would likely delay recovery of nontarget prey. Ducklings held intermittently on the ponds over an 8-day period showed no significant effects of weight loss due to invertebrate prey depletion, although initial effects of exposure to GB-1111 were observed (i.e., matting of feathers and mild hypothermia). These results emphasize the importance of avoiding application of GB-1111 during cold temperatures and adherence to recommended use of this larvicide. Otherwise, GB-1111 had a short-term impact on wetland communities.

  16. Subchronic hepatotoxicity of selenomethionine ingestion in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Green, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Twoyearold male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) received a control diet (0.2 ppm Se) or diets containing 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 ppm Se as selenomethionine for 14 wk. Se accumulated readily in the liver in a dosedependent manner, reaching a mean concentration of 29 ppm (wet weight) in the 32 ppm group. Dietary Se of 2 ppm or greater increased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Mortality (10%) and histopathological effects, including bile duct hyperplasia and hemosiderin pigmentation of the liver and spleen, occurred in the 32 ppm group. These histopathological effects were accompanied by lower hemoglobin concentrations (16 and 32 ppm groups) and hematocrit (32 ppm group), and elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase activity (32 ppm group) indicative of cholestatic liver inJury. Other manifestations of hepatotoxicity included significant linear dose responses for hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations and ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione (GSH). Means for both of these responses differed from controls in groups receiving 832 ppm Se. Mean hepatic GSH and malondialdehyde (a measure of lipid peroxidation) concentrations were significantly elevated in the 16 and 32 ppm groups. Subchronic effects of selenomethionine, which occurs in vegetation, are of particular interest with respect to the health of wild aquatic birds in seleniferous locations.

  17. Effects of boron on growth and physiology in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Camardese, M.B.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    High concentrations of boron (B) have been associated with irrigation drainwater and aquatic plants consumed by waterfowl. Day-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) or diets containing 100, 400 or 1,600 ppm B as boric acid. Survival, growth and food consumption were measured for 10 weeks. At termination, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical assays and histological examination. The highest dietary concentration of B caused 10% mortality, decreased overall growth and the rate of growth (sexes combined), whereas lower concentrations of B altered growth only in females. Food consumption water lower during the first 3 weeks in the 1,600-ppm group and during the second week in all B-treated groups compared to controls. Hematocrit and hemaglobin were lower and plasma calcium concentration higher in the 1,600-ppm group compared to controls. Plasma triglyceride concentration was elevated in all B-treated groups. Brain B concentration increased to 25 times that of controls in the 1,600-ppm group. Brain ATP decreased with increasing dietary B. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity and total ATPase activity (in males) were elevated and protein concentration lowered in the 1,600-ppm group. Boron accumulated less in the liver than in the brain but resulted in an initial elevation of hepatic glutathione. These findings, in combination with altered duckling behavior, suggest that concentrations of B occurring in aquatic plants could adversely affect normal duckling development.

  18. Effects of arsenate on growth and physiology in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camardese, M.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Arsenic (As) has been found at elevated concentrations in irrigation drainwater and in aquatic plants utilized by waterfowl. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) duckings received an untreated diet (controls) or diets containing 30, 100 or 300 ppm As added as sodium arsenate. After 10 weeks blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. Arsenic accumulated significantly in brain and liver of ducklings fed 100 or 300 ppm but did not result in histopathological lesions. The 300-ppm dietary As concentration decreased overall growth (weight gain) in males, whereas all concentrations of As decreased overall growth and rate of growth in females. Food consumption was less during the first three weeks in all 300-ppm group and during the second week for the 100-ppm compared to controls. Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase activity and plasma glucose concentration were higher in the 300-ppm group compared to controls. Plasma triglyceride concentration increased in all As-treated groups. Brain ATP was lower in the 300-ppm group and sodium/potassium-dependent ATPase activity was higher in the 30- and 100-ppm groups. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in the 300-ppm group and malondialdehyde lower in all treatment groups. All treatment levels caused elevation in hepatic glutathione and ATP concentrations. These findings, in combination with altered duckling behavior (increased resting time) suggesting that concentrations of As that have been found in aquatic plants (up to 430 ppm dry weight) could adversely affect normal duckling development.

  19. Subchronic organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Murray, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen-week-old mallard hens received 0, 10, 30, 90, or 270 ppm technical grade EPN (phenylphosphonothioic acid O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl ester) in the diet for 90 days. Ataxia was first observed in the 270-ppm group after 16 days, in the 90-ppm group after 20 days, in the 30-ppm group after 38 days; 10 ppm failed to produce ataxia. By the end of 90 days all 6 birds in the 270-ppm group exhibited ataxia or paralysis whereas 5 of 6 birds in the 90-ppm group and 2 of 6 birds in the 30-ppm group were visibly affected. Treatment with 30 ppm or more resulted in a significant reduction in body weight. Brain neurotoxic esterase activity was inhibited by averages of 16, 69, 73, and 74% in the 10-, 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups, respectively. Brain acetylcholinesterase, plasma cholinesterase, and plasma alkaline phosphatase were significantly inhibited as well. Distinct histopathological effects were seen in the 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups which included demyelination and degeneration of axons of the spinal cord. Additional ducks were exposed in a similar manner to 60-, 270-, or 540-ppm leptophos (phosphonothioic acid O-4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl-O-methylphenyl ester) which resulted in similar behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations. These findings indicate that adult mallards are probably somewhat less sensitive than chickens to subchronic dietary exposure to organophosphorus insecticides that induce delayed neurotoxicity.

  20. Influence of disease on population model of mid-continent mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    On numerous occasions, waterfowl deaths caused by disease were highly visible to wildlife managers and to the general public. Thousands of birds died during duck plague, avian botulism and avian cholera outbreaks. Undoubtedly, some disease occurred in waterfowl populations throughout their evolution; however, knowledge of disease epizootiology primarily developed during the past 40-50 years (Wobeser 1981) for diseases that cause massive die-offs (e.g., avian cholera, avian botulism and duck plague). Other diseases, such as avian tuberculosis, aspergillosis, parasite infection and lead poisoning, also occur at chronic levels, but the data remain meager on many of these less spectacular causes of mortality and sublethal forms of disease. However, because chronic losses occur throughout the year, their cumulative effect, as well as the large die-offs, are a potential threat to waterfowl populations (Bellrose 1976, Wobeser 1981). Previous studies (Anderson 1975) demonstrated that 50 percent of the annual mortality in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations is from nonhunting causes. In addition to disease, these causes include predation, accidental deaths, inclement weather and other factors (Stout and Cornwell 1976), which can be confounded by disease. Determination of mortality rates from diseases has been difficult because many biases and inconsistencies are associated with the available data. Assessment of disease prevalence and magnitude of losses is complicated by the spatial and temporal variability of many diseases, the logistic difficulty of studying highly mobile waterfowl populations, and the potentially confounding influences of predation and scavenging on detecting disease-related mortality;. Unless losses are so extensive that they direct attention to a particular area, mortality from disease is easily overlooked (see Zwank et al. 1985). Even when die-offs are evident, mortality from disease may be underestimated because sick waterfowl become debilitated

  1. Weathered petroleum: Effects on mallard egg hatchability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.; Coon, N.C.; Stout, William C.

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of the effects of fresh and weathered No. 2 fuel oil and Prudhoe Bay crude oil on mallard embryos. Artificially-incubated eggs exposed by eggshell application to 1-50 ul of fresh or weathered oil on day 8 of incubation. Measured hatching success.

  2. Relating the ability of mallards to ingest high levels of sediment to potential contaminant exposure in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Hoffman, David J.; Audet, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    When waterfowl feed from the bottom of bodies of water, they sometimes ingest sediments along with their food, and this sediment can be a major source of contaminants. Learning how much sediment waterfowl can consume in their diet and still maintain their health would be helpful in assessing potential threats from contaminants in sediment. In a controlled laboratory study the maximum tolerated percentage of sediment in the diet of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was measured. When fed a well-balanced commercial avian diet, 50, 60, or 70% sediment in the diet on a dry-weight basis did not cause weight loss over a two-week period. Ducks fed this same commercial diet, but containing 80 or 90% sediment, lost 8.6 and 15.6% of their body weight, respectively, in the first week on those diets. After factoring in the ability of the mallards to sieve out some of the sediment from their diet before swallowing it, we concluded that the mallards could maintain their health even when approximately half of what they swallowed, on a dry-weight basis, was sediment.

  3. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  4. Using simulation to improve wildlife surveys: Wintering mallards in Mississippi, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, A.T.; Reinecke, K.J.; Dinsmore, S.J.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Wildlife conservation plans generally require reliable data about population abundance and density. Aerial surveys often can provide these data; however, associated costs necessitate designing and conducting surveys efficiently. We developed methods to simulate population distributions of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in western Mississippi, USA, by combining bird observations from three previous strip-transect surveys and habitat data from three sets of satellite images representing conditions when surveys were conducted. For each simulated population distribution, we compared 12 primary survey designs and two secondary design options by using coefficients of variation (CV) of population indices as the primary criterion for assessing survey performance. In all, 3 of the 12 primary designs provided the best precision (CV???11.7%) and performed equally well (WR08082E1d.gif diff???0.6%). Features of the designs that provided the largest gains in precision were optimal allocation of sample effort among strata and configuring the study area into five rather than four strata, to more precisely estimate mallard indices in areas of consistently high density. Of the two secondary design options, we found including a second observer to double the size of strip transects increased precision or decreased costs, whereas ratio estimation using auxiliary habitat data from satellite images did not increase precision appreciably. We recommend future surveys of mallard populations in our study area use the strata we developed, optimally allocate samples among strata, employ PPS or EPS sampling, and include two observers when qualified staff are available. More generally, the methods we developed to simulate population distributions from prior survey data provide a cost-effective method to assess performance of alternative wildlife surveys critical to informing management decisions, and could be extended to account for effects of detectability on estimates of true

  5. Phosphorus amendment reduces bioavailability of lead to mallards ingesting contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Gary H; Hoffman, David J; Audet, Daniel J

    2004-05-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl has been reported for decades in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in Idaho as a result of the ingestion of lead-contaminated sediments. We conducted a study to determine whether the addition of phosphoric acid to sediments would reduce the bioavailability of lead to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). When sediments were amended with 1% phosphorus under laboratory conditions, and diets containing 12% amended sediment were fed to mallards, reductions in tissue lead were 43% in blood, 41% in liver, and 59% in kidney with sediment containing about 4,520 microg/g lead on a dry-weight basis and 41, 30, and 57% with sediment containing about 6,990 microg/g lead. When sediments were treated with phosphorus and left to age for about 5 months in the field, reductions in lead were 56% in blood, 54% in liver, and 66% in kidney at one site with about 5,390 microg/g lead and 64, 57, and 77% at a second site with about 6,990 microg/g lead. In the field, the inability to mix the phosphoric acid uniformly and deeply enough into the sediment may have resulted in more than 1% phosphorus being added to the sediment. Although both lab and field amendments of phosphorus substantially reduced the bioavailability of lead, lead concentrations in the tissues of mallards fed the amended sediments were still above those believed to be harmful to waterfowl. Based on earlier studies of sediment toxicity to waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, combined with the results of our amendment study, the addition of phosphoric acid as we used it might only significantly benefit waterfowl where sediments or soils contain less than 1,000-2,000 microg/g lead.

  6. Effects of diquat, an aquatic herbicide, on the development of mallard embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sewalk, C.J.; Brewer, G.L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bipyridylium herbicides produce embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in dipteran, amphibian, avian, and mammalian organisms. Diquat dibromide, a bipyridylium compound, is commonly used as an aquatic herbicide. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs were exposed to diquat by immersing the eggs for 10s in solutions of 0.88, 3.5, 7, 14, or 56 g/L on either the fourth or twenty-first day of incubation. Application of diquat on day 4 yielded an estimated LC50 of 19.5 g/L through 18 days of incubation, and 9.6 g/L through hatching. Body and organ weights, and bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups with the exception of a slight increase in brain weight in the 14 g/L group. Malformations in diquat-treated embryos included defects of the brain, eye, bill, limb, and pelvis; skeletal scoliosis; and incomplete ossification. Subcutaneous edema was also present. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress were apparent in hatchlings and included increased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (lipid peroxidation) and decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH). Brain protein-bound sulfhydryls (PBSH) increased. Diquat applied on day 21 of incubation yielded an estimated LC50 of 12.6 g/L through hatching. Exposure at this late stage of development did not produce deformities. Body and organ weights, and, bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress in hatchlings included decreased brain GSH, increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ratio of GSSG:GSH. This study suggests that concentrations of diquat commonly used for aquatic weed control, when based upon the expected dilution effect of average water depth of the application area, would probably have little impact on mallard embryos. However, concentrations applied above ground to weeds and cattails along the edge of waters and ditches could adversely affect the survival and development of mallard

  7. Phosphorus amendment reduces bioavailability of lead to mallards ingesting contaminated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Audet, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl has been reported for decades in the Coeur d' Alene River Basin in Idaho as a result of the ingestion of lead-contaminated sediments. We conducted a study to determine whether the addition of phosphoric acid to sediments would reduce the bioavailability of lead to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). When sediments were amended with 1 % phosphorus under laboratory conditions, and diets containing 12% amended sediment were fed to mallards, reductions in tissue lead were 43% in blood, 41 % in liver, and 59% in kidney with sediment containing about 4,520 ug/g lead on a dry-weight basis and 41, 30, and 57% with sediment containing about 6,990 ug/g lead. When sediments were treated with phosphorus and left to age for about 5 months in the field, reductions in lead were 56% in blood, 54% in liver, and 66% in kidney at one site with about 5,390 ug/g lead and 64, 57, and 77% at a second site with about 6,990 ug/g lead. In the field, the inability to mix the phosphoric acid uniformly and deeply enough into the sediment may have resulted in more than 1 % phosphorus being added to the sediment. Although both lab and field amendments of phosphorus substantially reduced the bioavailability of lead, lead concentrations in the tissues of mallards fed the amended sediments were still above those believed to be harmful to waterfowl. Based on earlier studies of sediment toxicity to waterfowl in the Coeur d' Alene River Basin, combined with the results of our amendment study, the addition of phosphoric acid as we used it might only significantly benefit waterfowl where sediments or soils contain less than 1,000-2,000 ug/g lead.

  8. Phosphorus amendment reduces hematological effects of lead in mallards ingesting contaminated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Audet, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl has been reported for decades in the Coeur d?Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho as a result of the ingestion of lead-contaminated sediments. This study was conducted to determine whether the addition of phosphoric acid to sediments would reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) as related to adverse hematological effects and altered plasma chemistries. Mallards received diets containing 12% clean sediment (controls) or 12% sediment from three different CDARB sites containing 4520, 5390, or 6990 :g/g lead (dw) with or without phosphoric acid amendment. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in all CDARB treatment groups and ranged from geometric mean values of 5.0 ug/g for the first two sites to 6.2 ug/g for the third site. With amendments, all blood lead concentrations became 41% to 64% lower. Red blood cell ALAD activity was depressed by 90% or more with lead-contaminated sediment from all sites and did not differ with amended diets. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) concentrations were elevated by contaminated sediment from all sites. Amendment decreased the elevations in FEP by as much as 80%. Hematocrit values and hemoglobin concentrations were lower for all lead site sediments by as much as 30% for site 3. Plasma enzyme activities for ALT, CK, and LDH-L were elevated by as much as 2.2-fold, and plasma creatinine concentration was 1.7-fold higher for site 3 sediment. Amendments restored hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma enzyme activities so that they did not differ from controls. Although amendments of phosphorus substantially reduced the bioavailability of lead and alleviated many of the adverse hematological effects, lead concentrations in the blood of mallards fed the amended sediments were still above those believed to be harmful to waterfowl under the present conditions.

  9. Use of 35-mm color aerial photography to acquire mallard sex ratio data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, E.L.; Jorde, D.G.; Sease, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A conventional 35-mm camera equipped with an f2.8 135-mm lens and ASA 64 color film was used to acquire sex ratio data on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in the Platte River Valley of south-central Nebraska. Prelight focusing for a distance of 30.5 metres and setting of shutter speed at 1/2000 of a second eliminated focusing and reduced image motion problems and resulted in high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography of small targets. This technique has broad application to the problem of determining sex ratios of various species of waterfowl concentrated on wintering and staging areas. The aerial photographic method was cheaper than the ground ocular method when costs were compared on a per-100 bird basis.

  10. The influence of diet quality on clutch size and laying pattern in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, J.L.; Krapu, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    We measured the effect of diet quality on variation in the seasonal pattern of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) reproduction. Twenty wild-strain hens, consisting of 10 sibling pairs, were maintained in captivity. One sib of each pair was fed an enriched diet, and the other was fed wheat. The wheat diet resulted in reduced clutch size, egg size, laying rate, number of nesting attempts, and total eggs laid. Diet did not affect laying initiation, duration, or the seasonal pattern of change in clutch and egg size with each renest. We believe the variation and pattern observed are adaptations to a highly variable prairie environment where the probability of reproductive success decreases as the season progresses.

  11. Effects of Mycoplasma anatis and cold stress on hatching success and growth of mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.

    1995-01-01

    We inoculated game-farm mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs and 1-day-old birds with Mycoplasma anatis to determine its effect on hatching success and growth rates of ducklings. Inoculations of eggs reduced hatching success, hatchling size, and duckling growth rates, compared to controls. Intratracheal inoculations of 1-day-old birds did not affect growth rates. Hatchlings and 1-day-old ducklings grew much slower for the first 7 to 10 days when raised at 17 to 19 C, compared to controls raised at 30 to 35 C. The effect of cold stress on growth was greater than the effect of M. anatis infection; we found no synergistic effects between cold stress and M. anatis infection.

  12. Toxicity of experimental lead-iron shot versus commercial lead shot in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicity of an experimental lead-iron shot containing 38.1 percent lead was compared with commercial lead shot in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed corn for 14 weeks. Significantly higher mortality occurred in ducks dosed with commercial lead shot compared to ducks given lead-iron shot containing comparable amounts of lead. Loss of body weight was indicative of the difference in toxicity of the 2 types of shot. Mortality was dose related in ducks given commercial lead shot; one # 8 shot (73 mg lead) caused 35 percent mortality with higher amounts of lead causing 80 to 100 percent mortality. Ingestion of up to 2 #4 lead-iron shot (111 mg lead) caused no significant weight loss and only 5 percent mortality. However, ducks dosed with 5 lead-iron shot suffered 45 percent mortality and those given 16 shot 50 percent mortality.

  13. Changes in mallard breeding populations in relation to production and harvest rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.E.; Sauer, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We used breeding population, band recovery, and hunter harvest data to examine whether rates of productivity and harvest correlated with annual changes in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) breeding populations. Percent change in the size of the breeding population correlated positively with an index of production rate and negatively with an index of harvest rate (R2 = 0.37, F = 8.34, P < 0.005). Average harvest rate indices did not differ (W = 126, P < 0.32) between periods of increasing (1961-69) and decreasing (1970-85) populations. Indices to production tended to be lower (W = 143, P < 0.08) during 1970-85 (.hivin.x = 0.064) compared to 1961-69 (.hivin.x = 1.096).

  14. A reward band study of mallards to estimate band reporting rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Burnham, K.P.

    1976-01-01

    Reward bands ($10) were placed on 2,122 hatching-year mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and an additional 11,490 received conventional bands (controls) to estimate band reporting rates. An analysis of band recoveries indicated that the reporting rate was dependent primarily upon three factors: (1) the distance banded birds were recovered from the banding site, (2) band collecting activities of conservation agencies (usually near banding sites), and ( 3) the intensity of banding effort in the region (frequency of banded birds in the population of the region). Reporting rates were uniformly depressed near the banding sites, but they showed an east-west cline at distances greater than 80 km from the banding sites. The reporting rate was highest in the west. Limited data on historical band reporting rates were compiled. Recommendations are given for adjusting band recoveries to account for the nonreporting of bands for 1957-73.

  15. Reproductive success and nest attentiveness of mallard ducks fed Aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A dietary dosage of 25 ppm Aroclor 1254 fed to nine-month-old mallards Anas platyrhynchos for at least a month before egg-laying had no detrimental effect on reproductive success or nest attentiveness when hens were allowed to incubate their own eggs. The treatment caused no effect on number of hens laying, date of first egg laid or clutch size. Fertility of eggs was greater among Aroclor-treated birds (87?7%) than among controls (73?2%). Aroclor may have stimulated males to come into reproductive condition sooner than controls. Hatching of fertile eggs and survival of ducklings to 3 weeks of age were similar in treated and control groups. The number of times off the nest per day and total time off the nest per day were the same for control and Aroclor-treated hens in days 14?17 of incubation.

  16. Survival and fates of staging juvenile, female mallards in the Vermont / Quebec border region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Bunck, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We alternately marked 80 juvenile, female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), half with transmitters and bands and half with only bands in 1990 and 1991. Survival of radio-marked ducks was monitored daily and then summarized weekly for the periods 31 August - 6 December, 1990 (weeks 5-18) and 11 September - 6 December, 1991) (weeks 6-18). The pattern of survival throughout the staging period did not differ (P = 0.785) between 1990 and 1991. Survival at the end of the staging period (week 18) was low in both years (0.379 in 1990; 0.282 in 1991; and 0.337 for a combined estimate). Only 2.5% (1990) and 7.5% (1991) of the bands of the banded-only sample were recovered. Fates of the ducks were associated with hunter opportunity and are evaluated as related to body mass, flock size and duck behavior as determined from hunter questionnaires.

  17. Hormesis associated with a low dose of methylmercury injected into mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Kondrad, Shannon L.; Erwin, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    We injected mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with methylmercury chloride at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 μg mercury/g egg contents on a wet-weight basis. A case of hormesis seemed to occur because hatching success of eggs injected with 0.05 μg mercury (the lowest dose) was significantly greater (93.3%) than that of controls (72.6%), whereas hatching success decreased at progressively greater doses of mercury. Our finding of hormesis when a low dose of methylmercury was injected into eggs agrees with a similar observation in a study in which a group of female mallards was fed a low dietary concentration of methylmercury and hatching of their eggs was significantly better than that of controls. If methylmercury has a hormetic effect at low concentrations in avian eggs, these low concentrations may be important in a regulatory sense in that they may represent a no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL).

  18. Effects of chronic ingestion of South Louisiana crude oil on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.; Dieter, M.P.; Heinz, G.H.; Ferrell, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    South Louisiana crude oil was fed to duckling mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in concentrations of 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, and 5.0% of the diet from hatching to 8 weeks of age to assess the effects of chronic oil ingestion during early development. Growth was depressed in birds receiving a diet containing 5% oil but there was no oil-related mortality. Diets containing 0.25, 2.5, and 5.0% oil impaired avoidance behavior of 6-day-old mallard ducklings when compared with controls or ducklings fed 0.025% oil, but had no effect on open-field behavior of 7-day-old ducklings. Liver hypertrophy and splenic atrophy were gross evidence of the pathological effects of oil in birds on the 2.5 and 5.0% oil diets. Biochemical lesions that occurred included elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase and ornithine carbamyl transferase activity. Hepatocyte hypertrophy and bile duct proliferation in the liver were noted in birds fed the 2.5 and 5.0% oil diets and tubular inflammation and degeneration in the kidney were noted in birds fed the 5.0% oil diet.

  19. Effects of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil on mallard reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    A one-generation reproductive toxicity study and a direct eggshell application toxicity study were conducted using the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess the toxicity of naturally weathered North Slope crude oil (WEVC), obtained following the Exxon Valdez spill. In the reproductive study, birds were fed diets containing 0, 200, 2,000, and 20,000 mg of WEVC/kg diet. No significant differences (p {le} 0.05) in mortality, body weight, food consumption, reproductive parameters, or hatchling parameters were observed. Significant decreases in mean serum phosphorus, serum total protein, albumin, bilirubin, and calcium concentrations were observed in high-dose-group females; no differences were noted among males. Eggshell strength and thickness in the high-dose group were significantly reduced compared to controls. Trends toward increased liver weights and decreased spleen weights were observed in WEVC-treated birds. Applications of WEVC to developing eggs showed it to be less toxic than unweathered North Slope crude oil. Doses covering up to one-third of the shell area of developing mallard eggs (92 mg) resulted in no effects on developing embryos. Eggs treated with the control material, petrolatum, were adversely affected by applications covering approximately one-sixth of the eggshell (24 mg), suggesting inhibition of gas exchange. Neither material affected hatchling survival or growth.

  20. Effects of harness transmitters on behavior and reproduction of wild mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Krapu, Gary L.; Greenwood, Raymond J.; Lokemoen, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Radio telemetry has been an important research tool in waterfowl studies for >20 years, yet little effort has been made to evaluate potential effects of transmitters on the birds that carry them. As part of a 4-year mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota and Minnesota, we compared radio-marked and unmarked female mallards in terms of percent time observed feeding, resting, and preening; nest initiation date; and clutch size and egg volume. Radio-marked females carried a 23-g back-mounted transmitter attached with a 2-loop harness (Dwyer 1972). On average, radio-marked females tended to feed less, rest and preen more, initiate nests later, and lay smaller clutches and eggs than unmarked females. Thus, behavioral and reproductive data from ducks marked with back-mounted harness-attached transmitters may be biased. We recommend that new designs of radio packages be field tested and caution that effects may be masked under extreme environmental conditions.

  1. Histopathology of mallards dosed with lead and selected substitute shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Irby, H.D.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    The histopathological response of male game farm mallards fed lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot was studied. Mallards fed lead, plastic-coated lead, or lead-magnesium alloy shot developed a similar pathological response, including the formation of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys. Birds fed iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot developed hemosiderosis of the liver. Two of four mallards fed zinc-coated iron shot also developed hemosiderosis of the liver. No lesions were found in mallards fed copper shot.

  2. Toxicity of trimethyltin and triethyltin to mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Momot, J.J.; Pang, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMTC) and triethyltin chloride (TETC) were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 73 to 75 d, beginning when ducklings were 3 to 4 d old. Diets were mixed to contain 0,0.5,5 or 50 ppm Sn as either TMTC or TETC. Mortality occurred only in the 5 ppm (2/5 ducklings) and 50 ppm (5/5 ducklings, all dying within 5 d) TMTC groups. Death was preceded by cephalic tremors, lethargy and ataxia; these clinical signs also were observed in surviving ducklings from the 5 ppm TMTC group, but not the 0.5 ppm TMTC group. Ducklings fed 5 and 50 ppm Sn as TMTC exhibited degeneration of the large neurons of the pons, medulla oblongata, gray matter of the spinal cord and pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex. TETC-fed ducklings showed few signs of clinical toxicosis. Ducklings fed 50 ppm Sn as TETC exhibited mild to severe vacuolization of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord; these lesions were not present in ducklings fed 5 ppm Sn as TETC. Liver, spleen, kidney, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and skeletal muscle presented no abnormal histopathology for either organotin compound. Hematocrit, hemoglobin and plasma aspartate aminotransferase; alanine aminotransferase; lactate dehydrogenase; alkaline phosphatase; and cholinesterase values were determined for the 5- and 50- ppm TMTC and TETC groups, and were not different from those of controls (p < 0.05). Lesions and clinical signs of toxicosis in ducklings were consistent with those described for mammals exposed to TMTC and TETe. The effect threshold for TMTC in ducklings appears to exceed current environmental concentrations. Environmental concentrations of TETC have not been reported.

  3. The role of nutrient reserves in mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations breeding in temperate North America obtain a significant part of the energy and lipid requirements of reproduction at sites occupied prior to arrival on the breeding grounds. Protein for egg formation, however, is obtained principally from the diet during the nesting period. Both sexes arrive heavy and fat in North Dakota but experience substantial weight loss and lipid depletion during the nesting cycle. Weight loss is most pronounced among females and averages 25% from prelaying to late incubation. Body weights of both sexes are positively correlated with carcass lipid content. The paired male draws upon lipids early in the nesting season when an activity center is being established and defended and when females are preparing to nest. The female's lipid reserves are utilized primarily during laying and early incubation. The significance of lipid reserves diminishes as the nesting season progresses, and females do not acquire substantial lipid stores prior to renesting when the initial clutch is destroyed. The magnitude of lipid reserves carried in female carcasses is positively correlated with clutch size from mid-April to early June. Protein transfer for egg formation from flight and leg muscle and body organs can account for only a small part of the protein requirement for the clutch. By utilizing lipid reserves to meet energy requirements, the female can acquire sufficient protein from the diet to produce a large initial clutch even when foods are relatively scarce, whereas the renesting female must rely entirely upon food resources available at the breeding site for its nutrient and energy requirements.

  4. Applications of a simulation model to decisions in mallard management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sparling, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    A system comprising simulation models and data bases for habitat availability and nest success rates was used to predict results from a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management plan and to compare six management methods with a control. Individual treatments in the applications included land purchase for waterfowl production, wetland easement purchase, lease of uplands for waterfowl management, cropland retirement, use of no-till winter wheat, delayed cutting of alfalfa, installation of nest baskets, nesting island construction, and use of predator-resistant fencing.The simulations predicted that implementation of the management plan would increase recruits by 24%. Nest baskets were the most effective treatment, accounting for 20.4% of the recruits. No-till winter wheat was the second most effective, accounting for 5.9% of the recruits. Wetland loss due to drainage would cause an 11% loss of breeding population in 10 years.The models were modified to account for migrational homing. The modification indicated that migrational homing would enhance the effects of management. Nest success rates were critical contributions to individual management methods. The most effective treatments, such as nest baskets, had high success rates and affected a large portion of the breeding population.Economic analyses indicated that nest baskets would be the most economical of the three techniques tested. The applications indicated that the system is a useful tool to aid management decisions, but data are scarce for several important variables. Basic research will be required to adequately model the effect of migrational homing and density dependence on production. The comprehensive nature of predictions desired by managers will also require that production models like the one described here be extended to encompass the entire annual cycle of waterfowl.

  5. Subacute dietary toxicities of dicrotophos and dieldrin in time-replicated trials with young ring-necked pheasants and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    The dietary toxicities of (E)-phosphoric acid 3-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-3-oxo-1-propenyl dimethyl ester (dicrotophos) and 3,4,5,6,9,9-hexachloro-1a,2,2a,3,6,6a,7,7a-octahydro-2,7:3,6-dimethanonaphth[2,3-b]oxirene (dieldrin) to 10-day-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and 5-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were compared in five time-replicated trials. Toxicities were calculated as median lethal concentrations (LC50s) based on 5 days of ad libitum feeding on geometrically spaced concentrations of toxicant. The LC50s were more uniform for dieldrin than for dicrotophos with both species and more uniform for pheasants than for mallards with both compounds. The LC50s of dieldrin and dicrotophos averaged 59 [standard deviation (SD) = 4.4] and 45 ppm (SD = 5.0) for pheasants, and 156 (SD = 24.9) and 102 ppm (SD = 24.9) for mallards. Changes in LC50s between successive trials, although possibly haphazard, were nearly always in the same direction for both compounds with both species. Feeding rates at various concentrations of equivalent potency gave meaningful insight into the sensitivity and vulnerability of both species to these insecticides. Comparisons of 5 and 10-day-old mallards demonstrated the importance of age differences to interpretation of short-term subacute toxicity data. For example, at 5 days dicrotophos was 1.5 times more toxic than dieldrin, but at 10 days dieldrin was 2.6 times more toxic. These differences are explained.

  6. Immune response of mallard ducks treated with immunosuppressive agents: antibody response to erythrocytes and in vivo response to phytohemagglutinin-P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, C.S.; Cook, M.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of two in vivo tests to assay immune competence of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) treated with various immunomodulatory agents was examined. Skin responses to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) injected intradermally and serum antibody levels produced in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were measured. As measured by the skin response to PHA-P, ducks injected intramuscularly with cyclophosphamide or cyclosporine did not respond differently from control-injected ducks. Dexamethasone injected intramuscularly significantly suppressed the skin response to PHA-P. As measured by antibody levels in response to SRBC, ducks injected intramuscularly with cyclophosphamide responded with antibody titers similar to controls. Cyclosporine injected intramuscularly reduced the level of immunoglobulin (Ig) G significantly in one of two experiments. Dexamethasone injected intramuscularly reduced peak total and IgG titers. These experiments provide information on the viability of these two in vivo tests to reflect immune competence of mallard ducks.

  7. Behavioral, clinical, and pathological characterization of acid metalliferous water toxicity in mallards.

    PubMed

    Isanhart, John P; Wu, Hongmei; Pandher, Karamjeet; MacRae, Russell K; Cox, Stephen B; Hooper, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    From September to November 2000, United States Fish and Wildlife Service biologists investigated incidents involving 221 bird deaths at 3 mine sites located in New Mexico and Arizona. These bird deaths primarily involved passerine and waterfowl species and were assumed to be linked to consumption of acid metalliferous water (AMW). Because all of the carcasses were found in or near pregnant leach solution ponds, tailings ponds, and associated lakes or storm water retention basins, an acute-toxicity study was undertaken using a synthetic AMW (SAMW) formulation based on the contaminant profile of a representative pond believed to be responsible for avian mortalities. An acute oral-toxicity trial was performed with a mixed-sex group of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). After a 24-h pretreatment food and water fast, gorge drinking was evident in both SAMW treatment and control groups, with water consumption rates greatest during the initial drinking periods. Seven of nine treated mallards were killed in extremis within 12 h after the initiation of dose. Total lethal doses of SAMW ranged from 69.8 to 270.1 mL/kg (mean ± SE 127.9 ± 27.1). Lethal doses of SAMW were consumed in as few as 20 to 40 min after first exposure. Clinical signs of SAMW toxicity included increased serum uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, potassium, and P levels. PCV values of SAMW-treated birds were also increased compared with control mallards. Histopathological lesions were observed in the esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, and duodenum of SAMW-treated mallards, with the most distinctive being erosion and ulceration of the kaolin of the ventriculus, ventricular hemorrhage and/or congestion, and duodenal hemorrhage. Clinical, pathological, and tissue-residue results from this study are consistent with literature documenting acute metal toxicosis, especially copper (Cu), in avian species and provide useful diagnostic profiles for AMW toxicity or mortality events. Blood and

  8. Behavioral, clinical, and pathological characterization of acid metalliferous water toxicity in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isanhart, J.P.; Wu, H.; Pandher, K.; MacRae, R.K.; Cox, S.B.; Hooper, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    From September to November 2000, United States Fish and Wildlife Service biologists investigated incidents involving 221 bird deaths at 3 mine sites located in New Mexico and Arizona. These bird deaths primarily involved passerine and waterfowl species and were assumed to be linked to consumption of acid metalliferous water (AMW). Because all of the carcasses were found in or near pregnant leach solution ponds, tailings ponds, and associated lakes or storm water retention basins, an acute-toxicity study was undertaken using a synthetic AMW (SAMW) formulation based on the contaminant profile of a representative pond believed to be responsible for avian mortalities. An acute oral-toxicity trial was performed with a mixed-sex group of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). After a 24-h pretreatment food and water fast, gorge drinking was evident in both SAMW treatment and control groups, with water consumption rates greatest during the initial drinking periods. Seven of nine treated mallards were killed in extremis within 12 h after the initiation of dose. Total lethal doses of SAMW ranged from 69.8 to 270.1 mL/kg (mean ?? SE 127.9 ?? 27.1). Lethal doses of SAMW were consumed in as few as 20 to 40 min after first exposure. Clinical signs of SAMW toxicity included increased serum uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, potassium, and P levels. PCV values of SAMW-treated birds were also increased compared with control mallards. Histopathological lesions were observed in the esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, and duodenum of SAMW-treated mallards, with the most distinctive being erosion and ulceration of the kaolin of the ventriculus, ventricular hemorrhage and/or congestion, and duodenal hemorrhage. Clinical, pathological, and tissue-residue results from this study are consistent with literature documenting acute metal toxicosis, especially copper (Cu), in avian species and provide useful diagnostic profiles for AMW toxicity or mortality events. Blood and

  9. Behavioral, clinical, and pathological characterization of acid metalliferous water toxicity in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isanhart, John P.; Wu, Hongmei; Pandher, Karamjeet; MacRae, Russell K.; Cox, Stephen B.; Hooper, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    From September to November 2000, United States Fish and Wildlife Service biologists investigated incidents involving 221 bird deaths at 3 mine sites located in New Mexico and Arizona. These bird deaths primarily involved passerine and waterfowl species and were assumed to be linked to consumption of acid metalliferous water (AMW). Because all of the carcasses were found in or near pregnant leach solution ponds, tailings ponds, and associated lakes or storm water retention basins, an acute-toxicity study was undertaken using a synthetic AMW (SAMW) formulation based on the contaminant profile of a representative pond believed to be responsible for avian mortalities. An acute oral-toxicity trial was performed with a mixed-sex group of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). After a 24-h pretreatment food and water fast, gorge drinking was evident in both SAMW treatment and control groups, with water consumption rates greatest during the initial drinking periods. Seven of nine treated mallards were killed in extremis within 12 h after the initiation of dose. Total lethal doses of SAMW ranged from 69.8 to 270.1 mL/kg (mean ± SE 127.9 ± 27.1). Lethal doses of SAMW were consumed in as few as 20 to 40 min after first exposure. Clinical signs of SAMW toxicity included increased serum uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, potassium, and P levels. PCV values of SAMW-treated birds were also increased compared with control mallards. Histopathological lesions were observed in the esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, and duodenum of SAMW-treated mallards, with the most distinctive being erosion and ulceration of the kaolin of the ventriculus, ventricular hemorrhage and/or congestion, and duodenal hemorrhage. Clinical, pathological, and tissue-residue results from this study are consistent with literature documenting acute metal toxicosis, especially copper (Cu), in avian species and provide useful diagnostic profiles for AMW toxicity or mortality events. Blood and

  10. Mallard brood movements, wetland use, and duckling survival during and following a prairie drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Pietz, P.J.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to study mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) brood movements, wetland use, and duckling survival during a major drought (1988-1992) and during the first 2 years of the subsequent wet period (1993-1994) at 4 51-km2 sites in prairie pothole landscapes in eastern North Dakota, USA. About two-thirds of 69 radiomarked mallard broods initiated moves from the nest to water before noon, and all left the nest during daylight. On average, broods used fewer wetlands, but moved greater distances during the dry period than the wet period. Broods of all ages were more likely to make inter-wetland moves during the wet period and probabilities of inter-wetland moves decreased as duckling age increased, especially during the dry period. Brood use of seasonal wetlands nearly doubled from 22% to 43% and use of semi-permanent wetlands declined from 73% to 50% from the dry to the wet period. Eighty-one of 150 radiomarked ducklings died during 1,604 exposure days. We evaluated survival models containing variables related to water conditions, weather, duckling age, and hatch date. Model-averaged risk ratios indicated that, on any given date, radiomarked ducklings were 1.5 (95% CI = 0.8-2.8) times more likely to die when the percentage of seasonal basins containing water (WETSEAS) was ???18% than when WETSEAS was >40%. An interaction between duckling age and occurrence of rain on the current or 2 previous days indicated that rain effects were pronounced when ducklings were 0-7 days old but negligible when they were 8-30 days old. The TMIN (mean daily minimum temperature on the current and 2 previous days) effects generally were consistent between duckling age classes, and the risk of duckling death increased 9.3% for each 1??C decrease in TMIN across both age classes. Overall, the 30-day survival rate of ducklings equipped with radiotransmitters was about 0.23 lower than the survival rate of those without radiotransmitiers. Unmarked ducklings were 7.6 (95% CI = 2

  11. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

    1989-11-01

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

  12. Santa Ana Forecasting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, T.; Eichhorn, D.; D'Agostino, B. J.; Vanderburg, S.; Means, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Southern California experiences wildfires every year, but under certain circumstances these fires grow into extremely large and destructive fires, such as the Cedar Fire of 2003 and the Witch Fire of 2007. The Cedar Fire burned over 1100 km2 , destroyed more than 2200 homes and killed 15 people; the Witch fire burned more than 800 km2, destroyed more than 1000 homes and killed 2 people. Fires can quickly become too large and dangerous to fight if they are accompanied by a very strong "Santa Ana" condition, which is a foehn-like wind that may bring strong winds and very low humidities. However there is an entire range of specific weather conditions that fall into the broad category of Santa Anas, from cold and blustery to hot with very little wind. All types are characterized by clear skies and low humidity. Since the potential for destructive fire is dependent on the characteristics of Santa Anas, as well as the level of fuel moisture, there exists a need for further classification, such as is done with tropical cyclones and after-the-fact with tornadoes. We use surface data and fuel moisture combined with reanalysis to diagnose those conditions that result in Santa Anas with the greatest potential for destructive fires. We use this data to produce a new classification system for Santa Anas. This classification system should be useful for informing the relevant agencies for mitigation and response planning. In the future this same classification may be made available to the general public.

  13. Hawaiian Duck's Future Threatened by Feral Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uyehara, Kimberly J.; Engilis, Andrew; Reynolds, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 70 percent of Hawaii's native bird species are found nowhere else on Earth, and many of these species are declining or in danger of extinction. Although the Hawaiian Islands were once home to a remarkable diversity of waterfowl, only three species remain-the Hawaiian Goose (Nene), Laysan Duck, and Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)-all Federally endangered. The Koloa maoli is the only Hawaiian bird threatened by 'genetic extinction' from hybridization with an invasive species-feral Mallard ducks. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologists in Hawaii are working to find the causes of bird endangerment and ways to prevent extinction of the Koloa maoli and other threatened birds.

  14. Interspecific hybridization contributes to high genetic diversity and apparent effective population size in an endemic population of mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula maculosa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Lavretsky, Philip; Rezsutek, Michael; Johnson, William P.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Under drift-mutation equilibrium, genetic diversity is expected to be correlated with effective population size (Ne). Changes in population size and gene flow are two important processes that can cause populations to deviate from this expected relationship. In this study, we used DNA sequences from six independent loci to examine the influence of these processes on standing genetic diversity in endemic mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) and geographically widespread mallards (A. platyrhynchos), two species known to hybridize. Mottled ducks have an estimated census size that is about two orders-of-magnitude smaller than that of mallards, yet these two species have similar levels of genetic diversity, especially at nuclear DNA. Coalescent analyses suggest that a population expansion in the mallard at least partly explains this discrepancy, but the mottled duck harbors higher genetic diversity and apparent N e than expected for its census size even after accounting for a population decline. Incorporating gene flow into the model, however, reduced the estimated Ne of mottled ducks to 33 % of the equilibrium Ne and yielded an estimated Ne consistent with census size. We also examined the utility of these loci to distinguish among mallards, mottled ducks, and their hybrids. Most putatively pure individuals were correctly assigned to species, but the power for detecting hybrids was low. Although hybridization with mallards potentially poses a conservation threat to mottled ducks by creating a risk of extinction by hybridization, introgression of mallard alleles has helped maintain high genetic diversity in mottled ducks and might be important for the adaptability and survival of this species.

  15. Mallard recruitment in the agricultural environment of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Gilmer, D.S.; Shaiffer, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Recruitment of a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population was assessed on a 10,041-km2 study area in central North Dakota during 1977-80. We equipped 338 hens with radio transmitters and monitored them during the breeding season. Two hundred thirty-five of these hens furnished data reported here. Habitat use, nest site selection, fate of nests, and the rate of renesting were measured. Survival of hens during April-September and survival of young were determined. There was a high negative correlation between nest initiation date and mean April or May temperature. Hens selected nest sites most frequently in grassland and least frequently in cropland, but habitat use compared to availability indicated preference for road right-of-way and odd areas of cover and rejection of cropland. Use of other habitats was in proportion to their availability. Nest success was only 8% during the study. Hen success, a function of nest success and renesting rate, averaged 15% and varied among years because of increased renesting in wet years. In all years, 2-year-old and older hens were twice as successful as first-year nesters. Nesting effort was correlated with water conditions as derived from aerial photographs. April-September survival of hens averaged 80% because predation was heavy when hens were on nests. Only 74% of the hens that hatched a clutch were observed later with at least 1 surviving duckling. On average, hens in the spring population recruited only 0.27 young females to the fall population. Based on this recruitment estimate, published survival estimates and a model previously developed for a closed population, we predict a 20% annual population decline. Nest success of 15% and a resulting hen success of 31% would be required for a stable population. The results suggest that the population on the study area is not maintaining itself but is being supplemented by pioneering birds. A serious recruitment problem has resulted from nest predation. Additional research is

  16. Bunker C. fuel oil reduces mallard egg hatchability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of Bunker C fuel oil on artificially-incubated mallard eggs. Eggshell applications of 5-50 ul of Bunker C fuel oil were made on day 8 of incubation; measured hatching success.

  17. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium and dietary protein in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of over 100 ppm (mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic plants and insects associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Composition of diet for wild ducklings may vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Earlier studies have compared toxicities and oxidative stress of Se as selenite to those of seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms except for 30 ppm Se as W. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L at 30 ppm in the diet was the most toxic form, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) in survivors and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH). Se as both L and DL decreased the concentrations of hepatic GSH and total thiols. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver (approximately 50% of other forms) and had less effect on GSH and total thiols. In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed (22 % protein), survival was not affected by 30 ppm Se as DL, L, or Y and oxidative effects on GSH metabolism were less pronounced than with the wheat diet.

  18. Effects of mercury and selenium on glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    Earlier studies reported on the toxicity and related oxidative stress of different forms of Se, including seleno-D,L-methionine, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). This study compares the effects of Se (seleno-D,L-methionine) and Hg (methylmercury chloride) separately and in combination. Mallard drakes received one of the following diets: untreated feed (controls), or feed containing 10 ppm Se, 10 ppm Hg, or 10 ppm Se in combination with 10 ppm Hg. After 10 weeks, blood, liver, and brain samples were collected for biochemical assays. The following clinical and biochemical alterations occurred in response to mercury exposure: hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations decreased; activities of the enzymes glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (plasma and liver), glutathione-S-transferase (liver), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) (liver and brain) decreased; hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration increased relative to reduced glutathione (GSH); and lipid peroxidation in the brain was evident as detected by increased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). Effects of Se alone included increased hepatic GSSG reductase activity and brain TBARS concentration. Se in combination with Hg partially or totally alleviated effects of Hg on GSH peroxidase, G-6-PDH, and GSSG. These findings are compared in relation to field observations for diving ducks and other aquatic birds. It is concluded that since both Hg and excess Se can affect thiol status, measurement of associated enzymes in conjunction with thiol status may be a useful bioindicator to discriminate between Hg and Se effects. The ability of Se to restore the activities of G-6-PDH, GSH peroxidase, and glutathione status involved in antioxidative defense mechanisms may be crucial to biological protection from the toxic effects of methyl mercury.

  19. Landscape effects on mallard habitat selection at multiple spatial scales during the non-breeding period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies that evaluated effects of landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity on migratory waterbird distributions were spatially limited and temporally restricted to one major life-history phase. However, effects of landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity on long-distance migratory waterbirds can be studied across the annual cycle using new technologies, including global positioning system satellite transmitters. We used Bayesian discrete choice models to examine the influence of local habitats and landscape composition on habitat selection by a generalist dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), in the midcontinent of North America during the non-breeding period. Using a previously published empirical movement metric, we separated the non-breeding period into three seasons, including autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We defined spatial scales based on movement patterns such that movements >0.25 and <30.00 km were classified as local scale and movements >30.00 km were classified as relocation scale. Habitat selection at the local scale was generally influenced by local and landscape-level variables across all seasons. Variables in top models at the local scale included proximities to cropland, emergent wetland, open water, and woody wetland. Similarly, variables associated with area of cropland, emergent wetland, open water, and woody wetland were also included at the local scale. At the relocation scale, mallards selected resource units based on more generalized variables, including proximity to wetlands and total wetland area. Our results emphasize the role of landscape composition in waterbird habitat selection and provide further support for local wetland landscapes to be considered functional units of waterbird conservation and management.

  20. Heat increment of feeding and thermal substitution in mallard ducks feeding voluntarily on grain.

    PubMed

    Kaseloo, P A; Lovvorn, J R

    2003-04-01

    The heat increment of feeding (HIF), including heat from digestion, assimilation, and nutrient interconversion, may substitute for thermogenesis and reduce thermoregulation costs. HIF and its substitution have been measured mainly in animals fed single large meals with high protein content, but many species such as some dabbling ducks (Anatini) feed more continuously in intermittent small meals with low protein content. We measured HIF in seven mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) eating mixed grain (corn, wheat, milo) ad libitum while floating on water at 23 degrees C (thermoneutral) and 8 degrees C. HIF was calculated as the difference in oxygen consumption between fed and fasted birds, correcting for costs of behavior, heat storage (change in body temperature), and heating food. Substitution occurred if HIF was lower at 8 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Food intake of mallards averaged 83% of that required for maintenance (zero energy balance) at 23 degrees C, and 68% of maintenance at 8 degrees C. Mean HIF (+/-1 SE) was 1.59+/-0.61 l O(2) at 23 degrees C and 1.48+/-0.68 l O(2) at 8 degrees C. These values were 4.9% and 3.9% of metabolizable energy intake, consistent with values expected for grain. HIF did not differ between temperatures (ANCOVA, birds as blocks, intake as covariate, P=0.51), indicating no measurable substitution at these intake levels in intermittent meals. For these large birds that feed on low-protein foods in intermittent small meals, the ecological importance of HIF substitution appears negligible during periods when food intake is below that required for energy balance.

  1. Lead in tissues of mallard ducks dosed with two types of lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were sacrificed one month after ingesting one number 4 all-lead shot or one number 4 lead-iron shot. Livers, kidneys, blood, wingbones, and eggs were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption. Necropsy of sacrificed ducks failed to reveal any of the tissue lesions usually associated with lead poisoning in waterfowl. Lead levels in ducks given all-lead shot averaged about twice those in ducks given lead-iron shot, reflecting the amount of lead in the two types of shot. Lead in the blood of ducks dosed with all-lead shot averaged 0.64 ppm, and 0.28 ppm in ducks given lead-iron shot. Lead residues in livers and kidneys of females given all-lead shot were significantly higher than in males. In both dosed groups, lead levels in wingbones of females were about 10 times those in males, and were significantly correlated with the number of eggs laid after dosage. Lead levels in contents and shells of eggs laid by hens dosed with all-lead shot were about twice those in eggs laid by hens dosed with lead-iron shot. Eggshells were found to best reflect levels of lead in the blood. Our results indicate that mallards maintained on a balanced diet and dosed with one lead shot may not accumulate extremely high lead levels in the liver and kidney. However, extremely high lead deposition may result in the bone of laying hens after ingesting sublethal amounts of lead shot as a result of mobilization of calcium from the bone during eggshell formation.

  2. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of selenium in the diet of mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet, diets containing 1, 5, 10, or 25 ppm Se as sodium selenite, or a diet containing 10 ppm Se as seleno-DL-methionine in the first of two experiments. Selenium at 10 ppm as selenomethionine or 25 ppm as sodium selenite caused a 40-44% decrease in the total number of eggs that hatched compared to controls. Selenium at 25 ppm (sodium selenite) resulted in a 19% decrease in mean embryonic weight at 18 d of incubation, accompanied by a 6% decrease in crown-rump length. Ten parts per million Se as selenomethionine was more teratogenic than sodium selenite at 25 ppm. Selenomethionine (10 ppm Se) resulted in an incidence of 13.1% malformations that were often multiple, whereas sodium selenite (10 and 25 ppm Se) resulted in 3.6 and 4.2% malformations. The teratogenicity of selenomethionine was confirmed in a second experiment in which mallards received 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 ppm Se as selenomethionine, resulting in 0.9, 0.5, 1.4, 6.8, and 67.9% malformations, respectively. These malformations included hydrocephaly, microphthalmia, lower bill defects, and foot defects with ectrodactyly. Both forms of selenium increased the incidence of edema and stunted embryonic growth. Selenomethionine (10 ppm Se) resulted in a significant increase of approximately 40% in plasma glutathione peroxidase activity and a 70% increase in sorbitol dehydrogenase activity (indicative of hepatotoxicity) in hatchlings. Sodium selenite (25 ppm Se) resulted in fourfold elevation in plasma uric acid concentration, indicative of renal alteration. Selenomethionine accumulated much better in eggs than did sodium selenite. These findings indicate that selenomethionine is considerably more teratogenic and generally more embryotoxic than sodium selenite, probably due to higher uptake of selenomethionine.

  3. Acid precipitation and food quality: Inhibition of growth and survival in black ducks and mallards by dietary aluminum, calcium and phosphorus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    In areas impacted by acid precipitation, water chemistry of acidic ponds and streams often changes, resulting in increased mobilization of aluminum and decreased concentration of calcium carbonate. Aluminum binds with phosphorus and inhibits its uptake by organisms. Thus, invertebrate food organisms used by waterfowl may have inadequate Ca and P or elevated Al for normal growth and development. Acid rain and its effects may be one of the factors negatively impacting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) in eastern North America. One-day old mallards (A. platyrhynchos) and black ducks were placed on one of three Ca:P regimens: low:low (LL), normal:normal (NN), and low:high (LH) with each regimen divided further into three or four Al levels for 10 weeks. Forty-five % of the black ducks died on nine different diets whereas only 28% of the mallards died on three different diets. Mortality was significantly related to diet in both species. Growth rates for body weight, culmens, wings, and tarsi of both species on control diets exceeded those on many treatment diets but the differences were less apparent for mallards than for black ducks. Differences among treatments were due to both Ca:P and Al levels.

  4. Acid precipitation and food quality: inhibition of growth and survival in black ducks and mallards by dietary aluminum, calcium, and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Sparling, D W

    1990-01-01

    In areas impacted by acid precipitation, water chemistry of acidic ponds and streams often changes, resulting in increased mobilization of aluminum and decreased concentration of calcium carbonate. Aluminum binds with phosphorus and inhibits its uptake by organisms. Thus, invertebrate food organisms used by waterfowl may have inadequate Ca and P or elevated Al for normal growth and development. Acid rain and its effects may be one of the factors negatively impacting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) in eastern North America. One-day old mallards (A. platyrhynchos) and black ducks were placed on one of three Ca:P regimens: low:low (LL), normal:normal (NN), and low:high (LH) with each regimen divided further into three or four Al levels for 10 weeks. Forty-five % of the black ducks died on nine different diets whereas only 28% of the mallards died on three different diets. Mortality was significantly related to diet in both species. Growth rates for body weight, culmens, wings, and tarsi of both species on control diets exceeded those on many treatment diets but the differences were less apparent for mallards than for black ducks. Differences among treatments were due to both Ca:P and Al levels.

  5. Development and evaluation of the mallard duck as a model to investigate the immunotoxicity of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the mallard duck (Anas platyrhyncos) as a model for evaluating the immunotoxic effects of environmental chemicals. A battery of immunotoxicity tests was validated for the mallard, including natural killer cell (NKC) activity, lymphocyte mitogenesis, antibody titers to sheep erythrocytes, peripheral differential leukocyte counts, macrophage phagocytosis and prostaglandin-E[sub 2] (PGE2) production. To investigate potential hormonal-immune axes, dexamethasone (DEX), methimazole, and thyroxine (T4) were used to study the influence of glucocorticoid excess, hypo-, and hyperthyroidism on immunity, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, Aroclor 1254) on immune, endocrine, and hepatic cytochrome-P450 function were evaluated and interpreted using results from the endocrine/immune studies. Results of these studies showed that antibody production was susceptible to suppression by DEX at doses which also caused significant changes in clinical plasma biochemistry values. NKC activity was enhanced by exposure to DEX in vivo, a phenomenon due to the inhibition of PGE2 production by adherent peripheral blood cells by DEX and mimicked in vitro with addition of indomethacin or DEX. Macrophage phagocytosis was significantly suppressed by DEX in vitro. Macrophage production of PGE2 ex vivo was suppressed in birds treated with DEX. In contrast to DEX, T4 or methimazole treatment elicited only slight physiologic changes in plasma albumin and cholesterol levels. No immune/thyroid axis was observed in mallards. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 induced significant hepatic microsomal ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase activities in addition to increasing total cytochrome P450 content, but did not affect immune function, plasma corticosterone, or clinical biochemistry values. Total triiodothyronine, but not T4, was dose-dependently suppressed by PCB treatment.

  6. Phosphorus amendment reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress in mallards ingesting lead-contaminated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Audet, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl has been reported for decades in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho as a result of the ingestion of lead-contaminated sediments. This study was conducted to determine whether the addition of phosphoric acid to CDARB sediments would reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to the liver and kidney of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Mallards received diets containing 12% clean sediment (controls) or 12% sediment from three different CDARB sites containing 4520, 5390, or 6990 ug/g lead (dry weight) with or without phosphoric acid amendment. Liver and kidney lead concentrations were significantly higher in all CDARB treatment groups and ranged from geometric mean values of 18.2 (liver) and 28.7 (kidney) for the first 2 sites to 22.5 (liver) and 45.6 (kidney) ug/g (wet weight) for the third site. With amendments all liver lead concentrations were reduced 36 to 55%, and all kidney lead concentrations were lowered 54 to 73%. Unamended CDARB sediment from the third site resulted in the following hepatic effects: over 1.6-fold elevation of liver glutathione (reduced form; GSH) concentration, higher GSH S-transferase and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) reductase activities, and lower protein-bound thiols (PBSH) concentration. Renal effects included higher kidney GSH concentrations for all CDARB sites, with over 2.1-fold higher for the third site. Resulting kidney GSSG to GSH ratios were lower at two sites. At the third site, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity was elevated, and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was 1.7-fold greater. Amendment restored all hepatic variables as well as the renal variables TBARS and GGT so they did not differ from controls. Although amendments of phosphorus substantially reduced the bioavailability of lead and some of the adverse effects, lead concentrations in the tissues of mallards fed the amended sediments were still above those considered to be harmful to

  7. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  8. Habitat use, survival, and causes of mortality among mallard broods hatched near the James River in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Luna, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Habitat use and survival by nine mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) broods from nests on the James River floodplain and adjacent drift plain were monitored during summer 1987. Radio-marked broods were relocated an average of 22% of the time in the river channel, 22% in oxbow ponds, 43% in a large sewage lagoon complex, and 13% in basin wetlands. Four of the six broods hatched on the floodplain stayed primarily in riverine wetlands throughout the brood-rearing period. Seven of nine broods fledged at least one young; a total of 27 ducklings survived to fledging of the 82 that hatched. The seven hens that fledged young used an average of two wetlands each from hatching to fledging. Mink and raptor predation and adverse weather conditions were the principal identified causes of mortality. Potential effects on waterfowl production of planned downstream irrigation, a part of the Reformulated Garrison Diversion Unit, are discussed and recommendations are made to reduce adverse impacts to wildlife.

  9. Study on Metal Concentrations in Tissues of Mallard and Pochard from Two Major Wintering Sites in Southeastern Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sinka-Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Pourkhabbaz, Ali Reza; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Levengood, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    We examined concentrations of cadmium, chromium, iron, lead and zinc in the kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 30) and Pochards (Aythya ferina; n = 30) from two important wintering sites in the southeastern Caspian Sea in the winter of 2012. Mean lead concentrations (µg g(-1) ww) in livers (2.36 ± 1.00) of Pochard and in kidneys (3.43 ± 0.91) of Mallard exceeded the exposure threshold levels in liver (1.5 µg g(-1) ww) and kidney (3 µg g(-1) ww) of waterfowl. Mean cadmium concentrations in livers (1.63 ± 0.66) of Pochards exceeded the background level of this metal in liver (1 µg g(-1) ww) of waterfowl. Chromium, iron and zinc concentrations were within the normal range as reported in other duck studies. Gender-related and inter-specific variation of metal concentrations in analyzed tissues were observed (t test, p < 0.05). Our results indicated that waterfowl using the Miankalah and Gomishan International Wetlands are being exposed to elevated concentrations of cadmium and lead. PMID:26141923

  10. Study on Metal Concentrations in Tissues of Mallard and Pochard from Two Major Wintering Sites in Southeastern Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sinka-Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Pourkhabbaz, Ali Reza; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Levengood, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    We examined concentrations of cadmium, chromium, iron, lead and zinc in the kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 30) and Pochards (Aythya ferina; n = 30) from two important wintering sites in the southeastern Caspian Sea in the winter of 2012. Mean lead concentrations (µg g(-1) ww) in livers (2.36 ± 1.00) of Pochard and in kidneys (3.43 ± 0.91) of Mallard exceeded the exposure threshold levels in liver (1.5 µg g(-1) ww) and kidney (3 µg g(-1) ww) of waterfowl. Mean cadmium concentrations in livers (1.63 ± 0.66) of Pochards exceeded the background level of this metal in liver (1 µg g(-1) ww) of waterfowl. Chromium, iron and zinc concentrations were within the normal range as reported in other duck studies. Gender-related and inter-specific variation of metal concentrations in analyzed tissues were observed (t test, p < 0.05). Our results indicated that waterfowl using the Miankalah and Gomishan International Wetlands are being exposed to elevated concentrations of cadmium and lead.

  11. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  12. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3.

    PubMed

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; van der Valk, Johanna P M; van Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-02-10

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. The purified proteins still bind IgE, and this IgE binding varied between different pools of patient serum. Ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotein. Ana o 3 has been studied more in detail to identify both the small and large subunits, both displaying microheterogeneity, and epitope mapping of Ana o 3 has been performed. PMID:26769082

  13. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3.

    PubMed

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; van der Valk, Johanna P M; van Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-02-10

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. The purified proteins still bind IgE, and this IgE binding varied between different pools of patient serum. Ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotein. Ana o 3 has been studied more in detail to identify both the small and large subunits, both displaying microheterogeneity, and epitope mapping of Ana o 3 has been performed.

  14. Effects of dietary cadmium on Mallard ducklings

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, B.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Moore, J.

    1983-12-01

    Mallard (Anan platyrhynchos) ducklings were fed cadmium in the diet at 0, 5, 10, or 20 ppm from 1 day of age until 12 weeks of age. At 4-week intervals six males and six females from each dietary group were randomly selected, bled by jugular venipuncture, and necropsied. Significant decreases in packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and a significant increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were found at 8 weeks of age in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium for 12 weeks. No other blood chemistry measurement, hematological parameter, or tissue histopathological measurement indicated a reaction to cadmium ingestion. Body weight, liver weight, and the ratio of the femur weight to length were not affected by dietary cadmium. Femur cadmium concentration in all ducklings 12 weeks of age declined from the values detected at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Liver cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in relation to the increased dietary levels and in relation to the length of time the ducklings were fed the cadmium diets. At 12 weeks of age the cadmium concentration in liver tissue was twice that in the diet. 38 references.

  15. Hematological evaluation of lead intoxication in mallards

    SciTech Connect

    Mautino, M.; Bell, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of blood lead has been the most widely accepted laboratory test for monitoring environmental lead exposure. Many technical difficulties are inherent in the precise quantification of blood lead at low concentrations and a margin of error of fifteen percent is not uncommon. Measurement of critical biochemical alterations resulting from lead exposure may provide a better indication of the toxic response of an individual than the actual measurement of blood lead. Lead exposure alters a number of enzymes resulting in impaired heme synthesis and an elevation or excretion of intermediates. Although the determination of blood lead has been the reference standard for monitoring lead exposure, the measurement of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (delta-ALAD) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations (FEP) have been utilized to evaluate the extent of lead exposure in several species. In humans, there is a good correlation between both delta-ALAD and FEP and the deleterious effects seen following lead exposure. In avian species, investigators have measured elevated lead concentrations and an inhibition of delta-ALAD activity in lead-dosed mallards.

  16. Does Influenza A affect body condition of wild mallard ducks, or vice versa?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are well documented to circulate within wild waterfowl populations (Olsen et al. 2006). It has been assumed that these infections are benign with no subsequent effects on life-history parameters. The study by Latorre-Margalef et al. (2009; hereafter L.-M. et al.) represents an important step, as they attempt to test this assumption in wild birds. L.-M. et al. captured migrating mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) at a staging area and tested them for the presence of avian influenza A virus (IAV). They related IAV infection status to body mass and duration of time spent on the staging area. Overall, the study is well designed with impressive sample sizes and the analyses are carefully conducted and presented. However, in discussing these results, the authors assume causation based upon correlation and, although they acknowledge the possibility of immunosuppression during migration due to reduced energy stores, they do not discuss it as a possible explanation for their findings. Below, we consider several of the major findings by L.-M. et al., providing alternative explanations for the results. Because the L.-M. et al. study design is correlational, it is not possible to use their data to distinguish between their interpretations and our alternative explanations.

  17. Maternal investment of female mallards is influenced by male carotenoid-based coloration

    PubMed Central

    Giraudeau, M.; Duval, C.; Czirják, G. Á.; Bretagnolle, V.; Eraud, C.; McGraw, K. J.; Heeb, P.

    2011-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that females modify their investment in a breeding attempt according to its reproductive value. One prediction of this hypothesis is that females will increase reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In birds, it was shown that females can modulate pre-hatch reproductive investment by manipulating egg and clutch sizes and/or the concentrations of egg internal compounds according to paternal attractiveness. However, the differential allocation of immune factors has seldom been considered, particularly with an experimental approach. The carotenoid-based ornaments can function as reliable signals of quality, indicating better immunity or ability to resist parasites. Thus, numerous studies show that females use the expression of carotenoid-based colour when choosing mates; but the influence of this paternal coloration on maternal investment decisions has seldom been considered and has only been experimentally studied with artificial manipulation of male coloration. Here, we used dietary carotenoid provisioning to manipulate male mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bill coloration, a sexually selected trait, and followed female investment. We show that an increase of male bill coloration positively influenced egg mass and albumen lysozyme concentration. By contrast, yolk carotenoid concentration was not affected by paternal ornamentation. Maternal decisions highlighted in this study may influence chick survival and compel males to maintain carotenoid-based coloration from the mate-choice period until egg-laying has been finished. PMID:20843851

  18. Growth of mallards fed phosphamidon for 13-day periods during three different developmental stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) were exposed to a 13-day dietary treatment of O, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm phosphamidon at one of three successive age intervals (5-17 days, 18-30 days, or 31-43 days) during a 10-week growth period. Weekly measurements of body weight, wing length, primary feather length, and bill length revealed slower development of primary feathers in those birds treated from 5 to 17 days; treatment effects on body weight and wing length from 6 to 8 weeks of age were observed among those birds treated from 18 to 30 days of age. Some differences in growth patterns among birds treated with the same phosphamidon level, but at different growth stages, were attributed to the varying size of the group with which a duckling was housed at different times in the growth process. No brain cholinesterase depression was observed in any group either 24 h after phosphamidon treatment was terminated or at 10 weeks of age.

  19. Eggshell thinning and residues in mallards on year after DDE exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haegele, M.A.; Hudson, R.H.

    1974-01-01

    A group of 16 mallard hens (Anas platyrhynchos), that had been given feed containing 40 ppm ofp,p'-DDE for 96 days, laid eggs with shells averaging about 15%?20% thinner than those of ten control birds during and up to 42 days after treatment. In eight of the treated birds killed at that time, whole-body DDE residues averaged 33.1 ppm (wet weight). The other eight treated birds and ten controls were kept through the winter with no additional DDE exposure and penned separately five days for individual egg collection about three weeks after laying began in spring. At that time (nearly 11 months after DDE feeding had stopped), the treated birds laid eggs with shells averaging 7.4% thinner than control eggshells (significant at P<0.05) and their whole-body DDE residues averaged 9.6 ppm (wet weight). Variations in eggshell thickness and DDE residues were considerable among treated birds. However, regression analysis showed moderate negative correlations (r=?0.51 to ?0.62) between eggshell thickness and DDE residues in whole bodies and eggs, and strong positive correlations (r=0.73 and 0.91) between DDE residues in whole bodies and in eggs.

  20. How much habitat management is needed to meet mallard production objectives?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Shaffer, T.L.; Kraft, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    We used results from simulation models to demonstrate the benefit-cost ratios of habitat management to increase the number of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) recruits produced. The models were applied to hypothetical 2-habitat landscapes comprised of managed and unmanaged habitat. Managed habitats were predator barrier fencing and CRP cover; unmanaged habitat was grassland. As the amount of managed cover increased, the production curve rose rapidly and leveled off. If 2 managed habitats are added to a landscape, the cover can compete for available nesting hens, thus negating the benefits of 1 of the covers. After converting benefits and costs to dollars, we determined the point at which maximum net benefit occurs. We present an equation that can be used to determine the maximum net benefit of a management treatment given the size of the breeding population and the values of costs and benefits. Our examples demonstrate that, on local areas, it is inefficient to spend money for habitat management once maximum net benefit has been attained. If desired production can not be attained efficiently on an area, the manager can invest effort on alternative areas with greater management potential. If recruitment is inadequate to maintain a stable population, managers should manage to increase recruitment before attempting to attract additional breeding pairs. If recruitment more than maintains the breeding population, managers should attempt to attract additional breeding pairs to the area.

  1. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment and nutrition on mallard duckling brain growth and biochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas-Stroebel, E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Brewer, G.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Day-old mallard (Anas platyryhnchos) ducklings received either a clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho (CDARB) sediment (3449 ug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet (24% clean sediment with equivalent lead acetate to the 24% CDARB diet) for 6 weeks. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean concentration of 396 ppb (WW) brain lead with decreased brain protein and ATP concentrations but increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) relative to the control diet. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in a concentration of 485 ppb brain lead with lower brain weight and ATP concentration than controls but higher concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and calcium. Lead acetate accumulated twice as well as CDARB derived lead and resulted in histopathological lesions of the brain. With a combination of a suboptimal diet and 24% CDARB, brain lead concentration was higher (594 ppb) than with 24% CDARB in the standard diet, histopathological lesions became apparent and GSH was higher than suboptimal diet controls.

  2. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment and nutrition on mallard duckling brain growth and biochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas-Stroebel, E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Brewer, G.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Day-old mallard (Anas platyryhnchos) ducklings received either a clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho (CDARB) sediment (3449 I?g/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet (24% clean sediment with equivalent lead acetate to the 24% CDARB diet) for 6 weeks. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean concentration of 396 ppb (WW) brain lead with decreased brain protein and ATP concentrations but increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) relative to the control diet. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in a concentration of 485 ppb brain lead with lower brain weight and ATP concentration than controls but higher concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and calcium. Lead acetate accumulated twice as well as CDARB derived lead and resulted in histopathological lesions of the brain. With a combination of a suboptimal diet and 24% CDARB, brain lead concentration was higher (594 ppb) than with 24% CDARB in the standard diet, histopathological lesions became apparent and GSH was higher than suboptimal diet controls.

  3. Toxicity of Abate? 4E (temephos) in mallard ducklings and the influence of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Franson, J.C.; Rattner, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diets mixed to contain 0,0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ppm temephos (determined chemically to contain less than 0.5, less than 0.5, 0.89, 6..0 and 59 ppm temephos, respectively) in an Abate ? 4E formulation, were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 7 d. During this period, half of the ducklings in each dietary treatment group were housed in a heated brooder (39 to 41?C) and half were housed in an unheated brooder (10 to 18?C). Mortality in all dietary groups in the unheated brooder was higher than in the heated brooder. High temephos-related mortality occurred in the 100 ppm group in the unheated brooder but not in any other diet-temperature groups. Ingestion of the 100 ppm temephos diet inhibited plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity, but other selected plasma chemistries were not affected in a dose-related manner. Brain ChE activity was depressed only in the 100 ppm dietary groups; maximum inhibition of brain ChE activity was 48%. These findings suggest that diets containing up to 10 ppm temephos do not directly affect duckling survival during the first week of life and that the toxicity of 100 ppm temephos is markedly enhanced by cold.

  4. Influence of laying on lead accumulation in bone of mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Paired mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were given No. 4 lead shot, and bone lead concentrations were compared in drakes and in laying and nonlaying hens. Lead accumulation was significantly greater in bones with a high medullary content (femur and sternum) compared with bones with a lower medullary content (ulna-radius or wingbones). In dosed groups, hens always contained higher bone lead residues than drakes. After dosage with one shot (approximately 200 mg lead), lead in femurs of laying hens averaged 488.4 ppm compared with 113.6 ppm in nonlaying hens. Femurs of drakes averaged 9.4 ppm lead. Dosage with the second lead shot did not result in further accumulation of bone lead in hens, but increased bone lead concentrations threefold in drakes, suggesting that saturation levels for bone lead had already been reached in the hens after ingestion of one shot. There was no demonstrable relationship between egg production and bone lead residues. The high lead residues, found in medullary bones of laying hens indicate that sex and physiological condition are major factors influencing lead absorption by bone.

  5. Influence of diet on selenium (Se) toxicosis and oxidative stress in mallard ducklings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.

    1995-12-31

    High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and result in toxicity to fish and wildlife. Both quality and composition of diet including protein for wild ducklings may vary in Se-contaminated environments. The authors compared the effects of Se (as seleno-DL-methionine) at different concentrations of dietary protein and methionine supplementation in mallard (Anas platvrhynchos) ducklings. Further comparisons were made among different forms of Se, including seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W) using a wheat-based diet and a non-wheat diet. All forms of selenium with different diets caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Antagonistic interactive effects occurred between supplementary protein or methionine and Se. These included partial to complete alleviation of the following Se effects: mortality, hepatic lesions, and altered glutathione and thiol status. Se as L with the wheat-based diet was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) at 30 ppm and impaired growth (> 50%) and increased ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione, Se as Y accumulated the least in liver compared to other forms. In a subsequent experiment with a non-wheat diet, Se as L was less toxic, These findings suggest the potential for antagonistic interactions between Se and dietary protein and methionine.

  6. Levels of Total Mercury in Tissues of Mallard Drakes from Industrialized Wetlands Area.

    PubMed

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Przystupińska, Anna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of total mercury in the bodies of drake mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) inhabiting an industrialized wetland area in southern Poland was studied. The median Hg concentration in tissue of various bones (0.017 µg/g w.w.) was statistically lower than the concentration found in muscle tissue (0.023 µg/g w.w.) and in internal organ tissue samples calculated across the whole range of organ types (0.036 µg/g w.w.). The median concentrations in muscle tissue and organ tissue were comparable. Significant differences within the examined bones were observed, with the beak accumulating the highest amount (0.105 µg/g w.w.). Concentrations were comparable in tissue from various muscles, whereas internal organ tissue displayed a significant variation. The highest median concentration was detected in the kidneys (0.109 µg/g w.w.). Correlations of Hg concentrations between major groups of tissue (i.e. bone, muscle and internal organs) were not statistically significant, but several significant relationships were noted between internal organs.

  7. Effects of dietary boron and arsenic on the behavior of mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitworth, M.R.; Pendleton, G.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Camardese, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    High concentrations of boron and arsenic have been associated with irrigation drain water and aquatic plants consumed by waterfowl. Both compounds affect the central nervous sytem and cause generalized physiological distress in mammals and waterfowl. We examined sublethal efefcts of boron and arsenic on the behavior of developing mallard ducklings (Anas Platyrhnchos). Day-old ducklings received an untreated diet (control) or a diet containing 100, 400, or 1,600 ppm boron, added as boric acid, or 30, 100, or 300 ppm arsenic, added as sodium aresenate. Activity schedules and behavior durations were analyzed for effects at the various treatment levels. Both boron and arsenic at the highest levels had significant effects on the activity schedules of developing ducklings, including increased time at rest and under the provided heat lamp. We also observed decreases in the amount of time treated ducklings spent in alert behaviors and in the water in comparison to control ducklings. High levels of boron (1,600 ppm) increased feeding time overall but did not increase the amount of food consumed. Arsenic had no effect on feeding behavior. There were no differences found in the durations of behaviors as a result of treatment. These findings, in combination with reported effects on the growth and physiology of ducklings under identical treatments, suggest that reported concentrations of these compounds in aquatic plants in the Central Valley of California could adversly affect normal duckling development and survival.

  8. Maternal investment of female mallards is influenced by male carotenoid-based coloration.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, M; Duval, C; Czirják, G A; Bretagnolle, V; Eraud, C; McGraw, K J; Heeb, P

    2011-03-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that females modify their investment in a breeding attempt according to its reproductive value. One prediction of this hypothesis is that females will increase reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In birds, it was shown that females can modulate pre-hatch reproductive investment by manipulating egg and clutch sizes and/or the concentrations of egg internal compounds according to paternal attractiveness. However, the differential allocation of immune factors has seldom been considered, particularly with an experimental approach. The carotenoid-based ornaments can function as reliable signals of quality, indicating better immunity or ability to resist parasites. Thus, numerous studies show that females use the expression of carotenoid-based colour when choosing mates; but the influence of this paternal coloration on maternal investment decisions has seldom been considered and has only been experimentally studied with artificial manipulation of male coloration. Here, we used dietary carotenoid provisioning to manipulate male mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bill coloration, a sexually selected trait, and followed female investment. We show that an increase of male bill coloration positively influenced egg mass and albumen lysozyme concentration. By contrast, yolk carotenoid concentration was not affected by paternal ornamentation. Maternal decisions highlighted in this study may influence chick survival and compel males to maintain carotenoid-based coloration from the mate-choice period until egg-laying has been finished. PMID:20843851

  9. Effects of malathion, diazinon, and parathion on mallard embryo development and cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of external exposure of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs to malathion, diazinon, and parathion were examined using formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Treatment with aqueous emulsion simulated exposure at the rate of 100 gal per acre (153 liters/hectare) with three to six different doses per compound with treatment at 3 and 8 days of embryonic development. Treatment with a nontoxic oil vehicle simulated exposure at the rate of 11 gal per acre (16.8 liters/hectare) with three to six different doses per compound. The order of embryotoxicity on a pounds-per-acre basis was parathion > diazinon > malathion with either vehicle. However, the potential hazard under conditions of up to five times the maximum field level of application was greater for malathion because of the high permissible level of application for malathion on certain crops. Parathion, the most embryotoxic of the three, had the most pronounced effects when an oil vehicle was used, as reflected by an LC50 of about 2 lb of active ingredient per acre, stunted growth, and a high frequency of malformations involving distortion of the axial skeleton, particularly in the cervical region. All three compounds resulted in significant depression of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity, but parathion caused the most depression throughout development, which was still apparent in hatchlings. Treatment with either distilled water or oil vehicle alone did not result in any of these effects seen with organophosphorous insecticides.

  10. Conditions and limitations on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent limitations on learning in the AHM process.

  11. Interactive effects of selenium, methionine, and dietary protein on survival, growth, and physiology in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of over 100 ppm (100 mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Both quantity and composition of dietary protein for wild ducklings may vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Day-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received one of the following diets containing 22% protein: unsupplemented (controls), 15 ppm Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, methionine supplemented, 15 ppm Se with methionine supplement, or 60 ppm Se with methionine supplement. In a second concurrent experiment the above sequence was repeated with a protein-restricted (11%) but isocaloric diet. In a third concurrent experiment all ducklings received 44% protein with 0, 15, or 60 ppm Se added. After 4 weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and histopathological lesions of the liver occurred. Antagonistic interactive effects occurred between supplementary methionine and Se, including complete to partial alleviation of the following Se effects by methionine: mortality, hepatic lesions, and altered glutathione and thiol status. With 11% protein, growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, Se (60 ppm) caused 100% mortality, and methionine supplementation, although protective afforded less protection than it did with 22% protein. With 44% protein, ducklings experienced physiological stress, and Se was more toxic than with methionine-supplemented 22% protein. These findings suggest the potential for antagonistic effects of Se, methionine, and protein on duckling survival and physiology.

  12. Interactive effects of arsenate, selenium, and dietary protein on survival, growth, and physiology in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Total biomass of invertebrates, a maJor source of protein for wild ducklings, may vary in environments that are contaminated with selenium. Dayold mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 22% protein or diets containing 15 ppm Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, 200 ppm As (as sodium arsenate), 15 ppm Se with 200 ppm As, or 60 ppm Se with 200 ppm As. In a concurrent experiment, the same sequence was repeated with a proteinrestricted (7%) but isocaloric diet. After 4 weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and livers had histopathological lesions. Arsenic alone caused some reduction in growth. Antagonistic interactive effects occurred between As and Se, including complete to partial alleviation of the following Se effects: mortality, impaired growth, hepatic lesions and lipid peroxidation, and altered glutathione and thiol status. With 7% protein, survival and growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, Se (60 ppm) caused 100% mortality, and As (200 ppm) caused mortality, decreased growth, and liver histopathology. These findings suggest the potential for antagonistic effects of Se and As on duckling survival, growth, and physiology with adequate dietary protein but more severe toxicological effects when dietary protein is diminished.

  13. Methylmercury: Second-year feeding effects on mallard reproduction and duckling behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    For 2 consecutive years mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) hens were fed a control diet or a diet that contained 0.5 or 3 ppm mercury as methylmercury (about 0.1 and 0.6 ppm mercury on the basis of a natural succulent diet). During the fifth egg-collection period, levels of mercury in eggs of hens fed 0.5 and 3 ppm mercury averaged 0.79 and 5.46 ppm, respectively; on a dry-weight basis, the concentration of mercury in eggs was 4.88 times as great as that in the feed of ducks fed 0.5 ppm mercury and 5.64 times as great for ducks fed 3 ppm mercury. There were no significant differences in egg production or hatching success among controls and groups fed mercury. Ducklings from hens fed 3 ppm mercury were less likely to survive to 1 week of age than were controls or ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury. There were no significant differences in approach behavior among the offspring of controls and groups fed mercury. In avoidance behavior, ducklings whose parents were fed 3 ppm mercury were hyper-responsive compared with controls and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury.

  14. Oil and related toxicant effects on mallard immune defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, T.M.; Hinsdill, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    A crude oil, a petroleum distillate, and chemically dispersed oil were tested for their effects on resistance to bacterial infection and the immune response in waterfowl. Sublethal oral doses for mallards were determined for South Louisiana crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil a dispersant-Corexit 9527, and oil/Corexit combinations by gizzard intubation. Resistance to bacterial challange (Pasteurella multocida) was significantly lowered in mallards receiving 2.5 or 4.0 ml/kg of Bunker C fuel oil, 4.0 ml/kg of South Louisiana crude oil, and 4.0 ml/kg of a 50:1 Bunker C fuel oil/Corexit mixture daily for 28 days. Ingestion of oil or oil/Corexit mixtures had no effect on mallard antibody-producing capability as measured by the direct spleen plaque-forming assay.

  15. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  16. Prolonged retention of methyl mercury by mallard drakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.; McLane, M.A.R.; Bruns, M.

    1977-01-01

    Mallard drakes accumulated mercury rapidly from dietary dosage of methylmercury dicyandiamide and eliminated it slowly, retaining approximately one half at the end of 84 days; no measurable loss occurred between the end of the 7th and 56th days, but loss resumed concurrently with new feather growth, and continued through the 112th day, the close of the study.

  17. Effects of Corexit 9527 on the hatchability of mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and Corexit 9527 on mallard eggs. Artificially-incubated eggs were exposed by eggshell application to varying amounts of either Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Corexit 9527, a 30:1 oil-dispersant mixture, or a 5:1 oil-dispersant mixture. Measured hatching success, stage of development at death, and hatching weight of ducklings.

  18. An empirical evaluation of landscape energetic models: Mallard and American black duck space use during the non-breeding period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bird conservation Joint Ventures are collaborative partnerships between public agencies and private organizations that facilitate habitat management to support waterfowl and other bird populations. A subset of Joint Ventures has developed energetic carrying capacity models (ECCs) to translate regional waterfowl population goals into habitat objectives during the non-breeding period. Energetic carrying capacity models consider food biomass, metabolism, and available habitat to estimate waterfowl carrying capacity within an area. To evaluate Joint Venture ECCs in the context of waterfowl space use, we monitored 33 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 55 female American black ducks (A. rubripes) using global positioning system satellite telemetry in the central and eastern United States. To quantify space use, we measured first-passage time (FPT: time required for an individual to transit across a circle of a given radius) at biologically relevant spatial scales for mallards (3.46 km) and American black ducks (2.30 km) during the non-breeding period, which included autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We developed a series of models to predict FPT using Joint Venture ECCs and compared them to a biological null model that quantified habitat composition and a statistical null model, which included intercept and random terms. Energetic carrying capacity models predicted mallard space use more efficiently during autumn and spring migrations, but the statistical null was the top model for winter. For American black ducks, ECCs did not improve predictions of space use; the biological null was top ranked for winter and the statistical null was top ranked for spring migration. Thus, ECCs provided limited insight into predicting waterfowl space use during the non-breeding season. Refined estimates of spatial and temporal variation in food abundance, habitat conditions, and anthropogenic disturbance will likely improve ECCs and benefit conservation planners

  19. Replication of 2 subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus of duck and gull origins in experimentally infected Mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Daoust, P-Y; van de Bildt, M; van Riel, D; van Amerongen, G; Bestebroer, T; Vanderstichel, R; Fouchier, R A M; Kuiken, T

    2013-05-01

    Many subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus circulate in wild bird reservoirs, but their prevalence may vary among species. We aimed to compare by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, histology, and immunohistochemistry the distribution and pathogenicity of 2 such subtypes of markedly different origins in Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos): H2N3 isolated from a Mallard duck and H13N6 isolated from a Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis). Following intratracheal and intraesophageal inoculation, neither virus caused detectable clinical signs, although H2N3 virus infection was associated with a significantly decreased body weight gain during the period of virus shedding. Both viruses replicated in the lungs and air sacs until approximately day 3 after inoculation and were associated with a locally extensive interstitial, exudative, and proliferative pneumonia. Subtype H2N3, but not subtype H13N6, went on to infect the epithelia of the intestinal mucosa and cloacal bursa, where it replicated without causing lesions until approximately day 5 after inoculation. Larger quantities of subtype H2N3 virus were detected in cloacal swabs than in pharyngeal swabs. The possible clinical significance of LPAI virus-associated pulmonary lesions and intestinal tract infection in ducks deserves further evaluation.

  20. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  1. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  2. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment and nutrition on mallard duckling behavior and growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas-Stroebel, E.; Brewer, G.L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has become a recognized exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d?Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho were evaluated on mallard (Anas platyryhnchos) duckling behavior and growth over a five-week period using time-activity budgets. Day-old ducklings received either a clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, CDARB sediment (3,449 ug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet (24% clean sediment with equivalent lead acetate to the 24% CDARB diet). Ten different behaviors were monitored for time spent, including resting, standing, moving, drinking, dabbling, feeding, pecking, preening, bathing and swimming. Contaminated sediment (24% CDARB ) and lead acetate significantly decreased the proportion of time spent swimming. There were also problems with balance and mobility in the 24% CDARB and the lead acetate groups. With a less optimal diet (mixture of two thirds corn and one third standard diet) containing 24% clean sediment, nutrient level alone affected six different behaviors including feeding, pecking, swimming, preening, standing, and dabbling. Nutrient level also significantly decreased the growth rate and delayed the initial time of molt. When the corn diet contained CDARB sediment, the proportion of time spent bathing in the 24% CDARB group significantly decreased with marginal effects on resting and feeding. There were also instances of imbalance with 24% CDARB and corn diet, and duckling weights were significantly lower than in corn diet controls. The decreased time spent swimming or bathing, coupled with problems of balance and mobility, decreased growth, histopathological lesions and altered brain biochemistry (reported elsewhere) illustrate a potential threat to the survival of ducklings in the wild that are exposed to lead-containing sediments within the CDARB or elsewhere.

  3. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  4. Effects of petroleum on adrenocortical activity and on hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorsline, J.; Holmes, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Unstressed mallard ducks (Anas platyrhychos), given uncontaminated food and maintained on a short photoperiod, show two daily maxima in plasma corticosterone concentration ([B]); one occurring early in the light phase and a second just before the onset of darkness. After one week of exposure to food containing 3% (v/w) South Louisiana crude oil, plasma [B] were significantly lowered throughout the day. Similar abrupt declines in plasma [B] also occurred during the first 10 days of exposure to food containing 1% and 0.5% crude oil. Although the plasma [B] in birds consuming food contaminated with 0.5% crude oil increased between 10 and 50 days of exposure, the concentration after 50 days was still lower than normal. During the same interval, normal plasma [B] were restored in birds consuming food containing 1% and 3% crude oil. Significant increases occurred in the naphthalene-metabolizing properties of hepatic microsomes prepared from birds acutely exposed to all levels of petroleum-contaminated food and elevated levels were sustained throughout the first 50 days of exposure. Birds given food containing 3% crude oil for more than 50 days, however, showed steady declines in hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity. After 500 days, the activity was similar to that found in contemporaneous controls. During the same interval, the plasma [B] increased until the levels were higher than normal after 500 days of exposure; at this time, an inverse relationship, similar to that seen during the first week of exposure to contaminated food, was once more established between plasma [B] and the concomitant hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity.

  5. Evaluation of potential embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of 42 herbicides, insecticides, and petroleum contaminants to mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Results are reported for the embryotoxicity of 42 environmental contaminants applied externally to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs including crude and refined petroleum, and commercial formulations of herbicides and insecticides. Many of the petroleum pollutants were embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic and had LD50s of 0.3 to 5 ?l per egg (~6?90 ?g/g egg). The most toxic was a commercial oil used for control of road dust followed by South Louisiana crude oil, Kuwait crude, no. 2 fuel oil, bunker C fuel oil, and industrial and automotive waste oil. Prudhoe Bay crude, unused crankcase oil, aviation kerosene, and aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures were less toxic ( LD50s of 18 to over 75 ? l) and less teratogenic. The LD50s of herbicides and insecticides in aqueous emulsion were measured by egg immersion; the most toxic were paraquat and trifluralin (LD50s of about 1.5 Ibs/A; 1.7 kg/ha). Propanil, bromoxynil with MCPA, methyl diclofop, prometon, endrin, sulprofos, and parathion were toxic (LD50s of 7 to 40 Ibs/A; 7.8?44.8 kg/ha), whereas 2,4-D, glyphosate, atrazine, carbaryl, dalapon, dicamba, methomyl, and phosmet were only slightly toxic or not toxic (LD50s of 178 to over 500 Ibs/A; 199?560 kg/ha). Pesticides in nontoxic oil vehicle applied by microliter pipet were up to 18 times more toxic than when applied in water vehicle, which was probably due to better penetration of the pesticide past the eggshell and its membranes. Teratogenic effects and impaired embryonic growth are reported and results discussed in terms of potential hazard at field levels of application. A discussion is provided on the effects of pollutants on the eggs of other species of birds under laboratory and field conditions.

  6. Interactive effects of boron, selenium, and dietary protein on survival, growth and physiology in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    High concentrations of boron (B) and selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Total biomass of invertebrates, a maJor source of protein for wild ducklings, is sometimes diminished in agricultural drainwater ponds contaminated with Se and B. Dayold mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 22% protein or diets containing 15 ppm (microgram/g) Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, 1,000 ppm B (as boric acid), 15 ppm Se with 1,000 ppm B, or 60 ppm Se with 1,000 ppm B. In a concurrent experiment, the above sequence was repeated with a proteinrestricted (7%) but isocaloric diet. After four weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and histopathological lesions of the liver occurred. Boron alone caused some reduction in growth. Several interactive effects occurred between B and Se, including further reduction in growth, and increases in plasma glutathione reductase activity, hematocrit, hemoglobin and plasma protein concentrations. With 7% protein, the growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, 60 ppm Se caused 100% mortality, and growth effects of 15 ppm Se and 1,000 ppm B alone were more pronounced than with 22% protein. Selenium accumulation increased in the liver with 7% protein. Interactive effects were greater for Se and B with 7% protein than with 22% protein and included significant mortality and enhanced accumulation of Se in the liver. These findings suggest the potential for more severe toxicological effects of Se and B independently and interactively on duckling survival and development when dietary protein is diminished.

  7. Nonlinear effects of food aggregation on interference competition in mallards

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Erica P.; Nolet, Bart A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of interference competition have shown an asymmetric effect on intake rate of foragers on clumped resources, with only subordinate individuals suffering. However, the food distributions in these studies were uniform or highly clumped, whereas in many field situations, food aggregation is intermediate. Here we investigated whether food distribution (i.e., uniform, slightly clumped, and highly clumped) affects the behavioral response of mallards foraging alone or competing with another. Although the amount of food was the same in all distributions, the mallards reached higher intake rates, visited fewer patches, and showed longer average feeding times in the highly clumped distribution. Competing mallards had lower intake rates on the slightly clumped than on the uniform or highly clumped food distributions. Subordinates generally visited more patches and had shorter feeding times per patch, but their intake rates were not significantly lower than those of dominants. Therefore, we propose that subordinates do not necessarily suffer from interference competition in terms of intake rate, but do suffer higher search costs. In addition, although dominants had significantly higher average feeding times on the best quality patches of the highly clumped food distribution, such an effect was not found in the slightly clumped distribution. These findings indicate that in environments where food is aggregated to a lesser extent, monopolization is not the best strategy for dominants. Our results suggest that interference experiments should use food distributions that resemble the natural situation animals are faced with in the field. PMID:20976292

  8. Reproductive and hormonal risk factors for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a representative sample of U.S. women

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; Miller, Frederick W.; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K.L.; Andrushchenko, Zhanna; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Jusko, Todd A.; Kissling, Grace E.; Patel, Mehul D.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Weinberg, Clarice; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Autoantibodies are of growing interest in cancer research as potential biomarkers; yet the determinants of autoimmunity are not well understood. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are common in the general population, and are more prevalent in women and older adults. Here we examined the relationship of ANA with reproductive and hormonal factors in a representative sample of U.S. women. Methods We analyzed data on reproductive history and exogenous hormone use in relation to serum ANA in 2,037 females ages 12 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 1999–2004). Estimated ANA prevalences were adjusted for sampling weights. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for age, race and poverty-income-ratio, and models were stratified by menopause status. Results In premenopausal women ages 20 and older, ANA prevalence was associated with parity (p<0.001; parous versus nulliparous POR=2.0; 95%CI 1.2, 3.4), but in parous women ANA did not vary by number of births, age at first birth, years since last birth or breastfeeding. In postmenopausal women, ANA prevalence was associated with an older age at menarche (p=0.019; age 16–20 versus 10–12 years POR=3.0, 95%CI 1.6, 5.9), but not with parity. Oral contraceptives and estrogen therapy were not associated with a higher ANA prevalence. Conclusions Childbearing (having had one or more births) may explain age-associated elevations in ANA prevalence seen in premenopausal women. Impact These findings highlight the importance of considering reproductive history in studies of autoimmunity and cancer in women. PMID:25086100

  9. 53. SIPHON NO. 1, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. SIPHON NO. 1, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, EXHIBIT L, PROJECT 1933, MAY 1973. SCE drawing no. 5110869 (sheet no. 11; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 42. FOUNDATIONS TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. FOUNDATIONS - TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5393. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. 34. ELEVATION OF RELAY AND CONTROL SWITCHBOARD, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ELEVATION OF RELAY AND CONTROL SWITCHBOARD, SANTA ANA RIVER P.H. #3, JUNE 23, 1943. SCE drawing no. 413187-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 57. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLOT PLAN, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLOT PLAN, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 10, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428615-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. 53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455670-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON CO., APR. 28, 1910, REVISED MAY 12, 1910. SCE drawing no. 4500. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Toxicity of seleno-l-methionine, seleno-dl-methionine, high selenium wheat, and selenized yeast to mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    The toxicity of four chemical forms of selenium (seleno-L-methionine, seleno-DL-methionine, selenized yeast, and high selenium wheat) was compared in day-old mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos). In the first experiment, in which the basal diet was 75% wheat, survival after 2 weeks was lower for ducklings fed 30 ?g/g selenium as seleno-L-methionine (36%) than for ducklings fed 30 ?g/g selenium as seleno-DL-methionine (100%) or 30 ?g/g selenium from high selenium yeast (88%). In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed, survival after 2 weeks was 100% in ducklings fed 30 ?g/g selenium as seleno-DL-methionine, seleno-L-methionine, or selenized yeast. The greater toxicity of the L form of selenomethionine was probably related to the palatability or nutritional nature of the wheat-based diet used in experiment 1, but the exact reason for the difference between the DL and L forms is unknown. Biologically incorporated selenium, derived from high selenium wheat was no more toxic than selenium derived from the two purified forms of selenomethionine, and the selenium in selenized yeast was not as toxic as that in the two forms of selenomethionine.

  17. 2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the north, looking over the flooded fields between Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, just upstream of the Prado Dam site. File number written on negative: R & H 80 024. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  18. 51. INTAKE AND POWER HOUSE AREAS, SANTA ANA NO. 1; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. INTAKE AND POWER HOUSE AREAS, SANTA ANA NO. 1; DETAIL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 1 AND NO. 2 HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, EXHIBIT K, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523690 (sheet no. 5; for filing with the Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Brain lesions in mallard ducklings from parents fed methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Methylmercury dicyandiamide was fed to mallard ducks at 3 ppm mercury. Mercury accumulated in the eggs to an average of 7.18 and 5.46 ppm on a wet-weight basis in 2 successive years. Mercury in the eggs is believed to have caused brain lesions in the hatched ducklings. Lesions included demyelination, neuron shrink-age, necrosis, and hemorrhage in the meninges overlying the cerebellum. Brains of dead ducklings contained an average of 6.17 and 5.19 ppm mercury on a wet-weight basis in 2 successive years.

  20. Effects of low dietary levels of methyl mercury on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.

    1974-01-01

    Mallard ducks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 ppm or 3 ppm mercury (as methylmercury dicyandiamide). Health of adults and reproductive success were studied. The dietary level of 3 ppm mercury had harmful effects on reproduction, although it did not appear to affect the health of the adults during the 12 months of dosage. Ducks that were fed the diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury reproduced as well as controls, and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury grew faster in the first week of life than did controls....The greatest harm to reproduction associated with the diet containing 3 ppm mercury was an increase in duckling mortality, but reduced egg laying and increased embryonic mortality also occurred....During the peak of egg laying, eggs laid by controls tended to be heavier than eggs laid by ducks fed either level of mercury; however, there seemed to be no eggshell thinning associated with mercury treatment. Levels of mercury reached about 1 ppm in eggs from ducks fed a dietary dosage of 0.5 ppm mercury and between 6 and 9 ppm in the eggs from ducks fed 3 ppm mercury.

  1. Recruit an ANA for RCS tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyles, J.

    1985-03-01

    For the conduction of valid radar cross-section (RCS) measurements, it is necessary to remove unwanted signals from the test data. However, the absolute accuracy of the measurements is limited because even the most carefully designed anechoic chamber allows some residual energy to reflect from the walls, floor, and ceiling. The present investigation is concerned with an automatic network analyzer (ANA) which makes it possible to eliminate the unwanted signals from the final results on the basis of a careful calibration. The ANA system consists of a network analyzer, a swept signal source, and a test set. Attention is given to hardware choices for RCS measurements, an extension of the dynamic range, an error model, error-correction procedures for RCS measurements, and the conduction of the measurements.

  2. Effects of sodium and magnesium sulfate in drinking water on mallard ducklings.

    PubMed

    Mitcham, S A; Wobeser, G

    1988-01-01

    One-day-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were given drinking water for up to 28 days that contained concentrations of sodium and/or magnesium similar to those found in saline wetlands. Growth, tissue development, and biochemical characteristics of these ducklings were compared to those reared on fresh water. Much of the ingested salt was excreted by passage of voluminous fluid excreta. This effect occurred in birds given water with as little as 500 ppm Mg or 1,000 ppm Na. The supraorbital salt gland was active within 4 days in ducklings drinking water containing greater than or equal to 1,500 ppm of Na. Feather growth was decreased in ducklings drinking water with greater than or equal to 1,500 ppm of either Na or Mg. Ducklings drinking water with 3,000 ppm of either ion, or 1,500 ppm of each, grew more slowly than control birds. Ducklings drinking water with 3,000 ppm of either Na or Mg had reduced thymus size and bone breaking strength. Those drinking water with 3,000 ppm of Mg, or 3,100 ppm Na and 1,300 ppm Mg also had less trabecular bone and enlarged adrenals. Birds drinking the latter water had an elevated concentration of Na and calcium, and a decreased concentration of phosphorus and chloride in their serum, and elevated plasma protein levels. Ducklings reared on fresh or slightly saline water adapted very poorly to an abrupt change to more saline water (specific conductivity = 15,250 microns hos/cm) at 14 days of age. These birds stopped eating, became inactive and some died within 3 days; survivors had many tissue and biochemical abnormalities at 20 days of age. The level of salinity in these trials was similar to that in "brackish" or "moderately saline" wetlands and lower than that previously found to have effects on growth and feathering of ducklings. Many of the sublethal effects were subtle and non-specific manifestations of stress, and would be difficult to detect in wild ducklings on saline wetlands.

  3. International consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP): the bumpy road towards a consensus on reporting ANA results.

    PubMed

    Damoiseaux, Jan; von Mühlen, Carlos A; Garcia-De La Torre, Ignacio; Carballo, Orlando Gabriel; de Melo Cruvinel, Wilson; Francescantonio, Paulo Luiz Carvalho; Fritzler, Marvin J; Herold, Manfred; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Satoh, Minoru; Andrade, Luis E C; Chan, Edward K L; Conrad, Karsten

    2016-12-01

    The International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) was initiated as a workshop aiming to thoroughly discuss and achieve consensus regarding the morphological patterns observed in the indirect immunofluorescence assay on HEp-2 cells. One of the topics discussed at the second ICAP workshop, and addressed in this paper, was the harmonization of reporting ANA test results. This discussion centered on the issue if cytoplasmic and mitotic patterns should be reported as positive or negative. This report outlines the issues that impact on two major different reporting methods. Although it was appreciated by all participants that cytoplasmic and mitotic patterns are clinically relevant, implications for existing diagnostic/classification criteria for ANA-associated diseases in particular hampered a final consensus on this topic. Evidently, a more concerted action of all relevant stakeholders is required. Future ICAP workshops may help to facilitate this action.

  4. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  5. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12-23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23-39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  6. 50 CFR 21.13 - Permit exceptions for captive-reared mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marked mallard ducks, alive or dead, or their eggs may be acquired, possessed, sold, traded, donated....108 (Nontoxic shot zones), and (2) The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (duck stamp requirement)...

  7. 50 CFR 21.13 - Permit exceptions for captive-reared mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... marked mallard ducks, alive or dead, or their eggs may be acquired, possessed, sold, traded, donated....108 (Nontoxic shot zones), and (2) The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (duck stamp requirement)...

  8. 50 CFR 21.13 - Permit exceptions for captive-reared mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marked mallard ducks, alive or dead, or their eggs may be acquired, possessed, sold, traded, donated....108 (Nontoxic shot zones), and (2) The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (duck stamp requirement)...

  9. 50 CFR 21.13 - Permit exceptions for captive-reared mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... marked mallard ducks, alive or dead, or their eggs may be acquired, possessed, sold, traded, donated....108 (Nontoxic shot zones), and (2) The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (duck stamp requirement)...

  10. 50 CFR 21.13 - Permit exceptions for captive-reared mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... marked mallard ducks, alive or dead, or their eggs may be acquired, possessed, sold, traded, donated....108 (Nontoxic shot zones), and (2) The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (duck stamp requirement)...

  11. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild North American waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.; Krapu, G.L.; Robb, J.R.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Chipley, W.H.; Conroy, M.J.; Kleven, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. Nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma anatis; M. anatis was recovered from four mallards, a black duck, and a gadwall (Anas strepera) duckling. Nineteen (37%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma cloacale; these isolates were obtained from mallard, canvasback, and black duck adults, and from a mallard duckling. Additional unspeciated mycoplasmas were isolated from mallards, black ducks, and one canvasback.

  12. Genetic structure of Eurasian and North American mallard ducks based on mtDNA data.

    PubMed

    Hou, Z-C; Yang, F-X; Qu, L-J; Zheng, J-X; Brun, J-M; Basso, B; Pitel, F; Yang, N; Xu, G-Y

    2012-06-01

    To elucidate the origin and genetic structure of the domesticated duck in Eurasia and North America, we sequenced 114 duck D-loop sequences and retrieved 489 D-loop sequences from GenBank. In total, 603 ducks including 50 duck breeds/populations from eight countries (China, France, Russia, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Thailand and USA) were used in this study. One hundred and thirty-four haplotypes and 81 variable sites were detected. H49 was the predominant haplotype, which was considered to be the same dominant haplotype found in the previous studies, and was found in 309 birds. The smallest values for both genetic differentiation index (F(ST), 0.04156) and the number of the net nucleotide substitutions between two populations (D(A), 0.00018) were observed between Eurasian domestic ducks and Eurasian mallards. No geography, breed or population clusters were observed in the Eurasian domestic ducks and mallards. Five haplotypes were shared by USA mallards and Eurasian domestic duck/Eurasian mallards. Only one haplotype (H49) was shared by Eurasian domestic ducks and China spot-billed ducks. By combining phylogenetic analyses, haplotype network profile, genetic distances and shared haplotypes, we can draw two major conclusions: (i) Eurasian and North American mallards show a clear geographic distribution pattern; (ii) Eurasian domestic ducks are derived from the Eurasian mallards, not from the spot-billed ducks.

  13. A stochastic population model of mid-continental mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koford, Rolf R.; Sauer, J.R.; Johnson, D.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Samuel, M.D.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a simulation model that integrates infonnation on factors affecting the population dynamics of mallards in the mid-continental region of the United States. In the model we vary age, body mass, and reproductive and molt status of simulated females. Females use several types of nesting and foraging habitat in 15 geographic areas. Deterministic and stochastic events cause mortality or attribute changes on a daily basis, depending on current attributes, habitat, area, calendar date, wetland conditions, temperature, and various mortality agents. Because the model encompasses the entire year, it can be used to examine cross-seasonal effects. A simulated increase in nest success from 0.14 to 0.17 changed the annual rate of population growth from -6% to -1 %. A simulated 75% reduction in lead poisoning changed the rate from -6% to -3%.

  14. Behavior of mallard ducklings from parents fed 3 ppm DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks fed a diet containing 3 ppm DDE (equal to about 0.6 ppm in a natural succulent diet) laid eggs that contained an average of 5.8 ppm DDE; ducklings that hatched from these eggs differed from controls in behavioral tests designed to measure responses to a maternal call and to a frightening stimulus. In response to the maternal call, ducklings from parents fed DDE were hyper-responsive; compared to controls, a greater percentage approached the call and a greater percentage of those that approached remained near the call for the remainder of the test. In a test of avoidance behavior, ducklings whose parents were fed DDE traveled shorter distances from the firghtening stimulus than did controls.

  15. Predicting mercury in mallard ducklings from mercury in chorioallantoic membranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury has been suspected as a cause of impaired reproduction in wild birds, but the confounding effects of other environmental stressors has made it difficult to determine how much mercury in the eggs of these wild species is harmful. Even when a sample egg can be collected from the nest of a wild bird and the mercury concentration in that egg compared to the laboratory-derived thresholds for reproductive impairment, additional information on the mercury levels in other eggs from that nest would be helpful in determining whether harmful levels of mercury were present in the clutch. The measurement of mercury levels in chorioallantoic membranes offers a possible way to estimate how much mercury was in a chick that hatched from an egg, and also in the whole fresh egg itself. While an embryo is developing, wastes are collected in a sac called the chorioallantoic membranes, which often remain inside the eggshell and can be collected for contaminant analysis. We fed methylmercury to captive mallards to generate a broad range of mercury levels in eggs, allowed the eggs to hatch normally, and then compared mercury concentrations in the hatchling versus the chorioallantoic membranes left behind in the eggshell. When the data from eggs laid by mercury- treated females were expressed as common logarithms, a linear equation was created by which the concentration of mercury in a duckling could be predicted from the concentration of mercury in the chorioallantoic membranes from the same egg. Therefore, if it were not possible to collect a sample egg from a clutch of wild bird eggs, the collection of the chorioallantoic membranes could be substituted, and the mercury predicted to be in the chick or whole egg could be compared to the thresholds of mercury that have been shown to cause harm in controlled feeding studies with pheasants, chickens, and mallards.

  16. Mortality in the endangered Laysan teal, Anas laysanensis: conservation implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Work, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis is an endangered anatid of the Hawaiian Islands, currently restricted to an emergent atoll, Laysan Island. Laysan Island lacks terrestrial mammalian predators, which permits the examination of mortality rates and causes without the anthropogenic effects of introduced predators. Mass and morophometrics were measured during the colour-marking of 297 Laysan Teal between 1998 and 2001. Intensive mark-resighting and recovery methods were used to estimate adult and juvenile mortality. One hundred and nineteen carcasses were collected on Laysan between 1998 and 2003, and systematic gross and microscopic examinations were undertaken on 63 of these. Causes of mortality were categorised as trauma, emaciation, miscellaneous or undetermined. Annual adult mortality rates were low, 0.05-0.10 (s.e. <0.01), but duckling mortality was much higher, varying from approximately 0.7-0.9 during 1998-2000 and 2003. Body condition of both sexes deteriorates during the breeding season, and most adult mortality (88%) occurred during or post-breeding (May-October). Cause of mortality was determined via necropsy in 22 ducks. Of three adults, one died from bacterial infections, one was egg bound, and one died from botulism concomitant with nematode infestation. Fourteen ducklings died from acute trauma, four from emaciation sometimes associated with nematode infection, and one from bacterial pneumonia Trauma is a significant factor in Laysan duckling mortalities, and elucidating the cause of and preventing such trauma may allow for management measures to enhance duckling survivability. High duckling mortality rates and emaciation also indicate that habitat on Laysan Island may have limited capacity to support broods.

  17. Mortality in the endangered Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis: Conservation implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Work, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis is an endangered anatid of the Hawaiian Islands, currently restricted to an emergent atoll, Laysan Island. Laysan Island lacks terrestrial mammalian predators, which permits the examination of mortality rates and causes without the anthropogenic effects of introduced predators. Mass and morphometrics were measured during the colour-marking of 297 Laysan Teal between 1998 and 2001. Intensive mark-resighting and recovery methods were used to estimate adult and juvenile mortality. One hundred and nineteen carcasses were collected on Laysan between 1998 and 2003, and systematic gross and microscopic examinations were undertaken on 63 of these. Causes of mortality were categorised as trauma, emaciation, miscellaneous or undetermined. Annual adult mortality rates were low, 0.05-0.10 (s.e. < 0.01), but duckling mortality was much higher, varying from approximately 0.7-0.9 during 1998-2000 and 2003. Body condition of both sexes deteriorates during the breeding season, and most adult mortality (88%) occurred during or post-breeding (May-October). Cause of mortality was determined via necropsy in 22 ducks. Of three adults, one died from bacterial infections, one was egg bound, and one died from botulism concomitant with nematode infestation. Fourteen ducklings died from acute trauma, four from emaciation sometimes associated with nematode infection, and one from bacterial pneumonia. Trauma is a significant factor in Laysan duckling mortalities, and elucidating the cause of and preventing such trauma may allow for management measures to enhance duckling survivability. High duckling mortality rates and emaciation also indicate that habitat on Laysan Island may have limited capacity to support broods. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

  18. Communicating stigma: the pro-ana paradox.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna; Martins, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype, and e-mail. Participants were motivated to blog because they found social support, a way to cope with a stigmatized illness, and means of self-expression. Participants described blogging as a cathartic experience and perceived the social support they received from other members of the pro-ana community as a benefit. The fear that the eating disorder will be revealed if the blog is exposed and the concern that the blog encourages disordered eating were the perceived negative consequences of maintaining such a blog. Thus, blogging about anorexia serves to both alleviate and trigger anxiety about living with this stigmatized illness. Recommendations for future research are made.

  19. Is the ANA guilty of paternalism in its guidelines on withdrawing or withholding food and fluid?

    PubMed

    Light, K; Connelly, R

    1989-01-01

    The ANA Committee on Ethics's Guidelines on Withdrawing or Withholding Food and Fluid (1988) delineates those circumstances under which withholding is normally permissible. The Guidelines direct nurses to respect the wishes of competent adults. What of adults who are considered incompetent? Can they make decisions to refuse food and fluids? The Guidelines ask nurses to judge patient competence and the merit of the reasons behind the decisions. This suggests paternalism. A more appropriate role of the nurse might be to focus on helping the patient to make a decision, rather than on the merit of the decision itself.

  20. 29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER P. H. NO. 3, JUNE 23, 1943; REVISIONS, MAR. 14, 1945 AND MAY 17, 1954. SCE drawing no. 523219-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Free inside: The Music Class at Santa Ana Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Joe

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings of the music class at the Santa Ana Jail in Santa Ana, California. It gives us insight into a jail system and a music class focused on helping inmates position themselves to become productive members of society. In this article I examine how the facility encourages inmates' good behaviour and why the music class…

  2. 48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC CO. THROUGH UNSURVEYED LAND IN THE SAN BERNARDINO FOREST RESERVE, APPROVED MAY 26, 1904, F. C. FINKLE, CHIEF HYDRAULIC ENGINEER. SCE drawing no. 53988. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    An extreme sensitivity of pen-reared black ducks (BDs) to lead shot was observed incidental to development of an enzyme assay (Pain & Rattner, 1988). Intubation of pen-reared BDs with one no. 4 lead shot resulted in 60% mortality in 6 days. It was concluded that BDs were more sensitive to lead shot than expected, or that lead toxicity may be exacerbated by stressful conditions (elevated temperature, confinement in small pens). We reexamined lead shot toxicity in BDs and mallards (MLs). In winter 1986 (Ta=1.7-14.6? C), pen-reared and wild BDs, and game-farm and wild MLs were sham-dosed or given one no. 4 shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional shot. Since the original observation of enhanced. shot toxicity to BDs occurred during summer, the study was also repeated in summer 1987 (Ta=I7:6-30.9?C), with pen-reared BDs and game-farm MLs. Mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, and protoporphyrin concentration were used to compare sensitivity among groups. Sensitivity to lead shot was similar between BDs and MLs. However, the wild ducks appeared more vulnerable than their domesticated counterparts, and signs of intoxication were more pronounced in winter than in summer.

  4. Embryotoxic effects of benzo(. cap alpha. )pyrene, chrysene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(. cap alpha. )anthracene in petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gay, M.L.

    1981-05-01

    In the present study the effects of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified in petroleum were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Addition of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene, or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to a synthetic petroleum hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and relatively low embryotoxicity resulted in embryotoxicity that was enhanced or equal to that of crude oil when 10 ..mu../ was applied externally to eggs at 72 h of development. The order of ability to enhance embryotoxicity was DMBA > BaP > chrysene. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that reported after exposure to crude oil. Retarded growth was accompanied by teratogenicity. Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of externally treated eggs showed the passage of aromatic hydrocarbons including chrysene through the shell and shell membranes to the developing embryos. These findings suggest that the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, including BaP, chrysene, and DMBA, significantly enhances the overall embryotoxicity in avian species.

  5. Biochemical identification of mallard-black duck hybrids through a breeding program and in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.

    1978-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce black duck-mallard hybrids for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and esterases. In addition to the initial crosses, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns in hybrid matings with either black duck or mallards. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished. However, mallard or black duck crosses with hybrids were detectable as hybrids in only 11.5 - 22.6% of the progeny using serum proteins, and 22.6 - 38.8% using serum esterases. Concurrent with the breeding program, a field survey indicated hybrid frequencies ranging from 4% to 28%.

  6. Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighterthanairhangar roof truss details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighter-than-air-hangar roof truss details. Drawing no. 212817. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  7. Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighterthanairhangar roof truss details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station, Santa Ana, Calif. Lighter-than-air-hangar roof truss details. Drawing no. 212817. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  8. Differential immune response of mallard duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells to two highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses with distinct pathogenicity in mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhu; Hu, Jiao; He, Liang; Li, Qunhui; Gu, Min; Wang, Xiaoquan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Huimou; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2014-02-01

    CK10 and GS10 are two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses of similar genetic background but differ in their pathogenicity in mallard ducks. CK10 is highly pathogenic whereas GS10 is low pathogenic. In this study, strong inflammatory response in terms of the expression level of several cytokines was observed in mallard duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with CK10 while mild response was triggered in those by GS10 infection. Two remarkable and intense peaks of immune response were induced by CK10 infection within 24 hours (at 8 and 24 hours post infection, respectively) without reducing the virus replication. Our observations indicated that sustained and intense innate immune responses may be central to the high pathogenicity caused by CK10 in ducks.

  9. The solution structure of double helical arabino nucleic acids (ANA and 2'F-ANA): effect of arabinoses in duplex-hairpin interconversion.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pintado, Nerea; Yahyaee-Anzahaee, Maryam; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Noronha, Anne M; Wilds, Christopher J; Damha, Masad J; González, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    We report here the first structure of double helical arabino nucleic acid (ANA), the C2'-stereoisomer of RNA, and the 2'-fluoro-ANA analogue (2'F-ANA). A chimeric dodecamer based on the Dickerson sequence, containing a contiguous central segment of arabino nucleotides, flanked by two 2'-deoxy-2'F-ANA wings was studied. Our data show that this chimeric oligonucleotide can adopt two different structures of comparable thermal stabilities. One structure is a monomeric hairpin in which the stem is formed by base paired 2'F-ANA nucleotides and the loop by unpaired ANA nucleotides. The second structure is a bimolecular duplex, with all the nucleotides (2'F-ANA and ANA) forming Watson-Crick base pairs. The duplex structure is canonical B-form, with all arabinoses adopting a pure C2'-endo conformation. In the ANA:ANA segment, steric interactions involving the 2'-OH substituent provoke slight changes in the glycosidic angles and, therefore, in the ANA:ANA base pair geometry. These distortions are not present in the 2'F-ANA:2'F-ANA regions of the duplex, where the -OH substituent is replaced by a smaller fluorine atom. 2'F-ANA nucleotides adopt the C2'-endo sugar pucker and fit very well into the geometry of B-form duplex, allowing for favourable 2'F···H8 interactions. This interaction shares many features of pseudo-hydrogen bonds previously observed in 2'F-ANA:RNA hybrids and in single 2'F-ANA nucleotides.

  10. Relative toxicity of lead and selected substitute shot types to game farm mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    The acute toxicity of lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot were tested in year-old male game farm mallards. Mallards (Anus platyrhynchos) were fed eight number 6 shot of each type and observed for a period of 60 days. Ducks used totaled 230 and most shot types were tested in three replicates of 8 ducks each. Mortality and losses of body weight were the criteria used for judging toxicity. Three types of plastic-coated lead shot were as toxic (93 percent) as the commercial lead shot (96 percent). The average mortality in mallards fed lead-magnesium alloy shot was less (58 percent) than that occurring in birds fed commercial lead shot. Mortality among mallards fed iron, copper, zinc-coated iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot was significantly less than in birds fed lead shot, and was not significantly greater than the conrtols.

  11. Survival of female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, Jerry R.; McAuley, Daniel G.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Bunck, Christine M.; Clugston, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of location and timing of harvest seasons on mortality of ducks and geese from hunting is important in forming regulations that sustain viable waterfowl populations throughout their range. During 1990 and 1991 we alternately marked 80 hatching year (HY), female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border; half with radio-transmitters and bands and half with only aluminum leg bands. We monitored radio-marked ducks daily and recorded survival status weekly for 15 weeks from August until December each year. Mallard mortalities began 25 September when the hunting season opened in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Overall survival of mallards at week 10 did not differ between years (0.51 in 1990 vs. 0.43 in 1991) or differ from that of HY American black ducks (0.44 females, 0.42 males) based on proportional hazard analysis in a Bayesian framework. The mortality rates for mallards from hunting (0.47) and causes unrelated to hunting (0.06) were similar between years and to those rates for HY black ducks at that same site. Hunter harvest accounted for most of the mortality recorded during this study and illegal feeding (i.e., baiting) at sites just before and during the hunting season was observed. Females with lower body condition index had greater mortality rates; a 1-standard-deviation increase in condition index would reduce mortality hazard by about 29%. Management options that may increase mallard survival in the area include lowering daily bag limit in Quebec and suspending split hunting seasons in Vermont that increase harvest, delaying opening date of hunting in Quebec to allow for increased body condition before hunting season opens, and improving enforcement of baiting restrictions.

  12. Influenza A(H7N9) virus acquires resistance-related neuraminidase I222T substitution when infected mallards are exposed to low levels of oseltamivir in water.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Anna; Nykvist, Marie; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Söderström, Hanna; Wille, Michelle; Daggfeldt, Annika; Bröjer, Caroline; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Järhult, Josef D

    2015-09-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and new human IAVs often contain gene segments originating from avian IAVs. Treatment options for severe human influenza are principally restricted to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), among which oseltamivir is stockpiled in preparedness for influenza pandemics. There is evolutionary pressure in the environment for resistance development to oseltamivir in avian IAVs, as the active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) passes largely undegraded through sewage treatment to river water where waterfowl reside. In an in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) model, we tested if low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus might become resistant if the host was exposed to low levels of OC. Ducks were experimentally infected, and OC was added to their water, after which infection and transmission were maintained by successive introductions of uninfected birds. Daily fecal samples were tested for IAV excretion, genotype, and phenotype. Following mallard exposure to 2.5 μg/liter OC, the resistance-related neuraminidase (NA) I222T substitution, was detected within 2 days during the first passage and was found in all viruses sequenced from subsequently introduced ducks. The substitution generated 8-fold and 2.4-fold increases in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OC (P < 0.001) and zanamivir (P = 0.016), respectively. We conclude that OC exposure of IAV hosts, in the same concentration magnitude as found in the environment, may result in amino acid substitutions, leading to changed antiviral sensitivity in an IAV subtype that can be highly pathogenic to humans. Prudent use of oseltamivir and resistance surveillance of IAVs in wild birds are warranted. PMID:26077257

  13. Influenza A(H7N9) virus acquires resistance-related neuraminidase I222T substitution when infected mallards are exposed to low levels of oseltamivir in water.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Anna; Nykvist, Marie; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Söderström, Hanna; Wille, Michelle; Daggfeldt, Annika; Bröjer, Caroline; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Järhult, Josef D

    2015-09-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and new human IAVs often contain gene segments originating from avian IAVs. Treatment options for severe human influenza are principally restricted to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), among which oseltamivir is stockpiled in preparedness for influenza pandemics. There is evolutionary pressure in the environment for resistance development to oseltamivir in avian IAVs, as the active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) passes largely undegraded through sewage treatment to river water where waterfowl reside. In an in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) model, we tested if low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus might become resistant if the host was exposed to low levels of OC. Ducks were experimentally infected, and OC was added to their water, after which infection and transmission were maintained by successive introductions of uninfected birds. Daily fecal samples were tested for IAV excretion, genotype, and phenotype. Following mallard exposure to 2.5 μg/liter OC, the resistance-related neuraminidase (NA) I222T substitution, was detected within 2 days during the first passage and was found in all viruses sequenced from subsequently introduced ducks. The substitution generated 8-fold and 2.4-fold increases in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OC (P < 0.001) and zanamivir (P = 0.016), respectively. We conclude that OC exposure of IAV hosts, in the same concentration magnitude as found in the environment, may result in amino acid substitutions, leading to changed antiviral sensitivity in an IAV subtype that can be highly pathogenic to humans. Prudent use of oseltamivir and resistance surveillance of IAVs in wild birds are warranted.

  14. Histopathologic effects of dietary cadmium on kidneys and testes of mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Finley, M.T.; Ferrell, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Mallard ducks fed 2, 20, or 200 ppm cadmium chloride were sacrificed at 30, 60, and 90 d. No mortality occured during the study and body weights remained unchanged. Kidney weights of the 200-ppm group were significantly greater after 60 and 90 d than those of controls; also, testis weights were significantly lower after 90 d. Kidneys of ducks fed 2 and 20 ppm cadmium were relatively unaffected; however, slight to severe kidney lesions were found in the 200-ppm group after 60 d of treatment. No significant lesions were found in mallard testes after feeding 2 ppm cadmium in the diet, and only a few birds in the 20-ppm group showed slight to moderate gonad alterations. After 90 d of treatment, however, testes of males fed 200 ppm had atrophied and the spermatogenic process had ceased. This study should provide important information for the interpretation of cadmium levels found in kidneys and testes of wild ducks.

  15. Embryotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene in petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gay, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Studies with different avian species have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 70% of the egg surface result in considerable reduction in hatching with teratogenicity and stunted growth. Other stUdies have shown that the embryo toxicity is dependent on the aromatic hydrocarbon content, further suggesting that the toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study the effects of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified in petroleum were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Addition of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), chrysene, or 7,7 2-dimethylbenz[ a]anthracene (DMBA) to a synthetic petroleum hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and relatively low embryotoxicity resulted in embryo toxicity that was enhanced or equal to that of crude oil when 10 :I was applied externally to eggs at 72 h of development. The order of ability to enhance embryo toxicity was DMBA > BaP > chrysene. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that reported after exposure to crude oil, with additional mortality occurring after outgrowth of the chorioallantois. Retarded growth, as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, was accompanied by teratogenicity. Abnormal embryos exhibited extreme stunting; eye, brain, and bill defects; and incomplete ossification. Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of externally treated eggs showed the passage of aromatic hydrocarbons including chrysene through the shell and shell membranes to the developing embryos. These findings suggest that the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, including BaP, chrysene, and DMBA, significantly enhances the overall embryotoxicity in avian species.

  16. 31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5-TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, SEPT. 4, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523856-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Assessment of species and antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from mallard duck faeces.

    PubMed

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Krueger, Karolin; Roesler, Uwe; Weinreich, Joerg; Schierack, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Mallard ducks have demonstrated to be a likely reservoir for zoonotic E. coli strains; thus, it is possible that these ducks could also act as a reservoir for other Enterobacteriaceae members. The present study was initiated to evaluate the species distribution of Enterobacteriaceae other than E. coli in 175 fresh faecal samples collected from a population of mallard ducks. Sixty-four samples displayed detectable colonies of Enterobacteriaceae (excluding E. coli), which resulted in 75 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. Seventy-five single representatives of each PFGE type were subjected to identification with API 32NE and MALDI TOF MS systems due to the practical difficulties in species differentiation of Enterobacteriaceae. Those isolated were found to be from nine genera: Buttiauxella (15 %), Citrobacter (5 %), Enterobacter (32 %), Hafnia (1 %), Leclercia (1 %), Pantoea (7 %), Raoultella (21 %), Rahnella (7 %) and Serratia (11 %). Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes using the disc method and detection of resistance genes using the microarray method revealed that these microbes possess resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, rifamycine, sulphonamides, streptogramins and diaminopyrimidines. In conclusion, mallard ducks harbour a variety of non-pathogenic and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae species like Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter amnigenus in their intestine and could act as a reservoir of resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

  18. Dona Ana Branch Community College Annual Report, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Dona Ana Branch Community Coll.

    During 1990-91, New Mexico State University's (NMSU's) Dona Ana Branch Community College (DABCC) continued to feel the effects of its fourth year of rapidly increasing enrollments. The defeat of bond issues that would have funded facility expansions resulted in critical space shortages. The 27% increase in headcount enrollments between spring 1990…

  19. 21. ORIGINAL COMPANY HOUSE AT CORNER OF SANTA ANA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. ORIGINAL COMPANY HOUSE AT CORNER OF SANTA ANA AND ANAHEIM BLVDS. (BEHIND HOUSE IN CA-242-20), WHICH IS BEING PREPARED FOR DEMOLITION. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Developing and Validating a Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, S. B.; Rolinski, T.; DAgostino, B.; Vanderburg, S.; Fovell, R. G.; Cao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Santa Ana winds, common to southern California during the fall through spring, are a type of katabatic wind that originates from a direction generally ranging from 360°/0° to 100° and is usually accompanied by very low humidity. Since fuel conditions tend to be driest from late September through the middle of November, Santa Ana winds occurring during this period have the greatest potential to produce large, devastating fires when an ignition occurs. Such catastrophic fires occurred in 1993, 2003, 2007, and 2008. Because of the destructive nature of these fires, there has been a growing desire to categorize Santa Ana wind events in much the same way that tropical cyclones have been categorized. The Santa Ana Wildfire Threat index (SAWT) is an attempt to categorize such events with respect to fire activity, based on surface wind velocity, dew point depression, and forecasted fuel conditions. The index, a USDA Forest Service product, was developed by the Forest Service in collaboration with San Diego Gas and Electric Utility (SDG&E), the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at UCLA, The Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Vertum Partners. The methodology behind the SAWT index, along with the index itself will be presented in detail. Also, there will be a discussion on the construction of a 30-year climatology of the index, which includes various meteorological and fuel parameters. We will demonstrate the usefulness of the index as another decision support tool for fire agencies and first responders, and how it could assist the general public and private industry in the preparation of critical Santa Ana wind events.

  1. The Impact of Santa Ana Winds on Wildland Fire Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billmire, M.; Loboda, T. V.; French, N. H.; Tyner, M.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Ana winds have been implicated as major drivers of extensive wildfires that occur annually in southern California. While numerous anecdotal reports dictate an obvious relationship, there is little quantitative analysis in current literature on how this loosely-defined weather phenomenon impacts fire progression regimes. A new satellite-derived fire progression dataset developed using MODIS and Landsat was linked to a network of 82 Remote Automated Weather Stations (RAWS) to evaluate three differing a priori classifications of Santa Ana events defined using three weather parameters: wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity. The fire progression dataset comprised 528 burn area polygons representing 151 distinct fire events from 2001-2009 in southern California. Each burn area polygon was assigned weather data from one of the RAWS units by shortest straight-line distance. These data and methods show quantitatively that burn area is dramatically larger under Santa Ana conditions than under non-Santa Ana conditions (see table). Outliers of both types (large burn areas under non-SA conditions; small burn areas under SA conditions) were identified and closely examined to identify potentially confounding variables. Time-lag effects (particularly with respect to cumulative precipitation preceding day of burn) and effects with regard to local vs. regional measurements were examined as well. We tested 17 variables (3 relative humidity variables, 5 wind speed variables, 3 temperature variables, 3 moisture variables, previous day burn area, census-derived population density, and the number of hours meeting one Santa Ana classification) individually and in combination for correlation with both burn area and burn area change from the previous day to test their predictive power. Mean daily relative humidity was found to have the strongest correlation (Pearson's r = -0.451) with burn area. All variables except moisture variables were more strongly correlated with the

  2. Prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases and clinical significance of ANA profile: data from a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zaixing; Ren, Yingpeng; Liu, Donghong; Lin, Feng; Liang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    It is necessary and useful to explore prevalence of various systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) in patients with suspicion of having SARDs and to characterize antinuclear antibodies (ANA) profile for identifying different populations (SARDs and non-SARDs). A total of 5024 consecutive patients with available medical records were investigated, whose sera had been tested for ANA profile, including ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies, between 31 January 2012 and 26 March 2014. Only 594 (11.8%) patients were diagnosed with SARDs of those suspected with SARDs. The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was highest (3.2%), followed by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (2.5%), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) (1.7%), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (1.5%), etc. Of females, SLE also showed the highest prevalence (6%), while of males, AS showed the highest prevalence (1.9%). The prevalence of most SARDs was closely associated with age, except mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and the variation characteristics among different age groups were different among various SARDs. The prevalence of ANA was significantly increased in most SARD patients [especially in SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc) and MCTD]. For anti-ENA antibodies, in contrast to some autoantibodies associated with multiple SARDs (e.g. anti-SSA, SSB, nRNP), others were relatively specific for certain diseases, such as anti-dsDNA, Sm, histone, nucleosome and Rib-P for SLE, anti-SCL-70 for SSc and anti-Jo-1 for polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Of note, ANA profile appeared to be of little significance for AS, ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), polymyalgia rheumatic (PMR), adult-onset Still's disease (ASD) and Behcet's disease (BD). The younger were more likely to have the presence of anti-dsDNA, Sm, histone or Rib-P for SLE, and anti-SSA for RA or MCTD. No significant differences for frequencies of ANA and anti-ENA autoantibodies were found between sexes in most SARDs

  3. Susceptibility And Adaptation Of A Mallard H5N2 Low Pathogenic Influenza Virus In Chickens Infected With Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influenza A/Mallard/Pennsylvania/12180/1984 (H5N2) virus is unable to replicate in 2 to 4-week old normal, immunocompetent specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. In contrast, this mallard virus shows limited replication in chickens that had been previously infected with the immunosuppressive age...

  4. Translocation of wild Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis from Laysan Island to Midway Atoll: Project update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Breeden, J.H.; Klavitter, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, where it has been restricted to Laysan Island over the last 150 years. Individuals of this endangered species have recently been translocated to the two largest islands that comprise Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, to reduce the risk of the Laysan Teal becoming extinct. Post-release monitoring with the aid of radio-telemetry was conducted to determine the success of the reintroduction attempt during October 2004-2007. The population was found to have increased after three breeding seasons, from forty-two founders sourced directly from Laysan, to a population of ??? 192 post-fledglings juveniles and adults. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

  5. Effects of ingested crude and dispersed crude oil on thermoregulation in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, B.M.

    1989-02-01

    Thermoregulatory effects of ingested doses of Statfjord A crude oil and of this oil mixed with the dispersant Finasol OSR-5 were studied in adult domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to ambient temperatures of +16 degrees C and -17 degrees C. The data show that ingestion of both the crude and the oil-dispersant mixture resulted in an increased body temperature during exposure to the low ambient temperature (-17 degrees C). Neither contaminant had any effect on body temperature during exposure to +16 degrees C. Ingestion of the contaminants had no effect on metabolic heat production at either ambient temperature. The breast skin temperature of the ducks in both contaminated groups was significantly decreased when the ducks were exposed to the low ambient temperature. This indicates that the increase in body temperature observed in the contaminated ducks at the low ambient temperature is due to an increase in peripheral vasoconstriction.

  6. DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Aiken, G.R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

    2007-01-01

    The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

  7. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group.

  8. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group. PMID:25667161

  9. Evolutionary routes from a prebiotic ANA-world.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sebastian; Humphreys, Christine; Dale, Trevor C

    2012-03-01

    Recent experimental support has been generated for a model of prebiotic development that postulates a role for Amyloid-Nucleic Acid (ANA)-fibers as the earliest replicating entities capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution. Here, this new model is compared with existing RNA-world models with a particular focus on trajectories that lead to evolutionary-beneficial interactions between nucleic acid, protein and lipid components. This analysis suggests a number of new areas for fruitful experimental studies. PMID:22808333

  10. Effects of methylmercury on approach and avoidance behavior of mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    Mallard ducks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 or 3 ppm mercury (as methylmercury dicyandiamide) based on the dry feed. These mercury diets are approximately equivalent to 0.1 and 0.6 ppm mercury in a natural succulent diet. I measured for the ducklings the approach behavior in response to a tape-recorded maternal call and the avoidance of a frightening stimulus....There were no significant differences among controls and ducklings from mercury-treated parents in the percentage of ducklings that approached the tape-recorded call. Control ducklings, however, moved back and forth toward the call more than ducklings from mercury-treated parents and also spent more time in the end of the runway near the loudspeaker than ducklings whose parents were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury....Compared to control ducklings, ducklings from parents fed a diet containing 0.5 or 3 ppm mercury were hyper-responsive in the test of avoidance of a frightening stimulus....Mallard eggs collected in the wild have been found to contain levels of mercury exceeding the 1 ppm (wet-weight) found in the eggs of hens fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm, but there are no reports of mallard eggs collected in the wild that were found to contain as much mercury (6 to 9 ppm) as eggs from hens fed a diet containing 3 ppm mercury. On a dry-weight basis, the concentration of mercury in the eggs was about 6 times as great as that in the feed for ducks fed the 0.5 ppm mercury diet and about 6 to 9 times as great for ducks fed the 3 ppm mercury diet.

  11. Relationship between oxidative stress, pathology, and behavioral signs of lead poisoning in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ramis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the adverse effects of lead (Pb) may be associated with oxidative damage of lipids, proteins or DNA. In a previous study a linkage was observed between the susceptibilities of waterfowl species to Pb poisoning with oxidative stress. To investigate this relationship among the individuals of a single species, four groups of 12 mallards were fed for three weeks diets containing high or low levels of vitamin E (20 or 220 UI/kg) and high or low levels of Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). During the first week of Pb exposure, mallards developed hemolytic anemia, and during the second week, signs of neurological impairment. Histological findings in the Pb exposed mallards were hemosiderosis, demyelinization of sciatic and brachial nerves, and tumefaction of renal tubular epithelium with the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies. Lipid peroxidation increased with Pb exposure in blood, liver, bile and brain, but decreased in nerves. Glutathione (GSH) increased with Pb exposure in liver and bile, and its oxidized/reduced ratio only increased in bile. Pb exposure inhibited GSH peroxidase activity (GPX) in plasma, liver and brain, and decreased protein thiols (PSH) in blood and liver. Vitamin E significantly prevented lipid peroxidation in nerves, but did not alleviate any sign of Pb poisoning. Pb-induced pathological changes associated with hepatic and nervous functions were significantly correlated with lower GPX activity and PSH concentrations in these tissues rather than lipid peroxidation. Data suggest that inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and interaction with sulfhydryl groups of proteins may play a more important role in Pb poisoning of waterfowl than lipid peroxidation.

  12. Contrasting controls on wildland fires in Southern California during periods with and without Santa Ana winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Faivre, Nicolas; Capps, Scott; Hall, Alex; Goulden, Michael L.

    2014-03-01

    Wildland fires in Southern California can be divided into two categories: fall fires, which are typically driven by strong offshore Santa Ana winds, and summer fires, which occur with comparatively weak onshore winds and hot and dry weather. Both types of fire contribute significantly to annual burned area and economic loss. An improved understanding of the relationship between Southern California's meteorology and fire is needed to improve predictions of how fire will change in the future and to anticipate management needs. We used output from a regional climate model constrained by reanalysis observations to identify Santa Ana events and partition fires into those occurring during periods with and without Santa Ana conditions during 1959-2009. We then developed separate empirical regression models for Santa Ana and non-Santa Ana fires to quantify the effects of meteorology on fire number and size. These models explained approximately 58% of the seasonal and interannual variation in the number of Santa Ana fires and 36% of the variation in non-Santa Ana fires. The number of Santa Ana fires increased during years when relative humidity during Santa Ana events and fall precipitation were below average, indicating that fuel moisture is a key controller of ignition. Relative humidity strongly affected Santa Ana fire size. Cumulative precipitation during the previous three winters was significantly correlated with the number of non-Santa Ana fires, presumably through increased fine fuel density and connectivity between infrastructure and nearby vegetation. Both relative humidity and the preceding wet season precipitation influenced non-Santa Ana fire size. Regression models driven by meteorology explained 57% of the temporal variation in Santa Ana burned area and 22% of the variation in non-Santa Ana burned area. The area burned by non-Santa Ana fires has increased steadily by 1.7% year-1 since 1959 (p < 0.006) the occurrence of extremely large Santa Ana fires has

  13. Drosophila Ana1 is required for centrosome assembly and centriole elongation

    PubMed Central

    Saurya, Saroj; Roque, Hélio; Novak, Zsofia A.; Wainman, Alan; Aydogan, Mustafa G.; Volanakis, Adam; Sieber, Boris; Pinto, David Miguel Susano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrioles organise centrosomes and cilia, and these organelles have an important role in many cell processes. In flies, the centriole protein Ana1 is required for the assembly of functional centrosomes and cilia. It has recently been shown that Cep135 (also known as Bld10) initially recruits Ana1 to newly formed centrioles, and that Ana1 then recruits Asl (known as Cep152 in mammals) to promote the conversion of these centrioles into centrosomes. Here, we show that ana1 mutants lack detectable centrosomes in vivo, that Ana1 is irreversibly incorporated into centrioles during their assembly and appears to play a more important role in maintaining Asl at centrioles than in initially recruiting Asl to centrioles. Unexpectedly, we also find that Ana1 promotes centriole elongation in a dose-dependent manner: centrioles are shorter when Ana1 dosage is reduced and are longer when Ana1 is overexpressed. This latter function of Ana1 appears to be distinct from its role in centrosome and cilium function, as a GFP–Ana1 fusion lacking the N-terminal 639 amino acids of the protein can support centrosome assembly and cilium function but cannot promote centriole over-elongation when overexpressed. PMID:27206860

  14. Drosophila Ana1 is required for centrosome assembly and centriole elongation.

    PubMed

    Saurya, Saroj; Roque, Hélio; Novak, Zsofia A; Wainman, Alan; Aydogan, Mustafa G; Volanakis, Adam; Sieber, Boris; Pinto, David Miguel Susano; Raff, Jordan W

    2016-07-01

    Centrioles organise centrosomes and cilia, and these organelles have an important role in many cell processes. In flies, the centriole protein Ana1 is required for the assembly of functional centrosomes and cilia. It has recently been shown that Cep135 (also known as Bld10) initially recruits Ana1 to newly formed centrioles, and that Ana1 then recruits Asl (known as Cep152 in mammals) to promote the conversion of these centrioles into centrosomes. Here, we show that ana1 mutants lack detectable centrosomes in vivo, that Ana1 is irreversibly incorporated into centrioles during their assembly and appears to play a more important role in maintaining Asl at centrioles than in initially recruiting Asl to centrioles. Unexpectedly, we also find that Ana1 promotes centriole elongation in a dose-dependent manner: centrioles are shorter when Ana1 dosage is reduced and are longer when Ana1 is overexpressed. This latter function of Ana1 appears to be distinct from its role in centrosome and cilium function, as a GFP-Ana1 fusion lacking the N-terminal 639 amino acids of the protein can support centrosome assembly and cilium function but cannot promote centriole over-elongation when overexpressed.

  15. Virulence of six strains of duck plague virus in eight waterfowl species.

    PubMed

    Spieker, J O; Yuill, T M; Burgess, E C

    1996-07-01

    Susceptibility of New World waterfowl to the Lake Andes strain of duck plague virus (DPV) was assessed by intramuscular inoculation of adult muscovies (Cairina moschata), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), Canada geese (Branta canadensis), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), redheads (Aythya americana), gadwalls (Anas strepera), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and pintails (Anas acuta). The relative virulence of DPV strains isolated from five United States and one Canadian location was established in muscovies, mallards, and Canada geese. Differences in DPV strain virulence were detected by formation of plaques in cell culture. Two strains that consistently formed plaques killed adult mallards while non-plaque forming strains killed hatchling but not adult mallards. Based on mortality after exposure to the Lake Andes strain, blue-winged teal, then wood ducks and redheads were highly susceptible, muscovies and gadwalls moderately susceptible, mallards and Canada geese less susceptible, and pintails the least susceptible. Mean death times were significantly (P < 0.01) different between adult muscovies (4.5 days) versus mallards and Canada geese (5.8 days each). Mean death time of the virulent Lake Andes and Minnesota strains were shorter (P < 0.05) than for the other four, less virulent DPV strains. Four of the less virulent strains killed hatchling but not adult mallards. Susceptibility to mortality was dependent upon age and route of inoculation. The intramuscular route of inoculation required the least amount of virus to kill mallard and muscovy ducks, the intranasal and conjunctival routes required more virus, and the oral route the most virus. This study was conducted from 1974 to 1977 between the months of September and April, with the exception of two titrations conducted in early May at the University of Wisconsin Department of Veterinary Science and the Charmany research facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  16. Relative toxicity of lead and five proposed substitute shot types to pen-reared mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grandy, J.W.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

    1968-01-01

    A 30-day toxicity test was made to determine the relative toxicity of lead, a tin-lead alloy, zinc, nickel, teflon-coated steel, and tin, all in shot form, to pen-reared mallard drakes. All of the 15 ducks dosed \\vith lead died. Twenty-seven percent of 15 dosed with alloy, and 20 percent of 15 dosed with zinc also died. Ten of the remaining zinc-dosed ducks showed signs of distress, including losses of muscular control and body weight. There were no deaths among 15 ducks dosed with nickel, 15 dosed with teflon-coated steel, and 15 dosed with tin. Seventy-three percent of those dosed with nickel shot eliininated all shot before the end of the 30-day period. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of mallards dosed with commercial lead shot, or with tin-lead alloy shot, but not in the kidneys of birds given nickel, tin, or teflon-coated steel shot. Atypical, pale, acid-fast bodies were found in kidneys of 1 of 15 birds dosed with zinc. An iron-containing pigment, which stained positive with the Prussian blue technique, was present in variable amounts in almost all livers. Zinc-dosed ducks that died or were killed while still showing signs of zinc intoxication had higher iron levels in the liver than ducks that had recovered from zinc intoxication.

  17. Changes in mineral composition of eggshells from black ducks and mallards fed DDE in the diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.; Kreitzer, J.F.; Spann, J.W.

    1971-01-01

    Diets containing 10 and 30 ppm (dry weight) DDE were fed to black ducks, and diets containing 1, 5, and 10 ppm (dry weight) DDE were fed to mallards. Among the results were the following changes in black duck eggshell composition: (a) significant increase in the percentage of Mg, (b) significant decreases in Ba and Sr, (c) increases (which approached significance) in average percentage of eggshell Na and Cu, (d) a decrease in shell Ca which approached significance, (e) patterns of mineral correlations which in some instances were distinct to dosage groups, and (f) inverse correlations in the control group between eggshell thickness Mg and Na. Changes in mallard eggshells were: (a) significant increase in percentage of magnesium at 5 and 10 ppm DDE, (b) significant decrease in Al at 5 and 10 ppm DDE, (c) a significant decrease in Ca from eggshells from the 10 ppm DDE group, and (d) an increase in average percentage of Na in eggshells from DDE dosed ducks which approached significance.

  18. Ecological restoration and enhancement plan Mallard Ridge Recycling and Disposal Facility, Walworth County, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, D.; Maxon, M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, Waste Management of Wisconsin, Inc. (WMWI) began the permitting process to expand the existing Mallard Ridge Recycling and Disposal Facility (RDF), located in Walworth County, Wisconsin. Due to the presence of several small perched wetlands and the potential presence of several state endangered and threatened reptiles, a comprehensive ecological restoration and enhancement plan was developed along with the permit application. The ecological plan addresses restoration and enhancement of natural plant communities and animal habitat for the entire 593 acre Mallard Ridge facility. The major goals of the ecological program are to create natural open space, protect and enhance the long-term ecological integrity of the site, established diverse and stable upland and wetland plant communities, and provide to protect and improve habitat for three state protected reptiles. The total amount of the site that will be vegetated with native plant communities with this plan will be about 453 acres. The plan is being conducted in phases between 1993 and 2003. This plan is designed to be a flexible one that will evolve over the years of implementation. This flexibility is necessary because the state-of-the-art of restoration and management of natural systems is constantly changing as new information, techniques, and seed sources become available. The lessons learned at this site will add to the knowledge of natural community restoration at other sites.

  19. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  20. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  1. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  2. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  3. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  4. Contribution of Doñana Wetlands to Carbon Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward P.; Flecha, Susana; Figuerola, Jordi; Costas, Eduardo; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier; Rodriguez, Pablo; Huertas, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Inland and transitional aquatic systems play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. Yet, the C dynamics of wetlands and floodplains are poorly defined and field data is scarce. Air-water fluxes in the wetlands of Doñana Natural Area (SW Spain) were examined by measuring alkalinity, pH and other physiochemical parameters in a range of water bodies during 2010–2011. Areal fluxes were calculated and, using remote sensing, an estimate of the contribution of aquatic habitats to gaseous transport was derived. Semi-permanent ponds adjacent to the large Guadalquivir estuary acted as mild sinks, whilst temporal wetlands were strong sources of (−0.8 and 36.3 ). Fluxes in semi-permanent streams and ponds changed seasonally; acting as sources in spring-winter and mild sinks in autumn (16.7 and −1.2 ). Overall, Doñana's water bodies were a net annual source of (5.2 ). Up–scaling clarified the overwhelming contribution of seasonal flooding and allochthonous organic matter inputs in determining regional air-water gaseous transport (13.1 ). Nevertheless, this estimate is about 6 times < local marsh net primary production, suggesting the system acts as an annual net sink. Initial indications suggest longer hydroperiods may favour autochthonous C capture by phytoplankton. Direct anthropogenic impacts have reduced the hydroperiod in Doñana and this maybe exacerbated by climate change (less rainfall and more evaporation), suggesting potential for the modification of C sequestration. PMID:23977044

  5. Population ecology of the mallard: I. A Review of Previous Studies and the Distribution and Migration from Breeding Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Henny, C.J.

    1972-01-01

    This report, the first of a series of reports on a comprehensive analysis of population data on the? millIard at? the continental level, provides background information including a review of the history of waterfowl management and a resume of previous studies of the mallard. The breeding range of the mallard was subdivided into 16 major and 44 minor reference areas. Each area is discussed in terms of habitat type, quantity of data available, importance to the continental mallard population, and previous waterfowl studies conducted within it.? Two of the 16 major areas have insufficient .bandings prior to the hunting season. These areas represent breeding sites for 18 to 30 percent of the continental mallard population and constitute a serious deficiency in the data base. Locations and femporal distributions of band recoveries from mallards banded in each breeding area are presented on maps and in tables. Possible biases in using band recovery distributions for harvest distributions are outllned; the major problem is variable band reporting rates. Limited evidence suggests that band reporting rates during the 1960's were substantially higher in Canada than in the United States. Detailed tabulations of the locations of recoveries from bandings in each minor reference area are presented in an appendix. Topics of future reports in the series inciude the analysis of harvest and wing survey statistics, breeding population data, relative importance of breeding ground reference areas to the various harvest areas, band recovery rates, the infiuence of harvest and harvest regulations on survival, and factors affecting production inclnding density-dependent relationships.

  6. Comparison of chaparral regrowth patterns between Santa Ana wind-driven and non-Santa Ana fire areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachels, Diane Helen

    Wildfires are a common occurrence in California shrublands and island forests. Fire has a fundamental role in maintaining the ecosystem functions in chaparral where fire intensity and severity play important roles in the regeneration of species. In San Diego, the Cedar Fire that occurred in the fall of 2003 was unique in that one side was burned with wildfire fueled by dry, strong easterly Santa Ana winds that later died down, burning the remainder of the area under a mild westerly wind, allowing fuel-fed conditions. The objective of this study was to understand the connection between vegetation type and structure and environmental response to extreme fire events by analyzing life form regrowth in chaparral communities from the Santa Ana wind driven, Santa Ana backing, and non-Santa Ana fire types. Environmental factors of slope angle, aspect, elevation and soils were investigated in an effort to isolate shrub regrowth patterns. Fire burn characteristics, anthropogenic disturbance, fire history, and moisture availability were also analyzed to identify additional factors that may have influenced shrub regrowth. Shrub extents before the fire and six year after the fire were examined per slope aspect, slope angle, elevation, and fire characteristic categories. The closed canopy and natural features of the chaparral environment make ground based mapping very difficult. Remote sensing data and methods can be very helpful to evaluate the health of the vegetation and condition of the watershed for flood, erosion, and fire control. This study used high spatial resolution aerial imagery and a machine learning algorithm with a spatial contextual classifier to map three different areas from within the Cedar Fire perimeter. Geographic information science (GIS), field mapping, and image interpretation methods were used to identify vegetation samples for the classification and accuracy assessment of the vegetation maps. Object-based image samples were selected for the classifier

  7. Development of Eustrongylides ignotus (Nematoda: Dioctophmida) in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica (L.)).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fan; Wang, Gui Tang; Wu, Shan Gong; Nie, Pin

    2009-10-01

    Investigating the development of Eustrongylides ignotus in its definitive host would enable us to trace the complete life cycle of this nematode. Fourth-stage larvae isolated from naturally infected swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were used to infect domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica [L.]). We observed that male and female worms exhibited different developmental patterns in host ducks. In males, the fourth molt occurred at day 1-2 post-infection (PI), after which they attained maturity on day 4 PI and died between day 7 and 9 PI. However, females underwent the fourth molt at day 2-4 PI, produced eggs from day 9 to 17 PI, and then degenerated and died. When compared to fourth-stage female larvae, adult females demonstrated a considerable increase in total body size with a 151% increase in average body width and a 17% increase in average body length. However, the increase in size of the male larvae was not as significant as that in females. The average body width in adult males exhibited only a 45% increase over that in the larval stage.

  8. Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

  9. Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J.R.; Krapu, G.L.; Nersessian, B.N.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Chipley, W.H.; Conroy, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. Anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize tile ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. Anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. Anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

  10. Comparison of two extraction methods for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mallard duck eggs by GC and GC-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belisle, A.A.; Gay, M.L.; Coon, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon residues in pooled eggs from a mallard duck on a diet of 25,000 ppm South Louisiana crude oil were compared after cleanup with and without saponification. The saponification procedure yielded superior reproducibility and extraction efficiency

  11. Comparison of two extraction methods for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mallard duck eggs by GC and GC-MS. [NONE

    SciTech Connect

    Belisle, A.A.; Gay, M.L.; Coon, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon residues in pooled eggs from a mallard duck on a diet of 25,000 ppm South Louisiana crude oil were compared after cleanup with and without saponification. The saponification procedure yielded superior reproducibility and extraction efficiency..

  12. The loss rates of web tags applied to day-old Anas and Aythya ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers studied the loss rate of web tags on Anas and Aythya ducklings by double marking day-old ducklings of five species with web tags and plasticine-filled rings. Tag loss was examined over three-month, one-year, and three-year periods. Web tag loss was greatest for Anas and occurred mostly in the first three months following tagging.

  13. Erythrodiplax ana sp. nov. (Odonata: Libellulidae) from Brazilian palm swamps.

    PubMed

    Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer; Vilela, Diogo S; Del-Claro, Kleber; Bispo, Pitágoras C

    2016-01-01

    Erythrodiplax ana sp. nov. (male holotype, six male and three female paratypes), collected in Vereda wetlands (a unique Neotropical savanna environment) in Uberlândia (Minas Gerais) and Chapada dos Guimarães (Mato Grosso), Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species fits in Borror's Basalis Group, and can be distinguished from other species by the combination of the following traits: blue pruinosity dorsally on thorax and third to eighth abdominal segments; sides of the thorax olive-green; face ivory or olive-green; wings hyaline with a small apical brown spot on all four wings, well defined in females; male genitalia with sclerotized erectile posterior lobe and inflatable sac-like median process. Last instar larvae were reared in the laboratory, resulting in the description of the larva. We also followed this population for 13 months and present resulting biological notes and comments on ontogenetic color change in males, as well as longevity. PMID:27615887

  14. Hepatic glutathione metabolism and lipid peroxidation in response to excess dietary selenomethionine and selenite in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Selenium from selenomethionine accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, resulting in a decrease in hepatic-reduced glutathione with a corresponding decrease in total hepatic thiols. There was a dose-dependent increase in the oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio, and an increase in lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that Se in the diet at 10 ppm and higher causes significant sublethal alterations in mallard ducklings, and 20-40 ppm causes significant hepatotoxicity.

  15. Comparison of the effects of seleno-l-methionine, seleno-dl-methionine, and selenized yeast on reproduction of mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The toxicities of seleno-L-methionine, seleno-DL-methionine, and selenized yeast were compared. Ten pairs of mallards were fed a control diet and 15 pairs were fed diets containing 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine, seleno-L-methionine, or selenized yeast. Hatching of fertile eggs was significantly lower for females fed 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine (7.6%) and seleno-L-methionine (6.4%) than for controls (41.3%). Survival of ducklings was lower when their parents had been fed 10 ppm selenium as seleno-L-methionine (20.0%) than for controls (98.4%). The number of 6-day-old ducklings produced per female was significantly lower for mallards fed 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine (0.47) or selenized yeast (2.67) than for controls (6.10), and was significantly lower for mallards fed seleno-L-methionine (0.13) than for mallards fed selenized yeast. The eighth eggs of females fed the DL or L forms of selenomethionine contained means of 9.2 and 8.9 ppm selenium, wet weight; these means were higher than the mean (6.6 ppm) for females fed selenized yeast. Among embryos that died at 7 days of age or older, the percentage of embryos that were deformed was 1.3% for controls, 24.6% for seleno-DL-methionine, 28.2% for seleno-L-methionine, and 11.0% for selenized yeast. The results suggested that seleno-DL-methionine and seleno-L-methionine were of similar toxicity and were both more toxic than selenium from selenized yeast.

  16. The ANA-reflex test as a model for improving clinical appropriateness in autoimmune diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Tonutti, Elio; Bizzaro, Nicola; Morozzi, Gabriella; Radice, Antonella; Cinquanta, Luigi; Villalta, Danilo; Tozzoli, Renato; Tampoia, Marilina; Porcelli, Brunetta; Fabris, Martina; Brusca, Ignazio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Barberio, Giuseppina; Sorrentino, Maria Concetta; Antico, Antonio; Bassetti, Danila; Fontana, Desré Ethel; Imbastaro, Tiziana; Visentini, Daniela; Pesce, Giampaola; Bagnasco, Marcello

    2016-12-01

    Reflex tests are widely used in clinical laboratories, for example, to diagnose thyroid disorders or in the follow-up of prostate cancer. Reflex tests for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have recently gained attention as a way to improve appropriateness in the immunological diagnosis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases and avoid waste of resources. However, the ANA-reflex test is not as simple as other consolidated reflex tests (the TSH-reflex tests or the PSA-reflex tests) because of the intrinsic complexity of the ANA test performed by the indirect immunofluorescence method on cellular substrates. The wide heterogeneity of the ANA patterns, which need correct interpretation, and the subsequent choice of the most appropriate confirmatory test (ANA subserology), which depend on the pattern feature and on clinical information, hinder any informatics automation, and require the pathologist's intervention. In this review, the Study Group on Autoimmune Diseases of the Italian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine provides some indications on the configuration of the ANA-reflex test, using two different approaches depending on whether clinical information is available or not. We further give some suggestions on how to report results of the ANA-reflex test. PMID:27423928

  17. The concordance of serial ANA tests in an Australian tertiary hospital pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adrian Y S; Hudspeth, Andrew R; Adelstein, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The antinuclear antibody (ANA) tests are some of the more frequently requested tests for the diagnosis of autoimmunity. Although they are used primarily as diagnostic blood tests, multiple requests on the same patient continue to be encountered in the laboratory. This retrospective analysis of serial ANA testing at one pathology laboratory in Australia is the first study that examines the statistical concordance and possible implications of this on clinical practice. High-titred ANA have quite good repeatability for titre and pattern, and low-titred ANA, which can be non-specific, have poor repeatability. Staining patterns are, in general, almost random in nature on serial tests when compared to the first-obtained ANA pattern for each patient. This study confirms that there is little benefit in serial ANA testing, and only if there is a clear change in the patient's clinical picture would repeat of an initial low-titred ANA be useful. The findings reinforce the need for pathology stewardship to minimise costs, wasted resources and unnecessary referrals. PMID:27600602

  18. The ANA-reflex test as a model for improving clinical appropriateness in autoimmune diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Tonutti, Elio; Bizzaro, Nicola; Morozzi, Gabriella; Radice, Antonella; Cinquanta, Luigi; Villalta, Danilo; Tozzoli, Renato; Tampoia, Marilina; Porcelli, Brunetta; Fabris, Martina; Brusca, Ignazio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Barberio, Giuseppina; Sorrentino, Maria Concetta; Antico, Antonio; Bassetti, Danila; Fontana, Desré Ethel; Imbastaro, Tiziana; Visentini, Daniela; Pesce, Giampaola; Bagnasco, Marcello

    2016-12-01

    Reflex tests are widely used in clinical laboratories, for example, to diagnose thyroid disorders or in the follow-up of prostate cancer. Reflex tests for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have recently gained attention as a way to improve appropriateness in the immunological diagnosis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases and avoid waste of resources. However, the ANA-reflex test is not as simple as other consolidated reflex tests (the TSH-reflex tests or the PSA-reflex tests) because of the intrinsic complexity of the ANA test performed by the indirect immunofluorescence method on cellular substrates. The wide heterogeneity of the ANA patterns, which need correct interpretation, and the subsequent choice of the most appropriate confirmatory test (ANA subserology), which depend on the pattern feature and on clinical information, hinder any informatics automation, and require the pathologist's intervention. In this review, the Study Group on Autoimmune Diseases of the Italian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine provides some indications on the configuration of the ANA-reflex test, using two different approaches depending on whether clinical information is available or not. We further give some suggestions on how to report results of the ANA-reflex test.

  19. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Mallards with Homo- and Heterosubtypic Immunity Induced by Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Starick, Elke; Beer, Martin; Wilking, Hendrik; Kalthoff, Donata; Grund, Christian; Häuslaigner, Rafaela; Breithaupt, Angele; Lange, Elke; Harder, Timm C.

    2009-01-01

    The potential role of wild birds as carriers of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 is still a matter of debate. Consecutive or simultaneous infections with different subtypes of influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) are very common in wild duck populations. To better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HPAIV H5N1 infections in natural ecosystems, we investigated the influence of prior infection of mallards with homo- (H5N2) and heterosubtypic (H4N6) LPAIV on exposure to HPAIV H5N1. In mallards with homosubtypic immunity induced by LPAIV infection, clinical disease was absent and shedding of HPAIV from respiratory and intestinal tracts was grossly reduced compared to the heterosubtypic and control groups (mean GEC/100 µl at 3 dpi: 3.0×102 vs. 2.3×104 vs. 8.7×104; p<0.05). Heterosubtypic immunity induced by an H4N6 infection mediated a similar but less pronounced effect. We conclude that the epidemiology of HPAIV H5N1 in mallards and probably other aquatic wild bird species is massively influenced by interfering immunity induced by prior homo- and heterosubtypic LPAIV infections. PMID:19693268

  20. Life history and ecological characteristics of the Santa Ana sucker, Catostomus santaanae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Knowles, Glen W.; Tennant, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to document the life history and ecological characteristics of the Santa Ana sucker, Catostomus santaanae, within its native range in southern California. Electrofishing surveys were conducted at 3-month intervals from December 1998 to December 1999 at one site on the San Gabriel River and two sites on the Santa Ana River. Suckers were captured in the San Gabriel River (average, 6.6 fish/10-minutes electrofishing) and at an upstream Santa Ana River site (average, 2.3 fish/10-minutes electrofishing) but not at a downstream Santa Ana River site. Length frequency distributions indicated that at least three year classes (modal groups) of suckers were present in the San Gabriel River, whereas one or two year classes were present in the Santa Ana River. Collection of 21-30 mm standard length (SL) juveniles in June in the Santa Ana River and in September in the San Gabriel River indicated that reproduction occurred over several months. In December, Age-0 suckers averaged 36-48 mm SL in the San Gabriel River and 63-65 mm SL in the Santa Ana River, whereas Age-1 suckers averaged 86 mm SL in the San Gabriel River and 115 mm SL in the Santa Ana River. On average, suckers were in better body condition in the San Gabriel River than in the Santa Ana River. Highest abundance of suckers was associated with relativelypristine environmental conditions (especially low specific conductance) where other native fishes were also common or abundant.

  1. Adult Basic Education Basic Computer Literacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manini, Catalina M.; Cervantes, Juan

    This handbook, in both English and Spanish versions, is intended for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. It contains five sections of basic computer literacy activities and information about the ABE computer literacy course offered at Dona Ana Community College (DACC) in New Mexico. The handbook begins with forewords by the handbook's…

  2. The use of pro-ana blogs for online social support.

    PubMed

    Tong, Stephanie Tom; Heinemann-Lafave, Daria; Jeon, Jehoon; Kolodziej-Smith, Renata; Warshay, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to document the content on pro-ana blogs and to uncover how the unique socio-technical features of blogs (interactivity, self-disclosure, masspersonal communication) facilitate social support among members. A final sample of 48 pro-ana blogs provided 624 individual units for coding. Results indicate that prevalent forms of social support were emotional support, esteem support, and informational support. A new category, reciprocal self-disclosure, was also revealed to be quite frequent. Blogs are spaces where social support is sought and communicated among members of the pro-ana network. Interpretation of blog communication and implications for treatment and research are discussed.

  3. Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis nesting phenology and site characteristics on Laysan Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, M.H.; Crampton, L.H.; Vekasy, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing breeding initiation of the endangered Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis were studied on Laysan Island in the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge between 1998 and 2006. Sixty-two radio-tagged adult females were tracked for 30-180 days to locate and describe their nest sites. In addition, the Laysan Teal were surveyed daily during the breeding season, and 331 individually colour-ringed females were marked to identify new broods and timing of incubation initiation. Temperature, rainfall, and abundance of Brine Flies (Scatella sexnotata, an important prey) were measured in all years. Females nested on average 213 m (s.e. ?? 37 m) from the lake basin primarily in Eragrostis variablis, a native bunch grass with > 75% cover. The first observation of nesting in marine debris by Laysan Teal was reported. The initiation of incubation, at the start of the breeding season each year, varied from December to July, and differed significantly between years. Brine Fly abundance, temperature, and rainfall also varied significantly between years. The earlier the Brine Fly abundance peaked, the longer the duration of the breeding season. The length of the breeding season, measured as the number of days between the first and last clutches, varied from 83-192 days (mean 116 ?? 14 days). Annual brood production was positively correlated with spring peak abundance of Brine Flies. There was some evidence that it was negatively correlated with the number of adult females in the population. Rainfall, temperature, prey abundance, and the density of other birds on Laysan Island are likely to interact in influencing Laysan Teal's variable nesting phenology and productivity. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

  4. Survival of radio-marked mallards in relation to management of avian botulism.

    PubMed

    Evelsizer, Daniel D; Bollinger, Trent K; Dufour, Kevin W; Clark, Robert G

    2010-07-01

    Avian botulism outbreaks are frequently perpetuated by type C toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum proliferating in decomposing bird carcasses and consumption of toxic maggots from these carcasses by healthy birds. Therefore, removing bird carcasses has been advocated for disease management because availability of toxic maggots should be reduced, increasing duck survival. However, this management is expensive, and its effect on waterfowl mortality under field conditions is unknown. We radio-marked 419 molting mallards on 11 lakes in western Canada during July-August 1999-2001 and monitored them for 30 days, testing whether survival was higher on lakes with carcass removal. Botulism occurred on 10 lakes. On five carcass removal lakes, greater-than-normal effort was made to conduct early, thorough surveillance and immediately remove carcasses; on six nonremoval lakes, no carcasses were removed. In 1999, estimated 30-day survival probabilities ranged from 0.149 (95% CI=0.065-0.304) on one large lake with carcass removal to 0.466 (95% CI=0.270-0.674) and 0.618 (95% CI=0.443-0.767) on two nonremoval lakes. As a result, we conducted work on smaller wetlands thereafter, reasoning that any management benefit would be easier to detect. In 2000, estimated 30-day survival probabilities were 0.313 (95% CI=0.143-0.556) and 0.794 (95% CI=0.609-0.905) on two carcass removal lakes versus 0.525 (95% CI=0.362-0.682) and 0.743 (95% CI=0.564-0.866) on two nonremoval lakes. In 2001, botulism was detected on two nonremoval lakes where survival probabilities were 0.845 (95% CI=0.630-0.946) and 0.942 (95% CI=0.778-0.987), and on one removal lake where survival probability was 1.0 (95% CI=0.99-1.0), but not detected on the other removal lake where no marked birds died from botulism (1.0, 95% CI=0.99-1.0). Survival tended to be higher on lakes with lower carcass density, but when data were organized by carcass removal versus nonremoval, mallard survival was not consistently greater on

  5. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes)

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Conor P.; Devers, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing) data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south). The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species. PMID:26989624

  6. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Orin J; McGowan, Conor P; Devers, Patrick K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing) data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) from 1951-2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south). The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species. PMID:26989624

  7. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  8. Use of ammonium nitrate-alcohol (ANA) for ballistic range propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasoh, A.; Ogawa, T.; Takayama, K.

    Mixtures of ammonium-nitrate and alcohol (ANA) are usable as range propellants in ballistics. The molecular mass and specific energy are controlled by altering the type of alcohol used and by varying their molar ratio. This is confirmed by experiments carried out in a 25-mm-bore single-stage gun with ANA using smokeless powder as igniter. It is found that an important parameter determining propellant performance is the quantity of the smokeless powder used for igniting the mixture.

  9. Report on the second International Consensus on ANA Pattern (ICAP) workshop in Dresden 2015.

    PubMed

    Chan, E K L; Damoiseaux, J; de Melo Cruvinel, W; Carballo, O G; Conrad, K; Francescantonio, P L C; Fritzler, M J; Garcia-De La Torre, I; Herold, M; Mimori, T; Satoh, M; von Mühlen, C A; Andrade, L E C

    2016-07-01

    The second meeting for the International Consensus on Antinuclear antibody (ANA) Pattern (ICAP) was held on 22 September 2015, one day prior to the opening of the 12th Dresden Symposium on Autoantibodies in Dresden, Germany. The ultimate goal of ICAP is to promote harmonization and understanding of autoantibody nomenclature, and thereby optimizing ANA usage in patient care. The newly developed ICAP website www.ANApatterns.org was introduced to the more than 50 participants. This was followed by several presentations and discussions focusing on key issues including the two-tier classification of ANA patterns into competent-level versus expert-level, the consideration of how to report composite versus mixed ANA patterns, and the necessity for developing a consensus on how ANA results should be reported. The need to establish on-line training modules to help users gain competency in identifying ANA patterns was discussed as a future addition to the website. To advance the ICAP goal of promoting wider international participation, it was agreed that there should be a consolidated plan to translate consensus documents into other languages by recruiting help from members of the respective communities. PMID:27252255

  10. Intestinal Escherichia coli colonization in a mallard duck population over four consecutive winter seasons.

    PubMed

    Rödiger, Stefan; Kramer, Toni; Frömmel, Ulrike; Weinreich, Jörg; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Guenther, Sebastian; Schaufler, Katharina; Schröder, Christian; Schierack, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We report the population structure and dynamics of one Escherichia coli population of wild mallard ducks in their natural environment over four winter seasons, following the characterization of 100 isolates each consecutive season. Macro-restriction analysis was used to define isolates variously as multi- or 1-year pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. Isolates were characterized genotypically based on virulence-associated genes (VAGs), phylogenetic markers, and phenotypically based on haemolytic activity, antimicrobial resistance, adhesion to epithelial cells, microcin production, motility and carbohydrate metabolism. Only 12 out of 220 PFGE types were detectable over more than one winter, and classified as multi-year PFGE types. There was a dramatic change of PFGE types within two winter seasons. Nevertheless, the genetic pool (VAGs) and antimicrobial resistance pattern remained remarkably stable. The high diversity and dynamics of this E. coli population were also demonstrated by the occurrence of PFGE subtypes and differences between isolates of one PFGE type (based on VAGs, antimicrobial resistance and adhesion rates). Multi- and 1-year PFGE types differed in antimicrobial resistance, VAGs and adhesion. Other parameters were not prominent colonization factors. In conclusion, the high diversity, dynamics and stable genetic pool of an E. coli population seem to enable their successful colonization of host animal population over time.

  11. Effects of industrial effluents, heavy metals, and organic solvents on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard eggs were externally exposed at 3 and 8 days of incubation to 7 different industrial effluents and to 7 different heavy metal, organic solvent, and petroleum solutions to screen for potential embryo-toxic effects. This route of exposure was chosen in order to simulate the transfer of pollutant from the plumage of aquatic birds to their eggs. Five of the effluents including mineral pigment, scouring effluent, sludge, and tannery effluent resulted in small but significant reductions in embryonic growth. Treatment with methyl mercury chloride solution of 50 ppm (Hg) impaired embryonic growth but much higher concentrations were required to affect survival and cause teratogenic effects. Oil used to suppress road dust was the most toxic of the pollutants tested and only 0.5 microliter/egg caused 60% mortality by 18 days of development. These findings, in combination with other studies suggest that petroleum pollutants, or effluents in combination with petroleum, may pose a hazard to birds' eggs when exposure is by this route.

  12. Chlorfenapyr and mallard ducks: overview, study design, macroscopic effects, and analytical chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Klein, P.N.; Green, D.E.; Melancon, M.J.; Bradley, B.P.; Noguchi, G.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial pesticide derived from a class of compounds known as halogenated pyrroles was registered for use in the United States in 2001. Chlorfenapyr degrades slowly in soil, sediment, and water and is highly toxic to birds. Information on biochemical or histological endpoints in birds is lacking; therefore, a two-year study was conducted to provide information needed to develop diagnostic criteria for chlorfenapyr toxicosis. In the first year, male mallard ducks were fed concentrations of 0, 2, 5, or 10 ppm technical chlorfenapyr or 5 ppm of a formulated product in their diet during a 10-week chronic exposure study. Survival, body weight, feed consumption (removal), behavior, and molt progression were monitored. Feed and liver were analyzed for chlorfenapyr and two metabolites. Five of 10 ducks in the 10-ppm group died, and neurotoxic effects were observed in the 5- and 10-ppm groups. Feed removal increased for ducks receiving chlorfenapyr and body weights of 5- and 10-ppm ducks were reduced. Loss of body fat, muscle atrophy, and bile retention were suggestive of metabolic disruption or a decreased ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Liver and kidney weights and liver and kidney weight/body weight ratios exhibited a positive response to concentrations of chlorfenapyr in the diet. Emaciation and elevated organ weight/body weight ratios are candidates for a suite of indicators of chronic chlorfenapyr exposure. Liver is the preferred tissue for chemical confirmation of exposure.

  13. Chlorfenapyr and mallard ducks: overview, study design, macroscopic effects, and analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Albers, Peter H; Klein, Patrice N; Green, David E; Melancon, Mark J; Bradley, Brian P; Noguchi, George

    2006-02-01

    The first commercial pesticide derived from a class of compounds known as halogenated pyrroles was registered for use in the United States in 2001. Chlorfenapyr degrades slowly in soil, sediment, and water and is highly toxic to birds. Information on biochemical or histological endpoints in birds is lacking; therefore, a two-year study was conducted to provide information needed to develop diagnostic criteria for chlorfenapyr toxicosis. In the first year, male mallard ducks were fed concentrations of 0, 2, 5, or 10 ppm technical chlorfenapyr or 5 ppm of a formulated product in their diet during a 10-week chronic exposure study. Survival, body weight, feed consumption (removal), behavior, and molt progression were monitored. Feed and liver were analyzed for chlorfenapyr and two metabolites. Five of 10 ducks in the 10-ppm group died, and neurotoxic effects were observed in the 5- and 10-ppm groups. Feed removal increased for ducks receiving chlorfenapyr and body weights of 5- and 10-ppm ducks were reduced. Loss of body fat, muscle atrophy, and bile retention were suggestive of metabolic disruption or a decreased ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Liver and kidney weights and liver and kidney weight/body weight ratios exhibited a positive response to concentrations of chlorfenapyr in the diet. Emaciation and elevated organ weight/body weight ratios are candidates for a suite of indicators of chronic chlorfenapyr exposure. Liver is the preferred tissue for chemical confirmation of exposure. PMID:16519304

  14. Historical Climate and Streamflow Trends in Santa Ana River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, D.; Sultana, R.; Tang, V.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana River watershed, located in Southern California, is the home of more than 5 million people. Population is projected to double within the next 50 years in the 2,650 square miles watershed. With prolonged drought conditions, and projected climate change, a strong concern exists about sustainable water supply of the area. In this study, historic climate and streamflow trend from water year 1965 to 2014 is analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. Climate trends are studied using annual rainfall, and annual average maximum and minimum temperature at 5 and 4 weather stations, respectively. Three of the precipitation stations show precipitation is decreasing in the watershed while minimum and maximum temperature has an increasing trend at three stations (p < 0.05). To assess whether streamflow and stream-channel characteristics are tended to increase or decrease monotonically with time, four variables - (1) annual maximum peak, (2) annual mean, (3) low to moderate and (4) moderate to high maximum peak streamflow were tested at 20 stream gauge sites. Only at 5 stream gage stations, significant streamflow trend is observed. At two stream gages, annual peak and annual average streamflow is increasing and at two stations, annual average streamflow has a decreasing trend. Low to moderate peak streamflow is increasing at two gage locations but there is no monotonic trend in moderate to high flows. As precipitation is decreasing in some part of the watershed, the effect of increasing urbanization in the area can be attributed for the localized increase in mean and peak streamflow. The trend analysis in weather and stream gage data will be presented in detail.

  15. Analytical performance of the AtheNA MultiLyte ANA II assay in sera from lupus patients with multiple positive ANAs.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Raymond E; Parks, Christine G; Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of a commercial multiplexed kit for the measurement of 9 anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs; anti-SS/A, anti-SS/B, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-Jo-1, anti-Scl-70, anti-dsDNA, anti-Centromere B, and anti-Histone), and to compare these results to a subset of ANAs measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and immunodiffusion (ID). Sera were obtained from 22 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, twelve controls and five others (commercial source) with various autoimmune diseases. ANA results from the AtheNA MultiLyte ANA II Assay (AtheNA) were compared to ELISA results (controls) and patients (ID). The AtheNA interassay coefficients of variation (CVs, N = 39, performed in duplicate; replicated 3x) ranged from 6.2% to 16.7% (mean = 9.8%), while the intra-assay CVs ranged from 5.8% to 14.3% (mean = 10.8%). Compared to results for SLE cases and controls, the sensitivity of AtheNA ranged from 85.7% to 100% (mean = 97.1%), while diagnostic specificity ranged from 16.7% to 100% (mean = 71.6%). There was significant agreement (P values ranging from 0.0001 to 0.03) when analytes coanalyzed by AtheNA and ELISA/ID were evaluated using Cohen's kappa (kappa values ranging from 0.376 to 1.000). No false positive ANA results were observed for either the control or commercial source autoimmune disease sera. These results indicate that the AtheNA assay is a precise and accurate alternative for performing multiple ELISAs or IDs in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, especially when the number of sera to be tested is large, such as in clinical screening or epidemiologic studies. It also appears that the AtheNA assay identifies positive ANA specificities which are missed by ID techniques, suggesting that it may have greater analytical sensitivity for some ANAs.

  16. ANA-Negative Lupus Presenting with Heart Failure and Severe Valvular Dysfunction: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Vu; Addison, Daniel; Lakkis, Nasser; Tabbaa, Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) negative lupus is an important subset of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease spectrum. Since the introduction of human cell line for ANA assay, the occurrence of true ANA-negative SLE has been a rare clinical phenomenon. The nature of cardiac involvement in ANA-negative SLE is not well understood, although any cardiac involvement, including valvular dysfunction, should be considered as a presenting manifestation of SLE irrespective of serology status. Early recognition and intervention appears to be associated with decreased morbidity. The following report describes our first case of ANA-negative SLE with an initial presentation of severe cardiac valvular dysfunction and heart failure. It also characterizes the spectrum of disease severity in ANA-negative SLE and demonstrates how aggressive SLE therapy can improve cardiac disease.

  17. Ingestion of petroleum by breeding mallard ducks: Some effects on neonatal progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorsline, J.; Holmes, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    Breeding female mallard ducks consuming petroleum-contaminated food show significant induced increases in the naphthalene-metabolizing properties of microsomes prepared from their livers. Food contaminated with South Louisiana crude oil was more potent than food contaminated with similar concentrations of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and in each instance food contaminated with 3% (v/w) induced greater increases than food contaminated at the 1% level. These increases in hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity may reflect their responses to circulating petroleum contaminants derived from ingested crude oil. When incubated, fertilized eggs laid by the females consuming South Louisiana crude oil yielded ducklings that upon emergence possessed high levels of naphthalene-metabolizing activity associated with hepatic microsomes. In contrast, ducklings derived from eggs laid by females consuming food contaminated with Prudhoe Bay crude oil showed no increases in total hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity and only those ducklings hatched from eggs laid by females consuming food contaminated with 3% crude oil showed significantly induced levels of specific naphthalene-metabolizing activity at hatching. During the first week of postnatal life both the uncontaminated ducklings and the ducklings hatched from eggs laid by females consuming food contaminated with South Louisiana crude oil showed initial transient rises in specific and total hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity. In each instance, these rises were proportional to the level of contamination in the food consumed by the females. Thereafter, the specific activities of the naphthalene-metabolizing enzyme in all ducklings declined to the level found at hatching in uncontaminated ducklings. Similarly, the total hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activities in ducklings derived from females consuming food contaminated with 3% crude oil also declined to the level at hatching in uncontaminated ducklings. In contrast

  18. A software tool for material data analysis and property prediction: CASAC-ANA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Xie, Q.; Feng, J.; Li, S.; Xu, Z.; Chen, L.; Gui, Z.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a user-friendly software, CASAC-ANA, for material data analysis and property prediction is presented. In CASAC-ANA, there are seven methods: Nonlinear Mapping (NLM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Stepwise Discriminant Analysis (SDA), Discriminant Analysis with Constellation Graph (DACG), Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA), Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR), and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The software has some noteworthy features: (1) only one input file is needed and multipath output is produced; (2) both quantitative and qualitative data of dependent variables are accepted; and (3) it is easy to link with materials property databases. As a generalized modeling tool, CASAC-ANA can be used to treat material data concerning composition, technological processes, properties, and to predict properties of materials. The validity of the CASAC-ANA software has been tested successfully with three typical case studies concerning structural alloy steels, nickel-base superalloys, and continuously cast copper alloys. These CASAC-ANA methods have been compared and discussed.

  19. Sediment Dynamics Affecting the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker in the Highly-modified Santa Ana River and Inset Channel, Southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minear, J. T.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the sediment dynamics of the low-flow channel of the Santa Ana River that is formed by wastewater discharges and contains some of the last remaining habitat of the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae). The Santa Ana River is a highly-modified river draining the San Bernardino Mountains and Inland Empire metropolitan area east of Los Angeles. Home to over 4 million people, the watershed provides habitat for the federally-threatened Santa Ana Sucker, which presently reside within the mainstem Santa Ana River in a reach supported by year-round constant discharges from water treatment plants. The nearly constant low-flow wastewater discharges and infrequent runoff events create a small, approximately 8 m wide, inset channel within the approximately 300 m wide mainstem channel that is typically dry except for large flood flows. The sediment dynamics within the inset channel are characterized by constantly evolving bed substrate and sediment transport rates, and occasional channel avulsions. The sediment dynamics have large influence on the Sucker, which rely on coarse-substrate (gravel and cobble) for their food production. In WY 2013 through the present, we investigated the sediment dynamics of the inset channel using repeat bathymetric and substrate surveys, bedload sampling, and discharge measurements. We found two distinct phases of the inset channel behavior: 1. 'Reset' flows, where sediment-laden mainstem discharges from upstream runoff events result in sand deposition in the inset channel or avulse the inset channel onto previously dry riverbed; and 2. 'Winnowing' flows, whereby the sand within the inset channel is removed by clear-water low flows from the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Thus, in contrast to many regulated rivers where high flows are required to flush fine sediments from the bed (for example, downstream from dams), in the Santa Ana River the low flows from wastewater treatment plants serve as the flushing

  20. Automated tests of ANA immunofluorescence as throughput autoantibody detection technology: strengths and limitations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) assay is a screening test used for almost all autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and in a number of these cases, it is a diagnostic/classification parameter. In addition, ANA is also a useful test for additional autoimmune disorders. The indirect immunofluorescence technique on monolayers of cultured epithelial cells is the current recommended method because it has higher sensitivity than solid phase assays. However, the technique is time-consuming and requires skilled operators. Automated ANA reading systems have recently been developed, which offer the advantage of faster and much easier performance as well as better harmonization in the interpretation of the results. Preliminary validation studies of these systems have given promising results in terms of analytical specificity and reproducibility. However, these techniques require further validation in clinical studies and need improvement in their recognition of mixed or less common staining patterns. PMID:24589329

  1. Inside the "pro-ana" community: a covert online participant observation.

    PubMed

    Brotsky, Sarah R; Giles, David

    2007-01-01

    A covert participant observation was conducted into the meanings of interaction in the "pro-ana" online community. Specifically, the researchers were interested in the kind of psychological support offered by such websites and by the beliefs of community members towards eating disorders and the processes of treatment and recovery. One of the authors joined a number of pro-ana sites in the guise of a plausible persona and experienced a variety of responses from community members, some extremely hostile, others very supportive, yet without ever being exposed as an interloper. These starkly different responses challenge the notion of a broad "pro-ana" philosophy, suggesting that the sites are best understood as local cliques offering temporary relief from offline hostility, but it is doubtful whether they can be said to possess any therapeutic value beyond the immediate online context.

  2. Santa Ana Winds and Fire Regimes of Southern California National Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendix, J.

    2015-12-01

    In Southern California, it has long been understood that foehn-type Santa Ana winds are an important factor in the occurrence of large wildfires. Although a variety of anecdotal observations and statistical analyses have confirmed the importance of these winds to wildfire, particularly in the Fall months when Santa Ana winds overlap with dry fuels from summer drought, many of the details of those winds' impacts on fire remain obscure. This paper uses data regarding individual fires from California's Fire and Resource Assessment Program database and a compilation of Santa Ana Wind days (SAW days) published by Abatzoglou et al. in 2013 to assess the relationship of Santa Ana winds to fire occurrence and size in Southern California. The analysis included 474 fires larger than 20 ha (~50 acres).that burned on the four Southern California national forests (Angeles, Cleveland, Los Padres and San Bernardino) between 1948 and 2010. Overall, just 10.3% of the fires started on SAW days, and 14.4% experienced at least one SAW day between start and containment dates. The impact of Santa Ana winds is greater, however, with increasing fire size. For fires > 4000 ha, 18.4% began on SAW days, with 30.4% experiencing at least one SAW day before containment. And 20% of fires > 20000 ha started on SAW days, with 50% including one or more SAW days. Fires beginning on SAW days were larger, with a mean of 6239 ha compared to 2150 ha for fires that began on non-SAW days. Only 2% of the fires that began on SAW days were started by lightning, suggesting that the impact of Santa Ana winds on Southern California fire regimes may be enhanced by humans' role in ignitions.

  3. Project W-314 updated acceptance test report HNF-4649 for HNF-4648 241-AN-A pit leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-331 for project W-314

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-09-30

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm AN-A Pit Leak Detector components are functionally integrated and operate in accordance with engineering design specifications. The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4648,24l-AN-A-Pit Leak Detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-331 was conducted between 23 June and 01 July 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has been completed with no open test exceptions. The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed this had no impact on the procedure or test results. All components, identified in the procedure were found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure.

  4. 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for gear actuated ball valves installed in 241-AN-A Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this procedure is to demonstrate the following: Equipment is properly installed, labeled, and documented on As-Built drawings; New Manifold Valves in the 241-AN-A Valve Pit are fully operable using the handwheel of the valve operators; New valve position indicators on the valve operators will show correct valve positions; New valve position switches will function properly; and New valve locking devices function properly.

  5. A coordinated set of ecosystem research platforms open to international research in ecotoxicology, AnaEE-France.

    PubMed

    Mougin, Christian; Azam, Didier; Caquet, Thierry; Cheviron, Nathalie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Guillaume, Olivier; Houot, Sabine; Lacroix, Gérard; Lafolie, François; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Michniewicz, Radika; Pichot, Christian; Ranjard, Lionel; Roy, Jacques; Zeller, Bernd; Clobert, Jean; Chanzy, André

    2015-10-01

    The infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems (AnaEE-France) is an integrated network of the major French experimental, analytical, and modeling platforms dedicated to the biological study of continental ecosystems (aquatic and terrestrial). This infrastructure aims at understanding and predicting ecosystem dynamics under global change. AnaEE-France comprises complementary nodes offering access to the best experimental facilities and associated biological resources and data: Ecotrons, seminatural experimental platforms to manipulate terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, in natura sites equipped for large-scale and long-term experiments. AnaEE-France also provides shared instruments and analytical platforms dedicated to environmental (micro) biology. Finally, AnaEE-France provides users with data bases and modeling tools designed to represent ecosystem dynamics and to go further in coupling ecological, agronomical, and evolutionary approaches. In particular, AnaEE-France offers adequate services to tackle the new challenges of research in ecotoxicology, positioning its various types of platforms in an ecologically advanced ecotoxicology approach. AnaEE-France is a leading international infrastructure, and it is pioneering the construction of AnaEE (Europe) infrastructure in the field of ecosystem research. AnaEE-France infrastructure is already open to the international community of scientists in the field of continental ecotoxicology.

  6. A coordinated set of ecosystem research platforms open to international research in ecotoxicology, AnaEE-France.

    PubMed

    Mougin, Christian; Azam, Didier; Caquet, Thierry; Cheviron, Nathalie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Guillaume, Olivier; Houot, Sabine; Lacroix, Gérard; Lafolie, François; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Michniewicz, Radika; Pichot, Christian; Ranjard, Lionel; Roy, Jacques; Zeller, Bernd; Clobert, Jean; Chanzy, André

    2015-10-01

    The infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems (AnaEE-France) is an integrated network of the major French experimental, analytical, and modeling platforms dedicated to the biological study of continental ecosystems (aquatic and terrestrial). This infrastructure aims at understanding and predicting ecosystem dynamics under global change. AnaEE-France comprises complementary nodes offering access to the best experimental facilities and associated biological resources and data: Ecotrons, seminatural experimental platforms to manipulate terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, in natura sites equipped for large-scale and long-term experiments. AnaEE-France also provides shared instruments and analytical platforms dedicated to environmental (micro) biology. Finally, AnaEE-France provides users with data bases and modeling tools designed to represent ecosystem dynamics and to go further in coupling ecological, agronomical, and evolutionary approaches. In particular, AnaEE-France offers adequate services to tackle the new challenges of research in ecotoxicology, positioning its various types of platforms in an ecologically advanced ecotoxicology approach. AnaEE-France is a leading international infrastructure, and it is pioneering the construction of AnaEE (Europe) infrastructure in the field of ecosystem research. AnaEE-France infrastructure is already open to the international community of scientists in the field of continental ecotoxicology. PMID:26315587

  7. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%.

  8. Presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in Doñana Park (Spain) main watersheds.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, M D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2010-05-15

    Among the emerging environmental contaminants, pharmaceutically active compounds have become a growing public concern because of their potential to cause undesirable ecological and human health effects. Doñana Park (South of Spain) includes a mosaic of unique ecosystems known around the world which is particularly affected by the quality of the incoming flowing water. This study reports the presence of a number of priority pharmaceuticals in wastewater and surface water samples from Doñana watersheds. In general, ibuprofen, naproxen, salicylic acid, propranolol, caffeine and gemfibrozil were the compounds most frequently found in all locations, in the range of ng/L to microg/L. Carbamazepine, with high potential risk to the environment, was also detected, although only in a few water samples. The main results are: (i) pharmaceuticals, as water pollutants, are continually discharged into Doñana water bodies and, owing to their biological activity, could lead to adverse effects in this outstanding aquatic ecosystem; (ii) wastewater treatments implemented in the area are insufficient to remove pharmaceuticals; and (iii) therefore, there is a requirement for better wastewater treatments in this natural area to reduce or avoid the presence of organic pollutants in general and pharmaceutical active compounds in particular. To the best of our knowledge, these data constitute the first measurements of pharmaceutical compounds in water not only from the protected area of Doñana Park but also from other Natural or National Parks in the world.

  9. 75 FR 77961 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Santa Ana sucker in this final rule. In the proposed rule (74 FR 65056; December 9, 2009) and the document that made available the draft economic analysis (DEA) (75 FR 38441; July 2, 2010), we stated that... River that we did not discuss in the 2005 final critical habitat designation for this species (70 FR...

  10. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  11. U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Marine Corps Air Facility, Santa Ana, California hangers no. 1&2-building no. 28 &29. Drawing no. PW-66-044 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  12. The Chicana Subject in Ana Castillo's Fiction and the Discursive Zone of Chicana/o Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Benjamin D.

    2007-01-01

    In the world of Chicana fiction, Ana Castillo has achieved the kind of status Maxine Hong Kingston has attained within Asian American discourse. Castillo's work is popular not only with the general reading public but in many academic circles as well. What sets Castillo apart from so many other Chicana fiction writers is that she is also a…

  13. Determinants of alcohol preference in the AA and ANA rat lines selected for differential ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Kiianmaa, K; Stenius, K; Sinclair, J D

    1991-01-01

    A selective breeding program conducted in this laboratory has resulted in the establishment of the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) and alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko Nonalcohol) rat lines. These lines have been used as a tool for attempting to identify the behavioral, neurochemical, and biochemical correlates of differential voluntary ethanol consumption. Some of the differences that have been found between the lines involve differential reinforcement: AA rats, but not ANA rats, rapidly acquire an ethanol-reinforced operant response. The AA's greater development of tolerance to the depressant effects of ethanol and their faster ethanol metabolism would also allow them to drink more. Neurochemical studies have suggested differential functioning of brain monoaminergic mechanisms. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase, and the brain dopamine concentrations are higher in the AA rats than in the ANA rats, and the maximal number of dopamine D2 receptors is lower in the AA rats. The concentration of noradrenaline is higher in the brain of ANA rats than in that of AA rats, while the 5-hydroxytryptamine levels do not seem to differ greatly. The importance of these differences to the line difference in ethanol intake is not, however, clear, since there appears to be no difference in the sensitivity of monoamine systems of the two lines to ethanol. PMID:1726981

  14. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal clusters encapsulated within small-pore (SOD, GIS, ANA) zeolites.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sarika; Wu, Zhijie; Zones, Stacey I; Iglesia, Enrique

    2012-10-24

    The synthesis protocols for encapsulation of metal clusters reported here expand the diversity in catalytic chemistries made possible by the ability of microporous solids to select reactants, transition states, and products on the basis of their molecular size. We report a synthesis strategy for the encapsulation of noble metals and their oxides within SOD (Sodalite, 0.28 nm × 0.28 nm), GIS (Gismondine, 0.45 nm × 0.31 nm), and ANA (Analcime, 0.42 nm × 0.16 nm) zeolites. Encapsulation was achieved via direct hydrothermal synthesis for SOD and GIS using metal precursors stabilized by ammonia or organic amine ligands, which prevent their decomposition or precipitation as colloidal hydroxides at the conditions of hydrothermal synthesis (<380 K) and favor interactions between metal precursors and incipient aluminosilicate nuclei during self-assembly of microporous frameworks. The synthesis of ANA requires higher crystallization temperatures (~415 K) and high pH (>12), thereby causing precipitation of even ligand-stabilized metal precursors as hydroxides. As a result, encapsulation was achieved by the recrystallization of metal clusters containing GIS into ANA, which retained these metal clusters within voids throughout the GIS-ANA transformation.

  16. A Study of Non-Native English Speakers' Academic Performance at Santa Ana College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold

    A study was conducted in 1980-81 at Santa Ana College (SAC) to collect data on the English communication skills of non-native English speakers and to determine if a relationship existed between these skills and student's educational success. A sample of 22 classes, with an enrollment of at least 50% non-native English speakers and representing a…

  17. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  18. Demographic variation, reintroduction, and persistence of an island duck (Anas laysanensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Weiser, Emily; Jamieson, Ian; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Population variation in life history can be important for predicting successful establishment and persistence of reintroduced populations of endangered species. The Laysan duck (Anas laysanensis) is an endangered bird native to the Hawaiian Archipelago that was extirpated from most islands after the introduction of mammalian predators. Laysan ducks were restricted to a single remote island, Laysan Island (4.1 km2), for nearly 150 years. Since the species is not known to disperse between distant Hawaiian Islands today, 42 wild birds from Laysan Island were translocated to another mammalian predator-free low-lying atoll (Midway Atoll; 6.0 km2) to reduce extinction risk. We explored how variation in demography influences establishment and longer-term retention of genetic diversity (rare alleles) for reintroductions of this species. We observed dramatic differences in population growth between the source (λ = 1.18) and reintroduced (λ = 3.28) population. The number of eggs hatched at Midway Atoll was greater than at Laysan Island, however, we found no difference in hatching success (proportion of clutch hatched) between populations. Adult females produced 3 times as many fledglings per breeding year on Midway Atoll compared to Laysan Island. We estimated population abundance of both populations until 2010 and applied a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer density dependence, process variation, observation error, and carrying capacity for the Laysan Island and Midway Atoll populations. The carrying capacity from the Gompertz model for Midway Atoll (K = 883 ± 210 SD) was estimated to be greater than that of Laysan Island (K = 598 ± 76 SD). Translocations with small numbers of founders and no immigration can create population bottlenecks, leading to loss of genetic variation over time, and potentially reducing the reintroduced population's viability or its potential to serve as a source for future translocations. Therefore, we

  19. AnaBench: a Web/CORBA-based workbench for biomolecular sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Badidi, Elarbi; De Sousa, Cristina; Lang, B Franz; Burger, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Background Sequence data analyses such as gene identification, structure modeling or phylogenetic tree inference involve a variety of bioinformatics software tools. Due to the heterogeneity of bioinformatics tools in usage and data requirements, scientists spend much effort on technical issues including data format, storage and management of input and output, and memorization of numerous parameters and multi-step analysis procedures. Results In this paper, we present the design and implementation of AnaBench, an interactive, Web-based bioinformatics Analysis workBench allowing streamlined data analysis. Our philosophy was to minimize the technical effort not only for the scientist who uses this environment to analyze data, but also for the administrator who manages and maintains the workbench. With new bioinformatics tools published daily, AnaBench permits easy incorporation of additional tools. This flexibility is achieved by employing a three-tier distributed architecture and recent technologies including CORBA middleware, Java, JDBC, and JSP. A CORBA server permits transparent access to a workbench management database, which stores information about the users, their data, as well as the description of all bioinformatics applications that can be launched from the workbench. Conclusion AnaBench is an efficient and intuitive interactive bioinformatics environment, which offers scientists application-driven, data-driven and protocol-driven analysis approaches. The prototype of AnaBench, managed by a team at the Université de Montréal, is accessible on-line at: . Please contact the authors for details about setting up a local-network AnaBench site elsewhere. PMID:14678565

  20. New dinosaur fossils from ANA locality, Arcillas de Morella Formation (Aptian, Lower Cretaceous, Cinctorres, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Cubedo, A.; de Santisteban, C.; Suñer, M.; Galobart, A.

    2009-04-01

    Ana is one of the several dinosaur bone sites located in the Arcillas de Morella Formation (Aptian, Lower Cretaceous; eastern Iberian Chain, Spain). This site was discovered in 1998, but it remained unexcavated until 2002, when a palaeontologist team formed by members of the Institut Paleontología Miquel Crusafont from Sabadell and the Grup Guix from Vila-real unearthed the first fossil from the locality. Nowadays there are five hundred fossils collected, including vertebrate and invertebrate species. Dinosaur bones (Theropoda and Ornithopoda) are abundant in this assemblage and in the last field season bones determined as Sauropoda were found. Taxonomically, Ana is dominated by disarticulated remains of Ornithopoda, which are usually fragmentary and abraded. Many of the elements may have been reworked (spatial averaging and/or time averaging), and the fossil concentration constitutes an autochthonous to parautochthonous association, in a spatial sense. The remains found in the Ana fossils site are placed in sandstones and limes containing marine autochthonous fauna. These deposits were formed during the transgressive infilling of an incised valley. Sedimentological features indicate that fossils were finally deposited in starved shallow estuarine environment. Mineralogically, the sediment including the fossils contains grains of quartz, illite/mica, kaolinite/clorite, K-feldspar and plagioclase, distributed in two mainly grain populations, a silty-clay and a coarse sand size grain, indicating that the sediments were bedded in a low-medium energy depositional environment. Nowadays we identified in Ana, teeth of Theropoda indet. and Baryonychinae indet., and bones of Iguanodon sp. Herein, we report new fossil findings from Ana site. These materials have been determined as Iguanodontia, Titanosauriformes and Theropoda. These new findings will help to understand the dinosaur fauna present in the Lower Cretaceous of Els Ports (Castellón, Spain). Acknowledgments This

  1. Lead concentrations in sediments and blue-winged teals (Anas discors) from El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adán, Echeverría-García; Gerardo, Gold-Bouchot

    2013-10-01

    Reserve regulations at El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, prohibit the use of lead (Pb) shot, but hunters continue to use it, and no enforcement is implemented. Pb was quantified in sediments and in blue-winged teal Anas discors. No shot pellets were found in the sediment samples, nor were differences in sediment Pb concentrations observed within the reserve between popular hunting sites and those no longer used for hunting. However, there were differences between the hunting sites and sediments from an adjacent area where hunting is prohibited. Average Pb concentrations were highest at hunting entrances (15.69 ± 18.69 mg/kg) and lowest at decoy locations (5.24 ± 4.84 mg/kg). These averages are lower than the lowest effects level (31 mg/kg), although 10 samples exceeded this level. Pb-shot prevalence in gizzards was 4.88% (n = 41). Pb levels exceeded 5.0 mg/kg dry weight in one or more of the tested tissues (liver, gizzard, and bone) in 14 (34.14%; 7 female, 7 male; 11 adult, 3 juvenile) of the total birds. Bird weight, sex, and age had no effect on Pb concentration. Hunting using Pb shot in the reserve clearly affects Pb levels in sediments and in A. discors that winter there. PMID:23775175

  2. Climate change projected fire weather sensitivity: California Santa Ana wind occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Norman L.; Schlegel, Nicole J.

    2006-08-01

    A new method based on global climate model pressure gradients was developed for identifying coastal high-wind fire weather conditions, such as the Santa Ana Occurrence (SAO). Application of this method for determining southern California Santa Ana wind occurrence resulted in a good correlation between derived large-scale SAOs and observed offshore winds during periods of low humidity. The projected change in the number of SAOs was analyzed using two global climate models, one a low temperature sensitivity and the other a middle-temperature sensitivity, both forced with low and high emission scenarios, for three future time periods. This initial analysis shows consistent shifts in SAO events from earlier (September-October) to later (November-December) in the season, suggesting that SAOs may significantly increase the extent of California coastal areas burned by wildfires, loss of life, and property.

  3. Project W-314 241-AN-A valve pit upgrade acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-07-21

    This report identifies the responsibilities and requirements, applicable to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit Upgrades portion of Project W-314, for Acceptance for Beneficial Use in accordance with HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Sec 3.12. At project turnover, the end user accepts the affected Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for beneficial use. This checklist is used to help the end user ensure that all documentation, training, and testing requirements are met prior to turnover. This checklist specifically identifies those items related to the upgrading of the 241-AN-A valve pit. The upgrades include: the installation of jumper/valve manifolds with position sensors, replacement pit leak detection systems, construction of replacement cover blocks, and electrical upgrades to support the instrumentation upgrades.

  4. Climate change projected fire weather sensitivity: CaliforniaSanta Ana wind occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.; Schlegel, Nicole J.

    2006-01-01

    A new methodbased on global climate model pressuregradients was developed for identifying coastal high-wind fire weatherconditions, such as the Santa Ana Occurrence (SAO). Application of thismethod for determining southern California Santa Ana wind occurrenceresulted in a good correlation between derived large-scale SAOs andobserved offshore winds during periods of low humidity. The projectedchange in the number of SAOs was analyzed using two global climatemodels, one a low temperature sensitivity and the other amiddle-temperature sensitivity, both forced with low and high emissionscenarios, for three future time periods. This initial analysis showsconsistent shifts in SAO events from earlier (September-October) to later(November-December) in the season, suggesting that SAOs may significantlyincrease the extent of California coastal areas burned by wildfires, lossof life, and property.

  5. Project W-314 Specific Test and Evaluation Plan 241-AN-A Valve Pit

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-08-25

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  6. Metal contamination in interstitial waters of Doñana Park.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel A; Negro, Juan J; Bravo, Miguel A; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2006-02-01

    The composition of interstitial waters in Spain's Doñana National Park was assessed 4 years after a major pyrite slurry spill occurred from the Aznalcollar Mine. Metal and nutrient concentrations in pore waters from two of the most important watercourses traversing Doñana Park were measured: Guadiamar River (affected by the accident) and Partido Stream (unimpacted by the accident). Concentrations of dissolved constituents in interstitial waters varied according to land use in the two watersheds and to the effects of the mine spill. Levels of dissolved Co, Cu, Mo, Ti, and Zn were higher in pore waters from the Guadiamar River than in the Partido Stream, suggesting that concentrations of trace elements are still influenced by the spill. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved nutrients (NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, PO4(-3)) and some trace metals used in fertilizers (e.g. Al and Cr) were higher in the Partido Stream. Levels of dissolved As, Cs, DOC, Ge, Hg, Rb and V in the interstitial waters were equal in both watercourses. Metal concentrations in interstitial waters of the Guadiamar River floodplain were between 0.3 (As) and 16,000 (Zn) times lower than those previously reported in the river and groundwater a few weeks after the mine spill. Although metals in pore water appear to have reached levels characteristic of the area before the accident, concentrations are 60-150 times higher than those in pore waters from other regions. Metal:Al ratios in Doñana's pore waters suggest a transport of contaminants from the Iberian Pyrite Belt into Doñana Park.

  7. The Reliability of a Novel Automated System for ANA Immunofluorescence Analysis in Daily Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Alsuwaidi, Mohammed; Dollinger, Margit; Fleck, Martin; Ehrenstein, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Automated interpretation (AI) systems for antinuclear antibody (ANA) analysis have been introduced based on assessment of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) patterns. The diagnostic performance of a novel automated IIF reading system was compared with visual interpretation (VI) of IIF in daily clinical practice to evaluate the reduction of workload. ANA-IIF tests of consecutive serum samples from patients with suspected connective tissue disease were carried out using HEp-2 cells according to routine clinical care. AI was performed using a visual analyser (Zenit G-Sight, Menarini, Germany). Agreement rates between ANA results by AI and VI were calculated. Of the 336 samples investigated, VI yielded 205 (61%) negative, 42 (13%) ambiguous, and 89 (26%) positive results, whereas 82 (24%) were determined to be negative, 176 (52%) ambiguous, and 78 (24%) positive by AI. AI displayed a diagnostic accuracy of 175/336 samples (52%) with a kappa coefficient of 0.34 compared to VI being the gold standard. Solely relying on AI, with VI only performed for all ambiguous samples by AI, would have missed 1 of 89 (1%) positive results by VI and misclassified 2 of 205 (1%) negative results by VI as positive. The use of AI in daily clinical practice resulted only in a moderate reduction of the VI workload (82 of 336 samples: 24%). PMID:27247573

  8. Aesthetic satisfaction scoring - introducing an aesthetic numeric analogue scale (ANA-scale).

    PubMed

    Funk, Wolfgang; Podmelle, Fred; Guiol, Claudia; Metelmann, Hans Robert

    2012-07-01

    To objectively and reproducibly assess the outcome of aesthetic procedures remains one of the major, unmet challenges in maxillo-facial and plastic surgery. Frequently employed scoring systems for the evaluation of aesthetic procedures are confounded by observer bias, be it that of the patient or of the surgeon. A new approach of pragmatic and simple scoring is the ANA [Aesthetic Numeric Analogue] scale, which facilitates the objective, reproducible, standardized and internationally uniform evaluation of aesthetic procedure outcome by converting all ratings for any kind of aesthetic procedures from a subjective value to an objective figure. The intention of the ANA-scale is to relate aesthetic satisfaction from wording to figures and by this create a rating system. The study is arranging matching pairs of verbal description and figures to finally queue up generating a scale. The clinical feasibility of this rating system is demonstrated in a surgical case. As a detail of the results the influence of the viewer's age to the aesthetic benefit assessment is obvious. In summary the ANA-scale looks to be a tool useful in individual treatment protocols as well as analysis of different techniques of aesthetic surgery for rating of the pure aesthetic satisfaction of the patients.

  9. Aesthetic satisfaction scoring - introducing an aesthetic numeric analogue scale (ANA-scale).

    PubMed

    Funk, Wolfgang; Podmelle, Fred; Guiol, Claudia; Metelmann, Hans Robert

    2012-07-01

    To objectively and reproducibly assess the outcome of aesthetic procedures remains one of the major, unmet challenges in maxillo-facial and plastic surgery. Frequently employed scoring systems for the evaluation of aesthetic procedures are confounded by observer bias, be it that of the patient or of the surgeon. A new approach of pragmatic and simple scoring is the ANA [Aesthetic Numeric Analogue] scale, which facilitates the objective, reproducible, standardized and internationally uniform evaluation of aesthetic procedure outcome by converting all ratings for any kind of aesthetic procedures from a subjective value to an objective figure. The intention of the ANA-scale is to relate aesthetic satisfaction from wording to figures and by this create a rating system. The study is arranging matching pairs of verbal description and figures to finally queue up generating a scale. The clinical feasibility of this rating system is demonstrated in a surgical case. As a detail of the results the influence of the viewer's age to the aesthetic benefit assessment is obvious. In summary the ANA-scale looks to be a tool useful in individual treatment protocols as well as analysis of different techniques of aesthetic surgery for rating of the pure aesthetic satisfaction of the patients. PMID:21872486

  10. 2'-F-ANA-guanosine and 2'-F-guanosine as powerful tools for structural manipulation of G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Li, Zhe; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2012-12-01

    Here we demonstrate the applicability of 2'-F-ANA-guanosine and 2'-F-guanosine as powerful tools for manipulating G-quadruplex folding by anti-position-favoring substitutions. A single guanine to 2'-F-ANA-guanine substitution can favor a single (3+1) hybrid conformation from a mixture of conformers. Rational substitutions of either type of 2'-F-modified nucleotide enable conformational switching from a (3+1) hybrid to a parallel folding topology.

  11. The homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2 is required for efficient centriole assembly in flies.

    PubMed

    Cottee, Matthew A; Muschalik, Nadine; Johnson, Steven; Leveson, Joanna; Raff, Jordan W; Lea, Susan M

    2015-05-23

    Sas-6 and Ana2/STIL proteins are required for centriole duplication and the homo-oligomerisation properties of Sas-6 help establish the ninefold symmetry of the central cartwheel that initiates centriole assembly. Ana2/STIL proteins are poorly conserved, but they all contain a predicted Central Coiled-Coil Domain (CCCD). Here we show that the Drosophila Ana2 CCCD forms a tetramer, and we solve its structure to 0.8 Å, revealing that it adopts an unusual parallel-coil topology. We also solve the structure of the Drosophila Sas-6 N-terminal domain to 2.9 Å revealing that it forms higher-order oligomers through canonical interactions. Point mutations that perturb Sas-6 or Ana2 homo-oligomerisation in vitro strongly perturb centriole assembly in vivo. Thus, efficient centriole duplication in flies requires the homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2, and the Ana2 CCCD tetramer structure provides important information on how these proteins might cooperate to form a cartwheel structure.

  12. The homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2 is required for efficient centriole assembly in flies

    PubMed Central

    Cottee, Matthew A; Muschalik, Nadine; Johnson, Steven; Leveson, Joanna; Raff, Jordan W; Lea, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Sas-6 and Ana2/STIL proteins are required for centriole duplication and the homo-oligomerisation properties of Sas-6 help establish the ninefold symmetry of the central cartwheel that initiates centriole assembly. Ana2/STIL proteins are poorly conserved, but they all contain a predicted Central Coiled-Coil Domain (CCCD). Here we show that the Drosophila Ana2 CCCD forms a tetramer, and we solve its structure to 0.8 Å, revealing that it adopts an unusual parallel-coil topology. We also solve the structure of the Drosophila Sas-6 N-terminal domain to 2.9 Å revealing that it forms higher-order oligomers through canonical interactions. Point mutations that perturb Sas-6 or Ana2 homo-oligomerisation in vitro strongly perturb centriole assembly in vivo. Thus, efficient centriole duplication in flies requires the homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2, and the Ana2 CCCD tetramer structure provides important information on how these proteins might cooperate to form a cartwheel structure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07236.001 PMID:26002084

  13. Experimental West Nile virus infection in aigamo ducks, a cross between wild ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domesticus).

    PubMed

    Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Kanehira, Katsushi; Kubo, Masanori; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Kamio, Tsugihiko

    2009-06-01

    Four 2-wk-old and four 4-wk-old aigamo ducks, a cross between wild and domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and Anas platyrhynchos var. domesticus, respectively), were infected with the NY99 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) to investigate WNV's pathogenicity in aigamo ducks and the possibility that they could transmit WNV. In the group of infected 2-wk-old aigamo ducks (2w-infection group), all of the ducks ate and drank less and showed decreased activity, some showed ataxia, and one died. Meanwhile, the group of infected 4 wk olds (4w-infection group) showed no clinical signs during the experimental period. Viremia was observed in all of the ducks in both age groups. Peak viral titers in the three surviving members of the 2w-infection group were 10(3.7)-10(5.3) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml serum; the peak was 10(7.1) PFU/ml serum in the 2w duck that died from the infection. Peak viral titers in the 4w-infection group were 10(4.1)-10(4.9) PFU/ml serum. Viral shedding in the oral and/or cloacal cavity was observed in all four members of the 2w-infection group and in three of the four members of the 4w-infection group. These results suggest that WNV-infected aigamo ducks can transmit WNV. Although aigamo ducks are reared in East Asia, where WNV is an exotic pathogen, the virus could be introduced and spread there in the future; thus it is important to take precautions against an introduction, and measures to prevent infection to aigamo duck operations should be prepared.

  14. Autoantibodies Profile in the Sera of Patients with Sjogren]s Syndrome: The ANA Evaluation—A Homogeneous, Multiplexed System

    PubMed Central

    Gilburd, Boris; Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Giordano, Andrea; Bocci, Elena Bartoloni; delle Monache, Francesco; Gerli, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Background: Flow-based, multiplex bead arrays (MBA) have been developed for a variety of applications including the detection of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA). It offers a rapid and sensitive method to assess multiple analyses in a single tube/well. Purpose: To evaluate the Athena Multi-Lyte ANA Test System utilizes Luminex Corporation's MBA technology for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ENA antibodies in the sera of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Methods: MBA assay was used to detect ANA and ENA antibodies in the sera of 37 patients with SS and 96 sera from healthy subjects. Results: All patients were women. Their mean age was 48.7 years and the mean disease duration was 7.27 years. ANA was found in 3 (3%) sera of healthy subjects by the AtheNA system and in 2 (2%) sera by the ELISA kit. A 99% concordance between the 2 assays was found. A 94.6% concordance between the 2 assays was found by testing the sera of patients with SS for ANA. By the AtheNA system, none of the sera of 37 patients with SS had autoantibodies reacting with Sm, Jo-1, dsDNA or histones. Anti-RNP antibody was found in 5.4% of the sera and 2.7% of the sera reacted with Scl-70 and histones. Anti-SS/A and anti-SS/B were identified in 84 and 76% of the sera, respectively. Conclusion: The AtheNa Multi-Lyte ANA Test System offers a sensitive and specific result for the detection of ANA and ENA antibodies in the sera of patients with SS. PMID:15154612

  15. Long-term variation in influenza A virus prevalence and subtype diversity in migratory mallards in northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Tolf, Conny; Grosbois, Vladimir; Avril, Alexis; Bengtsson, Daniel; Wille, Michelle; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Data on long-term circulation of pathogens in wildlife populations are seldom collected, and hence understanding of spatial–temporal variation in prevalence and genotypes is limited. Here, we analysed a long-term surveillance series on influenza A virus (IAV) in mallards collected at an important migratory stopover site from 2002 to 2010, and characterized seasonal dynamics in virus prevalence and subtype diversity. Prevalence dynamics were influenced by year, but retained a common pattern for all years whereby prevalence was low in spring and summer, but increased in early autumn with a first peak in August, and a second more pronounced peak during October–November. A total of 74 haemagglutinin (HA)/neuraminidase (NA) combinations were isolated, including all NA and most HA (H1–H12) subtypes. The most common subtype combinations were H4N6, H1N1, H2N3, H5N2, H6N2 and H11N9, and showed a clear linkage between specific HA and NA subtypes. Furthermore, there was a temporal structuring of subtypes within seasons based on HA phylogenetic relatedness. Dissimilar HA subtypes tended to have different temporal occurrence within seasons, where the subtypes that dominated in early autumn were rare in late autumn, and vice versa. This suggests that build-up of herd immunity affected IAV dynamics in this system. PMID:24573857

  16. Titan2D Based Pyroclastic Flows Hazard Maps for Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Escobar, C. D.; Gutierrez, R. E.

    2009-05-01

    Santa Ana Volcano is located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located to the west of El Salvador, Central America. It is one the six active volcanoes monitor by the Servicios Nacionales de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) in El Salvador, out of twenty that are considered active in this small country by Smithsonian definition. The Santa Ana Volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and in its close distal areas by the second largest city of the country. On October 1st 2005, after a few months of increased fumarolic and seismic activity, it erupted generating a 10 km high steam and ash plume, reportedly seen by some aircraft and estimated using photography by SNET members. Ash was deposited to the west, north-west part of the country, following typical wind pattern for the region, as well as small pyroclastic flows and major lahars in its eastern part. Coffee plantations were lost, as was some crop of coffee in the following season. However, to the west the ash fertilized the land and resulted in an enhanced harvest of coffee beans. Only 2 people were killed from the Blast, thanks to the auto evacuation of proximal communities. Whilst the last eruption had a relatively low human life toll, a stronger eruption spells havoc almost certainly for the region. At this moment no exhaustive study and understanding exists of the pyroclastic flows generated by the Santa Ana Volcano nor a map for this particular hazard. This study proposes the use of Titan2D for those two purposes, using a DEM generated by the SNET using topographic maps as well as DEMs generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Images (ASTER).

  17. Aquatic assemblages of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Burton, C.A.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the structure of periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages and their associations with environmental variables at 17 sites on streams of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin in Southern California. All assemblages exhibited strong differences between highly urbanized sites in the valley and the least-impacted sites at the transition between the valley and undeveloped mountains. Results within the urbanized area differed among taxa. Periphyton assemblages were dominated by diatoms (>75% of total taxa). Periphyton assemblages within the urbanized area were not associated with any of the measured environmental variables, suggesting that structure of urban periphyton assemblages might be highly dependent on colonization dynamics. The number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera (EPT) taxa included in macroinvertebrate assemblages ranged from 0 to 6 at urbanized sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages had significant correlations with several environmental variables within the urban area, suggesting that stream size and permanence were important determinants of distribution among the species able to survive conditions in urban streams. Only 4 of 16 fish species collected were native to the drainage. Fish assemblages of urbanized sites included two native species, arroyo chub Gila orcuttii and Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae, at sites that were intermediate in coefficient of variation of bank-full width, depth, bed substrate, and water temperature. Alien species dominated urbanized sites with lesser or greater values for these variables. These results suggest that urban streams can be structured to enhance populations of native fishes. Continued study of urban streams in the Santa Ana River basin and elsewhere will contribute to the basic understanding of ecological principles and help preserve the maximum ecological value of streams in highly urbanized areas.

  18. Audiomagnetotelluric exploration across the Waíanae Range, Óahu, Hawaíi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdardottir, T. D.; Thomas, D. M.; Wallin, E.; Winchester, C.; Sinton, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) method is capable of providing direct evidence of a geothermal resource within the extinct Waíanae volcano, Óahu, Hawaíi. Geothermal systems are becoming an increasingly important energy source worldwide. With electric energy costs in Hawaíi the most expensive in the US (30.54 cents/kWh), it is important to investigate the potential of local geothermal resources. Slightly elevated temperature and chloride concentrations, measured in the 1970's at wells in the upper Lualualei Valley indicate the possibility of a geothermal resource. Previous geophysical investigations: self-potential, rotating quadripole resistivity, and shallow soil temperature surveys in the caldera measured low resistivity values. Resistivity is related to rock characteristics (e.g., porosity, saturation, salinity, temperature, chemistry, and the presence of weathered minerals). We are investigating the area further using the AMT method. We have collected profiles of AMT measurements across the Lualualei Valley and the Waíanae caldera boundary. Anthropogenic noise and access in this area is problematic. Electrical noise, originating from power lines along roads and very low frequency radio towers in the vicinity, add noise to the data. Limited access to sites on military lands inhibit data collection. However, preliminary results show that we have successfully imaged the expected higher resistivity values as our profiles cross the mountains bounding the caldera. As data continue to be collected across the Waíanae Caldera and Range and we begin modeling our data in two dimensions, we expect to be able to identify water table elevations, detect lateral variability between salt and fresh water saturation, estimate thickness of the freshwater lens and depth to the transition zone, image fault structures at the caldera boundary, and with enough sensitivity to conductivity, we can identify regions of elevated temperature.

  19. The Santa AnaWinds of Southern California in the context of Fire Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yang

    The Santa Ana winds represent a high-impact weather event owing to the intimate relationship between the extremely dry, fast winds and the wildfire threat. The winds can be locally gusty, particularly in the complex terrain of San Diego county, where the airflow has characteristics of downslope windstorms. These winds can cause and/or rapidly spread wildfires, the threat of which is particularly acute during the autumn season before the onset of winter rains. It remains a day-to-day challenge to accurately predict wind gust speed, especially in the mountainous regions. Our study employs large physics ensembles composed of high-resolution simulations of severe downslope windstorms that involve an exhaustive examination of available model physical parameterizations. Model results are calibrated and validated against the San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) mesonet observations, a dense, homogenous, and well-positioned network with uniform high quality. Results demonstrate model horizontal resolution, model physics, random perturbations and landuse database can have a material effect on the strength, location and timing of Santa Ana winds in real-data simulations. A large model physics ensemble reveals the land surface model to be most crucial in skillful wind predictions, which are particularly sensitive to the surface roughness length. A surprisingly simple gust parameterization is proposed for the San Diego network, based on the discovery that this homogeneous mesonet has a nearly invariant network-averaged gust factor. The gust forecast technique is of special interest in the context of routine weather combined with atmospheric humidity and fuel moisture information. A real-time wildfire threat warning system, the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTI), has been developed to effectively communicate the upcoming Santa Ana wind strength with respect to the anticipated fire danger to first responders and the public. In addition to the wind and gust forecast techniques

  20. Survival of female black ducks, Anas rubripes, during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Mayfield method was used to estimate the survival rate of 19 radio-marked, female Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) in southcentral Maine during 1977-80. An overall survival rate of 0.74 was estimated for the 121-day monitoring period that included the pre-laying and laying, incubation, brood rearing, and post-rearing stages. No differences in survival rates were detected among these stages. Two instrumented hens were killed by Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) and a third was killed by an unknown predator. We found no evidence that the attachment of radio transmitters affected hen survival.

  1. Dynamics of a thermo-Mediterranean coastal environment the Coto Doñana National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Geraldine; Finlayson, Clive; Espejo, J. M. Recio

    2008-11-01

    Using data collected from existing habitats found in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, and including data collected in the Biological Reserve of the Parque Nacional de Doñana, Spain, this study considers the seasonal and inter-annual variability of a thermo-Mediterranean, subhumid, environment and the significance of the presence of surface water in the system. This extant environment is then used together with the fossil record from Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar, where Neanderthals lived, as a proxy for the ecology of the emerged landscape outside the cave.

  2. NURSING EMERGING. ANA Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, (2015) 3rd Edition.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Carla

    2016-04-01

    AHNA Past-President Carla Mariano recently had the privilege of serving on the American Nurses Association's (ANA) Nursing Scope and Standards Revision Workgroup. Representing the specialty practice of holistic nursing, Carla's presence within this workgroup contributed greatly to the inclusion of holistic principles and values throughout the new 2015 Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 3rd edition, the foundational document that informs and guides professional nursing practice within the United States. This is a significant step forward for holistic nursing and an indicator of our growing influence as specialty practice. PMID:27305802

  3. Clinical evaluation of the RapID-ANA II panel for identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Celig, D M; Schreckenberger, P C

    1991-03-01

    The accuracy of the RapID-ANA II system (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.) was evaluated by comparing the results obtained with that system with results obtained by the methods described by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Three hundred anaerobic bacteria were tested, including 259 clinical isolates and 41 stock strains of anaerobic microorganisms representing 16 genera and 48 species. When identifications to the genus level only were included, 96% of the anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, 94% of the Clostridium species, 83% of the anaerobic, nonsporeforming, gram-positive bacilli, and 97% of the anaerobic cocci were correctly identified. When correct identifications to the genus and species levels were compared, 86% of 152 anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, 76% of 34 Clostridium species, 81% of 41 anaerobic, nonsporeforming, gram-positive bacilli, and 97% of 73 anaerobic cocci were correctly identified. Eight isolates (3%) produced inadequate identification in which the correct identification was listed with one or two other possible choices and extra tests were required for separation. A total of 9 isolates (3%) were misidentified by the RapID-ANA II panel. Overall, the system was able to correctly identify 94% of all the isolates to the genus level and 87% of the isolates to the species level in 4 h by using aerobic incubation.

  4. Cytochrome c Biogenesis Genes Involved in Arsenate Respiration by Shewanella trabarsenatis ANA-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. K.

    2002-12-01

    Arsenate can be used as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration by diverse bacteria. The detection of these bacteria in numerous contaminated environments suggests that they are widespread and metabolically active in nature. Arsenate-respiring bacteria have been implicated in the mobilization of arsenic from arsenic-contaminated sediments. However, the enzymatic mechanisms supporting arsenate respiration are largely unknown. Here, we describe c-type cytochromes that are involved in arsenate respiration by the bacterium Shewanella trabarsenatis strain ANA-3, a facultative anaerobe that is able to use a variety of electron acceptors for growth. We performed transposon mutagenesis to study the electron transport pathway in ANA-3 during arsenate respiration. 10 arsenate-respiration deficient mutants were found after screening up to 7,000 mutants, and 4 were shown to have unique transposon insertions through Southern Blot analysis. The physiological properties of these mutants were determined, including characterization of their growth on different electron acceptors. The genes flanking the transposon insertions were sequenced for each mutant, and several were found to encode c-type cytochrome biogenesis genes. UV/VIS spectra and SDS/PAGE were used to confirm the absence of c-type cytochromes in the mutants. Based on these findings, we proposed a model for respiratory electron transport to arsenate.

  5. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    This paper is the first chapter of a comprehensive report on the ground-water features in the southern part of the coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif., with special reference to the effectiveness of the so-called coastal barrier--the Newport-Inglewood structural zone--in restraining landwar,-1 movement of saline water. The coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, which covers some 775 square miles, sustains a large urban and rural population, diverse industries, and intensive agricultural developments. The aggregate ground-water withdrawal in 1945 was about 400,000 acre-feet a year, an average of about 360 million gallons a day. The dominant land-form elements are a central lowland plain with tongues extending to the coast, bordering highlands and foothills, and a succession of low hills and mesas aligned northwestward along the coastal edge of the central low- land plain. These low hills and mesas are the land-surface expression of geologic structure in the Newport-Inglewood zone. The highland areas that border the inland edge of the coastal plain are of moderate altitude and relief; most of the ridge crests range from 1,400 to 2,500 feet in altitude, but Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Mountains attains a height of 5,680 feet above sea level. From these highlands the land surface descends across foothills and aggraded alluvial aprons to the central lowland, Downey Plain, here defined as the surface formed by alluvial aggradation during the post-Pleistocene time of rising base level. The Newport-Inglewood belt of hills and plains (mesas) has a maximum relief of some 500 feet but is widely underlain at a depth of about 30 feet by a surface of marine plantation. As initially formed in late Pleistocene time that surface was largely a featureless plain. Thus the present land-surface forms within the Newport-Inglewood belt measure the earth deformation that has occurred there since late Pleistocene time and so are pertinent with respect to

  6. D-penicillamine-induced ANA (+) ANCA (+) vasculitis in pediatric patients with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Sang Taek; Cho, Heeyeon

    2016-05-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are associated with systemic vasculitis. The pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) has not been clearly proven, and drug-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis has been reported. Wilson's disease is an inborn error of copper metabolism caused by a mutation in the copper transporting gene ATP7B, and traditional treatment is based on copper chelation with agents such as D-penicillamine. There have been rare reports that prolonged D-penicillamine therapy might cause adverse renal events such as membranous nephropathy and minimal change disease, but it is questionable if D-penicillamine induces ANCA-associated vasculitis. We describe 2 patients with Wilson's disease treated with D-penicillamine who presented with ANCA (+) vasculitis and renal involvement. The 2 patients also showed positive results for antinuclear antibody (ANA). Their kidney biopsy findings were compatible with crescentic/necrotizing glomerulonephritis, pauci-immune type. After diagnosis of AAV, D-penicillamine was stopped. Patients were then treated with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressants, including methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous cyclophosphamide. One patient progressed to end-stage renal disease and the other showed persistent proteinuria. These cases suggest that D-penicillamine may induce ANA (+) ANCA (+) vasculitis with severe renal involvement in pediatric patients, and plasmapheresis combined with immunosuppressant should be considered.

  7. D-penicillamine-induced ANA (+) ANCA (+) vasculitis in pediatric patients with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Sang Taek; Cho, Heeyeon

    2016-05-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are associated with systemic vasculitis. The pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) has not been clearly proven, and drug-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis has been reported. Wilson's disease is an inborn error of copper metabolism caused by a mutation in the copper transporting gene ATP7B, and traditional treatment is based on copper chelation with agents such as D-penicillamine. There have been rare reports that prolonged D-penicillamine therapy might cause adverse renal events such as membranous nephropathy and minimal change disease, but it is questionable if D-penicillamine induces ANCA-associated vasculitis. We describe 2 patients with Wilson's disease treated with D-penicillamine who presented with ANCA (+) vasculitis and renal involvement. The 2 patients also showed positive results for antinuclear antibody (ANA). Their kidney biopsy findings were compatible with crescentic/necrotizing glomerulonephritis, pauci-immune type. After diagnosis of AAV, D-penicillamine was stopped. Patients were then treated with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressants, including methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous cyclophosphamide. One patient progressed to end-stage renal disease and the other showed persistent proteinuria. These cases suggest that D-penicillamine may induce ANA (+) ANCA (+) vasculitis with severe renal involvement in pediatric patients, and plasmapheresis combined with immunosuppressant should be considered. PMID:26784915

  8. Lead poisoning and its in vivo biomarkers in Mallard and Coot from two hunting activity areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to present the status of lead (Pb) poisoning in birds from southern Poland and the evaluation of in vivo biomarkers which may be used in the diagnosis without killing animals. This included the activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Ht) level and concentrations of Pb in blood, feathers and excrements. The significance of this work is the use of hunted birds which allow us to compare the signals of the chosen biomarkers with the internal response. Birds collected in the area of lower hunting activity (the Milicz ponds) revealed statistically lower Pb concentrations than birds from the Zator area. Pb poisoning was diagnosed in almost 8% of birds (including specimens from both areas), but lead pellets were found in 3%. The highest tissue concentration found was noted in kidneys of Mallard from the Zator area (36.55 μg g(-1) d.w.). Significantly higher concentrations were noted in a few samples of gizzard content (up to 1047 μg g(-1) d.w.) and excrements (up to 82.95 μg g(-1) d.w.). Hb concentration, Ht level, concentrations in feathers and excrements seem not to be efficient biomarkers at noted Pb concentrations in internal tissues (brain, pectoral muscle, kidney, liver, spleen, bone). In contrast, we found a significant negative correlation between Pb concentration in blood and ALA-d activity which confirmed that this parameter can be used successfully as in vivo biomarker of lead poisoning also in low environmental pollution.

  9. 78 FR 16650 - In the Matter of: Dan Tran Dang, 1010 W. Moore Street, Santa Ana, CA 92707; Order Denying Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 49699... Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Dan Tran Dang, 1010 W. Moore Street, Santa Ana, CA... address at: 1010 W. Moore Street, Santa Ana, CA 92707, and when acting for or on behalf of Dang,...

  10. "Houses and Fields and Vineyards Shall Yet Again Be Bought in This Land": The Story of Ana, a Public Kindergarten Teacher in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa Maria Sena

    This study examined the teaching style and methods of Ana, a kindergarten teacher in Portugal, chosen because she is considered a master teacher by colleagues and parents and because she grew up in Portugal before democracy. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What are the commitments and competencies that distinguish Ana as a master…

  11. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection of amphibians in the Doñana National Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Vila, Judit; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen; Marchand, Marc A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-03-20

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by infection with the non-hyphal, zoosporic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease recognised as a cause of recent amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. The Doñana National Park (DNP) is located in southwestern Spain, a country with widespread Bd infection. This protected area has a great diversity of aquatic habitats that constitute important breeding habitats for 11 native amphibian species. We sampled 625 amphibians in December 2007 and February to March 2008, months that correspond to the early and intermediate breeding seasons for amphibians, respectively. We found 7 of 9 sampled species to be infected with Bd and found differences in prevalence between sampling periods. Although some amphibians tested had higher intensities of infection than others, all animals sampled were apparently healthy and, so far, there has been no evidence of either unusually high rates of mortality or amphibian population declines in the DNP.

  12. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). PMID:27449955

  13. Meteorological Controls on Biomass Burning During Santa Ana Events in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Capps, Scott; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Hall, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Fires occurring during Santa Ana (SA) events in southern California are driven by extreme fire weather characterized by high temperatures, low humidities, and high wind speeds. We studied the controls on burned area and carbon emissions during two intensive SA burning periods in 2003 and 2007. We therefore used remote sensing data in parallel with fire weather simulations of the Weather and Regional Forecast model. Total carbon emissions were approximately 1800 gigagrams in 2003 and 900 gigagrams in 2007, based on a daily burned area and a fire emission model that accounted for spatial variability in fuel loads and combustion completeness. On a regional scale, relatively strong positive correlations were found between the daily Fosberg fire weather index and burned area/emissions (probability is less than 0.01). Our analysis provides a quantitative assessment of relationships between fire activity and weather during severe SA fires in southern California.

  14. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV).

  15. Stratospheric intrusions, the Santa Ana winds, and wildland fires in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, A. O.; Pierce, R. B.; Schultz, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Santa Ana winds of Southern California have long been associated with wildland fires that can adversely affect air quality and lead to loss of life and property. These katabatic winds are driven primarily by thermal gradients but can be exacerbated by northerly flow associated with upper level troughs passing through the western U.S. In this paper, we show that the fire danger associated with the passage of upper level troughs can be further increased by the formation of deep tropopause folds that transport extremely dry ozone-rich air from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to the surface. Stratospheric intrusions can thus increase surface ozone both directly through transport and indirectly through their influence on wildland fires. We illustrate this situation with the example of the Springs Fire, which burned nearly 25,000 acres in Ventura County during May 2013.

  16. Genetic characterization of the Longsheng duck (Anas platyrhynchos) based on the mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Tan, Wei; Liu, Jiabo; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Longsheng duck was measured by PCR-based methods. Our research findings revealed that the entire mitochondrial genome of the Longsheng duck was 16,603 bp (GenBank accession number: KJ739616). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the mitochondrial genome were 29.22%, 22.21%, 32.79% and 15.77%, respectively, which were similar to the majority of most avian species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Longsheng duck contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one control region. Components of the Longsheng duck's mitochondrial genome were similar to those of other Anas platyrhynchos in gene arrangement and composition. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Longsheng duck should provide essential information for understanding phylogenetic relationships of duck mitochondrial genome.

  17. Outbreak of Avian Tuberculosis in Commercial Domestic Pekin Ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domestica).

    PubMed

    Zhu, De-Kang; Song, Xiao-Heng; Wang, Jiang-Bo; Zhou, Wang-Shu; Ou, Xu-Ming; Chen, Hong-Xi; Liu, Ma-Feng; Wang, Ming-Shu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Cheng, An-Chun

    2016-09-01

    Avian tuberculosis is a contagious disease affecting various domestic and wild bird species, and is caused by Mycobacterium avium . It is reported extremely rarely in commercial poultry flocks and has not been reported in commercial domestic ducks to date, with domestic ducks reported to be moderately resistant to M. avium infection. Here, we report the outbreak of avian tuberculosis in commercial Pekin duck ( Anas platyrhynchos domestica) flocks. Postmortem and histopathologic findings included nodules presenting in the visceral organs of ducks, and granulomas with central caseous necrosis surrounded by infiltrating lymphocytes. The M. avium pathogen was isolated and further identified by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and PCR based on insert sequence IS901 and the 16S rRNA gene. We highlight that avian tuberculosis not only has economic significance for the duck industry, but also presents a potential zoonotic hazard to humans. PMID:27610730

  18. Occurrence and risk assessment of free and conjugated hormones in surface water of the Santa Ana River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents a sensitive analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous monitoring of five estrogen conjugates, six estrogens and two progestagens in surface water of the Santa Ana River. Samples at ten representative sites along t...

  19. Evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of avian influenza virus subtypes in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; González-Reiche, Ana S.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Carter, Deborah L.; Newsome, George M.; Müller, Maria L.; Berghaus, Roy D.; Perez, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of influenza A viruses (IAVs) are driven by host density and population immunity. Through an analysis of subtypic data for IAVs isolated from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), we present evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of viral subtypes in spring and summer/autumn.

  20. 75 FR 36677 - Temporary Closure to All Public Use on Public Land in Doña Ana County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Temporary Closure to All Public Use on Public Land in Do a Ana County, NM... closure to all public use, including casual use, to protect person, property, and public land and... Mexico, totaling 67.5 acres. All public use, including casual use, is prohibited on this 67.5-...

  1. Conscientizacion of the Oppressed Language and the Politics of Humor in Ana Castillo's "So Far from God"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thananopavarn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between Ana Castillo's novel "So Far from God" (1993) and her development of an activist poetics inspired by Paulo Freire's influential 1970 treatise "Pedagogy of the Oppressed." "So Far from God" may be understood as the practical application of Castillo's theory of "conscienticized poetics"; that is, the…

  2. 78 FR 23769 - Notice of Final Issuance on the Adoption of Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... (FOAs): Social and Economic Development Strategies (hereinafter referred to as SEDS), SEDS--Native Asset Building Initiative (hereinafter referred to as NABI), Sustainable Employment and Economic Development..., Language--EMI, and ERE. ANA published a NOPC in the Federal Register (78 FR 13062) on February 26,...

  3. Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

  4. 78 FR 53780 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Doña Ana County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... were no known mineral values on the land proposed for sale. The BLM proposes the conveyance of the Federal mineral interests would occur simultaneously with the sale of the land. In addition to this Notice... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Do a Ana County,...

  5. Interactions between fire weather and biomass burning during Santa Ana events in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Capps, S. B.; Randerson, J. T.; Hook, S. J.; Jin, Y.; Hall, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fires occurring during Santa Ana (SA) events in southern California are driven by extreme fire weather characterized by high temperatures, low humidities, and high wind speeds. We studied the controls on fire activity during two intensive SA burning periods in 2003 and 2007. We therefore used remote sensing data from Landsat, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). We characterized fuel types in and nearby fire perimeters using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System. Fire weather severity was estimated using Reanalysis meteorological data downscaled using the Weather and Regional Forecast model. Total carbon emissions were approximately 1800 Gg in 2003 and 900 Gg in 2007. More than half of the fires that occurred during the 2003 and 2007 SA events were limited in their growth since they ran out of fuels when they progressed into developed areas under the prevailing winds. The size of the other fires was directly related to the timing and location of the ignition relative to the spatio-temporal structure of the SA conditions. On a regional scale, relatively strong positive correlations were found between the daily Fosberg fire weather index and burned area/emissions (p < 0.01). Using observations from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm we found that the typical daytime peak in fire activity was extended and nighttime fire activity was distinctly high during SA fires. Landsat estimates of fire severity were uniformly high throughout the duration of the fires and we found no discernible control of the fire weather severity on post-fire severity, however, we found that fire intensity estimates from GOES were higher in the wind corridor areas which underwent more severe fire weather. Fire weather severity, as indicated by the Fosberg fire weather index, and burned area (white perimeters) during the peak fire day (Day of the year 295 = October 22) of the 2007 Santa Ana

  6. Water Quality in the Santa Ana Basin, California, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Hamlin, Scott N.; Burton, Carmen A.; Kent, Robert; Fay, Ronald G.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2001 assessment of water quality in the Santa Ana River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Santa Ana River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://ca.water.usgs.gov/ sana_nawqa/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to other reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  7. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  8. Identification of high versus lower risk clinical subgroups in a group of adult patients with supratentorial anaplastic astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Decaestecker, C; Salmon, I; Camby, I; Dewitte, O; Pasteels, J L; Brotchi, J; Van Ham, P; Kiss, R

    1995-05-01

    The present work investigates whether computer-assisted techniques can contribute any significant information to the characterization of astrocytic tumor aggressiveness. Two complementary computer-assisted methods were used. The first method made use of the digital image analysis of Feulgen-stained nuclei, making it possible to compute 15 morphonuclear and 8 nuclear DNA content-related (ploidy level) parameters. The second method enabled the most discriminatory parameters to be determined. This second method is the Decision Tree technique, which forms part of the Supervised Learning Algorithms. These two techniques were applied to a series of 250 supratentorial astrocytic tumors of the adult. This series included 39 low-grade (astrocytomas, AST) and 211 high-grade (47 anaplastic astrocytomas, ANA, and 164 glioblastomas, GBM) astrocytic tumors. The results show that some AST, ANA and GBM did not fit within simple logical rules. These "complex" cases were labeled NC-AST, NC-ANA and NC-GBM because they were "non-classical" (NC) with respect to their cytological features. An analysis of survival data revealed that the patients with NC-GBM had the same survival period as patients with GBM. In sharp contrast, patients with ANA survived significantly longer than patients with NC-ANA. In fact, the patients with ANA had the same survival period as patients who died from AST, while the patients with NC-ANA had a survival period similar to those with GBM. All these data show that the computer-assisted techniques used in this study can actually provide the pathologist with significant information on the characterization of astrocytic tumor aggressiveness. PMID:7745436

  9. Ground-water quality in the Santa Ana Watershed, California : overview and data summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.; Belitz, Kenneth; Kraja, Sarah; Dawson, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from 207 wells in the Santa Ana Basin in the Coastal Range Province of southern California to assess the occurrence and distribution of dissolved constituents in ground water as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. These wells were sampled during eight studies from 1999 to 2001 that were designed to sample the used water resource at different scales: (1) three studies characterized water quality at a regional scale; (2) two studies focused on spatial and temporal variations in water quality along flow paths; (3) a land-use study focused on evaluation of water quality in shallow ground water; and (4) two studies assessed aquifer susceptibility to contamination. The Santa Ana Basin is divided into the Coastal Basin, the Inland Basin, and the San Jacinto Basin. The Coastal Basin includes a relatively small unconfined recharge area and a relatively large confined area where ground-water pumping is the primary source of discharge. Land use is almost entirely urban. The Inland Basin is predominantly unconfined and land use is urban and agricultural. The San Jacinto Basin is largely unconfined and land use is mostly agricultural. Water-quality data discussed in this report are compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking-water standards, both primary and secondary. Most exceedances of maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) occurred in the shallow, coastal monitoring wells that tap ground water not used for water supply. Water from several irrigation wells in the Inland and San Jacinto basins exceeded the 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) MCL for nitrate. Water from some wells exceeded secondary MCLs for manganese (50 ?g/L [micrograms per liter]) and iron (300 ?g/L) and (or) proposed MCLs for arsenic (10 ?g/L) and uranium (30 ?g/L). Of the 94 production wells sampled for trace elements, 3 irrigation wells in the Coastal Basin produced water that exceeded the secondary MCL

  10. Latvian Waste Management Modelling in View of Environmental Impact Reduction / Latvijas Atkritumu SAIMNIECĪBAS ATTĪSTĪBA un TĀS RADĪTĀS Ietekmes UZ Vidi SAMAZINĀŠANAS MODELĒŠANA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teibe, I.; Bendere, R.; Arina, D.

    2013-12-01

    In the work, the life-cycle assessment approach is applied to the planning of waste management development in a seaside region (Piejūra) using the Waste Management Planning System (WAMPS) program. In Latvia, the measures to be taken for the climate change mitigation are of utmost importance - especially as related to the WM performance, since a disposal of biodegradable waste presents the primary source of GHG emissions. To reduce the amount of such waste is therefore one of the most significant goals in the State WM plan for 2013-2020, whose adoption is the greatest challenge for municipalities. The authors analyse seven models which involve widely employed biomass processing methods, are based on experimental data and intended for minimising the direct disposal of organic mass at the solid waste landfills. The numerical results obtained evidence that the thermal or biotechnological treatment of organic waste substantially reduces the negative environmental impact of WM practices - by up to 6% as compared with the currently existing. Klimata pārmaiņu samazināšanas pasākumi Latvijā atkritumu saimniecības sektorā ir īpaši svarīgi. jo bioloģiski sadalāmo atkritumu apglabāšana ir viens no būtiskākajiem SEG emisiju avotiem valstī. Pētījumā modelēti virkne sadzīves atkritumu apsaimniekošanas modeļi. kas ietver plašāk izmantotās biomasas pārstrādes metodes un samazina tiešu organiskās masas apglabāšanu cieto sadzīves atkritumu poligonos. Atkritumu apsaimniekošanas modeļu radītās vides ietekmes novērtēšanai izmantota WAMPS (Waste Management Planning System) programma, kas balstīta uz atkritumu apsaimniekošanas procesu dzīves cikla novērtējumu vienā no desmit Latvijas atkritumu apsaimniekošanas reģioniem - Piejūra. Iegūtie kvantitatīvie rezultāti norāda. ka organiskās atkritumu masas pārstrāde un stabilizēšana, izmantojot biotehnoloģijas vai termisko pārstrādi, būtiski samazina atkritumu apsaimniekošanas rad

  11. FLIT-MLO and No. 2 fuel oil: Effects of aerosol applications to mallard eggs on hatchability and behavior of ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    FLIT-MLO and No. 2 fuel oil are sprayed on wetlands for mosquito control during spring and summer. In one experiment to assess the effects of the spraying on birds, mallard eggs were sprayed with amounts of No. 2 fuel oil equivalent to 2.34, 4.67, or 18.70 liters/ha or FLIT-MLO equivalent to 9.35, 46.75, or 140.25 liters/ha on Day 6 of incubation. In a second experiment, mallard eggs were sprayed with 9.35, 46.75, or 140.25 liters/ha of FLIT-MLO on Days 3, 6, 12, or 18 of incubation. Hatchability of eggs sprayed with the highest treatment level of each substance was significantly lower than that of controls for the first experiment. Hatchability of eggs sprayed with FLIT-MLO in the second experiment was never significantly lower than that of controls. Ducklings from the first experiment, 36-48 hr old, were cold stressed for 1 hr at 8 degrees C and then immediately tested for their ability to respond to a fright stimulus. Ducklings from the group of eggs sprayed with 140.25 liters/ha of FLIT-MLO ran a significantly shorter distance from the fright stimulus than did controls. The effects of the heaviest exposure to FLIT-MLO (140.25 liters/ha) on egg hatchability and behavior of newly hatched young are uncertain because of the contradictory results for hatching success in the two experiments. However, normal applications of FLIT-MLO (9.35-46.75 liters/ha) or No. 2 fuel oil (2.34-4.67 liters/ha) do not appear to pose a threat to the embryos of breeding birds.

  12. Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Albespy, Frédéric; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Grandhomme, Viviane; Renaud, François; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J.; Thomas, Frédéric; van der Werf, Sylvie; Aubry, Philippe; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in the South of France, across Europe. Based on bird-ring recoveries, local duck population sizes and prevalence of infection with these viruses, we built an individual-based spatially explicit model describing bird movements, both locally (between wintering areas) and at the flyway scale. We investigated the effects of viral excretion duration and inactivation rate in water by simulating AIV spread with varying values for these two parameters. The results indicate that an efficient AIV dispersal in space is possible only for excretion durations longer than 7 days. Virus inactivation rate in the environment appears as a key parameter in the model because it allows local persistence of AIV over several months, the interval between two migratory periods. Virus persistence in water thus represents an important component of contamination risk as ducks migrate along their flyway. Based on the present modelling exercise, we also argue that HP H5N1 AIV is unlikely to be efficiently spread by Common Teal dispersal only. PMID:19802387

  13. Gastrointestinal helminthes of green-winged teal (Anas crecca) from North Iran

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Tabarestani, Amir Hossein Alizadeh; Ardeshir, Hadi Alijani; Jafarzade, Farshid; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the helminth parasites of Anas crecca (A. crecca) in one of proper refuges of Iran, Fereydunkenar. Methods A total number of one hundred thirty-six gastrointestinal tracts of green-winged teal (A. crecca) were collected from Fereydunkenar, Mazandaran province during September and October 2011. The gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminth infection. Results The total infection rate was 70.50% (96) that 68.96% (40) of males and 71.79% (56) of females shown helminthes infection. The examined A. crecca harbored one species of Nematoda, Cestoda and two species of Digenea which were as following: Contracaecum larvae (from stomach wall), Diorchis stefanskii (D. stefanskii) (from small intestine), Hypoderaeum conoideum (from small intestine) and Notocotylus attenuatus (N. attenuatus) (from caecum), respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between examined males and females ducks in Hypoderaeum conoideum, D. stefanskii and N. attenuatus (P>0.05) whereas a significant relationship was observed between males and females in Contracaecum larvae (P<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that A. crecca plays a prominent role in transmission of mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report of Contracaecum larvae, D. stefanskii and N. attenuatus from A. crecca in Iran. PMID:25183069

  14. WEB-based GEne SeT AnaLysis Toolkit (WebGestalt): update 2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Duncan, Dexter; Shi, Zhiao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-07-01

    Functional enrichment analysis is an essential task for the interpretation of gene lists derived from large-scale genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies. WebGestalt (WEB-based GEne SeT AnaLysis Toolkit) has become one of the popular software tools in this field since its publication in 2005. For the last 7 years, WebGestalt data holdings have grown substantially to satisfy the requirements of users from different research areas. The current version of WebGestalt supports 8 organisms and 201 gene identifiers from various databases and different technology platforms, making it directly available to the fast growing omics community. Meanwhile, by integrating functional categories derived from centrally and publicly curated databases as well as computational analyses, WebGestalt has significantly increased the coverage of functional categories in various biological contexts including Gene Ontology, pathway, network module, gene-phenotype association, gene-disease association, gene-drug association and chromosomal location, leading to a total of 78 612 functional categories. Finally, new interactive features, such as pathway map, hierarchical network visualization and phenotype ontology visualization have been added to WebGestalt to help users better understand the enrichment results. WebGestalt can be freely accessed through http://www.webgestalt.org or http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/webgestalt/.

  15. Granulomatous inflammation of salt glands in ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) associated with intralesional Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, Robert; Müller, Christian; Polster, Ulf; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Teifke, Jens Peter

    2005-06-01

    The "nasal glands" occur in many bird species and are powerful sodium ion-excretory organs. In ducks, they are located in supraorbital bony recesses. Granulomatous inflammation of these glands occurs with an incidence of approximately 1% in ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and is not associated with specific clinical symptoms. We investigated nine glands of eight animals with granulomas by gross pathology and histopathology, and compared results of bacteriology with 20 non-lesioned nasal glands. Adenitis was characterized by multifocal to coalescent heterophilic granulomas with central necrotic heterophils, and multinucleate giant cells, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Within the centres of the granulomas, there were clusters of Gram-negative bacteria that were identified as halo-tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Aeromonas hydrophila. Normal glands contained exclusively various halo-tolerant Gram-positive bacteria, mostly Streptococcus sp. and Enterococcus sp. The distribution of lesions and lack of clinical symptoms were suggestive of a localized ascending infection via the secretory ductules. PMID:16191707

  16. Breeding habitat selection and home range of radio-marked black ducks (Anas rubripes) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Telemetry techniques were used to monitor the movements and habitat use of 13 female and 7 male black ducks (Anas rubripes) in an inland breeding region of south central Maine in 1977-1980. Black ducks preferred persistent emergent, broad-leaved deciduous forested, and broad-leaved deciduous scrub-shrub wetlands over unconsolidated organic bottom, needle-leaved evergreen forested, and broad-leaved evergreen scrub-shrub ponds. Birds also made frequent use of small ephemeral pools and streams throughout the breeding period. Nests were located in several habitats ranging from wetland sites to upland areas 1.5 km from the most frequently used pond. Home range size averaged 119 ha for females and 231 ha for males and did not differ by reproductive stage. Three pairs used only a single pond during the incubation period. Home ranges were linear (linearity index = 2.8), averaging 1956 m long for females and 2755 m for males. Wetlands used most by hens during incubation recesses were not always those located closest to the nest. Radio-marked ducks that returned in subsequent breeding seasons demonstrated fidelity to the previously used home range. Pair bonds of marked birds lasted until day 19 or 20 of incubation for initial nesting attempts.

  17. Role of nonmigratory mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) as sentinels for avian influenza surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Susan N; Ferro, Pamela J; Peterson, Markus J; Ward, Michael P; Ballard, Bart M; Lupiani, Blanca

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula), a nonmigratory dabbling duck, as a sentinel species for avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance. A total of 235 cloacal swabs from 147 live-captured and 88 hunter-harvested mottled ducks during summer (June-August 2007) and winter (November 2007 to January 2008), respectively, were collected along the upper Texas coast. Samples were screened for AIV using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); all rRT-PCR-positive samples were processed for virus isolation. Three samples were positive for AIV by AIV-matrix rRT-PCR. One of these samples also was positive for H5 by rRT-PCR, and a low pathogenic H5N2 AIV was isolated. Although isolation of AIVs from mottled ducks during the winter has been reported previously, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first H5 isolate from mottled ducks. Interestingly, this isolation was made during the same season that other H5N2 viruses were obtained from migratory waterfowl on the Texas coast, which suggests AIV transmission among waterfowl on the wintering grounds and the potential role of mottled ducks as a naturally occurring sentinel species for AIV surveillance.

  18. The AA and ANA rat lines, selected for differences in voluntary alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Lê, A D; Kiianmaa, K

    1989-09-15

    The offspring of rats that voluntarily select larger quantities of alcohol are heavier consumers of alcohol than the offspring of rats that tend to avoid it. Such selective breeding, repeated over many generations, was used to develop the AA (Alko, Alcohol) line of rats which prefer 10% alcohol to water, and the ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) line of rats which choose water to the virtual exclusion of alcohol. In addition to demonstrating the likely role of genetic factors in alcohol consumption, these lines have been used to find behavioral, metabolic, and neurochemical correlates of differential alcohol intake. Some of the line differences that have been found involve the reinforcing effects of ethanol, the changes in consumption produced by alcohol deprivation and nutritional factors, the behavioral and adrenal monoamine reactions to mild stress, the development of tolerance, the accumulation of acetaldehyde during ethanol metabolism, and the brain levels of serotonin. It is hoped that these studies will lead to a better understanding of the genetically-determined mechanisms that influence the selection of alcohol.

  19. Isostatic Gravity Map with Geology of the Santa Ana 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Lee, Tien-Chang; Biehler, Shawn; Jachens, R.C.; Morton, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an updated isostatic gravity map, with an accompanying discussion of the geologic significance of gravity anomalies in the Santa Ana 30 by 60 minute quadrangle, southern California. Comparison and analysis of the gravity field with mapped geology indicates the configuration of structures bounding the Los Angeles Basin, geometry of basins developed within the Elsinore and San Jacinto Fault zones, and a probable Pliocene drainage network carved into the bedrock of the Perris block. Total cumulative horizontal displacement on the Elsinore Fault derived from analysis of the length of strike-slip basins within the fault zone is about 5-12 km and is consistent with previously published estimates derived from other sources of information. This report also presents a map of density variations within pre-Cenozoic metamorphic and igneous basement rocks. Analysis of basement gravity patterns across the Elsinore Fault zone suggests 6-10 km of right-lateral displacement. A high-amplitude basement gravity high is present over the San Joaquin Hills and is most likely caused by Peninsular Ranges gabbro and/or Tertiary mafic intrusion. A major basement gravity gradient coincides with the San Jacinto Fault zone and marked magnetic, seismic-velocity, and isotopic gradients that reflect a discontinuity within the Peninsular Ranges batholith in the northeast corner of the quadrangle.

  20. Suspended-sediment rating curve response to urbanization and wildfire, Santa Ana River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Rubin, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    River suspended-sediment concentrations provide insights to the erosion and transport of materials from a landscape, and changes in concentrations with time may result from landscape processes or human disturbance. Here we show that suspended-sediment concentrations in the Santa Ana River, California, decreased 20-fold with respect to discharge during a 34-year period (1968−2001). These decreases cannot be attributed to changes in sampling technique or timing, nor to event or seasonal hysteresis. Annual peak and total discharge, however, reveal sixfold increases over the 34-year record, which largely explain the decreases in sediment concentration by a nonlinear dilution process. The hydrological changes were related to the widespread urbanization of the watershed, which resulted in increases in storm water discharge without detectable alteration of sediment discharge, thus reducing suspended-sediment concentrations. Periodic upland wildfire significantly increased water discharge, sediment discharge, and suspended-sediment concentrations and thus further altered the rating curve with time. Our results suggest that previous inventories of southern California sediment flux, which assume time-constant rating curves and extend these curves beyond the sampling history, may have substantially overestimated loads during the most recent decades.