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Sample records for adult manduca sexta

  1. Utilization of [14C]phenylalanine derived from arylphorin or free amino acid in Manduca sexta pharate adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M.; Tischler, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    The role of arylphorin as a storage protein was studied using 14C-arylphorin. 14C-arylphorin was produced optimally by incubating one-half fat body from Manduca sexta fifth instar larvae at 22 degrees C for 24 h, in 1 ml of medium containing amino acids at 25% of their physiological concentration with [U-14C]-phenylalanine (phe) provided initially without nonlabeled phenylalanine. Nonlabeled phe was provided after 1 h at 16% of its physiological concentration. The specific activity of 14C-arylphorin produced in vitro was 30 times greater than that generated in vivo. Injection of 14C-arylphorin into pharate adults was used to study the distribution of 14C-phe derived from this protein into 14CO2 and tissues for comparison with injection of free 14C-phe during the middle (days 6 to 12 pharate adult) and late (days 12 to 17 pharate adult) stages of adult development. Appearance of 14CO2 from 14C-arylphorin as compared to 14C-phenylalanine showed a slower time course during both the middle and late stages of development, in keeping with the time needed for degradation of the protein. In accord with faster phe turnover near the end of adult development, total 14CO2 production was greater and the retention of 14C in hemolymph and fat body was less compared to the middle stage of development regardless of whether 14C-arylphorin or 14C-phe was injected. In the middle stage of development, the appearance of 14C in the cuticle and head parts was greater, whereas incorporation into abdomen and thorax was less than during the late stage of development. Since the pattern of 14C distribution from 14C-arylphorin and 14C-phe was similar, one major function of arylphorin must be as a storage protein replenishing the supply of free amino acids used for synthesis of adult tissues. These results also suggest a limited contribution of M. sexta arylphorin to formation of the cuticle subsequent to day-6 pharate adult.

  2. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    PubMed Central

    Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

  3. A comparison of the neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex of adult male and female Manduca sexta using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert J

    2003-11-15

    The occurrence of neuropeptides in the retrocerebral complexes of adult male and females of the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), post source decay (PSD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS. From fractions of methanol extracts of corpora cardiaca (CC)/corpora allata (CA), separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a total of 11 mass ions were assigned to known peptides from M. sexta. These peptides were adipokinetic hormone (AKH), FLRFamides I, II and III, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), cardioactive peptide 2b (CAP(2b)), three myoinhibitory peptides, corazonin, and M. sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS). A further six masses were in agreement with Y/FXFGLamide allatostatins identified from other Lepidoptera. The sequence identities of FLRFamide I and AKH were confirmed using post source decay analysis. Fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation MS/MS identified an extended AKH peptide. The apparent differences in the peptides present in male and female retrocerebral complexes are most likely quantitative rather than sex specific.

  4. The immune signaling pathways of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yun-Ru; Bryant, Bart; Clem, Rollie J.; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Blissard, Gary; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways and their coordination are critically important for proper functioning of animal immune systems. Our knowledge of the constituents of the intracellular signaling network in insects mainly comes from genetic analyses in Drosophila melanogaster. To facilitate future studies of similar systems in the tobacco hornworm and other lepidopteran insects, we have identified and examined the homologous genes in the genome of Manduca sexta. Based on 1:1 orthologous relationships in most cases, we hypothesize that the Toll, Imd, MAPK-JNK-p38 and JAK-STAT pathways are intact and operative in this species, as are most of the regulatory mechanisms. Similarly, cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis and RNA interference probably function in similar ways, because their mediators and modulators are mostly conserved in this lepidopteran species. We have annotated a total of 186 genes encoding 199 proteins, studied their domain structures and evolution, and examined their mRNA levels in tissues at different life stages. Such information provides a genomic perspective of the intricate signaling system in a non-drosophiline insect. PMID:25858029

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Alimentary Tract Development in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Ian J.; Goodman, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive 3D magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to investigate metamorphosis of the alimentary tract of Manduca sexta from the larval to the adult stage. The larval midgut contracts in volume immediately following cessation of feeding and then greatly enlarges during the late pharate pupal period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the foregut and hindgut of the pharate pupa undergo ecdysis considerably earlier than the external exoskeleton. Expansion of air sacs in the early pupa and development of flight muscles several days later appear to orient the midgut into its adult position in the abdomen. The crop, an adult auxiliary storage organ, begins development as a dorsal outgrowth of the foregut. This coincides with a reported increase in pupal ecdysteroid titers. An outgrowth of the hindgut, the rectal sac, appears several days later and continues to expand until it nearly fills the dorsal half of the abdominal cavity. This development correlates with a second rise in pupal ecdysteroid titers. In the pharate pupa, the presence of paramagnetic species renders the silk glands hyperintense. PMID:27280776

  6. Steroid control of muscle remodeling during metamorphosis in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hegstrom, C D; Truman, J W

    1996-04-01

    During metamorphosis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, the abdominal body-wall muscle DEO1 is remodeled to form the adult muscle DE5. The degeneration of muscle DEO1 involves the dismantling of its contractile apparatus followed by the degeneration of muscle nuclei. As some nuclei are degenerating, others begin to incorporate 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), indicating the onset of nuclear proliferation. This proliferation is initially most evident at the site where the motoneuron contacts the muscle remnant. The developmental events involved in muscle remodeling are under the control of the steroid hormones, the ecdysteroids. The loss of the contractile elements of the larval muscle requires the rise and fall of the prepupal peak of ecdysteroids, whereas the subsequent loss of muscle nuclei is influenced by the slight rise in ecdysteroids seen after pupal ecdysis. Incorporation of BrdU by muscle nuclei depends on both the adult peak of the ecdysteroids and contact with the motoneuron. Unilateral axotomy blocks proliferation within the rudiment, but it does not block its subsequent differentiation into a very thin muscle in the adult.

  7. Field tests of syntheticManduca sexta sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J H; Mitchell, E R; Doolittle, R E; Jackson, D M

    1994-03-01

    In field experiments traps were baited with live females or with a two-, four-, or eight-component blend of the 16-carbon aldehydes previously identified as components of the sex pheromone emitted by femaleManduca sexta moths. The blends were formulated on rubber septa. Traps baited with a blend of all eight aldehydes captured moreM. sexta males than any other treatment. Septa loaded with 600 μg of the eight-component blend were attractive to males for about seven days in the field. Septa loaded with the eight-component blend and stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for a year released the conjugated diene and triene aldehydes at the same rate as freshly prepared septa and were equally attractive in the field.

  8. Isolation and identification of a diuretic hormone from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Troetschler, Ruth G.; Li, Jorge P.; Kramer, Steven J.; Carney, Robert L.; Schooley, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A diuretic hormone (DH) has been isolated from pharate adult heads of Manduca sexta by a nine-step purification procedure. The primary structure of the amino-terminal 40 residues was determined by sequence analysis of intact DH. The structure of an amidated carboxyl-terminal tryptic hexapeptide was characterized by sequence analysis of the peptide, and this hexapeptide was later compared by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with two synthetic hexapeptides with the free acid or amide at the carboxyl terminus. The complete structure of M. sexta DH was established as a 41-residue peptide without disulfide bonds: H-Arg-Met-Pro-Ser-Leu-Ser-Ile-Asp-Leu-Pro-Met-Ser-Val-Leu-Arg-Gln-Lys-Leu-Ser -Leu-Glu-Lys-Glu-Arg-Lys-Val-His-Ala-Leu-Arg-Ala-Ala-Ala-Asn-Arg-Asn-Phe-Leu- Asn-Asp-Ile-NH2. M. sexta DH was synthesized and shown to have chromatographic and biological properties identical with those of the native material. Synthetic DH stimulated fluid excretion in vivo upon injection into larval M. sexta and newly emerged adult Pieris rapae. M. sexta DH has considerable sequence homology with corticotropin-releasing factor, urotensin I, and sauvagine. PMID:16594029

  9. Dietary phosphorus affects the growth of larval Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Marc C; Woods, H Arthur; Harrison, Jon F; Elser, James J

    2004-03-01

    Although phosphorus has long been considered an important factor in the growth of diverse biota such as bacteria, algae, and zooplankton, insect nutrition has classically focused on dietary protein and energy content. However, research in elemental stoichiometry has suggested that primary producer biomass has similar N:P ratios in aquatic and terrestrial systems, and phosphorus-rich herbivores in freshwater systems frequently face phosphorus-limited nutritional conditions. Therefore, herbivorous insects should also be prone to phosphorus limitation. We tested this prediction by rearing Manduca sexta larvae on artificial and natural (Datura wrightii leaves) diets containing varying levels of phosphorus (approximately 0.20, 0.55, or 1.2% phosphorus by dry weight). For both artificial and natural diets, increased dietary phosphorus significantly increased growth rates and body phosphorus contents, and shortened the time to the final instar molt. Caterpillars did not consistently exhibit compensatory feeding for phosphorus on either type of diet. The growth and body phosphorus responses were not explicable by changes in amounts of potassium or calcium, which co-varied with phosphorus in the diets. Concentrations of phosphorus in D. wrightii leaves collected in the field varied over a range in which leaf phosphorus is predicted to affect M. sexta's growth rates. These results suggest that natural variation in dietary phosphorus is likely to affect the growth rate and population dynamics of M. sexta, and perhaps larval insects more generally.

  10. Elastic Proteins in the Flight Muscle of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Ma, Weikang; Schemmel, Peter; Cheng, Yu-Shu; Liu, Jiangmin; Tsaprailis, George; Feldman, Samuel; Southgate, Agnes Ayme; Irving, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    The flight muscles (DLM1) of the Hawkmoth, Manduca sexta are synchronous, requiring a neural spike for each contraction. Stress/strain curves of skinned DLM1 showed hysteresis indicating the presence of titin-like elastic proteins. Projectin and kettin are titin-like proteins previously identified in Lethocerus and Drosophila flight muscles. Analysis of Manduca muscles with 1% SDS-agarose gels and western blots showed two bands near 1 MDa that cross-reacted with antibodies to Drosophila projectin. Antibodies to Drosophila kettin cross-reacted to bands at ~500 and ~700 kDa, but also to bands at ~1.6 and ~2.1 MDa, that had not been previously observed in insect flight muscles. Mass spectrometry identified the 2.1 MDa protein as a product of the Sallimus (sls) gene. Analysis of the gene sequence showed that all 4 putative Sallimus and kettin isoforms could be explained as products of alternative splicing of the single sls gene. Both projectin and Sallimus isoforms were expressed to higher levels in ventrally located DLM1 subunits, primarily responsible for active work production, as compared to dorsally located subunits, which may act as damped springs. The different expression levels of the 2 projectin isoforms and 4 Sallimus/kettin isoforms may be adaptations to the specific requirements of individual muscle subunits. PMID:25602701

  11. Biological Investigation of the Stimulated Flapping Motions of the Moth, Manduca sexta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Alessandoro Volta to study this phenomenon, and led to the discovery of electrical current (Keithley, 1999). Nearly sixty years later, in 1849...the primary flight muscles a Manduca sexta is possible with electrical stimulants which could be used to directly control insect flight. v... Electrical Signals Controlling Animals ..................................................................12 M.sexta Flight Muscles

  12. Biosynthesis of the Juvenile Hormones of Manduca sexta: Labeling Pattern from Mevalonate, Propionate, and Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Schooley, David A.; Judy, Kenneth J.; Bergot, B. John; Hall, M. Sharon; Siddall, John B.

    1973-01-01

    Using organ culture, high-resolution liquid chromatography, and microchemical techniques, we demonstrated the efficient incorporation in vitro of several radiolabeled precursors into the two juvenile hormones of Manduca sexta. JH II, a homosesquiterpene hormone, reported from M. sexta as well as several other insects, incorporates radiolabel from acetate, mevalonate, and propionate. JH III, a sesquiterpene hormone recently reported as a natural product of M. sexta, incorporates label from acetate and mevalonate, but not from propionate. Based on the position of the labeled atoms in the precursors and upon the position of incorporation obtained from label-distribution data, a scheme for juvenile hormone biosynthesis is advanced. PMID:16592112

  13. The role of the frontal ganglion in the feeding and eclosion behavior of the moth manduca sexta

    PubMed

    Miles; Booker

    1998-06-01

    We have examined the musculature and motor patterns of the foregut and the role of the frontal ganglion in the adult moth Manduca sexta. During adult development, the structure of the foregut changes from a simple straight tube to a pump consisting of a flexible-roofed chamber or cibarium, with dilator muscles that raise the roof to draw in fluids and a compressor to push it down and force the fluid down the thin-walled esophagus. The frontal ganglion drives the activity of this cibarial pump during feeding, which is triggered by the application of sucrose solution or water to the proboscis. The feeding motor pattern consists of coupled bursts of the pump dilators and shorter-duration, high-frequency bursts of spikes from the pump compressor. The pump is also activated at the adult molt. At this time, it is used both before the moth emerges from the pupal case for swallowing molting fluid and again after emergence for swallowing air. These behaviors are important for eclosion and are necessary for the expansion of the wings after eclosion. Their motor patterns are similar to the feeding program. Up to 24 h before adult ecdysis, this motor pattern can be triggered by the peptide eclosion hormone. The other eclosion-related peptide, Manduca sexta eclosion-triggering hormone, does not appear to trigger activity of the cibarial pump.

  14. Histochemical analysis of the goblet cell matrix in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Lozano, G.; Cajina-Quezada, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental analyses were made to histochemically determine the composition of the goblet cell matrix material in the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Techniques employed following fixation in Carnoy fluid were the periodic acid-Schiff reaction and the alcian blue stain at pH 1.0 and pH 2.5 and following methylation and subsequent saponification. The cumulative evidence suggests that the plug material is an acid mucosubstance.

  15. Species-specific effects of herbivory on the oviposition behavior of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Kristin; Pesque, Adrien; Mikles, David; Goodwin, Brenna

    2013-01-01

    In Southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal sphinx moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator-plant and herbivore-plant association. While certain plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) attract moths for oviposition, it is likely that other host-derived olfactory cues, such as herbivore-induced VOCs, repel moths for oviposition. Here, we studied the oviposition preference of female M. sexta towards intact and damaged host plants of three species: D. wrightii, D. discolor (a less preferred feeding resource but also used by females for oviposition), and Solanum lycopersicum-tomato-(used by moths as an oviposition resource only). Damage was inflicted to the plants either by larval feeding or artificial damage. Mated females were exposed to an intact plant and a damaged plant and allowed to lay eggs for 10 min. Oviposition preferences of females were highly heterogeneous in all cases, but a larger proportion of moths laid significantly fewer eggs on feeding-damaged and artificially damaged plants of S. lycopersicum. Many females also avoided feeding-damaged D. discolor and D. wrightii plants induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate. Chemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total amount of VOCs released by vegetative tissues of feeding-damaged plants, as well as species-specific increases in emission of certain VOCs. In particular, feeding-damaged S. lycopersicum plants emitted (-)-linalool, an odorant that repels moths for oviposition. Finally, the emission of D. wrightii floral VOCs, which are important in mediating feeding by adult moths (and hence pollination), did not change in plants damaged by larval feeding. We propose that the observed differential effects of herbivory on oviposition choice are due to different characteristics (i.e., mutually beneficial or parasitic) of the insect-plant interaction.

  16. Behavioral and genomic characterization of molt-sleep in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    MacWilliam, Dyan; Arensburger, Peter; Higa, Jason; Cui, Xinping; Adams, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    During the transition from feeding to molting, larval insects undergo profound changes in behavior and patterns of gene expression regulated by the neuroendocrine system. For some species, a distinctive characteristic of molting larvae is presence of a quiescent state sometimes referred to as "molt-sleep". Here, observations of 4th instar Manduca sexta larvae indicate the molting period involves a predominantly quiescent state that shares behavioral properties of adult insect sleep in that it is rapidly reversible and accompanied by a reduced responsiveness to both mildly arousing and noxious stimuli. When subjected to noxious stimuli, molting larvae exhibit locomotory and avoidance behaviors similar to those of inter-molt larvae. Although less consolidated, inter-molt quiescence shares many of the same behavioral traits with molting quiescence. However, when subjected to deprivation of quiescence, inter-molt larvae display a compensatory rebound behavior that is not detected in molting larvae. This suggests that molting quiescence is a specialized form of inactivity that affords survival advantages to molting larvae. RNA-seq analysis of molting larvae shows general reduction in expression of genes encoding GPCRs and down regulation of genes connected with cyclic nucleotide signaling. On the other hand, certain ion channel genes are up-regulated, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, chloride channels and a voltage-dependent calcium channel. These findings suggest patterns of gene expression consistent with elevation of quiescent state characteristic of the molt in a model holometabolous insect.

  17. Illness-induced anorexia and its possible function in the caterpillar, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Fidler, Tara L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2007-03-01

    Although many animals exhibit illness-induced anorexia when immune-challenged, the adaptive significance of this behavior remains unclear. Injecting Manduca sexta larvae (caterpillars) with live bacteria (Serratia marcescens), heat-killed bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharides resulted in a decline in feeding, demonstrating illness-induced anorexia in this species. We used M. sexta to test four commonly suggested adaptive functions for illness-induced anorexia. (1) Food deprivation did not reduce the iron content of the hemolymph. (2) Immune-challenged M. sexta were not more likely to move to a different part of the plant. Therefore, the decline in feeding is unlikely to be an adaptive response allowing the animal to move away from a patch of contaminated food. (3) M. sexta force-fed S. marcescens bacteria were not more susceptible to a S. marcescens systemic infection than were M. sexta force-fed nutrient broth. (4) Force-feeding infected M. sexta during illness-induced anorexia did not increase mortality and short-term food deprivation did not enhance survival. However, force-feeding M. sexta with a high lipid diet (linseed oil and water) resulted in an increase in mortality when challenged with S. marcescens. Force-feeding sucrose or water did not reduce resistance. Force-feeding a high lipid diet into healthy animals did not reduce weight gain, suggesting that it was not toxic. We hypothesize that there is a conflict between lipid metabolism and immune function, although whether this conflict has played a role in the evolution of illness-induced anorexia remains unknown. The adaptive function of illness-induced anorexia requires further study in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  18. Identification, sequence and expression of a crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) gene in the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Loi, P K; Emmal, S A; Park, Y; Tublitz, N J

    2001-08-01

    The crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) gene was isolated from the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta. The gene has an open reading frame of 125 amino acid residues containing a single, complete copy of CCAP. Analysis of the gene structure revealed three introns interrupting the coding region. A comparison of the M. sexta CCAP gene with the Drosophila melanogaster genome database reveals significant similarities in sequence and gene structure. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of the CCAP gene in the M. sexta central nervous system were determined in all major post-embryonic stages using in situ hybridization techniques. The CCAP gene is expressed in a total of 116 neurons in the post-embryonic M. sexta central nervous system. Nine pairs of cells are observed in the brain, 4.5 pairs in the subesophageal ganglion, three pairs in each thoracic ganglion (T1-T3), three pairs in the first abdominal ganglion (A1), five pairs each in the second to sixth abdominal ganglia (A2-A6) and 7.5 pairs in the terminal ganglion. The CCAP gene is expressed in every ganglion in each post-embryonic stage, except in the thoracic ganglia of first- and second-instar larvae. The number of cells expressing the CCAP gene varies during post-embryonic life, starting at 52 cells in the first instar and reaching a maximum of 116 shortly after pupation. One set of thoracic neurons expressing CCAP mRNA shows unusual variability in expression levels immediately prior to larval ecdysis. Using previously published CCAP immunocytochemical data, it was determined that 91 of 95 CCAP-immunopositive neurons in the M. sexta central nervous system also express the M. sexta CCAP gene, indicating that there is likely to be only a single CCAP gene in M. sexta.

  19. Transcript Abundance of Photorhabdus Insect-Related (Pir) Toxin in Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella Infections.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Anaïs; Mulley, Geraldine; Davis, Nathaniel; Waterfield, Nicholas; Stock, S Patricia

    2016-09-29

    In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01) (Enterobacteriaceae) by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a) integument; (b) the digestive route (via mouth and anus); and (c) the tracheal route (via spiracles). We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Transcript abundance in G. mellonella was higher than in M. sexta at two of the observed time points: 15 and 18 h. Expression of pirAB plu4093-2 reached above endogenous control levels at 22 h in G. mellonella but not in M. sexta. Overall, pirAB plu4093-2 transcripts were not as highly expressed in M. sexta as in G. mellonella, from 15 to 22 h. This is the first study to directly compare pirAB plu4093-2 toxin transcript production considering different portals of entry.

  20. Transcript Abundance of Photorhabdus Insect-Related (Pir) Toxin in Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Anaïs; Mulley, Geraldine; Davis, Nathaniel; Waterfield, Nicholas; Stock, S. Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01) (Enterobacteriaceae) by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a) integument; (b) the digestive route (via mouth and anus); and (c) the tracheal route (via spiracles). We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Transcript abundance in G. mellonella was higher than in M. sexta at two of the observed time points: 15 and 18 h. Expression of pirAB plu4093-2 reached above endogenous control levels at 22 h in G. mellonella but not in M. sexta. Overall, pirAB plu4093-2 transcripts were not as highly expressed in M. sexta as in G. mellonella, from 15 to 22 h. This is the first study to directly compare pirAB plu4093-2 toxin transcript production considering different portals of entry. PMID:27690103

  1. Overview of chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta: Identification, domain organization, phylogenetic analysis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Jiang, Haobo; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomaterials in nature. The biosynthesis and degradation of chitin in insects are complex and dynamically regulated to cope with insect growth and development. Chitin metabolism in insects is known to involve numerous enzymes, including chitin synthases (synthesis of chitin), chitin deacetylases (modification of chitin by deacetylation) and chitinases (degradation of chitin by hydrolysis). In this study, we conducted a genome-wide search and analysis of genes encoding these chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta. Our analysis confirmed that only two chitin synthases are present in M. sexta as in most other arthropods. Eleven chitin deacetylases (encoded by nine genes) were identified, with at least one representative in each of the five phylogenetic groups that have been described for chitin deacetylases to date. Eleven genes encoding for family 18 chitinases (GH18) were found in the M. sexta genome. Based on the presence of conserved sequence motifs in the catalytic sequences and phylogenetic relationships, two of the M. sexta chitinases did not cluster with any of the current eight phylogenetic groups of chitinases: two new groups were created (groups IX and X) and their characteristics are described. The result of the analysis of the Lepidoptera-specific chitinase-h (group h) is consistent with its proposed bacterial origin. By analyzing chitinases from fourteen species that belong to seven different phylogenetic groups, we reveal that the chitinase genes appear to have evolved sequentially in the arthropod lineage to achieve the current high level of diversity observed in M. sexta. Based on the sequence conservation of the catalytic domains and on their developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression, we propose putative functions for each group in each category of enzymes.

  2. Effect of Altered Gravity Environment on Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca Sexta) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1996-01-01

    Metamorphosis provides a unique condition for studying the role of gravity in development. Formation of new organs in a previously existing organism requires a highly active period of turnover of amino acids and proteins, and of changes in the endocrine profile. Furthermore, metamorphosis offers the advantage of studying a self-contained biological system. The tobacco hornworm provides a suitable species to study the effect of altered gravitational environment on invertebrate development. This species has been one of the most thoroughly investigated organisms in a variety of aspects of insect biology. M. sexta pharate adults can provide significant amounts of material with which to work, thus facilitating the study of metabolic aspects of adult development. During wandering, the period immediately following cessation of larval feeding, the larva burrows into the soil to form a pupation chamber. Despite burrowing down 25 to 30 cm, the insects reorient themselves to a slightly head-up (10 +/- 1 degree) position. Since light and temperature are not factors in this process, the larvae must sense the gravity vector. In our ground-based studies we had assessed whether developing adults might be sensitive to their gravitational environment by orienting pupae in a vertical head-up position within 24 to 48 h after pupal ecdysis. Our ground-based findings formed the foundation for determining which parameters would be evaluated in developing Manduca following spaceflight. Measurements were to include: (1) extent of development by all of the insects, (2) analysis of hemolymph obtained from half of the insects postflight for ecdysteroid, amino acid, urea, ammonia and trehalose concentrations, (3) further development of the other half of the insects to adult (moths), (4) analysis of the flight muscle protein content of the adults. Based on the first flight attempt in July, 1995, we modified the BRIC hardware to accommodate the insects. Our studies after BRIC-04 showed that

  3. The lysozyme from insect (Manduca sexta) is a cold-adapted enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A.; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F.; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M.; Rojo-Dominguez, Arturo; Kanost, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic activity is dependent on temperature, although some proteins have evolved to retain activity at low temperatures at the expense of stability. Cold adapted enzymes are present in a variety of organisms and there is ample interest in their structure-function relationships. Lysozyme (E.C. 3.2.1.17) is one of the most studied enzymes due to its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria and is also a cold adapted protein. In this work the characterization of lysozyme from the insect Manduca sexta and its activity at low temperatures is presented. Both M. sexta lysozymes natural and recombinant showed a higher content of α-helix secondary structure compared to that of hen egg white lysozyme and a higher specific enzymatic activity in the range of 5−30 °C. These results together with measured thermodynamical activation parameters support the designation of M. sexta lysozyme as a cold adapted enzyme. Therefore, the insect recombinant lysozyme is feasible as a model for structure-function studies for cold-adapted proteins. PMID:17979817

  4. Jasmonate-dependent depletion of soluble sugars compromises plant resistance to Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Arce, Carla C M; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Jasmonates regulate plant secondary metabolism and herbivore resistance. How they influence primary metabolites and how this may affect herbivore growth and performance are not well understood. We profiled sugars and starch of jasmonate biosynthesis-deficient and jasmonate-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants and manipulated leaf carbohydrates through genetic engineering and in vitro complementation to assess how jasmonate-dependent sugar accumulation affects the growth of Manduca sexta caterpillars. We found that jasmonates reduce the constitutive and herbivore-induced concentration of glucose and fructose in the leaves across different developmental stages. Diurnal, jasmonate-dependent inhibition of invertase activity was identified as a likely mechanism for this phenomenon. Contrary to our expectation, both in planta and in vitro approaches showed that the lower sugar concentrations led to increased M. sexta growth. As a consequence, jasmonate-dependent depletion of sugars rendered N. attenuata plants more susceptible to M. sexta attack. In conclusion, jasmonates are important regulators of leaf carbohydrate accumulation and this determines herbivore growth. Jasmonate-dependent resistance is reduced rather than enhanced through the suppression of glucose and fructose concentrations, which may contribute to the evolution of divergent resistance strategies of plants in nature.

  5. Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt colour preferences in a hawkmoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.; Kelber, Almut

    2008-06-01

    Flower colour is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate colour preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their colour preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of naïve moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the colour blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-coloured feeders to investigate the innate preference of naïve moths and trained different groups to each colour to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch colour preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.

  6. The Lysozyme from Insect (Manduca sexta) is a Cold-Adapted Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Sotelo-Mundo,R.; Lopez-Zavala, A.; Garcia-Orozco, K.; Arvizu-Flores, A.; Velazquez-Contreras, E.; Valenzuela-Soto, E.; Rojo-Dominguez, A.; Kanost, M.

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic activity is dependent on temperature, although some proteins have evolved to retain activity at low temperatures at the expense of stability. Cold adapted enzymes are present in a variety of organisms and there is ample interest in their structure-function relationships. Lysozyme (E.C. 3.2.1.17) is one of the most studied enzymes due to its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria and is also a cold adapted protein. In this work the characterization of lysozyme from the insect Manduca sexta and its activity at low temperatures is presented. Both M. sexta lysozymes natural and recombinant showed a higher content of {alpha}-helix secondary structure compared to that of hen egg white lysozyme and a higher specific enzymatic activity in the range of 5-30 {sup o}C. These results together with measured thermodynamic activation parameters support the designation of M. sexta lysozyme as a cold adapted enzyme. Therefore, the insect recombinant lysozyme is feasible as a model for structure-function studies for cold-adapted proteins.

  7. Sequence and expression of the CAPA/CAP2b gene in the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Loi, Poh Kheng; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2004-10-01

    The gene coding for cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP2b; pELYAFPRV) has been isolated and sequenced from the moth Manduca sexta (GenBank accession #AY649544). Because of its significant homology to the CAPA gene in Drosophila melanogaster, this gene is called the Manduca CAPA gene. The Manduca CAPA gene is 958 nucleotides long with 29 untranslated nucleotides from the beginning of the sequence to the putative start initiation site. The CAPA gene has a single open reading frame, 441 nucleotides long, that codes for a predicted precursor protein of 147 amino acids. The predicted prepropeptide encodes a single copy of each of three deduced propeptides, a CAP2b propeptide, with a Q substituted for an E at the N-terminus (QLYAFPRVa), and two novel CAP2b-related propeptides (DGVLNLYPFPRVa and TEGPGMWFGPRLa). To reduce confusion and to adopt a more standardized nomenclature, we rename pELYAFPRVa as Mas-CAPA-1 and assign the names of Mas-CAPA-2 to DGVLNLYPFPRVa and Mas-PK-1 (Pyrokinin-1) to TEGPGMWFGPRLa. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of the CAPA gene in the Manduca central nervous system (CNS) was determined in all major post-embryonic stages using in situ hybridization techniques. The CAPA gene is expressed in a total of 27 pairs of neurons in the post-embryonic Manduca CNS. A total of 16 pairs of cells is observed in the brain, two pairs in the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG), one pair in the third thoracic ganglion (T3), one pair in each unfused abdominal ganglion (A1-A6) and two pairs in the fused terminal ganglion. The mRNA from the CAPA gene is present in nearly every ganglion in each post-embryonic stage. The number of cells expressing the CAPA gene varies during post-embryonic life, starting at 54 cells in first-instar larvae and declining to a minimum of 14 cells midway through adult development.

  8. High temperature slows down growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae) under food restriction.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew B; Jiao, Lihong; Tsao, Tsu-hsuan; King, Ian; Jennings, Michael; Hou, Chen

    2015-03-01

    When fed ad libitum (AL), ectothermic animals usually grow faster and have higher metabolic rate at higher ambient temperature. However, if food supply is limited, there is an energy tradeoff between growth and metabolism. Here we hypothesize that for ectothermic animals under food restriction (FR), high temperature will lead to a high metabolic rate, but growth will slow down to compensate for the high metabolism. We measure the rates of growth and metabolism of 4 cohorts of 5th instar hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae) reared at 2 levels of food supply (AL and FR) and 2 temperatures (20 and 30 °C). Our results show that, compared to the cohorts reared at 20 °C, the ones reared at 30 °C have high metabolic rates under both AL and FR conditions, but a high growth rate under AL and a low growth rate under FR, supporting this hypothesis.

  9. Neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes of Manduca sexta and the initiation of hemocyte attachment to foreign surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Pilas, Barbara; Bee, Charles Mark; Zhuang, Shufei; Garsha, Karl; Kanost, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    Observations of hemocyte aggregation on abiotic surfaces suggested that certain plasmatocytes from larvae of Manduca sexta act as foci for hemocyte aggregation. To establish how these particular plasmatocytes form initial attachments to foreign surfaces, they were cultured separately from other selected populations of hemocytes. While all circulating plasmatocytes immunolabel with anti-beta-integrin monoclonal antibody (MAb), only these larger plasmatocytes immunolabel with a MAb to the adhesion protein neuroglian. Neuroglian-negative plasmatocytes and granular cells that have been magnetically segregated from the majority of granular cells adhere to each other but fail to adhere to foreign substrata; by contrast, neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes that segregate with most granular cells adhere firmly to a substratum. Hemocytes form stable aggregates around the large, neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes. However, if neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes are separated from most granular cells, attachment of these plasmatocytes to foreign surfaces is suppressed.

  10. Costs and Benefits of Underground Pupal Chambers Constructed by Insects: A Test Using Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jonathan C; Woods, H Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Many holometabolous insects metamorphose in belowground pupal chambers. Although the chambers may be elaborate and their construction costly, their functions are unknown. Using laboratory and field experiments, we examined the costs and functions of chambers made by the hawk moth Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Costs were large in some circumstances; prepupal larvae lost up to 60% of their body mass when constructing chambers in dry soils. We tested three alternative hypotheses about what, if anything, chambers do for the individuals that make them: (1) chambers provide critical open space underground, allowing room for ecdysis and preventing soil from deforming the metamorphosing individual; (2) chambers raise the local relative humidity, so that cuticular and respiratory water losses are minimized; and (3) chamber walls prevent predators and pathogens from attacking. The data support the first hypothesis (about open space) and largely exclude the other two. These results provide a simple and potentially broad explanation for the evolution of chamber building in metamorphosing insects.

  11. A Characterization of the Manduca sexta Serotonin Receptors in the Context of Olfactory Neuromodulation

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Reale, Vincenzina; Pi, Yeli; Zhang, Wujie; Dacks, Joel B.; Nighorn, Alan J.; Evans, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromodulation, the alteration of individual neuron response properties, has dramatic consequences for neural network function and is a phenomenon observed across all brain regions and taxa. However, the mechanisms underlying neuromodulation are made complex by the diversity of neuromodulatory receptors expressed within a neural network. In this study we begin to examine the receptor basis for serotonergic neuromodulation in the antennal lobe of Manduca sexta. To this end we cloned all four known insect serotonin receptor types from Manduca (the Ms5HTRs). We used phylogenetic analyses to classify the Ms5HTRs and to establish their relationships to other insect serotonin receptors, other insect amine receptors and the vertebrate serotonin receptors. Pharmacological assays demonstrated that each Ms5HTR was selective for serotonin over other endogenous amines and that serotonin had a similar potency at all four Ms5HTRs. The pharmacological assays also identified several agonists and antagonists of the different Ms5HTRs. Finally, we found that the Ms5HT1A receptor was expressed in a subpopulation of GABAergic local interneurons suggesting that the Ms5HTRs are likely expressed heterogeneously within the antennal lobe based on functional neuronal subtype. PMID:23922709

  12. Purification and characterization of a small cationic protein from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Ling, Erjun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Ao, Jing-Qun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2009-04-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation system is an important defense mechanism in arthropods, and activation of proPO to active phenoloxidase (PO) involves a serine proteinase cascade. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a small cationic protein CP8 from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, which can stimulate proPO activation. BLAST search showed that Manduca CP8 is similar to a fungal proteinase inhibitor-1 (AmFPI-1), an inducible serine proteinase inhibitor-1 (ISPI-1), and other small cationic proteins with unknown functions. However, we showed that Manduca CP8 did not inhibit proteinase activity, but stimulated proPO activation in plasma. When small amount (0.1 microg) of purified native CP8 or BSA was added to cell-free plasma samples and incubated for 20 min, low PO activity was observed in both groups. But significantly higher PO activity was observed in the CP8-group than in the BSA-group when more proteins (0.5 microg) were added and incubated for 20 min. However, when the plasma samples were incubated with proteins for 30 min, high PO activity was observed in both the CP8 and BSA groups regardless of the amount of proteins added. Moreover, when PO in the plasma was pre-activated with Micrococcus luteus, addition of CP8 did not have an effect on PO activity, and CP8/bacteria mixture did not stimulate PO activity to a higher level than did BSA/bacteria. These results suggest that CP8 helps activate proPO more rapidly at the initial stage. CP8 mRNA was specifically expressed in fat body and its mRNA level decreased when larvae were injected with saline or bacteria. However, CP8 protein concentration in hemolymph did not change significantly in larvae injected with saline or microorganisms.

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Small Cationic Protein from the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Erjun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Ao, Jing-Qun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation system is an important defense mechanism in arthropods, and activation of proPO to active phenoloxidase (PO) involves a serine proteinase cascade. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a small cationic protein CP8 from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, which can stimulate proPO activation. BLAST search showed that Manduca CP8 is similar to a fungal proteinase inhibitor-1 (AmFPI-1), an inducible serine proteinase inhibitor-1 (ISPI-1), and other small cationic proteins with unknown functions. However, we showed that Manduca CP8 did not inhibit proteinase activity, but stimulated proPO activation in plasma. When small amount (0.1μg) of purified native CP8 or BSA was added to cell-free plasma samples and incubated for 20 min, low PO activity was observed in both groups. But significantly higher PO activity was observed in the CP8-group than in the BSA-group when more proteins (0.5μg) were added and incubated for 20 min. However, when the plasma samples were incubated with proteins for 30 min, high PO activity was observed in both the CP8 and BSA groups regardless the amount of proteins added. Moreover, when PO in the plasma was pre-activated with Micrococcus luteus, addition of CP8 did not have an effect on PO activity, and CP8/bacteria mixture did not stimulate PO activity to a higher level than did BSA/bacteria. These results suggest that CP8 helps activate proPO more rapidly at the initial stage. CP8 mRNA was specifically expressed in fat body and its mRNA level decreased when larvae were injected with saline or bacteria. However, CP8 protein concentration in hemolymph did not change significantly in larvae injected with saline or microorganisms. PMID:19162182

  14. The effect of ambient humidity on the foraging behavior of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Heidy L; Goyret, Joaquin; von Arx, Martin; Pierce, Clayton T; Bronstein, Judith L; Raguso, Robert A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2013-11-01

    The foraging decisions of flower-visiting animals are contingent upon the need of an individual to meet both energetic and osmotic demands. Insects can alter their food preferences to prioritize one need over the other, depending on environmental conditions. In this study, preferences in nectar sugar concentrations (0, 12, 24 %) were tested in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, in response to different levels of ambient humidity (20, 40, 60, and 80 % RH). Moths altered their foraging behavior when placed in low humidity environments by increasing the volume of nectar imbibed and by consuming more dilute nectar. When placed in high humidity environments the total volume imbibed decreased, because moths consumed less from dilute nectars (water and 12 % sucrose). Survivorship was higher with higher humidity. Daily foraging patterns changed with relative humidity (RH): moths maximized their nectar consumption earlier, at lower humidities. Although ambient humidity had an impact on foraging activity, activity levels and nectar preferences, total energy intake was not affected. These results show that foraging decisions made by M. sexta kept under different ambient RH levels allow individuals to meet their osmotic demands while maintaining a constant energy input.

  15. Respiratory changes throughout ontogeny in the tobacco hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Kendra J; Harrison, Jon F

    2005-04-01

    The respiratory system of growing caterpillars is challenged in two distinct ways as they develop from hatchlings to fifth instars preparing for pupation. First, across instars, body sizes and tracheal lengths increase substantially. Second, within each instar, animal mass can more than double while major tracheal respiratory system structures, such as spiracles and large tracheae, are fixed in size until molting. To test whether these growth processes result in a decrease in O2 delivery capacity relative to tissue oxygen needs, we exposed feeding Manduca sexta larvae of various ages to decreasing levels of atmospheric O2 and measured their metabolic rate and ability to feed. We found that near the beginning of all instars, M. sexta were able to maintain gas exchange and feed down to approximately 5 kPa O2, indicating that these insects are able to match tracheal O2 delivery to increased metabolic rates across instars. However, gas exchange and feeding of caterpillars nearing the molt were limited at much higher O2 levels (up to 15 kPa O2), suggesting that caterpillars have limited capacities to increase tracheal O2 delivery as O2 consumption rates increase within instars. It seems possible that the safety margin for O2 delivery may disappear completely in the last hours before ecdysis, providing an ultimate if not proximate explanation for the necessity of molting.

  16. Manduca sexta gloverin binds microbial components and is active against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Xue; Yi, Hui-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    Hyalophora gloveri gloverin is a glycine-rich and heat stable antimicrobial protein with activity mainly against Escherichia coli. However, Spodoptera exigua gloverin is active against a Gram-positive bacterium but inactive against E. coli. In this study, we investigated expression profile, binding ability and antimicrobial activity of Manduca sexta gloverin (MsGlv). Msglv transcript was detected in several tissues of naïve larvae with higher levels in the midgut and testis. Expression of Msglv mRNA in larvae was up-regulated by active Spätzle-C108 and peptidoglycans (PGs) of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the activation was blocked by pre-injection of antibody to M. sexta Toll, suggesting that Msglv expression is regulated by the Toll-Spätzle pathway. Recombinant MsGlv bound to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and PG, and laminarin, but not to E. coli PG or mannan. MsGlv was active against Bacillus cereus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans, but was almost inactive against E. coli and S. aureus. Our results suggest that gloverins are active against some bacteria and fungi.

  17. A reference gene set for chemosensory receptor genes of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Christopher; Hirsh, Ariana; Bucks, Sascha; Klinner, Christian; Vogel, Heiko; Shukla, Aditi; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Morton, Brian; Hansson, Bill S; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The order of Lepidoptera has historically been crucial for chemosensory research, with many important advances coming from the analysis of species like Bombyx mori or the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Specifically M. sexta has long been a major model species in the field, especially regarding the importance of olfaction in an ecological context, mainly the interaction with its host plants. In recent years transcriptomic data has led to the discovery of members of all major chemosensory receptor families in the species, but the data was fragmentary and incomplete. Here we present the analysis of the newly available high-quality genome data for the species, supplemented by additional transcriptome data to generate a high quality reference gene set for the three major chemosensory receptor gene families, the gustatory (GR), olfactory (OR) and antennal ionotropic receptors (IR). Coupled with gene expression analysis our approach allows association of specific receptor types and behaviors, like pheromone and host detection. The dataset will provide valuable support for future analysis of these essential chemosensory modalities in this species and in Lepidoptera in general.

  18. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Kanost, Michael R; Arrese, Estela L; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M; Clarke, David F; Dittmer, Neal T; Ferguson, Laura C F; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H J; Gunaratna, Ramesh T; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R; Kuwar, Suyog S; Lee, Sandy L; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H; McCulloch, Kyle J; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K; Worley, Kim C; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Hansson, Bill S; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J; Scherer, Steven E; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W

    2016-09-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.

  19. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Li, Kai; Hu, Yingxia; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R.; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted κB binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. PMID:25662101

  20. Allatostatin-like-immunoreactive neurons of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and isolation and identification of a new neuropeptide related to cockroach allatostatins.

    PubMed

    Davis, N T; Veenstra, J A; Feyereisen, R; Hildebrand, J G

    1997-08-25

    The YXFGLamide C-terminus serves to define most members of a family of structurally related neuropeptides, the YXFGLamides. These peptides have been identified from the nervous system of various insects and include the allatostatins of cockroaches and crickets, the schistostatins of locusts, and the callatostatins of blowflies. The YXFGLamides have been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in cockroaches and crickets and inhibition of contraction of certain insect visceral muscles. We wanted to know if these peptides occur in Manduca sexta and what functions they might have. A new peptide, AKSYNFGLamide, was isolated and identified from M. sexta and has been named "lepidostatin-1"; this is the first YXFGLamide to be found in a lepidopteran, and there are indications that additional YXFGLamides occur in M. sexta. An antiserum to cockroach allatostatins (YXFGLamides) was shown to recognize lepidostatin-1 of M. sexta and was used to map YXFGLamide-immunoreactive neurons in larvae. Because immunoreactive interneurons were found to form an extensive neuropil, YXFGLamides probably function as neuromodulators in M. sexta. Neuroendocrine cells in the brain, abdominal ganglia, and their respective neurohemal organs were YXFGLamide immunoreactive and appear to release YXFGLamides as neurohormones. Immunoreactivity to YXFGLamides and M. sexta diuretic hormone were found to be colocalized and appear to be coreleased in these neuroendocrine cells, indicating that YXFGLamides may be involved in regulation of fluid transport. Innervation of the corpora allata by YXFGLamide-immunoreactive processes was very sparse, suggesting that this innervation does not play an important role in allatostasis. Many thoracic motor neurons were YXFGLamide immunoreactive, suggesting that YXFGLamides may have a myomodulatory or myotrophic function in larvae. However, this immunoreactivity disappeared early in metamorphosis and did not reappear in the

  1. Prophenoloxidase activation and antimicrobial peptide expression induced by the recombinant microbe binding protein of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2017-04-01

    Manduca sexta microbe binding protein (MBP) is a member of the β-1,3-glucanase-related protein superfamily that includes Gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs), β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs), and β-1,3-glucanases. Our previous and current studies showed that the purified MBP from baculovirus-infected insect cells had stimulated prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation in the hemolymph of naïve and immune challenged larvae and that supplementation of the exogenous MBP and peptidoglycans (PGs) had caused synergistic increases in PO activity. To explore the underlying mechanism, we separated by SDS-PAGE naïve and induced larval plasma treated with buffer or MBP and detected on immunoblots changes in intensity and/or mobility of hemolymph (serine) proteases [HP14, HP21, HP6, HP8, proPO-activating proteases (PAPs) 1-3] and their homologs (SPH1, SPH2). In a nickel pull-down assay, we observed association of MBP with proHP14 (slightly), βGRP2, PG recognition protein-1 (PGRP1, indirectly), SPH1, SPH2, and proPO2. Further experiments indicated that diaminopimelic acid (DAP) or Lys PG, MBP, PGRP1, and proHP14 together trigger the proPO activation system in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Injection of the recombinant MBP into the 5th instar naïve larvae significantly induced the expression of several antimicrobial peptide genes, revealing a possible link between HP14 and immune signal transduction. Together, these results suggest that the recognition of Gram-negative or -positive bacteria via their PGs induces the melanization and Toll pathways in M. sexta.

  2. Transcriptomic response of Manduca sexta immune tissues to parasitization by the bracovirus associated wasp Cotesia congregata.

    PubMed

    Chevignon, Germain; Cambier, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Drezen, Jean-Michel; Huguet, Elisabeth; Moreau, Sébastien J M

    2015-07-01

    During oviposition, Cotesia congregata parasitoid wasps inject into their host, Manduca sexta, some biological factors such as venom, ovarian fluid and a symbiotic polydnavirus (PDV) named Cotesia congregata bracovirus (CcBV). During parasitism, complex interactions occur between wasp-derived factors and host targets that lead to important modifications in host physiology. In particular, the immune response leading to wasp egg encapsulation is inhibited allowing wasp survival. To date, the regulation of host genes during the interaction had only been studied for a limited number of genes. In this study, we analysed the global impact of parasitism on host gene regulation 24 h post oviposition by high throughput 454 transcriptomic analyses of two tissues known to be involved in the host immune response (hemocytes and fat body). To identify specific effects of parasitism on host transcription at this time point, transcriptomes were obtained from non-treated and parasitized larvae, and also from larvae injected with heat-killed bacteria and double stimulated larvae that were parasitized prior to bacterial challenge. Results showed that, immune challenge by bacteria leads to induction of certain antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in M. sexta larvae whether they were parasitized or not prior to bacterial challenge. These results show that at 24 h post oviposition pathways leading to expression of AMP genes are not all inactivated suggesting wasps are in an antiseptic environment. In contrast, at this time point genes involved in phenoloxidase activation and cellular immune responses were globally down-regulated after parasitism in accordance with the observed inhibition of wasp egg encapsulation.

  3. Context- and scale-dependent effects of floral CO2 on nectar foraging by Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Goyret, Joaquín; Markwell, Poppy M.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Typically, animal pollinators are attracted to flowers by sensory stimuli in the form of pigments, volatiles, and cuticular substances (hairs, waxes) derived from plant secondary metabolism. Few studies have addressed the extent to which primary plant metabolites, such as respiratory carbon dioxide (CO2), may function as pollinator attractants. Night-blooming flowers of Datura wrightii show transient emissions of up to 200 ppm above-ambient CO2 at anthesis, when nectar rewards are richest. Their main hawkmoth pollinator, Manduca sexta, can perceive minute variation (0.5 ppm) in CO2 concentration through labial pit organs whose receptor neurons project afferents to the antennal lobe. We explored the behavioral responses of M. sexta to artificial flowers with different combinations of CO2, visual, and olfactory stimuli using a laminar flow wind tunnel. Responses in no-choice assays were scale-dependent; CO2 functioned as an olfactory distance-attractant redundant to floral scent, as each stimulus elicited upwind tracking flights. However, CO2 played no role in probing behavior at the flower. Male moths showed significant bias in first-approach and probing choice of scented flowers with above-ambient CO2 over those with ambient CO2, whereas females showed similar bias only in the presence of host plant (tomato) leaf volatiles. Nevertheless, all males and females probed both flowers regardless of their first choice. While floral CO2 unequivocally affects male appetitive responses, the context-dependence of female responses suggests that they may use floral CO2 as a distance indicator of host plant quality during mixed feeding-oviposition bouts on Datura and Nicotiana plants. PMID:18212123

  4. Annotation and expression analysis of cuticular proteins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Neal T; Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo; Wang, Ping; Kanost, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    The insect cuticle is a unique material that covers the exterior of the animal as well as lining the foregut, hindgut, and tracheae. It offers protection from predators and desiccation, defines body shape, and serves as an attachment site for internal organs and muscle. It has demonstrated remarkable variations in hardness, flexibility and elasticity, all the while being light weight, which allows for ease of movement and flight. It is composed primarily of chitin, proteins, catecholamines, and lipids. Proteomic analyses of cuticle from different life stages and species of insects has allowed for a more detailed examination of the protein content and how it relates to cuticle mechanical properties. It is now recognized that several groups of cuticular proteins exist and that they can be classified according to conserved amino acid sequence motifs. We have annotated the genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, for genes that encode putative cuticular proteins that belong to seven different groups: proteins with a Rebers and Riddiford motif (CPR), proteins analogous to peritrophins (CPAP), proteins with a tweedle motif (CPT), proteins with a 44 amino acid motif (CPF), proteins that are CPF-like (CPFL), proteins with an 18 amino acid motif (18 aa), and proteins with two to three copies of a C-X5-C motif (CPCFC). In total we annotated 248 genes, of which 207 belong to the CPR family, the most for any insect genome annotated to date. Additionally, we discovered new members of the CPAP family and determined that orthologous genes are present in other insects. We established orthology between the M. sexta and Bombyx mori genes and identified duplication events that occurred after separation of the two species. Finally, we utilized 52 RNAseq libraries to ascertain gene expression profiles that revealed commonalities and differences between different tissues and developmental stages.

  5. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  6. Neuroanatomy of the sucking pump of the moth, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Davis, Norman T; Hildebrand, John G

    2006-03-01

    Knowledge of the neuroanatomy of the sucking pump of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) is valuable for studies of olfactory learning, pattern generators, and postembryonic modification of motor circuitry. The pump comprises a cibarial valve, a buccal pump, and an esophageal sphincter valve. Cibarial opener and closer muscles control the cibarial valve. Six pairs of dilator muscles and a compressor muscle operate the buccal pump. The cibarial opener and one pair of buccal dilator muscles are innervated by paired neurons in the tritocerebrum, and the cibarial opener has double, bilateral innervation. Their tritocerebral innervation indicates that these muscles evolved from labro-clypeal muscles. The remaining paired buccal dilator muscles each are innervated by an unpaired motor neuron in the frontal ganglion. These motor neurons project bilaterally through the frontal connectives to dendritic arborizations in the tritocerebrum. These projections also have a series of dendritic-like arborizations in the connectives. The cibarial closer and buccal compressor muscles are also innervated by motor neurons in the frontal ganglion, but only the closer muscle neuron projects bilaterally to the tritocerebrum. The innervation of the pump muscles indicates that they are associated with the stomodaeum, and, therefore, the buccal pump evolved from the anterior stomodaeum rather than from the cibarium.

  7. Plant species- and status-specific odorant blends guide oviposition choice in the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Späthe, Anna; Reinecke, Andreas; Olsson, Shannon B; Kesavan, Subaharan; Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S

    2013-02-01

    The reproductive success of herbivorous insects largely depends on the mother's oviposition preference. In nocturnal insects, olfaction is arguably the most important sensory modality mediating mate finding, foraging, and host location. In most habitats, gravid females select among a number of plants of varying suitability, yet assessment of the neuroethological mechanisms underlying odor-guided choice between host plants is rare. Using a series of behavioral, electrophysiological, and chromatographic analyses in the Hawk moth, Manduca sexta, we show that gravid females perform a hierarchical choice among host plants of different species and qualities using olfactory cues. Both relevant plant species and qualities can be distinguished by volatile profiles collected from the headspace of these plants, and olfactory sensilla on female antennae detect more than half of the about 120 analytically detected volatiles in host plant headspace samples. Although olfactory sensory neurons present in antennal sensilla are mainly broadly tuned to multiple host compounds, some sensilla exhibit species and condition-specific responses. In fact, species and quality can be distinguished by the physiologically active components alone. Our findings thus suggest that distinguishing characteristics of both host species and quality are already represented at the sensory periphery.

  8. Flow visualization and unsteady aerodynamics in the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Willmott, A. P.; Ellington, C. P.; Thomas, A. L. R.

    1997-01-01

    The aerodynamic mechanisms employed durng the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, have been investigated through smoke visualization studies with tethered moths. Details of the flow around the wings and of the overall wake structure were recorded as stereophotographs and high-speed video sequences. The changes in flow which accompanied increases in flight speed from 0.4 to 5.7 m s-1 were analysed. The wake consists of an alternating series of horizontal and vertical vortex rings which are generated by successive down- and upstrokes, respectively. The downstroke produces significantly more lift than the upstroke due to a leading-edge vortex which is stabilized by a radia flow moving out towards the wingtip. The leading-edge vortex grew in size with increasing forward flight velocity. Such a phenomenon is proposed as a likely mechanism for lift enhancement in many insect groups. During supination, vorticity is shed from the leading edge as postulated in the 'flex' mechanism. This vorticity would enhance upstroke lift if it was recaptured diring subsequent translation, but it is not. Instead, the vorticity is left behind and the upstroke circulation builds up slowly. A small jet provides additional thrust as the trailing edges approach at the end of the upstroke. The stereophotographs also suggest that the bound circulation may not be reversed between half strokes at the fastest flight speeds.

  9. Ontogenetic scaling of metabolism, growth, and assimilation: testing metabolic scaling theory with Manduca sexta larvae.

    PubMed

    Sears, Katie E; Kerkhoff, Andrew J; Messerman, Arianne; Itagaki, Haruhiko

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism, growth, and the assimilation of energy and materials are essential processes that are intricately related and depend heavily on animal size. However, models that relate the ontogenetic scaling of energy assimilation and metabolism to growth rely on assumptions that have yet to be rigorously tested. Based on detailed daily measurements of metabolism, growth, and assimilation in tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, we provide a first experimental test of the core assumptions of a metabolic scaling model of ontogenetic growth. Metabolic scaling parameters changed over development, in violation of the model assumptions. At the same time, the scaling of growth rate matches that of metabolic rate, with similar scaling exponents both across and within developmental instars. Rates of assimilation were much higher than expected during the first two instars and did not match the patterns of scaling of growth and metabolism, which suggests high costs of biosynthesis early in development. The rapid increase in size and discrete instars observed in larval insect development provide an ideal system for understanding how patterns of growth and metabolism emerge from fundamental cellular processes and the exchange of materials and energy between an organism and its environment.

  10. Within-wingbeat damping: dynamics of continuous free-flight yaw turns in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Tyson L.; Robinson, Alice K.

    2010-01-01

    Free-flight body dynamics and wing kinematics were collected from recordings of continuous, low-speed, multi-wingbeat yaw turns in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) using stereo videography. These data were used to examine the effects of rotational damping arising from interactions between the body rotation and flapping motion (flapping counter-torque, FCT) on continuous turning. The moths were found to accelerate during downstroke, then decelerate during upstroke by an amount consistent with FCT damping. Wing kinematics related to turning were then analysed in a simulation of hawkmoth flight; results were consistent with the observed acceleration–deceleration pattern. However, an alternative wing kinematic which produced more continuous and less damped accelerations was found in the simulation. These findings demonstrate that (i) FCT damping is detectable in the dynamics of continuously turning animals and (ii) FCT-reducing kinematics do exist but were not employed by turning moths, possibly because within-wingbeat damping simplifies control of turning by allowing control systems to target angular velocity rather than acceleration. PMID:20181557

  11. Effect of body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Han, Jong-Seob; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-12-14

    This study explores the effects of the body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability of an insect at various different forward flight speeds. The insect model, whose morphological parameters are based on measurement data from the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, is treated as an open-loop six-degree-of-freedom dynamic system. The aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insect are computed by an aerodynamic model that combines the unsteady panel method and the extended unsteady vortex-lattice method. The aerodynamic model is then coupled to a multi-body dynamic code to solve the system of motion equations. First, the trimmed flight conditions of insect models with and without consideration of the body aerodynamics are obtained using a trim search algorithm. Subsequently, the effects of the body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability are analysed through modal structures, i.e., eigenvalues and eigenvectors in this case, which are based on linearized equations of motion. The solutions from the nonlinear and linearized equations of motion due to gust disturbances are obtained, and the effects of the body aerodynamics are also investigated through these solutions. The results showed the important effect of the body aerodynamics at high-speed forward flight (in this paper at 4.0 and 5.0 m s(-1)) and the movement trends of eigenvalues when the body aerodynamics is included.

  12. Dietary plant phenolic improves survival of bacterial infection in Manduca sexta caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Marta L.; Halitschke, Rayko; Short, Sarah M.; Lazzaro, Brian P.; Kessler, André

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenolics are generally thought to play significant roles in plant defense against herbivores and pathogens. Many plant taxa, including Solanaceae, are rich in phenolic compounds and some insect herbivores have been shown to acquire phenolics from their hosts to use them as protection against their natural enemies. Here we demonstrate that larvae of an insect specialist on Solanaceae, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), acquire the plant phenolic chlorogenic acid (CA), and other caffeic acid derivatives as they feed on one of their hosts, Nicotiana attenuata L. (Solanaceae), and on artificial diet supplemented with CA. We test the hypothesis that larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet would have better resistance against bacterial infection than larvae fed on a standard CA-free diet by injecting bacteria into the hemocoel of fourth instars. Larvae fed CA-supplemented diet show significantly higher survival of infection with Enterococcus faecalis (Andrewes & Horder) Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz, but not of infection with the more virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula. Larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet possess a constitutively higher number of circulating hemocytes than larvae fed on the standard diet, but we found no other evidence of increased immune system activity, nor were larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet better able to suppress bacterial proliferation early in the infection. Thus, our data suggest an additional defensive function of CA to the direct toxic inhibition of pathogen proliferation in the gut. PMID:23420018

  13. Reconfiguration of the immune system network during food limitation in the caterpillar Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Davies, Gillian; Easy, Russell; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F

    2016-03-01

    Dwindling resources might be expected to induce a gradual decline in immune function. However, food limitation has complex and seemingly paradoxical effects on the immune system. Examining these changes from an immune system network perspective may help illuminate the purpose of these fluctuations. We found that food limitation lowered long-term (i.e. lipid) and short-term (i.e. sugars) energy stores in the caterpillar Manduca sexta. Food limitation also: altered immune gene expression, changed the activity of key immune enzymes, depressed the concentration of a major antioxidant (glutathione), reduced resistance to oxidative stress, reduced resistance to bacteria (Gram-positive and -negative bacteria) but appeared to have less effect on resistance to a fungus. These results provide evidence that food limitation led to a restructuring of the immune system network. In severely food-limited caterpillars, some immune functions were enhanced. As resources dwindled within the caterpillar, the immune response shifted its emphasis away from inducible immune defenses (i.e. those responses that are activated during an immune challenge) and increased emphasis on constitutive defenses (i.e. immune components that are produced consistently). We also found changes suggesting that the activation threshold for some immune responses (e.g. phenoloxidase) was lowered. Changes in the configuration of the immune system network will lead to different immunological strengths and vulnerabilities for the organism.

  14. Crystal structure of Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase provides insights into the mechanism of type 3 copper enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo; Deng, Junpeng

    2010-02-22

    Arthropod phenoloxidase (PO) generates quinones and other toxic compounds to sequester and kill pathogens during innate immune responses. It is also involved in wound healing and other physiological processes. Insect PO is activated from its inactive precursor, prophenoloxidase (PPO), by specific proteolysis via a serine protease cascade. Here, we report the crystal structure of PPO from a lepidopteran insect at a resolution of 1.97 {angstrom}, which is the initial structure for a PPO from the type 3 copper protein family. Manduca sexta PPO is a heterodimer consisting of 2 homologous polypeptide chains, PPO1 and PPO2. The active site of each subunit contains a canonical type 3 di-nuclear copper center, with each copper ion coordinated with 3 structurally conserved histidines. The acidic residue Glu-395 located at the active site of PPO2 may serve as a general base for deprotonation of monophenolic substrates, which is key to the ortho-hydroxylase activity of PO. The structure provides unique insights into the mechanism by which type 3 copper proteins differ in their enzymatic activities, albeit sharing a common active center. A drastic change in electrostatic surface induced on cleavage at Arg-51 allows us to propose a model for localized PPO activation in insects.

  15. Within-wingbeat damping: dynamics of continuous free-flight yaw turns in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Tyson L; Robinson, Alice K

    2010-06-23

    Free-flight body dynamics and wing kinematics were collected from recordings of continuous, low-speed, multi-wingbeat yaw turns in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) using stereo videography. These data were used to examine the effects of rotational damping arising from interactions between the body rotation and flapping motion (flapping counter-torque, FCT) on continuous turning. The moths were found to accelerate during downstroke, then decelerate during upstroke by an amount consistent with FCT damping. Wing kinematics related to turning were then analysed in a simulation of hawkmoth flight; results were consistent with the observed acceleration-deceleration pattern. However, an alternative wing kinematic which produced more continuous and less damped accelerations was found in the simulation. These findings demonstrate that (i) FCT damping is detectable in the dynamics of continuously turning animals and (ii) FCT-reducing kinematics do exist but were not employed by turning moths, possibly because within-wingbeat damping simplifies control of turning by allowing control systems to target angular velocity rather than acceleration.

  16. Characterization and identification of a lipoprotein lipase from Manduca sexta flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Van Heusden, M C

    1993-10-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) activity in Manduca sexta flight muscle tissue was measured using in vivo radiolabeled lipophorin as a substrate. LpL hydrolyses diacylglycerol in the low density lipophorin (that occurs during flight) at a higher rate than diacylglycerol in the high density lipophorin (present in the resting insect). LpL has a pH-optimum of 7.5 and is less sensitive to NaCl than mammalian LpL. LpL is inhibited by bovine albumin and chicken ovalbumin. LpL is inhibited by the serine protease inhibitors diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), which indicates the presence of an active site serine similar to mammalian LpL. Flight muscle LpL shows affinity for immobilized copper as well as for immobilized heparin. Using radiolabeled DFP, a protein of 37 kDa was identified (after SDS-PAGE) as the DFP-binding protein in a partially purified preparation of LpL. This 37 kDa protein is proposed to be the LpL or a subunit thereof.

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin interaction with Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N in a model membrane environment.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, M A; Carroll, J; Travis, E R; Williams, D H; Ellar, D J

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin was shown to bind in a biphasic manner to Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N (APN) present in a novel model membrane. Surface plasmon resonance analysis allowed the quantification of toxin binding to M. sexta APN in a supported lipid monolayer. The initial binding was rapid and reversible, with an affinity constant of 110 nM. The second phase was slower and resulted in an overall affinity constant of 3.0 nM. Reagents used to disrupt protein-protein interactions did not dissociate the toxin after high-affinity binding was attained. The initial association between Cry1Ac and APN was inhibited by the sugar GalNAc, but the higher-affinity state was resistant to GalNAc-induced dissociation. The results suggest that after binding to M. sexta APN, the Cry1Ac toxin undergoes a rate-limiting step leading to a high-affinity state. A site-directed Cry1Ac mutant, N135Q, exhibited a similar initial binding affinity for APN but did not show the second slower phase. This inability to form an irreversible association with the APN-lipid monolayer helps explain the lack of toxicity of this protein towards M. sexta larvae and its deficient membrane-permeabilizing activity on M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:9677328

  18. Parasitism enhances the induction of glucogenesis by the insect, Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N

    2001-02-01

    Metabolic alterations that accompany parasitism of invertebrate animals can play an important role in parasite development. Employing 13C NMR, this study examined pyruvate cycling from (2-(13)C)pyruvate in the lepidopteran insect Manduca sexta, and the effects of parasitism by the hymenopteran Cotesia congregata on the gluconeogenic formation of trehalose, the haemolymph or blood sugar of insects. Larvae were maintained on a semi-synthetic sucrose-free diet, or on the same diet with sucrose at 8.5 g/l. Pyruvate cycling was evident from the 13C enrichment in C3 of alanine, derived following carboxylation to oxaloacetate, and was similar in parasitized and normal insects regardless of diet. Trehalose was formed following de novo synthesis of glucose, and net synthesis was estimated from the 13C distribution in trehalose and alanine. The 13C-enrichment ratio [2trehalose C6/alanine C3] is an indicator of the level of gluconeogenesis relative to glycolysis, both enrichments were derived from (2-(13)C)pyruvate in the same manner. The ratio was greater than unity in all insects, regardless of diet, but was significantly greater in parasitized larvae, demonstrating an enhanced level of gluconeogenesis. This was confirmed by analysis of the 13C distribution in trehalose and glutamine derived from (3-(13)C)alanine. Despite enhanced de novo trehalose formation in parasitized insects, the haemolymph sugar level was similar to that of normal larvae. Because haemolymph trehalose regulates dietary carbohydrate intake, but not gluconeogenesis, the results suggest that accelerated induction of gluconeogenesis is an adaptive response to parasitism that provides increased carbohydrate for parasite growth and simultaneously maintains nutrient intake.

  19. No Evidence for Ionotropic Pheromone Transduction in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Andreas; Gawalek, Petra; Koerte, Sarah; Wei, HongYing; Schumann, Robin; Werckenthin, Achim; Krieger, Jürgen; Stengl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are 7-transmembrane receptors with inverse membrane topology. They associate with the conserved ion channel Orco. As chaperon, Orco maintains ORs in cilia and, as pacemaker channel, Orco controls spontaneous activity in olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant binding to ORs opens OR-Orco receptor ion channel complexes in heterologous expression systems. It is unknown, whether this also occurs in vivo. As an alternative to this ionotropic transduction, experimental evidence is accumulating for metabotropic odor transduction, implicating that insect ORs couple to G-proteins. Resulting second messengers gate various ion channels. They generate the sensillum potential that elicits phasic-tonic action potentials (APs) followed by late, long-lasting pheromone responses. Because it is still unclear how and when Orco opens after odor-OR-binding, we used tip recordings to examine in vivo the effects of the Orco antagonist OLC15 and the amilorides MIA and HMA on bombykal transduction in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. In contrast to OLC15 both amilorides decreased the pheromone-dependent sensillum potential amplitude and the frequency of the phasic AP response. Instead, OLC15 decreased spontaneous activity, increased latencies of phasic-, and decreased frequencies of late, long-lasting pheromone responses Zeitgebertime-dependently. Our results suggest no involvement for Orco in the primary transduction events, in contrast to amiloride-sensitive channels. Instead of an odor-gated ionotropic receptor, Orco rather acts as a voltage- and apparently second messenger-gated pacemaker channel controlling the membrane potential and hence threshold and kinetics of the pheromone response. PMID:27829053

  20. Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

  1. Regulation of chitin synthesis in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zimoch, L; Hogenkamp, D G; Kramer, K J; Muthukrishnan, S; Merzendorfer, H

    2005-06-01

    In insects, chitin is not only synthesized by ectodermal cells that form chitinous cuticles, but also by endodermal cells of the midgut that secrete a chitinous peritrophic matrix. Using anti-chitin synthase (CHS) antibodies, we previously demonstrated that in the midgut of Manduca sexta, CHS is expressed by two cell types, tracheal cells forming a basal tracheal network and columnar cells forming the apical brush border [Zimoch and Merzendorfer, 2002, Cell Tissue Res. 308, 287-297]. Now, we show that two different genes, MsCHS1 and MsCHS2, encode CHSs of midgut tracheae and columnar cells, respectively. To investigate MsCHS2 expression and activity in the course of the larval development, we monitored chitin synthesis, enzyme levels as well as mRNA amounts. All of the tested parameters were significantly reduced during molting and in the wandering stage when compared to the values obtained from intermolt feeding larvae. By contrast, MsCHS1 appeared to be inversely regulated because its mRNA was detectable only during the molt at the time when tracheal growth occurs at the basal site of the midgut. To further examine midgut chitin synthesis, we measured enzyme activity in crude midgut extracts and different membrane fractions. When we analysed trypsin-mediated proteolytic activation, a phenomenon previously reported for insect and fungal systems, we recognized that midgut chitin synthesis was only activated in crude extracts, but not in the 12,000 g membrane fraction. However, proteolytic activation by trypsin in the 12,000 g membrane fraction could be reconstituted by re-adding a soluble fraction, indicating that limited proteolysis affects an unknown soluble factor, a process that in turn activates chitin synthesis.

  2. Regulation of the ecdysteroid titer of Manduca sexta: reappraisal of the role of the prothoracic glands.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J T; Sakurai, S; Rountree, D B; Gilbert, L I; Lee, S S; Nakanishi, K

    1988-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the prothoracic glands of insects produce ecdysone, which is converted by a 20-monooxygenase in peripheral tissues to the major molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Incubation in vitro of the prothoracic glands of larval or pupal Manduca sexta in the presence of a hemolymph protein fraction (HPF) increased the ecdysteroid content of the medium almost 8-fold. A comparable increase was noted when HPF was added to medium preconditioned with prothoracic glands but from which the glands had been removed. We used a differential RIA to show that a major product of the prothoracic glands in vitro cross-reacts with antiserum (20-hydroxyecdysone-2-succinylthyroglobulin amide; H-2) that retains affinity to ecdysteroids having a modified A ring. However, this product did not bind to antiserum (ecdysone-22-succinylthyroglobulin amide; H-22) that has affinity mainly for ecdysteroids modified at the side chain. We employed radiolabeled precursor studies with prothoracic glands in vitro and a combination of analytical techniques (NMR, CD, MS) to demonstrate that the major ecdysteroid release from the glands is a mixture of 2-dehydroecdysone and 3-dehydroecdysone (1:2), which is rapidly reduced to ecdysone in the presence of HPF. We postulate that the active component of HPF is 3 beta 3 beta (2 beta)-formin-3(2)-ketoecdysteroid reductase. These results may explain several anomalous observations pertaining to the molting of insect fragments in the absence of prothoracic glands and suggest a complex system for the control of insect molting and metamorphosis. PMID:3422473

  3. 3D-Reconstructions and Virtual 4D-Visualization to Study Metamorphic Brain Development in the Sphinx Moth Manduca Sexta.

    PubMed

    Huetteroth, Wolf; El Jundi, Basil; El Jundi, Sirri; Schachtner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    DURING METAMORPHOSIS, THE TRANSITION FROM THE LARVA TO THE ADULT, THE INSECT BRAIN UNDERGOES CONSIDERABLE REMODELING: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D) to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1.

  4. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5 kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration of Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, ...

  5. The aerodynamics of Manduca sexta: digital particle image velocimetry analysis of the leading-edge vortex.

    PubMed

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Lawson, Nicholas J; Harding, Nicholas J; Taylor, Graham K; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2005-03-01

    Here we present the first digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) analysis of the flow field around the wings of an insect (the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, tethered to a 6-component force-moment balance in a wind tunnel). A leading-edge vortex (LEV) is present above the wings towards the end of the downstroke, as the net upward force peaks. Our DPIV analyses and smoke visualisations match the results of previous flow visualisation experiments at midwing, and we extend the experiments to provide the first analysis of the flow field above the thorax. Detailed DPIV measurements show that towards the end of the downstroke, the LEV structure is consistent with that recently reported in free-flying butterflies and dragonflies: the LEV is continuous across the thorax and runs along each wing to the wingtip, where it inflects to form the wingtip trailing vortices. The LEV core is 2-3 mm in diameter (approximately 10% of local wing chord) both at the midwing position and over the centreline at 1.2 m s(-1) and at 3.5 m s(-1) flight speeds. At 1.2 m s(-1) the measured LEV circulation is 0.012+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) (mean +/-S.D.) at the centreline and 0.011+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) halfway along the wing. At 3.5 m s(-1) LEV circulation is 0.011+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) at the centreline and 0.020+/-0.004 m(2) s(-1) at midwing. The DPIV measurements suggest that if there is any spanwise flow in the LEV towards the end of the downstroke its velocity is less than 1 m s(-1). Estimates of force production show that the LEV contributes significantly to supporting body weight during bouts of flight at both speeds (more than 10% of body weight at 1.2 m s(-1) and 35-65% of body weight at 3.5 m s(-1)).

  6. A multibody approach for 6-DOF flight dynamics and stability analysis of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jae-Hung

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) flight dynamics and stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta using a multibody dynamics approach that encompasses the effects of the time varying inertia tensor of all the body segments including two wings. The quasi-steady translational and unsteady rotational aerodynamics of the flapping wings are modeled with the blade element theory with aerodynamic coefficients derived from relevant experimental studies. The aerodynamics is given instantaneously at each integration time step without wingbeat-cycle-averaging. With the multibody dynamic model and the aerodynamic model for the hawkmoth, a direct time integration of the fully coupled 6-DOF nonlinear multibody dynamics equations of motion is performed. First, the passive damping magnitude of each single DOF is quantitatively examined with the measure of the time taken to half the initial velocity (thalf). The results show that the sideslip translation is less damped approximately three times than the other two translational DOFs, and the pitch rotation is less damped approximately five times than the other two rotational DOFs; each DOF has the value of (unit in wingbeat strokes): thalf,forward/backward = 7.10, thalf,sideslip = 17.95, thalf,ascending = 7.13, thalf,descending = 5.77, thalf,roll = 0.68, thalf,pitch = 2.39, and thalf,yaw = 0.25. Second, the natural modes of motion, with the hovering flight as a reference equilibrium condition, are examined by analyzing fully coupled 6-DOF dynamic responses induced by multiple sets of force and moment disturbance combinations. The given disturbance combinations are set to excite the dynamic modes identified in relevant eigenmode analysis studies. The 6-DOF dynamic responses obtained from this study are compared with eigenmode analysis results in the relevant studies. The longitudinal modes of motion showed dynamic modal characteristics similar to the eigenmode analysis results from the relevant literature

  7. Gustatory Receptor Neurons in Manduca sexta Contain a TrpA1-Dependent Signaling Pathway that Integrates Taste and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Temperature modulates the peripheral taste response of many animals, in part by activating transient receptor potential (Trp) cation channels. We hypothesized that temperature would also modulate peripheral taste responses in larval Manduca sexta. We recorded excitatory responses of the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla to chemical stimuli at 14, 22, and 30 °C. The excitatory responses to 5 chemical stimuli—a salt (KCl), 3 sugars (sucrose, glucose, and inositol) and an alkaloid (caffeine)—were unaffected by temperature. In contrast, the excitatory response to the aversive compound, aristolochic acid (AA), increased robustly with temperature. Next, we asked whether TrpA1 mediates the thermally dependent taste response to AA. To this end, we 1) identified a TrpA1 gene in M. sexta; 2) demonstrated expression of TrpA1 in the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla; 3) determined that 2 TrpA1 antagonists (HC-030031 and mecamylamine) inhibit the taste response to AA, but not caffeine; and then 4) established that the thermal dependence of the taste response to AA is blocked by HC-030031. Taken together, our results indicate that TrpA1 serves as a molecular integrator of taste and temperature in M. sexta. PMID:23828906

  8. Co-expression of Dorsal and Rel2 Negatively Regulates Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xue; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Yi, Hui-Yu; Lin, Xin-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays an essential role in regulation of innate immunity. In mammals, NF-κB factors can form homodimers and heterodimers to activate gene expression. In insects, three NF-κB factors, Dorsal, Dif and Relish, have been identified to activate antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. However, it is not clear whether Dorsal (or Dif) and Relish can form heterodimers. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of a Dorsal homologue (MsDorsal) and two Relish short isoforms (MsRel2A and MsRel2B) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Both MsRel2A and MsRel2B contain only a Rel homology domain (RHD) and lack the ankyrin-repeat inhibitory domain. Overexpression of the RHD domains of MsDorsal and MsRel2 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells can activate AMP gene promoters from M. sexta and D. melanogaster. We for the first time confirmed the interaction between MsDorsal-RHD and MsRel2-RHD, and suggesting that Dorsal and Rel2 may form heterodimers. More importantly, co-expression of MsDorsal-RHD with MsRel2-RHD suppressed activation of several M. sexta AMP gene promoters. Our results suggest that the short MsRel2 isoforms may form heterodimers with MsDorsal as a novel mechanism to prevent over-activation of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26847920

  9. Characterization of a Novel Manduca sexta beta-1, 3-glucan recognition protein (βGRP3) with Multiple Functions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Xiang-Jun; Zhong, Xue; Lin, Xin-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of pathogens by insect pattern recognition receptors is critical to mount effective immune responses. In this study, we reported a new member (βGRP3) of the β-1, 3-glucan recognition protein (βGRP) family from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. Unlike other members of the M. sexta βGRP family proteins, which contain an N-terminal small glucan binding domain and a C-terminal large glucanase-like domain, βGRP3 is 40–45 residues shorter at the N-terminus and lacks the small glucan binding domain. The glucanase-like domain of β GRP3 is most similar to that of M. sexta microbe binding protein (MBP) with 78% identity. βGRP3 transcript was mainly expressed in the fat body, and both its mRNA and protein levels were not induced by microorganisms in larvae. Recombinant βGRP3 purified from Drosophila S2 cells could bind to several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, as well as to laminarin (β-1, 3-glucan), mannan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan (PG), but did not bind to Lysine-type PG. Binding of βGRP3 to laminarin could be competed well by free laminarin, mannan, LPS and LTA, but almost not competed by free PGs. Recombinant βGRP3 could agglutinate Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in a calcium-dependent manner and showed antibacterial (bacteriostatic) activity against B. cereus, novel functions that have not been reported for the βGRP family proteins before. M. sexta βGRP3 may serve as an immune surveillance receptor with multiple functions. PMID:24952171

  10. Biosynthesis of a new tobacco alkaloid, hydroxy-N-acylnornicotine in the trichomes of Nicotiana stocktonii. [Manduca sexta

    SciTech Connect

    Zador, E.; Jones, D.

    1986-04-01

    A new tobacco alkaloid from section Repandae is highly toxic to an insect (Manduca sexta) unsusceptible to previously described nicotine alkaloids (1). They have localized the alkaloid, HO-N-acylnornicotine (HO-NAN) nearly entirely to the exudate secreted by the epidermal trichomes of N. stocktonii. Only the nicotine and nornicotine were found in abundance inside the trichomes, while primarily nicotine was present inside the aerial vegetative parts and root. These results suggest that the HO-NAN is synthesized by the trichomes. When unlabelled nicotine was fed to isolated leaves there was an increase in internal nicotine, nornicotine and secretion of HO-NAN. Feeding leaves with 2'-C/sup 14/ nicotine resulted in labelling of both nornicotine and HO-NAN. These data strongly suggest synthesis of HO-NAN from nicotine via nornicotine in the trichomes, followed by rapid secretion. The possible evolutionary significance of this pathway of synthesis and secretion is discussed.

  11. Eph receptor expression defines midline boundaries for ephrin-positive migratory neurons in the enteric nervous system of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Coate, Thomas M.; Swanson, Tracy L.; Proctor, Thomas M.; Nighorn, Alan J.; Copenhaver, Philip F.

    2007-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands participate in the control of neuronal growth and migration in a variety of contexts, but the mechanisms by which they guide neuronal motility are still incompletely understood. Using the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta as a model system, we have explored whether Manduca ephrin (MsEphrin; a GPI-linked ligand) and its Eph receptor (MsEph) may regulate the migration and outgrowth of enteric neurons. During the formation of the Manduca ENS, an identified set of ~300 neurons (EP cells) populate the enteric plexus of the midgut by migrating along a specific set of muscle bands that form on the gut, while they strictly avoid adjacent interband regions. By determining the mRNA and protein expression patterns for MsEphrin and the MsEph receptor and by examining their endogenous binding patterns within the ENS, we have demonstrated that the ligand and its receptor are distributed in a complementary manner: MsEphrin is exclusively expressed by the migratory EP cells, while the MsEph receptor is expressed by a discrete set of midline interband cells that are normally inhibitory to migration. Notably, MsEphrin could be detected on the filopodial processes of the EP cells that extended up to but not across the midline cells expressing the MsEph receptor. These results suggest a model whereby MsEphrin-dependent signaling regulates the response of migrating neurons to a midline inhibitory boundary, defined by the expression of MsEph receptors in the developing ENS. PMID:17348007

  12. Characterization and cDNA cloning of the pheromone-binding protein from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta: a tissue-specific developmentally regulated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Györgyi, T K; Roby-Shemkovitz, A J; Lerner, M R

    1988-01-01

    cDNA encoding pheromone-binding protein (PBP), the major soluble protein in olfactory sensilla of male moths, has been cloned from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. A study of the developmental time course of PBP reveals that it is first synthesized just prior to eclosion and that the percentage of antennal mRNA encoding PBP shifts from zero to about 20% at that time. PBP is also found in sensilla from female M. sexta antennae. No amino acid sequence homology is observed between PBP and the vertebrate odorant-binding protein. Images PMID:3200861

  13. Proteolytic activation and function of the cytokine Spätzle in innate immune response of a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    An, Chunju; Jiang, Haobo; Kanost, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune response of insects includes induced expression of genes encoding a variety of antimicrobial peptides. The signaling pathways that stimulate this gene expression have been well characterized by genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster, but are not well understood in most other insect species. One such pathway involves proteolytic activation of a cytokine called Spätzle, which functions in dorsal-ventral patterning in early embryonic development and in the antimicrobial immune response in larvae and adults. We have investigated the function of Spätzle in a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta, in which hemolymph proteinases activated during immune responses have been characterized biochemically. Two cDNA isoforms for M. sexta Spätzle-1 differ due to alternative splicing, resulting in a 10 amino acid residue insertion in the pro-region of proSpätzle-1B that is not present in proSpätzle-1A. The proSpätzle-1A cDNA encodes a 32.7 kDa polypeptide that is 23% and 44% identical to D. melanogaster and Bombyx mori Spätzle-1, respectively. Recombinant proSpätzle-1A was a disulfide-linked homodimer. M. sexta hemolymph proteinase 8 (HP8) cleaved proSpätzle-1A to release Spätzle-C108, a dimer of the carboxyl-terminal 108-residue cystine-knot domain. Injection of Spätzle-C108, but not proSpätzle-1A, into larvae stimulated expression of several antimicrobial peptides and proteins, including attacin-1, cecropin-6, moricin, lysozyme, and the immunoglobulin domain protein hemolin, but did not significantly affect expression of two bacteria-inducible pattern recognition proteins, immulectin-2 and β-1,3-glucan recognition protein-2. Results from this paper and other recent studies support a model for a pathway in which the clip-domain proteinase proHP6 becomes activated in plasma upon exposure to Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria or to β-1,3-glucan. HP6 then activates proHP8, which in turn activates Spätzle-1. The resulting Spätzle-C108 dimer is

  14. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Mauck, Kerry E; Balogh, Christopher M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2013-04-22

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds-including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores.

  15. Supply-Side Constraints Are Insufficient to Explain the Ontogenetic Scaling of Metabolic Rate in the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Callier, Viviane; Nijhout, H. Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Explanations for the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate through ontogeny generally fall into two categories: supply-side constraints on delivery of oxygen, or decreased mass-specific intrinsic demand for oxygen. In many animals, supply and demand increase together as the body grows, thus making it impossible to tease apart the relative contributions of changing supply and demand to the observed scaling of metabolic rate. In larval insects, the large components of the tracheal system are set in size at each molt, but then remain constant in size until the next molt. Larvae of Manduca sexta increase up to ten-fold in mass between molts, leading to increased oxygen need without a concomitant increase in supply. At the molt, the tracheal system is shed and replaced with a new, larger one. Due to this discontinuous growth of the tracheal system, insect larvae present an ideal system in which to examine the relative contributions of supply and demand of oxygen to the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate. We observed that the metabolic rate at the beginning of successive instars scales hypoallometrically. This decrease in specific intrinsic demand could be due to a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues (the midgut) or to a decrease in mitochondrial activity in individual cells. We found that decreased intrinsic demand, mediated by a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues in the fifth instar, along with a decrease in the specific mitochondrial activity, contribute to the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate. PMID:23029018

  16. How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed Central

    Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

    2003-01-01

    The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured. PMID:14561347

  17. Supply-side constraints are insufficient to explain the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate in the tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Callier, Viviane; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Explanations for the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate through ontogeny generally fall into two categories: supply-side constraints on delivery of oxygen, or decreased mass-specific intrinsic demand for oxygen. In many animals, supply and demand increase together as the body grows, thus making it impossible to tease apart the relative contributions of changing supply and demand to the observed scaling of metabolic rate. In larval insects, the large components of the tracheal system are set in size at each molt, but then remain constant in size until the next molt. Larvae of Manduca sexta increase up to ten-fold in mass between molts, leading to increased oxygen need without a concomitant increase in supply. At the molt, the tracheal system is shed and replaced with a new, larger one. Due to this discontinuous growth of the tracheal system, insect larvae present an ideal system in which to examine the relative contributions of supply and demand of oxygen to the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate. We observed that the metabolic rate at the beginning of successive instars scales hypoallometrically. This decrease in specific intrinsic demand could be due to a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues (the midgut) or to a decrease in mitochondrial activity in individual cells. We found that decreased intrinsic demand, mediated by a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues in the fifth instar, along with a decrease in the specific mitochondrial activity, contribute to the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate.

  18. How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

    2003-09-29

    The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured.

  19. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths

    PubMed Central

    Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Mauck, Kerry E.; Balogh, Christopher M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds—including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores. PMID:23446531

  20. Ligand specificity and affinity of BT-R1, the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin receptor from Manduca sexta, expressed in mammalian and insect cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, T P; Bulla, L A

    1997-01-01

    The Manduca sexta receptor for the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxins, BT-R1, has been expressed in heterologous cell culture, and its ligand binding characteristics have been determined. When transfected with the BT-R1 cDNA, insect and mammalian cell cultures produce a binding protein of approximately 195 kDa, in contrast to natural BT-R1 from M. sexia, which has an apparent molecular weight of 210 kDa. Transfection of cultured Spodoptera frugiperda cells with the BT-R1 cDNA imparts Cry1A-specific high-affinity binding activity typical of membranes prepared from larval M. sexta midguts. Competition assays with BT-R1 prepared from larval M. sexta midguts and transiently expressed in cell culture reveal virtually identical affinities for the Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxins, clearly demonstrating the absolute specificity of the receptor for toxins of the lepidopteran-specific Cry1A family. BT-R1 therefore remains the only M. sexta Cry1A binding protein to be purified, cloned, and functionally expressed in heterologous cell culture, and for the first time, we are able to correlate the Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxin sensitivities of M. sexta to the identity and ligand binding characteristics of a single midgut receptor molecule. PMID:9292994

  1. Interactions of dietary protein and carbohydrate determine blood sugar level and regulate nutrient selection in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Redak, R A

    2000-09-01

    The non-homeostatic regulation of blood sugar concentration in the insect Manduca sexta L. was affected by nutritional status. Larvae maintained on diets lacking sucrose displayed low concentrations of trehalose, the blood sugar of insects, which varied from 5 to 15 mM with increasing dietary casein level between 12.5 and 75 g/l. These insects were glucogenic, as demonstrated by the selective 13C enrichment of trehalose synthesized from [3-13C]alanine, and de novo synthesis was the sole source of blood sugar. The distribution of 13C in glutamine established that following transamination of the 13C substituted substrate, [3-13C]pyruvate carboxylation rather than decarboxylation was the principal pathway of Pyr metabolism. The mean blood trehalose level was higher in insects maintained on diets with sucrose. At the lowest dietary casein level blood trehalose was approximately 50 mM, and declined to 20 mM at the highest casein level. Gluconeogenesis was detected in insects maintained on sucrose-free diets at the higher protein levels examined, but [3-13C]pyruvate decarboxylation and TCA cycle metabolism was the principal fate of [3-13C]alanine following transamination, and dietary carbohydrate was the principal source of glucose for trehalose synthesis. Feeding studies established a relationship between nutritional status, blood sugar level and dietary self-selection. Insects preconditioned by feeding on diets without sucrose had low blood sugar levels regardless of dietary casein level, and when subsequently given a choice between a sucrose diet or a casein diet, selected the former. Larvae preconditioned on a diet containing sucrose and the lowest level of casein had high blood sugar levels and subsequently selected the casein diet. Larvae maintained on the sucrose diet with the highest casein level had low blood sugar and self-selected the sucrose diet. When preconditioned on diets with sucrose and intermediate levels of casein, insects selected more equally

  2. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin to Manduca sexta aminopeptidase-N receptor is not directly related to toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J L; Lee, M K; Sangadala, S; Adang, M J; Dean, D H

    1999-12-03

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin specifically binds a 115-kDa aminopeptidase-N purified from Manduca sexta midgut. Cry1Ac domain III mutations were constructed around a putative sugar-binding pocket and binding to purified aminopeptidase-N and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was compared to toxicity. Q509A, R511A, Y513A, and 509-511 (QNR-AAA) eliminated aminopeptidase-N binding and reduced binding to BBMV. However, toxicity decreased no more than two-fold, indicating activity is not directly correlated with aminopeptidase-N binding. Analysis of toxin binding to aminopeptidase-N in M. sexta is therefore insufficient for predicting toxicity. Mutants retained binding, however, to another BBMV site, suggesting alternative receptors may compensate in vivo.

  3. Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase 21 activates prophenoloxidase-activating proteinase 3 in an insect innate immune response proteinase cascade.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Maureen J; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo; Kanost, Michael R

    2007-04-20

    Melanization, an insect immune response, requires a set of hemolymph proteins including pathogen recognition proteins that initiate the response, a cascade of mostly unknown serine proteinases, and phenoloxidase. Until now, only initial and final proteinases in the pathways have been conclusively identified. Four such proteinases have been purified from the larval hemolymph of Manduca sexta: hemolymph proteinase 14 (HP14), which autoactivates in the presence of microbial surface components, and three prophenoloxidase-activating proteinases (PAP1-3). In this study, we have used two complementary approaches to identify a serine proteinase that activates proPAP3. Partial purification from hemolymph of an activator of proPAP3 resulted in an active fraction with two abundant polypeptides of approximately 32 and approximately 37 kDa. Labeling of these polypeptides with a serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, indicated that they were active serine proteinases. N-terminal sequencing revealed that both were cleaved forms of the previously identified hemolymph serine proteinase, HP21. Surprisingly, cleavage of proHP21 had occurred not at the predicted activation site but more N-terminal to it. In vitro reactions carried out with purified HP14 (which activates proHP21), proHP21, proPAP3, and site-directed mutant forms of the latter two proteinases confirmed that HP21 activates proPAP3 by limited proteolysis. Like the HP21 products purified from hemolymph, HP21 that was activated by HP14 in the in vitro reactions was not cleaved at its predicted activation site.

  4. Gyroscopic sensing in the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: the role of sensor location and directional sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Brian T; Morgansen, Kristi A

    2015-10-06

    The wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta are lined with mechanoreceptors called campaniform sensilla that encode wing deformations. During flight, the wings deform in response to a variety of stimuli, including inertial-elastic loads due to the wing flapping motion, aerodynamic loads, and exogenous inertial loads transmitted by disturbances. Because the wings are actuated, flexible structures, the strain-sensitive campaniform sensilla are capable of detecting inertial rotations and accelerations, allowing the wings to serve not only as a primary actuator, but also as a gyroscopic sensor for flight control. We study the gyroscopic sensing of the hawkmoth wings from a control theoretic perspective. Through the development of a low-order model of flexible wing flapping dynamics, and the use of nonlinear observability analysis, we show that the rotational acceleration inherent in wing flapping enables the wings to serve as gyroscopic sensors. We compute a measure of sensor fitness as a function of sensor location and directional sensitivity by using the simulation-based empirical observability Gramian. Our results indicate that gyroscopic information is encoded primarily through shear strain due to wing twisting, where inertial rotations cause detectable changes in pronation and supination timing and magnitude. We solve an observability-based optimal sensor placement problem to find the optimal configuration of strain sensor locations and directional sensitivities for detecting inertial rotations. The optimal sensor configuration shows parallels to the campaniform sensilla found on hawkmoth wings, with clusters of sensors near the wing root and wing tip. The optimal spatial distribution of strain directional sensitivity provides a hypothesis for how heterogeneity of campaniform sensilla may be distributed.

  5. Binding properties of the regulatory domains in Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase-14, an initiation enzyme of the prophenoloxidase activation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2010-03-01

    Pathogen recognition and rapid initiation of defense responses are essential for the survival of host insects. In Manduca sexta, hemolymph proteinase-14 precursor (proHP14) senses non-self presence and triggers a branched serine proteinase pathway which leads to prophenoloxidase activation and melanin formation around the invading organisms. To understand functions of individual domains in HP14, we have produced a series of HP14 domains and truncation mutants and studied their interactions with microbial polysaccharides and beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein-1 (betaGRP1)-a biosensor for fungal and bacterial infection. These include: the low-density lipoprotein receptor class A repeats 1-5 (LDL(1-5)), Sushi domain, Wonton domain, and proteinase catalytic domain of HP14, as well as proHP14 missing 1-4 LDL repeats (DeltaLDL(1), DeltaLDL(12), DeltaLDL(1-3) and DeltaLDL(1-4)). LDL(1-5), Sushi, and Wonton domains specifically recognized Lys-type PG, whereas the latter two also bound betaGRP1. Wonton in addition bound to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan (PG). The four N-terminally truncated proHP14 (DeltaL(x)) further confirmed specific interactions with LPS, LTA, DAP-PG, Lys-PG, laminarin, and betaGRP1. These binding data suggest a broad specificity of proHP14 in pattern recognition. Its role in mediating immune responses is anticipated to be influenced by other plasma factors and surface structures of invading pathogens.

  6. Persistence of double-stranded RNA in insect hemolymph as a potential determiner of RNA interference success: evidence from Manduca sexta and Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Garbutt, Jennie S; Bellés, Xavier; Richards, Elaine H; Reynolds, Stuart E

    2013-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a specific gene silencing mechanism mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which has been harnessed as a useful reverse genetics tool in insects. Unfortunately, however, this technology has been limited by the variable sensitivity of insect species to RNAi. We propose that rapid degradation of dsRNA in insect hemolymph could impede gene silencing by RNAi and experimentally investigate the dynamics of dsRNA persistence in two insects, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, a species in which experimental difficulty has been experienced with RNAi protocols and the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, which is known to be highly susceptible to experimental RNAi. An ex vivo assay revealed that dsRNA was rapidly degraded by an enzyme in M. sexta hemolymph plasma, whilst dsRNA persisted much longer in B. germanica plasma. A quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based assay revealed that dsRNA, accordingly, disappeared rapidly from M. sexta hemolymph in vivo. The M. sexta dsRNAse is inactivated by exposure to high temperature and is inhibited by EDTA. These findings lead us to propose that the rate of persistence of dsRNA in insect hemolymph (mediated by the action of one or more nucleases) could be an important factor in determining the susceptibility of insect species to RNAi.

  7. The morphological characterization of the forewing of the Manduca sexta species for the application of biomimetic flapping wing micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, R P; Palazotto, A N

    2012-12-01

    To properly model the structural dynamics of the forewing of the Manduca sexta species, it is critical that the material and structural properties of the biological specimen be understood. This paper presents the results of a morphological study that has been conducted to identify the material and structural properties of a sample of male and female Manduca sexta specimens. The average mass, area, shape, size and camber of the wing were evaluated using novel measurement techniques. Further emphasis is placed on studying the critical substructures of the wing: venation and membrane. The venation cross section is measured using detailed pathological techniques over the entire venation of the wing. The elastic modulus of the leading edge veins is experimentally determined using advanced non-contact structural dynamic techniques. The membrane elastic modulus is randomly sampled over the entire wing to determine global material properties for the membrane using nanoindentation. The data gathered from this morphological study form the basis for the replication of future finite element structural models and engineered biomimetic wings for use with flapping wing micro air vehicles.

  8. SGT1 regulates wounding- and herbivory-induced jasmonic acid accumulation and Nicotiana attenuata's resistance to the specialist lepidopteran herbivore Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Meldau, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2011-03-01

    • SGT1 (suppressor of G-two allele of SKP1) is a conserved protein in all eukaryotes and is crucial for resisting pathogens in humans and plants. We studied whether SGT1 is involved in the induced defense response of a native tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) to its natural herbivore, Manduca sexta. • We diminished NaSGT1 transcription in N. attenuata using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and analysed the induced defense responses after wounding and M. sexta elicitation. • Silencing NaSGT1 highly attenuates wounding- and herbivory-induced amounts of jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-isoleucine but elevates the concentration of salicylic acid. Chemical profiling reveals that NaSGT1-silenced plants are also compromised in their ability to accumulate JA precursors produced in chloroplasts. We show that the reduced JA accumulation in NaSGT1-silenced plants is independent of the elevated salicylic acid levels. NaSGT1-silenced plants have decreased contents of defensive metabolites and have compromised resistance to M. sexta larvae. Transcript analyses after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment revealed that NaSGT1 is important for the normal regulation of MeJA-induced transcriptional responses. • This work demonstrates the importance of SGT1 in the regulatory network that deploys defense responses against herbivores, and highlights the significance of SGT1 in plants' responses to JA.

  9. In situ tip-recordings found no evidence for an Orco-based ionotropic mechanism of pheromone-transduction in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Andreas; Funk, Nico W; Mukunda, Latha; Gawalek, Petra; Werckenthin, Achim; Hansson, Bill S; Wicher, Dieter; Stengl, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of insect odor transduction are still controversial. Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are 7TM receptors with inverted membrane topology. They colocalize with a conserved coreceptor (Orco) with chaperone and ion channel function. Some studies suggest that insects employ exclusively ionotropic odor transduction via OR-Orco heteromers. Other studies provide evidence for different metabotropic odor transduction cascades, which employ second messenger-gated ion channel families for odor transduction. The hawkmoth Manduca sexta is an established model organism for studies of insect olfaction, also due to the availability of the hawkmoth-specific pheromone blend with its main component bombykal. Previous patch-clamp studies on primary cell cultures of M. sexta olfactory receptor neurons provided evidence for a pheromone-dependent activation of a phospholipase Cβ. Pheromone application elicited a sequence of one rapid, apparently IP3-dependent, transient and two slower Ca(2+)-dependent inward currents. It remains unknown whether additionally an ionotropic pheromone-transduction mechanism is employed. If indeed an OR-Orco ion channel complex underlies an ionotropic mechanism, then Orco agonist-dependent opening of the OR-Orco channel pore should add up to pheromone-dependent opening of the pore. Here, in tip-recordings from intact pheromone-sensitive sensilla, perfusion with the Orco agonist VUAA1 did not increase pheromone-responses within the first 1000 ms. However, VUAA1 increased spontaneous activity of olfactory receptor neurons Zeitgebertime- and dose-dependently. We conclude that we find no evidence for an Orco-dependent ionotropic pheromone transduction cascade in M. sexta. Instead, in M. sexta Orco appears to be a slower, second messenger-dependent pacemaker channel which affects kinetics and threshold of pheromone-detection via changes of intracellular Ca(2+) baseline concentrations.

  10. The effect of some Solanum steroidal alkaloids and glycoalkaloids on larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Weissenberg, M; Levy, A; Svoboda, J A; Ishaaya, I

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of a series of secondary plant compounds including steroidal alkaloids and glycoalkaloids on larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was investigated. Larval growth was inhibited on artificial diets containing 1 mumol g-1 diet of the glycoalkaloids solamargine, solasonine and tomatine, whereas the corresponding aglycones solasodine and tomatidine, and also tomatidenol, were inactive. The inhibitory effect of solamargine and tomatine, but not of solasonine, was completely abolished by addition of 1 mumol g-1 diet cholesterol and/or sitosterol. Nonetheless, synthetic cholesteryl tomatide displayed significant activity at 2 mumol g-1 diet. Parallel studies with the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, showed marked inhibitory activity of tomatine at a dietary concentration of 1 mumol g-1, whereas the other compounds did not affect sterol metabolism or larval development. An appraisal of the factors influencing the mode of action of the active steroidal glycoalkaloids is attempted.

  11. Altered gene expression in Choristoneura fumiferana and Manduca sexta in response to sublethal intoxication by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin.

    PubMed

    van Munster, M; Préfontaine, G; Meunier, L; Elias, M; Mazza, A; Brousseau, R; Masson, L

    2007-02-01

    In order to understand how lepidopteran insects react physiologically to Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxin ingestion, transcriptional profiling of Choristoneura fumiferana larvae exposed to sublethal doses of Cry1Ab protoxin were monitored using a C. fumiferana-specific cDNA microarray derived from a protoxin-specific subtractive library. Differential gene expression occurred primarily between 2 and 5 h postingestion. Metabolic enzymes such as lipases and proteases were generally repressed, whereas genes involved in detoxification, immune system regulation or general stress response were upregulated. A similar protoxin-specific transcriptional pattern was also observed with Manduca sexta larvae, using three upregulated genes (serpin, cytochrome P450 and carboxyl/cholinesterase) and one downregulated gene (beta-glucosidase), suggesting that a susceptible larval response to Cry toxin exposure might be universal among lepidopterous insects.

  12. Integrated modeling of protein-coding genes in the Manduca sexta genome using RNA-Seq data from the biochemical model insect.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    The genome sequence of Manduca sexta was recently determined using 454 technology. Cufflinks and MAKER2 were used to establish gene models in the genome assembly based on the RNA-Seq data and other species' sequences. Aided by the extensive RNA-Seq data from 50 tissue samples at various life stages, annotators over the world (including the present authors) have manually confirmed and improved a small percentage of the models after spending months of effort. While such collaborative efforts are highly commendable, many of the predicted genes still have problems which may hamper future research on this insect species. As a biochemical model representing lepidopteran pests, M. sexta has been used extensively to study insect physiological processes for over five decades. In this work, we assembled Manduca datasets Cufflinks 3.0, Trinity 4.0, and Oases 4.0 to assist the manual annotation efforts and development of Official Gene Set (OGS) 2.0. To further improve annotation quality, we developed methods to evaluate gene models in the MAKER2, Cufflinks, Oases and Trinity assemblies and selected the best ones to constitute MCOT 1.0 after thorough crosschecking. MCOT 1.0 has 18,089 genes encoding 31,666 proteins: 32.8% match OGS 2.0 models perfectly or near perfectly, 11,747 differ considerably, and 29.5% are absent in OGS 2.0. Future automation of this process is anticipated to greatly reduce human efforts in generating comprehensive, reliable models of structural genes in other genome projects where extensive RNA-Seq data are available.

  13. Non-glandular trichomes of Solanum carolinense deter feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars and cause damage to the gut peritrophic matrix.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Smith, Jason D; Stephenson, Andrew G; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2017-02-22

    Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore their pre- and post-ingestive effects on herbivores. Larvae of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) initiated feeding faster and gained more weight on Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae) leaves having lower trichome densities (or experimentally removed trichomes) than on leaves having higher trichome densities. Adding trichomes to artificial diet also deterred feeding and adversely affected caterpillar growth relative to controls. Scanning electron and light microscopy revealed that the ingestion of stellate trichomes by M. sexta caterpillars caused extensive damage to the peritrophic membrane, a gut lining that is essential to digestion and pathogen isolation. These findings suggest that, in addition to acting as a physical barrier to deter feeding, trichomes can inhibit caterpillar growth and development via post-ingestive effects.

  14. Single amino acid changes in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin affect irreversible binding to Manduca sexta midgut membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, F; Alcantara, E; Lee, M K; Chen, X J; Curtiss, A; Dean, D H

    1995-01-01

    Deletion of amino acid residues 370 to 375 (D2) and single alanine substitutions between residues 371 and 375 (FNIGI) of lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis techniques. All mutants, except that with the I-to-A change at position 373 (I373A), produced delta-endotoxin as CryIAb and were stable upon activation either by Manduca sexta gut enzymes or by trypsin. Mutants D2, F371A, and G374A lost most of the toxicity (400 times less) for M. sexta larvae, whereas N372A and I375A were only 2 times less toxic than CryIAb. The results of homologous and heterologous competition binding assays to M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) revealed that the binding curves for all mutant toxins were similar to those for the wild-type toxin. However, a significant difference in irreversible binding was observed between the toxic (CryIAb, N372A, and I375A) and less-toxic (D2, F371A, and G374A) proteins. Only 20 to 25% of bound, radiolabeled CryIAb, N372A, and I375A toxins was dissociated from BBMV, whereas about 50 to 55% of the less-toxic mutants, D2, F371A, and G374A, was dissociated from their binding sites by the addition of excess nonlabeled ligand. Voltage clamping experiments provided further evidence that the insecticidal property (inhibition of short-circuit current across the M. sexta midgut) was directly correlated to irreversible interaction of the toxin with the BBMV. We have also shown that CryIAb and mutant toxins recognize 210- and 120-kDa peptides in ligand blotting. Our results imply that mutations in residues 370 to 375 of domain II of CrylAb do not affect overall binding but do affect the irreversible association of the toxin to the midgut columnar epithelial cells of M. sexta. PMID:7730254

  15. Alternative oxidase in resistance to biotic stresses: Nicotiana attenuata AOX contributes to resistance to a pathogen and a piercing-sucking insect but not Manduca sexta larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Oh, Youngjoo; Li, Hongyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The role of the alternative respiratory pathway in the protection of plants against biotic stress was examined in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) plants (irAOX) silenced in the expression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE (AOX) gene. Wild-type and irAOX plants were independently challenged with (1) chewing herbivores (Manduca sexta), (2) piercing-sucking insects (Empoasca spp.), and (3) bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000), showing that all these treatments can strongly elicit accumulation of AOX gene transcripts in wild-type plants. When N. attenuata chemical defenses and resistance were examined, irAOX plants showed wild-type levels of defense-related phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and resistance to M. sexta. In contrast, piercing-sucking leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) caused more leaf damage and induced significantly higher salicylic acid levels in irAOX compared with wild-type plants in the field and/or glasshouse. Subsequently, irAOX plants accumulated lower levels of defense metabolites, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, caffeoylputrescine, and nicotine compared with wild-type plants under prolonged attack of Empoasca spp. in the glasshouse. Finally, an accelerated cell death phenotype was observed in irAOX plants infected with P. syringae, which correlated with higher levels of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels in pathogen-infected irAOX compared with wild-type leaves. Overall, the AOX-associated changes in phytohormone and/or redox levels appear to support the resistance of N. attenuata plants against cell piercing-sucking insects and modulate the progression of cell death in pathogen-infected tissues but are not effective against rapidly feeding specialist herbivore M. sexta.

  16. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  17. Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in Manduca sexta and their possible roles in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Zheng, Yun; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Ren, Ren; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-04-01

    The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta has served as a model for insect biochemical and physiological research for decades. However, knowledge of the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is still rudimentary in this species. Our previous study (Zhang et al., 2012) identified 163 conserved and 13 novel microRNAs in M. sexta, most of which were present at low levels in pupae. To identify additional M. sexta microRNAs and more importantly to examine their possible roles in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes, we constructed four small RNA libraries using fat body and hemocytes from naïve or bacteria-injected larvae and obtained 32.9 million reads of 18-31 nucleotides by Illumina sequencing. Mse-miR-929 and mse-miR-1b (antisense microRNA of mse-miR-1) were predicted in the previous study and now found to be conserved microRNAs in the tissue samples. We also found four novel microRNAs, two of which result from a gene cluster. Mse-miR-281-star, mse-miR-965-star, mse-miR-31-star, and mse-miR-9b-star were present at higher levels than their respective mature strands. Abundance changes of microRNAs were observed after the immune challenge. Based on the quantitative data of mRNA levels in control and induced fat body and hemocytes as well as the results of microRNA target site prediction, we suggest that certain microRNAs and microRNA*s regulate gene expression for pattern recognition, prophenoloxidase activation, cellular responses, antimicrobial peptide synthesis, and conserved intracellular signal transduction (Toll, IMD, JAK-STAT, MAPK-JNK-p38, and small interfering RNA pathways). In summary, this study has enriched our knowledge on M. sexta microRNAs and how some of them may participate in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes.

  18. Changes in the Plasma Proteome of Manduca sexta Larvae in Relation to the Transcriptome Variations after an Immune Challenge: Evidence for High Molecular Weight Immune Complex Formation*

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Shuguang; Rogers, Janet; Hartson, Steve; Jiang, Haobo

    2016-01-01

    Manduca sexta is a lepidopteran model widely used to study insect physiological processes, including innate immunity. In this study, we explored the proteomes of cell-free hemolymph from larvae injected with a sterile buffer (C for control) or a mixture of bacteria (I for induced). Of the 654 proteins identified, 70 showed 1.67 to >200-fold abundance increases after the immune challenge; 51 decreased to 0–60% of the control levels. While there was no strong parallel between plasma protein levels and their transcript levels in hemocytes or fat body, the mRNA level changes (i.e. I/C ratios of normalized read numbers) in the tissues concurred with their protein level changes (i.e. I/C ratios of normalized spectral counts) with correlation coefficients of 0.44 and 0.57, respectively. Better correlations support that fat body contributes a more significant portion of the plasma proteins involved in various aspects of innate immunity. Consistently, ratios of mRNA and protein levels were better correlated for immunity-related proteins than unrelated ones. There is a set of proteins whose apparent molecular masses differ considerably from the calculated Mr's, suggestive of posttranslational modifications. In addition, some low Mr proteins were detected in the range of 80 to >300 kDa on a reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel, indicating the existence of high Mr covalent complexes. We identified 30 serine proteases and their homologs, 11 of which are known members of an extracellular immune signaling network. Along with our quantitative transcriptome data, the protein identification, inducibility, and association provide leads toward a focused exploration of humoral immunity in M. sexta. PMID:26811355

  19. Denaturation of Either Manduca sexta Aminopeptidase N or Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A Toxins Exposes Binding Epitopes Hidden under Nondenaturing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Anu; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Dean, Donald H.; Adang, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of polypeptide denaturation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins or purified Manduca sexta 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on the specificities of their interactions was investigated. Ligand and dot blotting experiments were conducted with 125I-labeled Cry1Ac, Cry1Ac mutant 509QNR-AAA511 (QNR-AAA), or 120-kDa aminopeptidase N as the probe. Mutant QNR-AAA does not bind the N-acetylgalactosamine moiety on the 120-kDa aminopeptidase. Both 125I-Cry1Ac and 125I-QNR-AAA bound to 210- and 120-kDa proteins from M. sexta brush border membrane vesicles and purified 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on ligand blots. However, on dot blots 125I-QNR-AAA bound brush border vesicles but did not bind purified aminopeptidase except when aminopeptidase was denatured. In the reciprocal experiment, 125I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ac but did not bind QNR-AAA. 125I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ab to a limited extent but not the Cry1Ab domain I mutant Y153D or Cry1Ca. However, denatured 125I-aminopeptidase detected each Cry1A toxin and mutant but not Cry1Ca on dot blots. The same pattern of recognition occurred with native (nondenatured) 125I-aminopeptidase probe and denatured toxins as the targets. The broader pattern of toxin-binding protein interaction is probably due to peptide sequences being exposed upon denaturation. Putative Cry toxin-binding proteins identified by the ligand blot technique need to be investigated under native conditions early in the process of identifying binding proteins that may serve as functional toxin receptors. PMID:11976078

  20. Denaturation of either Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N or Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins exposes binding epitopes hidden under nondenaturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Anu; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Dean, Donald H; Adang, Michael J

    2002-05-01

    The effect of polypeptide denaturation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins or purified Manduca sexta 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on the specificities of their interactions was investigated. Ligand and dot blotting experiments were conducted with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ac, Cry1Ac mutant (509)QNR-AAA(511) (QNR-AAA), or 120-kDa aminopeptidase N as the probe. Mutant QNR-AAA does not bind the N-acetylgalactosamine moiety on the 120-kDa aminopeptidase. Both (125)I-Cry1Ac and (125)I-QNR-AAA bound to 210- and 120-kDa proteins from M. sexta brush border membrane vesicles and purified 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on ligand blots. However, on dot blots (125)I-QNR-AAA bound brush border vesicles but did not bind purified aminopeptidase except when aminopeptidase was denatured. In the reciprocal experiment, (125)I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ac but did not bind QNR-AAA. (125)I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ab to a limited extent but not the Cry1Ab domain I mutant Y153D or Cry1Ca. However, denatured (125)I-aminopeptidase detected each Cry1A toxin and mutant but not Cry1Ca on dot blots. The same pattern of recognition occurred with native (nondenatured) (125)I-aminopeptidase probe and denatured toxins as the targets. The broader pattern of toxin-binding protein interaction is probably due to peptide sequences being exposed upon denaturation. Putative Cry toxin-binding proteins identified by the ligand blot technique need to be investigated under native conditions early in the process of identifying binding proteins that may serve as functional toxin receptors.

  1. Chitin synthase genes in Manduca sexta: characterization of a gut-specific transcript and differential tissue expression of alternately spliced mRNAs during development.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, David G; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Zimoch, Lars; Merzendorfer, Hans; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Specht, Charles A; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2005-06-01

    Chitin, the linear homopolymer of beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine, is produced by the enzyme chitin synthase (CHS). In general, this insoluble polysaccharide is found in two major extracellular structures in insects, the cuticle that overlays the epidermis and the peritrophic membrane (PM) that lines the midgut. Based on amino acid sequence similarities, insect CHSs are divided into two classes, A and B, and to date no more than two CHS genes have been identified in any single insect species. In species where both CHSs have been identified, one class A CHS and one class B CHS are always present. This finding suggests that these two genes may encode enzymes that synthesize chitin in different epithelial tissues. In our laboratory, we previously characterized transcripts for a class A CHS gene (MsCHS1) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We observed the expression of this gene in the larval epidermis, suggesting that the encoded enzyme functions to synthesize cuticular chitin. In this paper, we characterize a second chitin synthase gene (MsCHS2) belonging to class B and its cDNA from Manduca and show that it is expressed only in the midgut. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 4575 nucleotides, which encodes a conceptual protein that is 1524 amino acids in length and is predicted to contain 16 transmembrane spans. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from anterior, medial, and posterior sections of the midgut from feeding larvae indicate that MsCHS2 is primarily expressed in the anterior midgut, with transcript levels tapering off in the medial and posterior midgut. Analysis of the MsCHS2 gene sequence indicates the absence of an alternate exon in contrast to the MsCHS1 gene, which yields two transcripts, MsCHS1a and MsCHS1b. RT-PCR analysis of the differential expression of these alternately spliced transcripts reveals that both splice variants are present in the epidermis. However, the ratio of the two alternately spliced transcripts varies

  2. Synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons encodes the behaviorally effective ratio of sex-pheromone components in male Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli that are essential to an animal's survival and reproduction are often complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in characteristic proportions. Here, we investigated how these proportions are encoded in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), of male Manduca sexta moths. Two key components of the female's sex pheromone, present in an approximately 2:1 ratio, are processed in each of two neighboring glomeruli in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of males of this species. In wind-tunnel flight experiments, males exhibited behavioral selectivity for ratios approximating the ratio released by conspecific females. The ratio between components was poorly represented, however, in the firing-rate output of uniglomerular MGC projection neurons (PNs). PN firing rate was mostly insensitive to the ratio between components, and individual PNs did not exhibit a preference for a particular ratio. Recording simultaneously from pairs of PNs in the same glomerulus, we found that the natural ratio between components elicited the most synchronous spikes, and altering the proportion of either component decreased the proportion of synchronous spikes. The degree of synchronous firing between PNs in the same glomerulus thus selectively encodes the natural ratio that most effectively evokes the natural behavioral response to pheromone. PMID:24002682

  3. A mixture of Manduca sexta aminopeptidase and phosphatase enhances Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal CryIA(c) toxin binding and 86Rb(+)-K+ efflux in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Walters, F S; English, L H; Adang, M J

    1994-04-01

    CryIA(c) delta-endotoxin, a member of the CryI family of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins, specifically recognizes and binds with high affinity to target proteins in the midgut of susceptible insects. Protein blots of Manduca sexta brush-border membranes probed with 125I-CryIA(c) identify a major binding protein of 120 kDa and a minor binding protein of 65 kDa. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the 120-kDa toxin binding protein. Using isoelectric focusing and monoclonal antibodies (2B3, 8G1, and 12B8) 120- and 65-kDa brush-border proteins were isolated. Labeled CryIA(c) and monoclonal antibodies probed to blots of the affinity-selected proteins recognized the 120- and 65-kDa proteins. When reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles, antibody-selected proteins increased toxin binding (35%) and enhanced toxin-induced 86Rb+ release up to 1000-fold. The 120-kDa protein was identified as aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2). A CryIA(c)-sensitive phosphatase was also present in the 120/65-kDa protein mixture. These findings provide the first identification of B. thuringiensis toxin binding proteins, although confirmation is needed in vivo.

  4. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Takayuki; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Yaguchi, Jun; Matsumoto, Rika; Kanost, Michael R; Kramer, Karl J; Yonekura, Masami

    2007-09-01

    A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, denoted as MsCPI, strongly inhibited the plant cysteine protease, papain, with a K(i) value of 5.5 x 10(-9)M. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a partial cDNA encoding MsCPI indicated that MsCPI consists of 105 amino acid residues in a sequence that is similar to sarcocystatin A from Sarcophaga peregrina. However, northern blotting and PCR analyses using the specific primers of MsCPI suggested that the mRNA encoding MsCPI had a size of more than 12 kilobases, which included at least six tandemly repeated MsCPI segments. MsCPI was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein effectively inhibited cysteine proteases from plants as well as from animals such as cathepsins B (K(i), 6.8 nM), H (3.0 nM), and L (0.87 nM). There was no inhibition exhibited toward trypsin, chymotrypsin, subtilisin, pepsin or themolysin.

  5. Baculovirus-mediated expression of human apolipoprotein E in Manduca sexta larvae generates particles that bind to the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gretch, D G; Sturley, S L; Friesen, P D; Beckage, N E; Attie, A D

    1991-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and mediates the catabolism of several classes of lipoprotein particles. Binding of apoE to the LDL receptor requires association of apoE with lipid in a vesicle or a lipoprotein particle. Because of this requirement, purified apoE or apoE derived directly from bacterial expression systems does not bind to the LDL receptor. To overcome this problem and to facilitate analysis of apoE structure, recombinant baculoviruses containing the human apoE cDNA fused to the polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus were constructed. The recombinant viruses were used to infect larvae of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta in vivo. High levels of lipoprotein particles containing human apoE were present in the hemolymph of infected larvae. In contrast to apoE produced by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells in vitro, these particles were excellent ligands for the LDL receptor. Images PMID:1924311

  6. Dietary nutrient levels regulate protein and carbohydrate intake, gluconeogenic/glycolytic flux and blood trehalose level in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Borchardt, D B; Wang, L-W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary casein and sucrose levels on nutrient intake, and distinguished the effects of carbohydrate and protein consumption on growth, fat content, pyruvate metabolism and blood trehalose level of 5th instar Manduca sexta larvae. Growth increased with increasing casein consumption but was unaffected by carbohydrate intake. Fat content also increased with carbohydrate consumption, but on carbohydrate-free diets fat content increased with increased protein consumption. Blood trehalose level and pyruvate metabolism were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of blood following administration of (3-(13)C)pyruvate. On diets containing sucrose, blood trehalose increased with increasing carbohydrate intake, and on most diets trehalose was synthesized entirely from dietary sucrose. Pyruvate cycling, indicated by the alanine C2/C3 (13)C enrichment ratio, increased with carbohydrate consumption reflecting increased glycolysis, and pyruvate decarboxylation exceeded carboxylation on all sucrose diets. Larvae that consumed <75 mg/day sucrose were gluconeogenic, based on the [2 (trehalose C6)(Glx C3/C2)]/alanine C2] (13)C enrichment ratio. On carbohydrate-free diets, blood trehalose levels were low and maintained entirely by gluconeogenesis. Blood trehalose level increased with increasing protein intake. Pyruvate cycling was very low, although many insects displayed higher levels of pyruvate decarboxylation than carboxylation. All gluconeogenic larvae displayed alanine (13)C enrichment ratios <0.35 and had blood trehalose levels <50 mM.

  7. Glucogenesis in an insect, Manduca sexta L., estimated from the 13C isotopomer distribution in trehalose synthesized from [1,3-13C2]glycerol.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N

    1997-07-19

    Glucogenesis from [3-13C]alanine and [1,3-13C2]glycerol was demonstrated in the insect Manduca sexta by examining the 13C enrichment of trehalose, a non-reducing disaccharide of glucose synthesized in the insect fat body and released into the blood or hemolymph. In insects maintained on a low carbohydrate diet, trehalose synthesized from [3-13C]alanine was selectively enriched at C1 and C6, and C2 and C5. The 13C-labelling pattern indicated the carboxylation of [3-13C]pyruvate, formed by transamination of the [3-13C]alanine followed by randomization of the label at the fumarate step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose synthesis via the gluconeogenic pathway. 13C enrichment of trehalose was absent in similarly maintained insect larvae administered 3-mercaptopicolinic acid, an inhibitor of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Insects on the low carbohydrate diet also synthesized trehalose from [1,3-13C2]glycerol. 13C multiplets were observed in trehalose C3 and C4 demonstrating the synthesis of three 13C enriched glucose isotopomers from the 13C-labelled glycerol. The relative contributions of 13C-labelled glycerol and unlabelled 3 carbon substrates to the synthesis of the 13C enriched trehalose isotopomers were determined from the multiplet structure at C3, and calculation of minimal rates of glucogenesis were based on the 13C enrichment of C4. The C4/C3 13C enrichment ratio in trehalose synthesized from [1,3-13C2]glycerol was close to unity, and total glucogenesis was calculated after estimation of the expected contribution of unlabelled trehalose synthesis from 3 carbon substrates by comparison of the ratio of unlabelled and labelled contributions to the 13C enriched trehalose isotopomers with the 13C enrichment of [1,3-13C2]glycerol-3-phosphate. The estimated total rates of glucogenesis varied from 0.33 to 2.80 micromol glucose/g fresh weight/h. The blood sugar level of M. sexta was also highly variable. Although the potential importance of

  8. TGL-mediated lipolysis in Manduca sexta fat body: possible roles for lipoamide-dehydrogenase (LipDH) and high-density lipophorin (HDLp)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zengying; Soulages, Jose L; Joshi, Bharat D.; Daniel, Stuart M.; Hager, Zachary J.; Arrese, Estela L

    2014-01-01

    Triglyceride-lipase (TGL) is a major fat body lipase in Manduca sexta. The knowledge of how TGL activity is regulated is very limited. A WWE domain, presumably involved in protein-protein interactions, has been previously identified in the N-terminal region of TGL. In this study, we searched for proteins partners that interact with the N-terminal region of TGL. Thirteen proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and the interaction with four of these proteins was confirmed by immunoblot. The oxidoreductase lipoamide-dehydrogenase (LipDH) and the apolipoprotein components of the lipid transporter, HDLp, were among these proteins. LipDH is the common component of the mitochondrial α-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes whereas HDLp occurs in the hemolymph. However, subcellular fractionation demonstrated that these two proteins are relatively abundant in the soluble fraction of fat body adipocytes. The cofactor lipoate found in typical LipDH substrates was not detected in TGL. However, TGL proved to have critical thiol groups. Additional studies with inhibitors are consistent with the notion that LipDH acting as a diaphorase could preserve the activity of TGL by controlling the redox state of thiol groups. On the other hand, when TG hydrolase activity of TGL was assayed in the presence of HDLp, the production of diacylglycerol (DG) increased. TGL-HDLp interaction could drive the intracellular transport of DG. TGL may be directly involved in the lipoprotein assembly and loading with DG, a process that occurs in the fat body and is essential for insects to mobilize fatty acids. Overall the study suggests that TGL occurs as a multi-protein complex supported by interactions through the WWE domain. PMID:24333838

  9. Odor Detection in Manduca sexta Is Optimized when Odor Stimuli Are Pulsed at a Frequency Matching the Wing Beat during Flight

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Kalwar, Faizan; Hatfield, Mandy; Staudacher, Erich; Bradley, Samual P.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing is adapted to wing beating, which causes similar physical effects as sniffing. To explore this we first characterized the physical properties of our odor delivery system using hotwire anemometry and photo ionization detection, which confirmed that odor stimuli were temporally structured. Electroantennograms confirmed that pulse trains were tracked physiologically. Next, we quantified odor detection in moths in a series of psychophysical experiments to determine whether pulsing odor affected acuity. Moths were first conditioned to respond to a target odorant using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. At 24 and 48 h after conditioning, moths were tested with a dilution series of the conditioned odor. On separate days odor was presented either continuously or as 20 Hz pulse trains to simulate wing beating effects. We varied pulse train duty cycle, olfactometer outflow velocity, pulsing method, and odor. Results of these studies, established that detection was enhanced when odors were pulsed. Higher velocity and briefer pulses also enhanced detection. Post hoc analysis indicated enhanced detection was the result of a significantly lower behavioral response to blank stimuli when presented as pulse trains. Since blank responses are a measure of false positive responses, this suggests that the olfactory system makes fewer errors (i.e. is more reliable) when odors are experienced as pulse trains. We therefore postulate that the olfactory system of Manduca sexta may have evolved mechanisms to enhance odor detection during flight, where the effects of wing beating represent the norm. This system may even exploit temporal structure in

  10. Octopamine Regulates Antennal Sensory Neurons via Daytime-Dependent Changes in cAMP and IP3 Levels in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Schendzielorz, Thomas; Schirmer, Katja; Stolte, Paul; Stengl, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic amine octopamine (OA) mediates reward signals in olfactory learning and memory as well as circadian rhythms of sleep and activity. In the crepuscular hawkmoth Manduca sexta, OA changed pheromone detection thresholds daytime-dependently, suggesting that OA confers circadian control of olfactory transduction. Thus, with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays we searched hawkmoth antennae for daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA and its respective second messengers. Antennal stimulation with OA raised cAMP- and IP3 levels. Furthermore, antennae expressed daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA, with maxima at Zeitgebertime (ZT) 20 when moths were active and also maximal concentrations of cAMP occurred. Maximal IP3 levels at ZT 18 and 23 correlated with maximal flight activity of male moths, while minimal IP3 levels at dusk correlated with peaks of feeding activity. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for activation of the OA-receptor decreased during the moth’s activity phase suggesting daytime-dependent changes in OA receptor sensitivity. With an antiserum against tyramine, the precursor of OA, two centrifugal neurons were detected projecting out into the sensory cell layer of the antenna, possibly mediating more rapid stimulus-dependent OA actions. Indeed, in fast kinetic assays OA receptor stimulation increased cAMP concentrations within 50 msec. Thus, we hypothesize that fast, stimulus-dependent centrifugal control of OA-release in the antenna occurs. Additional slow systemic OA actions might be based upon circadian release of OA into the hemolymph mediating circadian rhythms of antennal second messenger levels. The resulting rhythms of odor sensitivity are suggested to underlie circadian rhythms in odor-mediated behavior. PMID:25785721

  11. Carbohydrate analyses of Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N, co-purifying neutral lipids and their functional interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Azadi, P; Carlson, R; Adang, M J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac insecticidal toxin binds specifically to 120kDa aminopeptidase N (APN) (EC 3.4.11.2) in the epithelial brush border membrane of Manduca sexta midguts. The isolated 120-kDa APN is a member of a functional Cry1 toxin receptor complex (FEBS Lett. 412 (1997) 270). The 120-kDa form is glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored and converted to a 115-kDa form upon membrane solubilization. The 115-kDa APN also binds Cry1A toxins and Cry1Ac binding is inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). Here we determined the monosaccharide composition of APN. APN is 4.2mol% carbohydrate and contains GalNAc, a residue involved in Cry1Ac interaction. APN remained associated with non-covalently bound lipids through anion-exchange column purification. Most associated lipids were separated from APN by hydrophobic interaction chromatography yielding a lipid aggregate. Chemical analyses of the lipid aggregate separated from APN revealed neutral lipids consisting mostly of diacylglycerol and free fatty acids. The fatty acids were long, unsaturated chains ranging from C:14 to C:22. To test the effect of APN-associated lipids on Cry1Ac function, the lipid aggregate and 115-kDa APN were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. The lipid aggregate increased the amount of Cry1Ac binding, but binding due to the lipid aggregate was not saturable. In contrast the lipid aggregate promoted Cry1Ac-induced release of 86Rb(+) at the lowest Cry1Ac concentration (50nM) tested. The predominant neutral lipid component extracted from the lipid aggregate promoted Cry1Ac-induced 86Rb(+) release from membrane vesicles in the presence of APN.

  12. Domain III of the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac is involved in binding to Manduca sexta brush border membranes and to its purified aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    de Maagd, R A; Bakker, P L; Masson, L; Adang, M J; Sangadala, S; Stiekema, W; Bosch, D

    1999-01-01

    Three types of binding assays were used to study the binding of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac to brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) membranes and a purified putative receptor of the target insect Manduca sexta. Using hybrid proteins consisting of Cry1Ac and the related Cry1C protein, it was shown that domain III of Cry1Ac is involved in specificity of binding as observed by all three techniques. In ligand blotting experiments using SDS-PAGE-separated BBMV proteins as well as the purified putative receptor aminopeptidase N (APN), the presence of domain III of Cry1Ac in a hybrid with Cry1C was necessary and sufficient for specific binding to APN. Using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique with immobilized APN, it was shown that the presence of domain III of Cry1Ac in a hybrid is sufficient for binding to one of the two previously identified Cry1Ac binding sites, whereas the second site requires the full Cry1Ac toxin for binding. In addition, the role of domain III in the very specific inhibition of Cry1Ac binding by the amino sugar N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac) was determined. Both in ligand blotting and in surface plasmon resonance experiments, as well as in binding assays using intact BBMVs, it was shown that the presence of domain III of Cry1Ac in a toxin molecule is sufficient for the inhibition of binding by GalNAc. These and other results strongly suggest that domain III of delta-endotoxins play a role in insect specificity through their involvement in specific binding to insect gut epithelial receptors.

  13. Herbivory of wild Manduca sexta causes fast down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency in Datura wrightii: an early signaling cascade visualized by chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Rascher, Uwe; Bronstein, Judith L; Davidowitz, Goggy; Chaszar, Brian; Huxman, Travis E

    2012-09-01

    Plants experiencing herbivory suffer indirect costs beyond direct loss of leaf area, but differentially so based on the herbivore involved. We used a combination of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and gas exchange techniques to quantify photosynthetic performance, the efficiency of photochemistry, and heat dissipation to examine immediate and longer-term physiological responses in the desert perennial Datura wrightii to herbivory by tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Herbivory by colony-reared larvae yielded no significant reduction in carbon assimilation, whereas herbivory by wild larvae induced a fast and spreading down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, resulting in significant losses in carbon assimilation in eaten and uneaten leaves. We found both an 89 % reduction in net photosynthetic rates in herbivore-damaged leaves and a whole-plant response (79 % decrease in undamaged leaves from adjacent branches). Consequently, herbivory costs are higher than previously estimated in this well-studied plant-insect interaction. We used chlorophyll fluorescence imaging to elucidate the mechanisms of this down-regulation. Quantum yield decreased up to 70 % in a small concentric band surrounding the feeding area within minutes of the onset of herbivory. Non-photochemical energy dissipation by the plant to avoid permanent damage was elevated near the wound, and increased systematically in distant areas of the leaf away from the wound over subsequent hours. Together, the results underscore not only potential differences between colony-reared and wild-caught herbivores in experimental studies of herbivory but also the benefits of quantifying physiological responses of plants in unattacked leaves.

  14. Changes in the Plasma Proteome of Manduca sexta Larvae in Relation to the Transcriptome Variations after an Immune Challenge: Evidence for High Molecular Weight Immune Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Shuguang; Rogers, Janet; Hartson, Steve; Jiang, Haobo

    2016-04-01

    Manduca sextais a lepidopteran model widely used to study insect physiological processes, including innate immunity. In this study, we explored the proteomes of cell-free hemolymph from larvae injected with a sterile buffer (C for control) or a mixture of bacteria (I for induced). Of the 654 proteins identified, 70 showed 1.67 to >200-fold abundance increases after the immune challenge; 51 decreased to 0-60% of the control levels. While there was no strong parallel between plasma protein levels and their transcript levels in hemocytes or fat body, the mRNA level changes (i.e.I/C ratios of normalized read numbers) in the tissues concurred with their protein level changes (i.e.I/C ratios of normalized spectral counts) with correlation coefficients of 0.44 and 0.57, respectively. Better correlations support that fat body contributes a more significant portion of the plasma proteins involved in various aspects of innate immunity. Consistently, ratios of mRNA and protein levels were better correlated for immunity-related proteins than unrelated ones. There is a set of proteins whose apparent molecular masses differ considerably from the calculatedMr's, suggestive of posttranslational modifications. In addition, some lowMrproteins were detected in the range of 80 to >300 kDa on a reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel, indicating the existence of highMrcovalent complexes. We identified 30 serine proteases and their homologs, 11 of which are known members of an extracellular immune signaling network. Along with our quantitative transcriptome data, the protein identification, inducibility, and association provide leads toward a focused exploration of humoral immunity inM. sexta.

  15. Molecular Interactions between the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Its Natural Host Nicotiana attenuata. VII. Changes in the Plant's Proteome1[W

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Ashok P.; Wünsche, Hendrik; Mitra, Sirsha; Zavala, Jorge A.; Muck, Alexander; Svatoš, Aleš; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2006-01-01

    When Manduca sexta attacks Nicotiana attenuata, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the larvae's oral secretions (OS) are introduced into feeding wounds. These FACs trigger a transcriptional response that is similar to the response induced by insect damage. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we characterized the proteins in phenolic extracts and in a nuclear fraction of leaves elicited by larval attack, and/or in leaves wounded and treated with OS, FAC-free OS, and synthetic FACs. Phenolic extracts yielded approximately 600 protein spots, many of which were altered by elicitation, whereas nuclear protein fractions yielded approximately 100 spots, most of which were unchanged by elicitation. Reproducible elicitor-induced changes in 90 spots were characterized. In general, proteins that increased were involved in primary metabolism, defense, and transcriptional and translational regulation; those that decreased were involved in photosynthesis. Like the transcriptional defense responses, proteomic changes were strongly elicited by the FACs in OS. A semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR approach based on peptide sequences was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation patterns for 17 candidate proteins. In six cases the patterns of elicited transcript accumulation were consistent with those of elicited protein accumulation. Functional analysis of one of the identified proteins involved in photosynthesis, RuBPCase activase, was accomplished by virus-induced gene silencing. Plants with decreased levels of RuBPCase activase protein had reduced photosynthetic rates and RuBPCase activity, and less biomass, responses consistent with those of herbivore-attacked plants. We conclude that the response of the plant's proteome to herbivore elicitation is complex, and integrated transcriptome-proteome-metabolome analysis is required to fully

  16. Subunit positioning and stator filament stiffness in regulation and power transmission in the V1 motor of the Manduca sexta V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Muench, Stephen P; Scheres, Sjors H W; Huss, Markus; Phillips, Clair; Vitavska, Olga; Wieczorek, Helmut; Trinick, John; Harrison, Michael A

    2014-01-23

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-driven proton pump essential to the function of eukaryotic cells. Its cytoplasmic V1 domain is an ATPase, normally coupled to membrane-bound proton pump Vo via a rotary mechanism. How these asymmetric motors are coupled remains poorly understood. Low energy status can trigger release of V1 from the membrane and curtail ATP hydrolysis. To investigate the molecular basis for these processes, we have carried out cryo-electron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of deactivated V1 from Manduca sexta. In the resulting model, three peripheral stalks that are parts of the mechanical stator of the V-ATPase are clearly resolved as unsupported filaments in the same conformations as in the holoenzyme. They are likely therefore to have inherent stiffness consistent with a role as flexible rods in buffering elastic power transmission between the domains of the V-ATPase. Inactivated V1 adopted a homogeneous resting state with one open active site adjacent to the stator filament normally linked to the H subunit. Although present at 1:1 stoichiometry with V1, both recombinant subunit C reconstituted with V1 and its endogenous subunit H were poorly resolved in three-dimensional reconstructions, suggesting structural heterogeneity in the region at the base of V1 that could indicate positional variability. If the position of H can vary, existing mechanistic models of deactivation in which it binds to and locks the axle of the V-ATPase rotary motor would need to be re-evaluated.

  17. Effect of nitrogen and water treatment on leaf chemistry in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), and relationship to herbivory by flea beetles (Epitrix spp.) and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Martin L; Paulk, Eric; Cipollini, Donald F

    2002-12-01

    We studied the interaction between plants (horsenettle; Solanum carolinense) and herbivorous insects (flea beetles; Epitrix spp., and tobacco hornworm; Manduca sexta) by focusing on three questions: (1) Does variation in nitrogen availability affect leaf chemistry as predicted by the carbon-nutrient balance (CNB) hypothesis? (2) Does variation in plant treatment and leaf chemistry affect insect feeding? (3) Is there an interaction between the insect herbivores that is mediated by variation in leaf chemistry? For three successive years (1998-2001), we grew a set of clones of 10 maternal plants under two nitrogen treatments and two water treatments. For each plant in the summer of 2000, we assayed herbivory by hornworms in both indoor (detached leaf) and outdoor (attached leaf) assays, as well as ambient flea beetle damage. Estimates of leaf material consumed were made via analysis of digitized leaf images. We also assayed leaves for total protein, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content, and for trypsin inhibitor, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity. Despite strong effects of nitrogen treatment on growth and reproduction, only total protein responded as predicted by CNB. Leaf phenolic levels were increased by nitrogen treatment, polyphenol oxidase activity was decreased, and other leaf parameters were unaffected. Neither hornworm nor flea beetle herbivory could be related to plant treatment or genotype or to variation in any of the six leaf chemical parameters. A negative relationship between flea beetle and hornworm herbivory was found, but was not apparently mediated by any of the measured leaf chemicals. Because leaf resistance was maintained in low nitrogen plants at the apparent expense of growth and reproduction, our results support the concept of a fitness cost of defense, as predicted by the optimal defense hypothesis.

  18. Effects of Midgut-Protein-Preparative and Ligand Binding Procedures on the Toxin Binding Characteristics of BT-R1, a Common High-Affinity Receptor in Manduca sexta for Cry1A Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, Timothy P.; Francis, Brian R.; Maaty, Walid S. A.; Bulla, Lee A.

    1998-01-01

    The identity of the physiologically important Cry1A receptor protein(s) in the lepidopteran Manduca sexta has been a matter of dispute due to the multiple proteins which bind the Cry1Ac toxin. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac exhibit essentially identical toxicities toward M. sexta larvae and show a high degree of sequence and presumed structural identities. These similarities make it likely that there is a common mechanism of toxicity in these lepidopteran-specific toxins in terms of both mode of action and the receptor proteins through which these toxins exert their lepidopteran-specific toxicity. Investigators in our laboratory previously demonstrated that the cloned 210-kDa glycoprotein BT-R1 binds all three Cry1A toxins (T. P. Keeton and L. A. Bulla, Jr., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:3419–3425, 1997). This protein remains a common binding protein even after being subjected to various midgut membrane preparation and processing protocols. The method used to isolate proteins from the M. sexta larval midgut in no significant way affects the results of ligand binding and vacuum blotting experiments, and we have been unable to detect specific, high-affinity binding of any Cry1A toxin to Cry1Ac binding proteins other than BT-R1. Alterations in blot substrate and blocking, hybridization, and washing buffers support these conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate that in M. sexta the cadherin-like BT-R1 protein is a common high-affinity receptor protein for the Cry1A family of toxins. PMID:9603829

  19. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  20. Alternative Oxidase in Resistance to Biotic Stresses: Nicotiana attenuata AOX Contributes to Resistance to a Pathogen and a Piercing-Sucking Insect But Not Manduca sexta Larvae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Oh, Youngjoo; Li, Hongyu; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The role of the alternative respiratory pathway in the protection of plants against biotic stress was examined in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) plants (irAOX) silenced in the expression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE (AOX) gene. Wild-type and irAOX plants were independently challenged with (1) chewing herbivores (Manduca sexta), (2) piercing-sucking insects (Empoasca spp.), and (3) bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000), showing that all these treatments can strongly elicit accumulation of AOX gene transcripts in wild-type plants. When N. attenuata chemical defenses and resistance were examined, irAOX plants showed wild-type levels of defense-related phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and resistance to M. sexta. In contrast, piercing-sucking leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) caused more leaf damage and induced significantly higher salicylic acid levels in irAOX compared with wild-type plants in the field and/or glasshouse. Subsequently, irAOX plants accumulated lower levels of defense metabolites, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, caffeoylputrescine, and nicotine compared with wild-type plants under prolonged attack of Empoasca spp. in the glasshouse. Finally, an accelerated cell death phenotype was observed in irAOX plants infected with P. syringae, which correlated with higher levels of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels in pathogen-infected irAOX compared with wild-type leaves. Overall, the AOX-associated changes in phytohormone and/or redox levels appear to support the resistance of N. attenuata plants against cell piercing-sucking insects and modulate the progression of cell death in pathogen-infected tissues but are not effective against rapidly feeding specialist herbivore M. sexta. PMID:22961128

  1. Molecular Interactions between the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Its Natural Host Nicotiana attenuata: V. Microarray Analysis and Further Characterization of Large-Scale Changes in Herbivore-Induced mRNAs1

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Dequan; Iqbal, Javeed; Lehmann, Katja; Gase, Klaus; Saluz, Hans Peter; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2003-01-01

    We extend our analysis of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs when the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is attacked by Manduca sexta larvae by cloning 115 transcripts by mRNA differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subtractive hybridization using magnetic beads (SHMB) from the M. sexta-responsive transcriptome. These transcripts were spotted as cDNA with eight others, previously confirmed to be differentially regulated by northern analysis on glass slide microarrays, and hybridized with Cy3- and Cy5-labeled probes derived from plants after 2, 6, 12, and 24 h of continuous attack. Microarray analysis proved to be a powerful means of verifying differential expression; 73 of the cloned genes (63%) were differentially regulated (in equal proportions from differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and SHMB procedures), and of these, 24 (32%) had similarity to known genes or putative proteins (more from SHMB). The analysis provided insights into the signaling and transcriptional basis of direct and indirect defenses used against herbivores, suggesting simultaneous activation of salicylic acid-, ethylene-, cytokinin-, WRKY-, MYB-, and oxylipin-signaling pathways and implicating terpenoid-, pathogen-, and cell wall-related transcripts in defense responses. These defense responses require resources that could be made available by decreases in four photosynthetic-related transcripts, increases in transcripts associated with protein and nucleotide turnover, and increases in transcripts associated with carbohydrate metabolism. This putative up-regulation of defense-associated and down-regulation of growth-associated transcripts occur against a backdrop of altered transcripts for RNA-binding proteins, putative ATP/ADP translocators, chaperonins, histones, and water channel proteins, responses consistent with a major metabolic reconfiguration that underscores the complexity of response to herbivore attack

  2. Cry1A toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis bind specifically to a region adjacent to the membrane-proximal extracellular domain of BT-R(1) in Manduca sexta: involvement of a cadherin in the entomopathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, J A; Candas, M; Griko, N B; Maaty, W S A; Midboe, E G; Vadlamudi, R K; Bulla, L A

    2002-09-01

    Many subspecies of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce various parasporal crystal proteins, also known as Cry toxins, that exhibit insecticidal activity upon binding to specific receptors in the midgut of susceptible insects. One such receptor, BT-R(1) (210 kDa), is a cadherin located in the midgut epithelium of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. It has a high binding affinity (K(d) approximately 1nM) for the Cry1A toxins of B. thuringiensis. Truncation analysis of BT-R(1) revealed that the only fragment capable of binding the Cry1A toxins of B. thuringiensis was a contiguous 169-amino acid sequence adjacent to the membrane-proximal extracellular domain. The purified toxin-binding fragment acted as an antagonist to Cry1Ab toxin by blocking the binding of toxin to the tobacco hornworm midgut and inhibiting insecticidal action. Exogenous Cry1Ab toxin bound to intact COS-7 cells expressing BT-R(1) cDNA, subsequently killing the cells. Recruitment of BT-R(1) by B. thuringiensis indicates that the bacterium interacts with a specific cell adhesion molecule during its pathogenesis. Apparently, Cry toxins, like other bacterial toxins, attack epithelial barriers by targeting cell adhesion molecules within susceptible insect hosts.

  3. Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic tobacco plants under the control of a wound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to control Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gulbitti-Onarici, Selma; Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Taga, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-07-01

    Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated under the control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis in transgenic tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanically wounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanical wounding of transgenic plants was effective in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during 6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobacco plants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves were either fed directly to the insect larvae or they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection of mechanically wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of the bioassay.

  4. Molecular Interactions between the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Its Natural Host Nicotiana attenuata. I. Large-Scale Changes in the Accumulation of Growth- and Defense-Related Plant mRNAs1

    PubMed Central

    Hermsmeier, Dieter; Schittko, Ursula; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2001-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack with a dramatic functional reorganization that involves the activation of direct and indirect defenses and tolerance, which in turn make large demands on primary metabolism. Here we provide the first characterization of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs after insect attack in a model plant-herbivore system: Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats.-Manduca sexta. We used mRNA differential display to characterize one-twentieth of the insect-responsive transcriptome of N. attenuata and verified differential expression for 27 cDNAs. Northern analyses were used to study the effects of folivory and exposure to airborne methyl jasmonate and for kinetic analyses throughout a 16-h- light/8-h-dark cycle. Sequence similarity searches allowed putative functions to be assigned to 15 transcripts. Genes were related to photosynthesis, electron transport, cytoskeleton, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, signaling, and a group responding to stress, wounding, or invasion of pathogens. Overall, transcripts involved in photosynthesis were strongly down-regulated, whereas those responding to stress, wounding, and pathogens and involved in shifting carbon and nitrogen to defense were strongly up-regulated. The majority of transcripts responded similarly to airborne methyl jasmonate and folivory, and had tissue- and diurnal-specific patterns of expression. Transcripts encoding Thr deaminase (TD) and a putative retrotransposon were absent in control plants, but were strongly induced after herbivory. Full-length sequences were obtained for TD and the pathogen-inducible α-dioxygenase, PIOX. Effects of abiotic and biotic stimuli were investigated for transcripts encoding TD, importin α, PIOX, and a GAL83-like kinase cofactor. PMID:11161026

  5. A Structural Dynamic Analysis of a Manduca Sexta Forewing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    of spanwise distance. ...................................................................11 7. (a) Freshly liberated dragonfly wing; (b) painted wing...gh, w ith no a pparent e nd i n s ight. World a ir fo rces o f a ll s izes, p rivate corporations, a nd e ven terrorist gr oups c urrently operate U...in vacuo photonic frequency analysis of a dragonfly wing [9]. Fortunately, a pplying c lassic s tructural d ynamics t heory s erves t o s ettle s

  6. Hematopoietic organs of Manduca sexta and hemocyte lineages.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Pilas, Barbara; Ujhelyi, Elizabeth; Garsha, Karl; Kanost, Michael R

    2003-10-01

    Cells of the moth immune system are derived from organs that loosely envelop the four wing imaginal discs. The immune response in these insects is believed to depend on the activities of two main classes of hemocytes: plasmatocytes and granular cells. The fates of cells that arise from these hematopoietic organs have been followed by immunolabeling with plasmatocyte-specific and granular-cell-specific antibodies. Cells within each hematopoietic organ differ in their coherence and in their expression of two plasmatocyte-specific surface proteins, integrin and neuroglian. Within an organ there is no overlap in the expression of these two surface proteins; neuroglian is found on the surfaces of the coherent cells while integrin is expressed on cells that are losing coherence, rounding up, and dispersing. A granular-cell-specific marker for the protein lacunin labels the basal lamina that delimits each organ but only a small number of granular cells that lie on or near the periphery of the hematopoietic organ. When organs are cultured in the absence of hemolymph, all cells derived from hematopoietic organs turn out to immunolabel with the plasmatocyte-specific antibody MS13. The circulating plasmatocytes derived from hematopoietic organs have higher ploidy levels than the granular cells and represent a separate lineage of hemocytes.

  7. PTX-induced hyperexcitability affects dendritic shape and GABAergic synapse density but not synapse distribution during Manduca postembryonic motoneuron development.

    PubMed

    Meseke, Maurice; Evers, Jan Felix; Duch, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    During the metamorphosis of the holometabolous insect, Manduca sexta, the postembryonic acquisition of adult specific motor behaviors is accompanied by changes in dendritic architecture, membrane currents, and input synapses of identified motoneurons. This study aims to test whether increased activity affects dendritic architecture and sub-dendritic input synapse distribution of the identified flight motoneuron 5 (MN5). Systemic injections of the chloride channel blocker, picrotoxin (PTX), during early pupal stages increase pupal reflex responsiveness, but overall development is not impaired. MN5 input resistance, resting membrane potential, and spiking threshold are not affected. Bath application of PTX to isolated ventral nerve cords evokes spiking in pupal and adult flight motoneurons. Quantitative three-dimensional reconstructions of the dendritic tree of the adult MN5 show that systemic PTX injections into early pupae cause dendritic overgrowth and reduce the density of GABAergic inputs. In contrast, the distribution patterns of GABAergic terminals throughout the dendritic tree remain unaltered. This indicates that increased overall excitability might cause dendritic overgrowth and decreased inhibitory input during postembryonic motoneuron remodeling, whereas sub-dendritic synapse targeting might be controlled by activity-independent signals. Behavioral testing reveals that these neuronal changes do not impede the animal's ability to fly, but impair maximum flight performance.

  8. Gut Bacteria Are Not Required for the Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis toward the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Paul R.; Crickmore, Neil

    2009-01-01

    It was recently proposed that gut bacteria are required for the insecticidal activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticide, DiPel, toward the lepidopterans Manduca sexta, Pieris rapae, Vanessa cardui, and Lymantria dispar. Using a similar methodology, it was found that gut bacteria were not required for the toxicity of DiPel or Cry1Ac or for the synergism of an otherwise sublethal concentration of Cry1Ac toward M. sexta. The toxicities of DiPel and of B. thuringiensis HD73 Cry− spore/Cry1Ac synergism were attenuated by continuously exposing larvae to antibiotics before bioassays. Attenuation could be eliminated by exposing larvae to antibiotics only during the first instar without altering larval sterility. Prior antibiotic exposure did not attenuate Cry1Ac toxicity. The presence of enterococci in larval guts slowed mortality resulting from DiPel exposure and halved Cry1Ac toxicity but had little effect on B. thuringiensis HD73 Cry− spore/Cry1Ac synergism. B. thuringiensis Cry− cells killed larvae after intrahemocoelic inoculation of M. sexta, Galleria mellonella, and Spodoptera litura and grew rapidly in plasma from M. sexta, S. litura, and Tenebrio molitor. These findings suggest that gut bacteria are not required for B. thuringiensis insecticidal activity toward M. sexta but that B. thuringiensis lethality is reduced in larvae that are continuously exposed to antibiotics before bioassay. PMID:19525273

  9. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  10. Evaluation of the Thorax of Manduca Sexta for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Harvard 2012). Wright State University over the past few years has developed several FWMAVs bio-inspired insects such as the dragonfly , butterfly...when the wings are flapping instead of fixed. This MAV resembled a dragonfly in nature and was able to carry its own power source, a camera, and a...Presentation. Jenikova, Zdenka. Nikon Small World Gallery. 2005. http://www.nikonsmallworld.com/gallery/year/2005/53 (accessed 2012). Jensen, M., and T. Weis

  11. Evaluation of the Thorax of Manduca sexta for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    bio-inspired FWMAV technology: (A) Wright State’s dragonfly (WSU 2011), (B) Harvard’s monolithic bee (Harvard 2012), (C) AeroVironment’s hummingbird...subsystems are secondarily fitted inside a predetermined airframe, is not currently viable in the emerging and complex world of MAVs. These...insect species, such as dragonflies , butterflies or 1 Eclosion is the act of emerging

  12. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms ( Manduca sexta larvae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B.; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  13. Structure-activity relationship of ETH during ecdysis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Wells, Cornell; Aparicio, Katherine; Salmon, Arthur; Zadel, Ari; Fuse, Megumi

    2006-04-01

    In insects, ecdysis or shedding of the old cuticle, consists of a series of behaviors that are regulated by the coordinated actions of a number of neuropeptides, one of which is ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH). ETH acts directly on central pattern generators of the abdominal ganglia to trigger onset of pre-ecdysis behaviors, as well as indirectly to activate release of eclosion hormone, thereby inducing onset of ecdysis behaviors through a cGMP-mediated mechanism. We assessed the minimal C-terminal amino acids required for biological activity of ETH, by assessing: (i) onset of pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors in vivo, after injection of peptide analogs, (ii) onset of fictive pre-ecdysis and ecdysis motor patterns in vitro, as recorded extracellularly, after incubation of the CNS with the peptide analogs, and (iii) accumulation of cGMP within cells of the abdominal ganglia, as assessed immunohistochemically. Amidation of ETH at the C-terminus was required to elicit a biological response in vivo and in vitro, as well as an accumulation of cGMP within the CNS. The five amino acid amidated C-terminus of ETH (NIPRMamide) was the minimal moiety able to induce a robust pre-ecdysis response in vivo and in vitro, while a seven amino acid core (NKNIPRMa) was required for induction of ecdysis, including accumulation of cGMP immunoreactivity within the CNS. Analogs smaller than 12 amino acids in length were only active at very high concentrations in vivo, suggesting that smaller fragments might be susceptible to hemolymph degradation. Some alanine substitutions or removal of internal amino acids altered the activity of ETH, as well as the time of onset of ecdysis behaviors, suggesting that internal amino acids play a role in maintaining proper folding of the peptide for successful binding or activity at the ETH receptor.

  14. Manduca Contactin Regulates Amyloid Precursor Protein-Dependent Neuronal Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Jenna M.; Swanson, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) was originally identified as the source of β-amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also has been implicated in the control of multiple aspects of neuronal motility. APP belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of transmembrane proteins that can interact with a variety of adapter and signaling molecules. Recently, we showed that both APP and its insect ortholog [APPL (APP-Like)] directly bind the heterotrimeric G-protein Goα, supporting the model that APP can function as an unconventional Goα-coupled receptor. We also adapted a well characterized assay of neuronal migration in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to show that APPL–Goα signaling restricts ectopic growth within the developing nervous system, analogous to the role postulated for APP family proteins in controlling migration within the mammalian cortex. Using this assay, we have now identified Manduca Contactin (MsContactin) as an endogenous ligand for APPL, consistent with previous work showing that Contactins interact with APP family proteins in other systems. Using antisense-based knockdown protocols and fusion proteins targeting both proteins, we have shown that MsContactin is selectively expressed by glial cells that ensheath the migratory neurons (expressing APPL), and that MsContactin–APPL interactions normally prevent inappropriate migration and outgrowth. These results provide new evidence that Contactins can function as authentic ligands for APP family proteins that regulate APP-dependent responses in the developing nervous system. They also support the model that misregulated Contactin–APP interactions might provoke aberrant activation of Goα and its effectors, thereby contributing to the neurodegenerative sequelae that typify AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family participate in many aspects of neuronal development, but the ligands that normally activate APP signaling have remained

  15. Directory of Adult Education Periodicals. Sixth Revised Edition = Repertoire des Periodiques sur l'Education des Adultes. Sixieme Edition Revisee = Repertorio de Periodicos sobre Educacion de Adultos. Sexta Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Literacy, Adult Education and Rural Development.

    This directory lists approximately 175 adult education periodicals published in Africa, Arab states, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, and other international areas. Within each category, periodicals are further divided into the individual countries in which they are published. Each entry may provide…

  16. Manufacturing and Evaluation of a Biologically Inspired Engineered MAV Wing Compared to the Manduca Sexta Wing Under Simulated Flapping Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    removed hair follicles - a process performed by carefully blowing compressed air at 85 (a) Anesthetized Hawkmoth (b) Removal of Thoracic Follicles Figure...and tested under simplified flapping conditions by analyzing ‘frozen’ digital images of the de- formed wing by methods of photogrammetry. This...Angular Velocities of the Flappers . . . . . 45 2.7. Comparison of the Angular Accelerations of the Flappers . . . 46 2.8. Regression Test of the

  17. Dynamic properties of a locomotory muscle of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta during strain cycling and simulated natural crawling.

    PubMed

    Woods, William A; Fusillo, Steven J; Trimmer, Barry A

    2008-03-01

    Caterpillars are soft-bodied terrestrial climbers that perform a wide variety of complex movements with several hundred muscles and a relatively small number of neurons. Control of movements is therefore expected to place unusual demands on the mechanical properties of the muscles. The muscles develop force slowly (1-6 s to peak) yet over a strain range extending from under 60% to more than 160% of resting length, with a length-tension relationship resembling that of supercontracting or cross-striated muscle. In passive and active sinusoidal strain cycling, muscles displayed viscoelastic qualities, with very low and stretch-velocity dependent resilience; there was a positive linear relationship between stretch velocity and the fraction of work dissipation attributable to passive muscle properties (20-80%). In linear stretches of unstimulated muscles at velocities bracketing those encountered in natural crawling, the rise in tension showed a distinct transition to a lower rate of increase, with transition tension dependent upon stretch velocity; peak force was exponentially related to stretch velocity. When stretching ceased, force decayed exponentially, with slower decay associated with lower stretch velocities; the decay time constant was exponentially related to stretch velocity. From the kinematics of caterpillars crawling horizontally we determined that the ventral interior lateral muscle (VIL) of the third abdominal segment (A3) is at or near resting length for most of the crawl cycle, with a fairly linear shortening by 25-30% and re-lengthening occupying about 45% of cycle duration. Synchronized kinematic and EMG recordings showed that during horizontal crawling A3 VIL is stimulated as the muscle shortens from about 95% to 75% of its resting length. We subjected in vitro VIL preparations to strain cycling and stimulus phase and duration similar to that of natural crawling. The resulting work loops were figure-eight shaped, with the muscle performing work during the shortest 45-65% of the strain cycle but dissipating work during the rest of the cycle. The muscle remained in the ascending limb of its length-tension relationship throughout the crawl cycle. Peak force occurred at the end of re-lengthening, nearly a full second after stimulation ceased, underscoring the importance of understanding passive muscle properties to explain caterpillar locomotion. Whether A3 VIL functions as an actuator at all during simulated natural strain cycling is highly sensitive to stimulus timing but far less so to stimulus duration. The muscle's elastomer-like properties appear to play a major role in its function.

  18. Hovering and forward flight of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: trim search and 6-DOF dynamic stability characterization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jong-Seob; Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2015-09-28

    We show that the forward flight speed affects the stability characteristics of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a flying hawkmoth; dynamic modal structures of both the planes of motion are altered due to variations in the stability derivatives. The forward flight speed u e is changed from 0.00 to 1.00 m s(-1) with an increment of 0.25 m s(-1). (The equivalent advance ratio is 0.00 to 0.38; the advance ratio is the ratio of the forward flight speed to the average wing tip speed.) As the flight speed increases, for the longitudinal dynamics, an unstable oscillatory mode becomes more unstable. Also, we show that the up/down (w(b)) dynamics become more significant at a faster flight speed due to the prominent increase in the stability derivative Z(u) (up/down force due to the forward/backward velocity). For the lateral dynamics, the decrease in the stability derivative L(v) (roll moment due to side slip velocity) at a faster flight speed affects a slightly damped stable oscillatory mode, causing it to become more stable; however, the t(half) (the time taken to reach half the amplitude) of this slightly damped stable oscillatory mode remains relatively long (∼12T at u(e) = 1 m s(-1); T is wingbeat period) compared to the other modes of motion, meaning that this mode represents the most vulnerable dynamics among the lateral dynamics at all flight speeds. To obtain the stability derivatives, trim conditions for linearization are numerically searched to find the exact trim trajectory and wing kinematics using an algorithm that uses the gradient information of a control effectiveness matrix and fully coupled six-degrees of freedom nonlinear multibody equations of motion. With this algorithm, trim conditions that consider the coupling between the dynamics and aerodynamics can be obtained. The body and wing morphology, and the wing kinematics used in this study are based on actual measurement data from the relevant literature. The aerodynamic model of the flapping wings of a hawkmoth is based on the blade element theory, and the necessary aerodynamic coefficients, including the lift, drag and wing pitching moment, are experimentally obtained from the results of previous work by the authors.

  19. The mechanics of flight in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. II. Aerodynamic consequences of kinematic and morphological variation.

    PubMed

    Willmott, A P; Ellington, C P

    1997-11-01

    Mean lift coefficients have been calculated for hawkmoth flight at a range of speeds in order to investigate the aerodynamic significance of the kinematic variation which accompanies changes in forward velocity. The coefficients exceed the maximum steady-state value of 0.71 at all except the very fastest speeds, peaking at 2.0 or greater between 1 and 2 ms-1. Unsteady high-lift mechanisms are therefore most important during hovering and slow forward flight. In combination with the wingtip paths relative to the surrounding air, the calculated mean lift coefficients illustrate how the relative contributions of the two halfstrokes to the force balance change with increasing forward speed. Angle of incidence data for fast forward flight suggest that the sense of the circulation is not reversed between the down- and upstrokes, indicating a flight mode qualitatively different from that proposed for lower-speed flight in the hawkmoth and other insects. The mid-downstroke angle of incidence is constant at 30-40 degrees across the speed range. The relationship between power requirements and flight speed is explored; above 5 ms-1, further increases in forward velocity are likely to be constrained by available mechanical power, although problems with thrust generation and flight stability may also be involved. Hawkmoth wing and body morphology, and the differences between males and females, are evaluated in aerodynamic terms. Steady-state force measurements show that the hawkmoth body is amongst the most streamlined for any insect.

  20. The glial investment of the adult and developing antennal lobe of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Oland, Lynne A.; Biebelhausen, John P.; Tolbert, Leslie P.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the Drosophila olfactory system, with its unparalleled opportunities for genetic dissection of development and functional organization, has been used to study the development of central olfactory neurons and the molecular basis of olfactory coding. The results of these studies have been interpreted in the absence of a detailed understanding of the steps in maturation of glial cells in the antennal lobe. Here, we present a high-resolution study of the glia associated with olfactory glomeruli in adult and developing antennal lobes. The study provides a basis for comparison of findings in Drosophila with those in the moth Manduca sexta that indicate a critical role for glia in antennal lobe development. Using flies expressing GFP under a Nervana2 driver to visualize glia for confocal microscopy, and probing at higher resolution with the electron microscope, we find that glial development in Drosophila differs markedly from that in moths: glial cell bodies remain in a rind around the glomerular neuropil; glial processes ensheathe axon bundles in the nerve layer but likely contribute little to axonal sorting; their processes insinuate between glomeruli only very late and then form only a sparse, open network around each glomerulus; and glial processes invade the synaptic neuropil. Taking our results in the context of previous studies, we conclude that glial cells in the developing Drosophila antennal lobe are unlikely to play a strong role in either axonal sorting or glomerulus stabilization and that in the adult, glial processes do not electrically isolate glomeruli from their neighbors. PMID:18537134

  1. Function of Phe-259 and Thr-314 within the Substrate Binding Pocket of the Juvenile Hormone Esterase of Manduca sexta†

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Wogulis, Mark D.; Law, Christopher S.; Morisseau, Christophe; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Huang, Huazhang; Wilson, David K.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect developmental hormone that is found at low nanomolar levels in larval insects. The methyl ester of JH is hydrolyzed in many insects by an esterase that shows high specificity for JH. We have previously determined a crystal structure of the JH esterase (JHE) of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (MsJHE) [Wogulis, M., Wheelock, C. E., Kamita, S. G., Hinton, A. C., Whetstone, P. A., Hammock, B. D., and Wilson, D. K. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 4045-4057]. Our molecular modeling indicates that JH fits very tightly within the substrate binding pocket of MsJHE. This tight fit places two non-catalytic amino acid residues, Phe-259 and Thr-314, within the appropriate distance and geometry to potentially interact with the α,β-unsaturated ester and epoxide, respectively, of JH. These residues are highly conserved in numerous biologically active JHEs. Kinetic analyses of mutants of Phe-259 or Thr-314 indicate that these residues contribute to the low KM that MsJHE shows for JH. This low KM, however, comes at the cost of reduced substrate turnover. Neither nucleophilic attack of the resonance stabilized ester by the catalytic serine nor the availability of a water molecule for attack of the acyl-enzyme intermediate appear to be a rate-determining step in the hydrolysis of JH by MsJHE. We hypothesize that the release of the JH acid metabolite from the substrate binding pocket limits the catalytic cycle. Our findings also demonstrate that chemical bond strength does not necessarily correlate with how reactive the bond will be to metabolism. PMID:20307057

  2. The Characterization of Material Properties and Structural Dynamics of the Manduca Sexta Forewing for Application to Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    10 6 Hawkmoth Wing Kinematics [105] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7 Flexular Wing Stiffness of Various Insect ...36 25 First Flight of an Insect Sized FWMAV [108] . . . . . . . . . . 37 xi Figure Page 26 Hybrid PZT Flapping Mechanism [107...2.1.1 Wing Morphology. Insect wings are formed from a complex makeup of polymer based chains, Chitin, that form the Cuticle, which provides the strong

  3. The Morphological Characterization of the Forewing of the Manduca sexta Species for the Application of Biomimetic Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    features [15]. The application of nanoindentation has been performed to determine the mechanical properties of the membranes of cicadas [19] and the...F, Lee K L, Soh A K, Zhu F and Bai Y L 2004 Experimental studies of the material properties of the forewing of cicada J. Exp. Biol. 207 3035–42 [20

  4. Analysis of chitin-binding proteins from Manduca sexta provides new insights into evolution of peritrophin A-type chitin-binding domains in insects.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Dittmer, Neal T; Cao, Xiaolong; Agrawal, Sinu; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Haobo, Jiang; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    In insects, chitin is a major structural component of the cuticle and the peritrophic membrane (PM). In nature, chitin is always associated with proteins among which chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) are the most important for forming, maintaining and regulating the functions of these extracellular structures. In this study, a genome-wide search for genes encoding proteins with ChtBD2-type (peritrophin A-type) chitin-binding domains (CBDs) was conducted. A total of 53 genes encoding 56 CBPs were identified, including 15 CPAP1s (cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophins with 1 CBD), 11 CPAP3s (CPAPs with 3 CBDs) and 17 PMPs (PM proteins) with a variable number of CBDs, which are structural components of cuticle or of the PM. CBDs were also identified in enzymes of chitin metabolism including 6 chitinases and 7 chitin deacetylases encoded by 6 and 5 genes, respectively. RNA-seq analysis confirmed that PMP and CPAP genes have differential spatial expression patterns. The expression of PMP genes is midgut-specific, while CPAP genes are widely expressed in different cuticle forming tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of CBDs of proteins in insects belonging to different orders revealed that CPAP1s from different species constitute a separate family with 16 different groups, including 6 new groups identified in this study. The CPAP3s are clustered into a separate family of 7 groups present in all insect orders. Altogether, they reveal that duplication events of CBDs in CPAP1s and CPAP3s occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of insect species. In contrast to the CPAPs, all CBDs from individual PMPs are generally clustered and distinct from other PMPs in the same species in phylogenetic analyses, indicating that the duplication of CBDs in each of these PMPs occurred after divergence of insect species. Phylogenetic analysis of these three CBP families showed that the CBDs in CPAP1s form a clearly separate family, while those found in PMPs and CPAP3s were clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. For chitinases and chitin deacetylases, most of phylogenetic analysis performed with the CBD sequences resulted in similar clustering to the one obtained by using catalytic domain sequences alone, suggesting that CBDs were incorporated into these enzymes and evolved in tandem with the catalytic domains before the diversification of different insect orders. Based on these results, the evolution of CBDs in insect CBPs is discussed to provide a new insight into the CBD sequence structure and diversity, and their evolution and expression in insects.

  5. Cellular oxidative damage is more sensitive to biosynthetic rate than to metabolic rate: A test of the theoretical model on hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Amunugama, Kaushalya; Jiao, Lihong; Olbricht, Gayla R; Walker, Chance; Huang, Yue-Wern; Nam, Paul K; Hou, Chen

    2016-09-01

    We develop a theoretical model from an energetic viewpoint for unraveling the entangled effects of metabolic and biosynthetic rates on oxidative cellular damage accumulation during animal's growth, and test the model by experiments in hornworms. The theoretical consideration suggests that most of the cellular damages caused by the oxidative metabolism can be repaired by the efficient maintenance mechanisms, if the energy required by repair is unlimited. However, during growth a considerable amount of energy is allocated to the biosynthesis, which entails tradeoffs with the requirements of repair. Thus, the model predicts that cellular damage is more influenced by the biosynthetic rate than the metabolic rate. To test the prediction, we induced broad variations in metabolic and biosynthetic rates in hornworms, and assayed the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. We found that the increase in the cellular damage was mainly caused by the increase in biosynthetic rate, and the variations in metabolic rate had negligible effect. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging suggests that high metabolism leads to high cellular damage and short lifespan. However, some empirical studies showed that varying biosynthetic rate, rather than metabolic rate, changes animal's lifespan. The conflicts between the empirical evidence and the hypothesis are reconciled by this study.

  6. Aerodynamic Performance and Particle Image Velocimetery of Piezo Actuated Biomimetic Manduca Sexta Engineered Wings Towards the Design and Application of a Flapping Wing Flight Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    9 Nd:YAG Neodymium -doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 NI National Instruments...tests was a Dantec Dynamics all-in-one PIV and data processing system. The PIV system laser is a New Wave Research, Solo 200XT, model 25270, Neodymium ...doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) (Nd : Y3Al5O12) laser. An overview of how the laser functions is a dopant, triply ionized neodymium , Nd(III

  7. The Characterization of Material Properties and Structural Dynamics of the Manduca Sexta Forewing for Application to Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Ryan P.

    Collateral damage presents a significant risk during air drops and airstrikes, risking citizens' lives and property, straining the relationship between the United States Air Force and host nations. This dissertation presents a methodology to determine the optimal location for making supply airdrops in order to minimize collateral damage while maintaining a high likelihood of successful recovery. A series of non-linear optimization algorithms are presented along with their relative success in finding the optimal location in the airdrop problem. Additionally, we present a quick algorithm for accurately creating the Pareto frontier in the multi-objective airstrike problem. We demonstrate the effect of differing guidelines, damage functions, and weapon employment selection which significantly alter the location of the optimal aimpoint in this targeting problem. Finally, we have provided a framework for making policy decisions in fast-moving troops-in-contact situations where observers are unsure of the nature of possible enemy forces in both finite and infinite time horizon problems. Through a recursive technique of solving this Markov decision process we have demonstrated the effect of improved intelligence and differing weights in the face of uncertain situations.

  8. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  9. Reverse signaling via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked ephrin prevents midline crossing by migratory neurons during embryonic development in Manduca.

    PubMed

    Coate, Thomas M; Wirz, Jacqueline A; Copenhaver, Philip F

    2008-04-09

    We have investigated whether reverse signaling via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked ephrin controls the behavior of migratory neurons in vivo. During the formation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the moth Manduca, approximately 300 neurons [enteric plexus (EP) cells] migrate onto the midgut via bilaterally paired muscle bands but avoid adjacent midline regions. As they migrate, the EP cells express a single ephrin ligand (MsEphrin; a GPI-linked ligand), whereas the midline cells express the corresponding Eph receptor (MsEph). Blocking endogenous MsEphrin-MsEph receptor interactions in cultured embryos resulted in aberrant midline crossing by the neurons and their processes. In contrast, activating endogenous MsEphrin on the EP cells with dimeric MsEph-Fc constructs inhibited their migration and outgrowth, supporting a role for MsEphrin-dependent reverse signaling in this system. In short-term cultures, blocking endogenous MsEph receptors allowed filopodia from the growth cones of the neurons to invade the midline, whereas activating neuronal MsEphrin led to filopodial retraction. MsEphrin-dependent signaling may therefore guide the migratory enteric neurons by restricting the orientation of their leading processes. Knocking down MsEphrin expression in the EP cells with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides also induced aberrant midline crossing, consistent with the effects of blocking endogenous MsEphrin-MsEph interactions. Unexpectedly, this treatment enhanced the overall extent of migration, indicating that MsEphrin-dependent signaling may also modulate the general motility of the EP cells. These results demonstrate that MsEphrin-MsEph receptor interactions normally prevent midline crossing by migratory neurons within the developing ENS, an effect that is most likely mediated by reverse signaling through this GPI-linked ephrin ligand.

  10. Early Metamorphic Insertion Technology for Insect Flight Behavior Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing “only” while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups. PMID:25079130

  11. Innate and Learned Olfactory Responses in a Wild Population of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Keaton; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid insects face the fundamental problem of finding a suitable host in environments filled with competing stimuli. Many are deft sensors of olfactory cues emitted by other insects and the plants they live on, and use these cues to find hosts. Using olfactory cues from host-plants is effective because plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in response to herbivory or oviposition, that contain information about the presence of hosts. However, plant-produced cues can also be misleading because they are influenced by a variety of stimuli (abiotic variation, infection and multiple sources of induction via herbivory or oviposition). Flexible behavior is one strategy that parasitoids may use to cope with variation in olfactory cues. We examine the innate and learned responses of a natural population of wasp egg parasitoids (Trichogramma deion and Trichogramma sathon) using a series of laboratory and field Y-olfactometer experiments. Wasps typically attack eggs of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and Manduca quinquemaculata on native Datura wrightii plants in the southwestern United States. We show that Trichogramma wasps responded innately to VOCs produced by D. wrightii and could distinguish plants recently attacked by M. sexta from non-attacked plants. Furthermore, adult Trichogramma wasps were able to learn components of the VOC blend given off by D. wrightii, though they did not learn during exposure as pupae. By further exploring the behavioral ecology of a natural population of Trichogramma, we gain greater insight into how egg parasitoids function in tri-trophic systems.

  12. Innate and Learned Olfactory Responses in a Wild Population of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. Keaton; Woods, H. Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid insects face the fundamental problem of finding a suitable host in environments filled with competing stimuli. Many are deft sensors of olfactory cues emitted by other insects and the plants they live on, and use these cues to find hosts. Using olfactory cues from host-plants is effective because plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in response to herbivory or oviposition, that contain information about the presence of hosts. However, plant-produced cues can also be misleading because they are influenced by a variety of stimuli (abiotic variation, infection and multiple sources of induction via herbivory or oviposition). Flexible behavior is one strategy that parasitoids may use to cope with variation in olfactory cues. We examine the innate and learned responses of a natural population of wasp egg parasitoids (Trichogramma deion and Trichogramma sathon) using a series of laboratory and field Y-olfactometer experiments. Wasps typically attack eggs of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and Manduca quinquemaculata on native Datura wrightii plants in the southwestern United States. We show that Trichogramma wasps responded innately to VOCs produced by D. wrightii and could distinguish plants recently attacked by M. sexta from non-attacked plants. Furthermore, adult Trichogramma wasps were able to learn components of the VOC blend given off by D. wrightii, though they did not learn during exposure as pupae. By further exploring the behavioral ecology of a natural population of Trichogramma, we gain greater insight into how egg parasitoids function in tri-trophic systems. PMID:27965403

  13. How does juvenile hormone control insect metamorphosis and reproduction?

    PubMed

    Riddiford, Lynn M

    2012-12-01

    In insects juvenile hormone (JH) regulates both metamorphosis and reproduction. This lecture focuses on our current understanding of JH action at the molecular level in both of these processes based primarily on studies in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The roles of the JH receptor complex and the transcription factors that it regulates during larval molting and metamorphosis are summarized. Also highlighted are the intriguing interactions of the JH and insulin signaling pathways in both imaginal disc development and vitellogenesis. Critical actions of JH and its receptor in the timing of maturation of the adult optic lobe and of female receptivity in Drosophila are also discussed.

  14. Development of a new Sindbis virus transducing system and its characterization in three Culicine mosquitoes and two Lepidopteran species.

    PubMed

    Foy, B D; Myles, K M; Pierro, D J; Sanchez-Vargas, I; Uhlírová, M; Jindra, M; Beaty, B J; Olson, K E

    2004-02-01

    Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are alphavirus-based tools for expressing genes in insects. Here we describe an ATS (5'dsMRE16ic) based entirely on Sindbis MRE16 virus. GFP expression was used to characterize alimentary tract infections and dissemination in three Culicine and two Lepidopteran species. Following per os infection, 5'dsMRE16ic-EGFP efficiently infected Aedes aegypti and Culex tritaeniorhynchus, but not Culex pipiens pipiens. Ae. aegypti clearly showed accumulation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the posterior midgut and foregut/midgut junction within 2-3 days postinfection. Following parenteral infection of larvae, Bombyx mori had extensive GFP expression in larvae and adults, but Manduca sexta larvae were mostly resistant. 5'dsMRE16ic should be a valuable tool for gene expression in several important insect species that are otherwise difficult to manipulate genetically.

  15. Effects of the neem tree compounds azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin, and 6-desacetylnimbin on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M J; Smith, S L; Johnson, S; Morgan, E D

    1997-01-01

    The effects of azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin, and 6-desacetylnimbin on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase (E-20-M) activity were examined in three insect species. Homogenates of wandering stage third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, or abdomens from adult female Aedes aegypti, or fat body or midgut from fifth instar larvae of Manduca sexta were incubated with radiolabeled ecdysone and increasing concentrations (from 1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-3) M) of the four compounds isolated from seed kernels of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica. All four neem tree compounds were found to inhibit, in a dose-dependent fashion, the E-20-M activity in three insect species. The concentration of these compounds required to elicit a 50% inhibition of this steroid hydroxylase activity in the three insect species examined ranged from approximately 2 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-3).

  16. Synapse loss and axon retraction in response to local muscle degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hegstrom, C D; Truman, J W

    1996-10-01

    During metamorphosis in the moth, Manduca sexta, the abdominal body-wall muscle DEO1 is remodeled to form the adult muscle DE5. As the larval muscle degenerates, its motoneuron loses its end plates and retracts axon branches from the degenerating muscle. Muscle degeneration is under the control of the insect hormones, the ecdysteroids. Topical application of an ecdysteroid mimic resulted in animals that produced a localized patch of pupal cuticle. Muscle fibers underlying the patch showed a gradient of degeneration. The motoneuron showed end-plate loss and axon retraction from degenerating regions of a given fiber but maintained its fine terminal branches and end plates on intact regions. The results suggest that local steroid treatments that result in local muscle degeneration bring about a loss of synaptic contacts from regions of muscle degeneration.

  17. Allatotropin-related peptide in cockroaches: identification via mass spectrometric analysis of single identified neurons.

    PubMed

    Neupert, Susanne; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard

    2009-03-01

    The first insect allatotropin-related peptide (ATRP) was isolated from head extracts of the adult sphinx moth Manduca sexta [Kataoka H, Toschi A, Li JP, Carney RL, Schooley DA, Kramer SJ. Identification of an allatotropin from adult Manduca sexta. Science 1989;243:1481-3.]. Meanwhile ATRPs are known from different holometabolous insects but only a single ATRP could be identified from hemimetabolous insects [Paemen L, Tips A, Schoofs L, Proost P, Van Damme J, De Loof A. Lom-AG-myotropin: a novel myotropic peptide from the male accessory glands of Locusta migratoria. Peptides 1991;12:7-10.]. This means that the extensive analysis of neuropeptides from Leucophaea maderae and Periplaneta americana, which led to the discovery of many novel insect neuropeptides, did not result in the detection of any ATRP. In this study, we used another approach to find a cockroach ATRP by first identifying Manse-AT immunoreactive neurons in the terminal ganglion that can be stained by retrograde labeling and are suitable for dissection and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. The peptidomic analysis of these putative ATRP neurons paved the way for the identification of the first cockroach ATRP. MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry revealed a sequence identity with Locmi-AG-MT-1 which classifies this ATRP as a highly conserved neuropeptide. A mass spectrometric screening of the nervous system allowed the detection of ATRP-ion signals in different parts of the CNS of P. americana as well as L. maderae. The data obtained in this study will be incorporated in a map of peptidergic neurons from the CNS of the American cockroach, P. americana.

  18. Excretion of alkaloids by malpighian tubules of insects.

    PubMed

    Maddrell, S H; Gardiner, B O

    1976-04-01

    Nicotine is transported at high rates by Malpighian tubules of larvae of Manduca sexta, Pieris brassicae and Rhodnius prolixus and the transport persists in the absence of alkaloid from the diet. In the fluid-secreting portion of Rhodnius tubules this transport is not coupled to ion transport, nor is it dependent on the physiological state of the animal. The transport, which can occur against a steep electrochemical gradient, shows saturation kinetics with a maximal rate of 700 pmol. min-1 per tubule and is half saturated at 2-3 mM. Nicotine transport independent of ion movements also occurs in the lower resorptive parts of Rhodnius tubules. Both portions of Rhodnius tubules can transport morphine and atropine. These alkaloids and nicotine compete with one naother and are presumed to be carried by the smae transport system. Nicotine transport in Rhodnius was unaffected by organic anions, such as amaranth and benzyl penicillin, or by the organic anion transport inhibitor, probenecid. Fluid secretion in 5-HT-stimulated tubules was reduced by atropine and nicotine, probably by blocking the 5-HT receptors. The Malpighian tubules of adult Calliphora erythrocephala and Musca domestica remove nicotine from bathing solutions, an unknown metabolic accumulating in the tubules. Adult P. brassicae and M. sexta do not exhibit transport of nicotine by their Malpighian tubules.

  19. Floral Trait Associations in Hawkmoth-Specialized and Mixed Pollination Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in floral traits including odor, color and morphology, demonstrate the selective pressures imposed by specific pollinator taxa, such as insects and birds. In southern Arizona, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) hawkmoths are associated with Datura wrightii (Solanaceae) at both the larval (herbivo...

  20. Synaptic Neurochemistry of Sensory Pathways in the Insect Central Nervous System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-15

    FORM I. REPORT NUMBER G2. OVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 0r P,0 YO3*.S N/A N/A 4. TITLE (and Subettle) S, TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...and Hishinuma A (1986) The transport and metabolism of L-glutamic acid in the abdominal ganglia of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, in preparation V

  1. Characterization of Toxin Complex Gene Clusters and Insect Toxicity of Bacteria Representing Four Subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten strains representing four lineages of Pseudomonas (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibi...

  2. Polymyositis - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  3. Inbreeding compromises host plant defense gene expression and improves herbivore survival

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Scott L; Kariyat, Rupesh R; Johnston, Michelle A; Stephenson, Andrew G; Marden, James H

    2015-01-01

    Inbreeding commonly occurs in flowering plants and often results in a decline in the plant's defense response. Insects prefer to feed and oviposit on inbred plants more than outbred plants – suggesting that selecting inbred host plants offers them fitness benefits. Until recently, no studies have examined the effects of host plant inbreeding on insect fitness traits such as growth and dispersal ability. In a recent article, we documented that tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.) larvae that fed on inbred horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) plants exhibited accelerated larval growth and increased adult flight capacity compared to larvae that fed on outbred plants. Here we report that M. sexta mortality decreased by 38.2% when larvae were reared on inbred horsenettle plants compared to larvae reared on outbreds. Additionally, inbred plants showed a notable reduction in the average relative expression levels of LIPOXYGENEASE-D (LoxD) and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE-3 (OPR3), two genes in the jasmonic acid signaling pathway that are upregulated in response to herbivore damage. Our study presents evidence that furthers our understanding of the biochemical mechanism responsible for differences in insect performance on inbred vs. outbred host plants. PMID:26039489

  4. CPR: Adult

    MedlinePlus

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course ...

  5. The Ontogeny of Sexual Size Dimorphism of a Moth: When Do Males and Females Grow Apart?

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, R. Craig; Daws, Andrew; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism) is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high). We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger) increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults. PMID:25184664

  6. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  7. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  8. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  10. Insect Development in Altered Gravitational Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1996-01-01

    When tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae burrow underground (25-30 cm) to pupate, they reorient themselves to a relatively horizontal position indicating an ability to sense gravity. To evaluate their sensitivity to gravitational environment during metamorphosis, Manduca (pharate adults) were placed in a vertical (head-up) position. Distinct morphological changes, each one reflecting ensuing phases, were used to follow adult development. Five days after pupation, the vertical group showed accelerated (P less than 0.05) development and were nearly 4 phases ahead (P less than 0.0001) after 10 days. Differences in development in the vertical group were characterized further by increased (7-48%) hemolymph concentrations of 13 amino acids, but a decrease in cys and pro and no change in arg, his, met and val (trp, undetectable). Decreased (36%) turnover of injected H-3 - phenylalanine suggested slower utilization of amino acids contributed, at least partly, to the increased concentrations. Vertically-oriented Manduca also exhibited a greater (20 %, P less than 0.001) protein content in their flight muscles near the end of development. Analysis of hemolymph sugar levels showed a redistribution of sugars from the monosaccharide glucose to the disaccharide trehalose. Since injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone decreased (49%) turnover of H-3- phenylalanine in pharate adults and since ecdysteroids are known to increase flight muscle size and control adult development, these results are consistent with our measuring a greater (+80%, P less than 0.05) ecdysteroid titer in the vertically-oriented insects. These results suggest that gravity environment influences ecdysone output by the pharate adult. When we evaluated hemolymph flow in the head-up and control positions, we found that injected C-14-inulin was distributed somewhat more rapidly in the head-up group irrespective of the sight of injection (head or abdomen) likely because in the head-up position flow of the hemolymph is

  11. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  12. Larval leg integrity is maintained by Distal-less and is required for proper timing of metamorphosis in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Squires, Diego C.; Riddiford, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic transformation from a larva to an adult must be accompanied by a coordinated activity of genes and hormones that enable an orchestrated transformation from larval to pupal/adult tissues. The maintenance of larval appendages and their subsequent transformation to appendages in holometabolous insects remains elusive at the developmental genetic level. Here the role of a key appendage patterning gene Distal-less (Dll) was examined in mid- to late- larval stages of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. During late larval development, Dll was expressed in appendages in a similar manner as previously reported for the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Removal of this late Dll expression resulted in disruption of adult appendage patterning. Intriguingly, earlier removal resulted in dramatic loss of structural integrity and identity of larval appendages. A large amount of variability in appendage morphology was observed following Dll dsRNA injection, unlike larvae injected with dachshund dsRNA. These Dll dsRNA-injected larvae underwent numerous supernumerary molts, which could be terminated with injection of either JH methyltransferase or Methoprene-tolerant dsRNA. Apparently, the partial dedifferentiation of the appendages in these larvae acts to maintain high JH and, hence, prevents metamorphosis. PMID:19022238

  13. The development of wing shape in Lepidoptera: mitotic density, not orientation, is the primary determinant of shape.

    PubMed

    Nijhout, H Frederik; Cinderella, Margaret; Grunert, Laura W

    2014-03-01

    The wings of butterflies and moths develop from imaginal disks whose structure is always congruent with the final adult wing. It is therefore possible to map every point on the imaginal disk to a location on the adult wing throughout ontogeny. We studied the growth patterns of the wings of two distantly related species with very different adult wing shapes, Junonia coenia and Manduca sexta. The shape of the wing disks change throughout their growth phase in a species-specific pattern. We measured mitotic densities and mitotic orientation in successive stages of wing development approximately one cell division apart. Cell proliferation was spatially patterned, and the density of mitoses was highly correlated with local growth. Unlike other systems in which the direction of mitoses has been viewed as the primary determinant of directional growth, we found that in these two species the direction of growth was only weakly correlated with the orientation of mitoses. Directional growth appears to be imposed by a constantly changing spatial pattern of cell division coupled with a weak bias in the orientation of cell division. Because growth and cell division in imaginal disk require ecdysone and insulin signaling, the changing spatial pattern of cell division may due to a changing pattern of expression of receptors or downstream elements in the signaling pathways for one or both of these hormones. Evolution of wing shape comes about by changes in the progression of spatial patterns of cell division.

  14. Preparing Educators of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.; And Others

    Model programs are described for two areas of adult education--the preparation of adult educators and the training conducted by adult educators. In Chapter One, Phyllis Caldwell reviews the literature concerning the preservice training of adult educators, concentrating on the competencies of adult education administrators and teachers. In Chapter…

  15. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  16. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  17. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide care and ... adults who need assistance or supervision during the day. Programs offer relief to family members and caregivers, ...

  18. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  19. Cell culture approaches to understanding the actions of steroid hormones on the insect nervous system.

    PubMed

    Levine, R B; Weeks, J C

    1996-01-01

    During metamorphosis of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, ecdysteroids regulate the dendritic remodeling and programmed death of identified motoneurons. These changes contribute to the dramatic reorganization of behavior that accompanies metamorphosis. As a step toward elucidating cellular and molecular mechanisms by which ecdysteroids affect neuronal phenotype, we have investigated the responses of Manduca motoneurons to ecdysteroids in vitro. Following dendritic regression at the end of larval life, thoracic leg motoneurons placed in culture respond to ecdysteroids by an increase in branching complexity, similar to events in vivo. Growth cone structure is affected markedly by ecdysteroids. At pupation, a rise in ecdysteroids triggers the segment-specific death of proleg motoneurons: the same segmental pattern of death is observed when motoneurons from different segments are removed from the nervous system and exposed to ecdysteroids in vitro. These studies provide strong evidence that Manduca motoneurons are direct targets of steroid action and set the stage for further studies of the specific mechanisms involved.

  20. Kinematics of horizontal and vertical caterpillar crawling.

    PubMed

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Trimmer, Barry A

    2009-05-01

    Unlike horizontal crawling, vertical crawling involves two counteracting forces: torque rotating the body around its center of mass and gravity resisting forward movement. The influence of these forces on kinematics has been examined in the soft-bodied larval stage of Manduca sexta. We found that crawling and climbing are accomplished using the same movements, with both segment timing and proleg lift indistinguishable in horizontal and vertical locomotion. Minor differences were detected in stride length and in the delay between crawls, which led to a lower crawling speed in the vertical orientation. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were much smaller than the variation in kinematic parameters between animals. The ability of Manduca to crawl and climb using the same movements is best explained by Manduca's relatively small size, slow speed and strong, controlled, passive grip made possible by its proleg/crochets.

  1. Steroid hormone regulation of the voltage-gated, calcium-activated potassium channel expression in developing muscular and neural systems.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Sheldon L; Witten, Jane L

    2010-11-01

    A precise organization of gene expression is required for developing neural and muscular systems. Steroid hormones can control the expression of genes that are critical for development. In this study we test the hypothesis that the steroid hormone ecdysone regulates gene expression of the voltage-gated calcium-activated potassium ion channel, Slowpoke or KCNMA1. Late in adult development of the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, slowpoke (msslo) levels increased contributing to the maturation of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs) and CNS. We show that critical components of ecdysteroid gene regulation were present during upreglation of msslo in late adult DLM and CNS development. Ecdysteroid receptor complex heterodimeric partner proteins, the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), and the ecdysone-induced early gene, msE75B, were expressed at key developmental time points, suggesting that ecdysteroids direct aspects of gene expression in the DLMs during these late developmental stages. We provide evidence that ecdysteroids suppress msslo transcription in the DLMs; when titers decline msslo transcript levels increase. These results are consistent with msslo being a downstream gene in an ecdysteroid-mediated gene cascade during DLM development. We also show that the ecdysteroids regulate msslo transcript levels in the developing CNS. These results will contribute to our understanding of how the spatiotemporal regulation of slowpoke transcription contributes to tailoring cell excitability to the differing physiological and behavioral demands during development.

  2. Flexible split-ring electrode for insect flight biasing using multisite neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Wei Mong; Stone, Alice L; Aldworth, Zane N; Hildebrand, John G; Daniel, Tom L; Akinwande, Akintunde Ibitayo; Voldman, Joel

    2010-07-01

    We describe a flexible multisite microelectrode for insect flight biasing using neural stimulation. The electrode is made of two layers of polyimide (PI) with gold sandwiched in between in a split-ring geometry. The split-ring design in conjunction with the flexibility of the PI allows for a simple insertion process and provides good attachment between the electrode and ventral nerve cord of the insect. Stimulation sites are located at the ends of protruding tips that are circularly distributed inside the split-ring structure. These protruding tips penetrate into the connective tissue surrounding the nerve cord. We have been able to insert the electrode into pupae of the giant sphinx moth Manduca sexta as early as seven days before the adult moth emerges, and we are able to use the multisite electrode to deliver electrical stimuli that evoke multidirectional, graded abdominal motions in both pupae and adult moths. Finally, in loosely tethered flight, we have used stimulation through the flexible microelectrodes to alter the abdominal angle, thus causing the flying moth to deviate to the left or right of its intended path.

  3. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

  4. Priming of anti-herbivore defence in Nicotiana attenuata by insect oviposition: herbivore-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Grichnik, Roland; Hilker, Monika; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Oviposition by Spodoptera exigua on Nicotiana attenuata primes plant defence against its larvae that consequently suffer reduced performance. To reveal whether this is a general response of tobacco to insect oviposition or species-specific, we investigated whether also Manduca sexta oviposition primes N. attenuata's anti-herbivore defence. The plant response to M. sexta and S. exigua oviposition overlapped in the egg-primed feeding-induced production of the phenylpropanoid caffeoylputrescine. While M. sexta larvae were unaffected in their performance, they showed a novel response to the oviposition-mediated plant changes: a reduced antimicrobial activity in their haemolymph. In a cross-resistance experiment, S. exigua larvae suffered reduced performance on M. sexta-oviposited plants like they did on S. exigua-oviposited plants. The M. sexta oviposition-mediated plant effects on the S. exigua larval performance and on M. sexta larval immunity required expression of the NaMyb8 transcription factor that is governing biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids such as caffeoylputrescine. Thus, NaMyb8-dependent defence traits mediate the effects that oviposition by both lepidopteran species exerts on the plant's anti-herbivore defence. These results suggest that oviposition by lepidopteran species on N. attenuata leaves may generally prime the feeding-induced production of certain plant defence compounds but that different herbivore species show different susceptibility to egg-primed plant effects.

  5. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

  6. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  7. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  8. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  9. Adult Education Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Clyde W.

    1975-01-01

    Summarized are speeches dealing with adult education's stiff-necked adherence to middle-class values; the need for upgraded management skills; and a report of a study of adult education in area vocational schools in Georgia. (Author/AJ)

  10. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry; And Others

    Folk high schools, study circles, labor market training, union education, and municipal adult schools are the major providers of adult education in Sweden. For the most part, these programs are financed by the government and are tuition free. Folk high schools, which are the oldest type, were founded to provide young adults with a general civic…

  11. The Adult Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  12. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  13. Kids Who Outwit Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

    Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…

  14. Urbanization and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, W. Fisher

    1974-01-01

    The impact of urbanization, the main tasks facing the adult educator in an urban context, identifying the casualties of urbanization, recognizing and dealing with social deprivation, and the various agencies involved in adult education are relevant considerations for adult educators. (MW)

  15. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  16. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  17. Adult Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains 13 articles that reflect the development of adult education in Israel during recent years. The material relates to the principal areas with which the Division of Adult Education deals: formal and nonformal education for adults, language and cultural absorption of new immigrants, and training of facilitators for parental…

  18. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  19. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  20. Adult Competency Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently…

  1. Adult Competency Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information…

  2. Adult Academy Volunteer Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cora, Marie T., Ed.; Wood, Nicole R., Ed.

    This handbook was written specifically for volunteer tutors but is appropriate for teachers, student interns, coordinators, and others working with Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) adult learners. It presents an overview of adult and non-traditional education models, some principles of reading and writing, a…

  3. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  4. Young Adult Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boegen, Anne, Ed.

    Designed to offer guidelines, ideas and help to those who provide library service to young adults, this manual includes information about the provision of young adult (YA) services in six sections. The first section, which addresses planning and administration, includes a definition of a young adult and a checklist for determining community needs…

  5. Adult Educators' Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…

  6. An Adult ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Literacy Resource Center, Columbia.

    This curriculum framework for adult literacy was written by 21 South Carolina adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instructors, as submitted to the South Carolina Literacy Resource Center. It is based on current theories in the fields of adult education and second language acquisition and is designed to be flexible so that it may be adapted to…

  7. Caterpillars selected for large body size and short development time are more susceptible to oxygen-related stress

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jon F; Cease, Arianne J; VandenBrooks, John M; Albert, Todd; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that higher growth rates may be associated with reduced capacities for stress tolerance and increased accumulated damage due to reactive oxygen species. We tested the response of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) lines selected for large or small body size and short development time to hypoxia (10 kPa) and hyperoxia (25, 33, and 40 kPa); both hypoxia and hyperoxia reduce reproduction and oxygen levels over 33 kPa have been shown to increase oxidative damage in insects. Under normoxic (21 kPa) conditions, individuals from the large-selected (big-fast) line were larger and had faster growth rates, slightly longer developmental times, and reduced survival rates compared to individuals from a line selected for small size (small-fast) or an unselected control line. Individuals from the big-fast line exhibited greater negative responses to hyperoxia with greater reductions in juvenile and adult mass, growth rate, and survival than the other two lines. Hypoxia generally negatively affected survival and growth/size, but the lines responded similarly. These results are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that simultaneous acquisition of large body sizes and short development times leads to reduced capacities for coping with stressful conditions including oxidative damage. This result is of particular importance in that natural selection tends to decrease development time and increase body size. PMID:23762517

  8. Development of a glial network in the olfactory nerve: role of calcium and neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Koussa, Mounir A; Tolbert, Leslie P; Oland, Lynne A

    2010-11-01

    In adult olfactory nerves of mammals and moths, a network of glial cells ensheathes small bundles of olfactory receptor axons. In the developing antennal nerve (AN) of the moth Manduca sexta, the axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) migrate from the olfactory sensory epithelium toward the antennal lobe. Here we explore developmental interactions between ORN axons and AN glial cells. During early stages in AN glial-cell migration, glial cells are highly dye coupled, dividing glia are readily found in the nerve and AN glial cells label strongly for glutamine synthetase. By the end of this period, dye-coupling is rare, glial proliferation has ceased, glutamine synthetase labeling is absent, and glial processes have begun to extend to enwrap bundles of axons, a process that continues throughout the remainder of metamorphic development. Whole-cell and perforated-patch recordings in vivo from AN glia at different stages of network formation revealed two potassium currents and an R-like calcium current. Chronic in vivo exposure to the R-type channel blocker SNX-482 halted or greatly reduced AN glial migration. Chronically blocking spontaneous Na-dependent activity by injection of tetrodotoxin reduced the glial calcium current implicating an activity-dependent interaction between ORNs and glial cells in the development of glial calcium currents.

  9. More than just sugar: allocation of nectar amino acids and fatty acids in a Lepidopteran.

    PubMed

    Levin, Eran; McCue, Marshall D; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2017-02-08

    The ability to allocate resources, even when limited, is essential for survival and fitness. We examine how nutrients that occur in minute amounts are allocated among reproductive, somatic, and metabolic demands. In addition to sugar, flower nectars contain two macronutrients-amino acids and fatty acids. We created artificial nectars spiked with (13)C-labelled amino acids and fatty acids and fed these to adult moths (Manduca sexta: Sphingidae) to understand how they allocate these nutrients among competing sinks (reproduction, somatic tissue, and metabolic fuel). We found that both essential and non-essential amino acids were allocated to eggs and flight muscles and were still detectable in early-instar larvae. Parental-derived essential amino acids were more conserved in the early-instars than non-essential amino acids. All amino acids were used as metabolic fuel, but the non-essential amino acids were oxidized at higher rates than essential amino acids. Surprisingly, the nectar fatty acids were not vertically transferred to offspring, but were readily used as a metabolic fuel by the moth, minimizing losses of endogenous nutrient stores. We conclude that the non-carbohydrate components of nectar may play important roles in both reproductive success and survival of these nectar-feeding animals.

  10. Malaria Mosquitoes Host-Locate and Feed upon Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts. PMID:25372720

  11. Malaria mosquitoes host-locate and feed upon caterpillars.

    PubMed

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts.

  12. Differences in Nicotine Metabolism of Two Nicotiana attenuata Herbivores Render Them Differentially Susceptible to a Common Native Predator

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pavan; Rathi, Preeti; Schöttner, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Pandit, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by larvae of both specialist (Manduca sexta) and generalist (Spodoptera exigua) lepidopteran herbivores in its native habitat. Nicotine is one of N. attenuata's important defenses. M. sexta is highly nicotine tolerant; whether cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidative detoxification and/or rapid excretion is responsible for its exceptional tolerance remains unknown despite five decades of study. Recently, we demonstrated that M. sexta uses its nicotine-induced CYP6B46 to efflux midgut-nicotine into the hemolymph, facilitating nicotine exhalation that deters predatory wolf spiders (Camptocosa parallela). S. exigua's nicotine metabolism is uninvestigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the ability of these two herbivores to metabolize, tolerate and co-opt ingested nicotine for defense against the wolf spider. In addition, we analyzed the spider's excretion to gain insights into its nicotine metabolism. Contrary to previous reports, we found that M. sexta larvae neither accumulate the common nicotine oxides (cotinine, cotinine N-oxide and nicotine N-oxide) nor excrete them faster than nicotine. In M. sexta larvae, ingestion of nicotine as well as its oxides increases the accumulation of CYP6B46 transcripts. In contrast, S. exigua accumulates nicotine oxides and exhales less (66%) nicotine than does M. sexta. Spiders prefer nicotine-fed S. exigua over M. sexta, a preference reversed by topical or headspace nicotine supplementation, but not ingested or topically-coated nicotine oxides, suggesting that externalized nicotine but not the nicotine detoxification products deter spider predation. The spiders also do not accumulate nicotine oxides. Conclusions Nicotine oxidation reduces S. exigua's headspace-nicotine and renders it more susceptible to predation by spiders than M. sexta, which exhales unmetabolized nicotine. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that generalist herbivores incur costs of

  13. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  14. Retention of Memory through Metamorphosis: Can a Moth Remember What It Learned As a Caterpillar?

    PubMed Central

    Blackiston, Douglas J.; Silva Casey, Elena; Weiss, Martha R.

    2008-01-01

    Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis experience enormous changes in both morphology and lifestyle. The current study examines whether larval experience can persist through pupation into adulthood in Lepidoptera, and assesses two possible mechanisms that could underlie such behavior: exposure of emerging adults to chemicals from the larval environment, or associative learning transferred to adulthood via maintenance of intact synaptic connections. Fifth instar Manduca sexta caterpillars received an electrical shock associatively paired with a specific odor in order to create a conditioned odor aversion, and were assayed for learning in a Y choice apparatus as larvae and again as adult moths. We show that larvae learned to avoid the training odor, and that this aversion was still present in the adults. The adult aversion did not result from carryover of chemicals from the larval environment, as neither applying odorants to naïve pupae nor washing the pupae of trained caterpillars resulted in a change in behavior. In addition, we report that larvae trained at third instar still showed odor aversion after two molts, as fifth instars, but did not avoid the odor as adults, consistent with the idea that post-metamorphic recall involves regions of the brain that are not produced until later in larval development. The present study, the first to demonstrate conclusively that associative memory survives metamorphosis in Lepidoptera, provokes intriguing new questions about the organization and persistence of the central nervous system during metamorphosis. Our results have both ecological and evolutionary implications, as retention of memory through metamorphosis could influence host choice by polyphagous insects, shape habitat selection, and lead to eventual sympatric speciation. PMID:18320055

  15. Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins is correlated with the presence of high-affinity binding sites in the brush border membrane of target insect midguts

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, C.; Vanderbruggen, H.; Hoefte, H.; Van Rie, J.; Jansens, S.; Van Mellaert, H. )

    1988-11-01

    Binding studies were performed with two {sup 125}I-labeled Bacillus thuringiensis {delta}-endotoxins on brush border membrane vesicles prepared from the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta or the cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae. One {delta}-endotoxin, Bt2-protoxin, is a 130-kDa recombinant crystalline protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. berliner. It kills larvae of both insect species. The active Bt2-toxin is a 60-kDa proteolytic fragment of the Bt2-protoxin. It binds saturably and with high affinity to brush border membrane vesicles from the midgut of both species. The other {delta}-endotoxin, Bt4412-protoxin, is a 136-kDa crystalline protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis, which is highly toxic for P. brassicae, but not for M. sexta larvae. Bt4412-toxin, obtained after proteolytic activation of Bt4412-protoxin, shows high-affinity saturable binding to P. brassicae vesicles but not to M. sexta vesicles. The correlation between toxicity and specific binding is further strengthened by competition studies. Other B. thuringiensis {delta}-endotoxins active against M. sexta compete for binding of {sup 125}I-labeled Bt2-toxin to M. sexta vesicles, whereas toxins active against dipteran or coleopteran larvae do not compete. Bt2-toxin and Bt4412-toxin bind to different sites on P. brassicae vesicles.

  16. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  17. Young Adult Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on young adult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Young Adult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "Young Adult…

  18. Toward Transpersonal Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal…

  19. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  20. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  1. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  2. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  3. Today's Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

  4. Adult Literacy in Zanzibar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saadat, Ahmed H.

    The philosophy behind adult literacy in Zanzibar is that adult literacy is a process whereby the illiterate is empowered to become aware of his or her potential. Literacy activities emphasize a relation to work, sometimes known as functional literacy. Specific objectives of literacy programs are to improve living conditions, impart self-reliant…

  5. Adult Vocational Trajectory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverin-Simard, Danielle

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a "spatial-temporal" model conceiving adult vocational development as a complex and constant readjustment in always changing perception of personal space-time, based on interviews of 786 adults. Presents two propositions of this model: the continuous alternation between states of instability and interaction of influences.…

  6. Counseling Adult Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

  7. Alternative Programming for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.; Frey, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning is currently cataloguing alternative programming features that are most effective with adult students in a best practices inventory organized around a framework of high-level descriptive principles of effectiveness. This chapter identifies a few interesting features from a quick survey of this…

  8. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education);…

  9. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  10. Financing of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…

  11. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.

  12. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  13. Molecular evolution and expression of the CRAL_TRIO protein family in insects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gilbert; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-07-01

    CRAL_TRIO domain proteins are known to bind small lipophilic molecules such as retinal, inositol and Vitamin E and include such gene family members as PINTA, α-tocopherol transfer (ATT) proteins, retinoid binding proteins, and clavesins. In insects, very little is known about either the molecular evolution of this family of proteins or their ligand specificity. Here we characterize insect CRAL_TRIO domain proteins and present the first insect CRAL_TRIO protein phylogeny constructed by performing reciprocal BLAST searches of the reference genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Apis mellifera, Tribolium castaneum, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta and Danaus plexippus. We find several highly conserved amino acid residues in the CRAL_TRIO domain-containing genes across insects and a gene expansion resulting in more than twice as many gene family members in lepidopterans than in other surveyed insect species, but no lepidopteran homolog of the PINTA gene in Drosophila. In addition, we examined the expression pattern of CRAL_TRIO domain genes in Manduca sexta heads using RNA-Seq data. Of the 42 gene family members found in the M. sexta reference genome, we found 30 expressed in the head tissue with similar expression profiles between males and females. Our results suggest this gene family underwent a large expansion in lepidopteran, making the lepidopteran CRAL_TRIO domain family distinct from other holometabolous insect lineages.

  14. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  15. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  16. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003204.htm Speech impairment (adult) To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  17. Motivation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

  18. Motivation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  19. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  20. Young Adult Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

  1. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  2. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  3. [Orthodontic treatment for adults].

    PubMed

    Kuitert, R B

    2000-04-01

    The number of adults undergoing orthodontic treatment has increased strongly and the average age that adult patients undergo orthodontic treatment increased steadily although 3/4 is still younger than 27 years. In adults the facial skeletal pattern can only be changed in a very confined way, consequently in case of an abnormal skeletal pattern one has to choose between a combined orthodontic-surgical approach (which is the case in 18% of the patients) and a compromised orthodontic treatment, if necessary combined with other disciplines. It is still controversial whether tooth movement in adults is slower and more difficult than in adolescents. The same holds true for the risk for loss of periodontal support, for root resorption, for gnathologic problems and for relapse. As related to these variables there appears to be a large individual variation. Many adults show one or more problems in their dentition that may influence their orthodontic treatment. About 60% of the adult patients need a multidisciplinary approach. The development of implantology and of bone regeneration and bone grafting has lead to more combined treatments. The risks of such complex treatment plans are generally larger than those for more simple kinds of treatment. A very careful treatment planning and good communication between the different specialists is essential. Moreover the treatment plan with all its (dis)advantages has to be extensively discussed with the patient.

  4. The State of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Ted

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author looks at the state of adult education in Ireland. He is suggesting that the state here means both the condition in which one now finds adult education and the role of the Irish State in adult education. He briefly outlines some recent developments in adult education, makes some critical comments on the state of adult…

  5. The ABC's of Adult Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…

  6. Designing an Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Margaret

    Intended for planners of adult education curriculums, this literature review explains the concepts involved in designing an adult education program, provides information about the roles of the people involved in the adult education process, cites some program planning models, and applies the program planning principles to an Adult Basic Education…

  7. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of…

  8. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  9. Adult-onset Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Amrinder Jit

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset atopic dermatitis is still an under recognized condition as there are only few studies regarding this entity. As compared to childhood onset atopic dermatitis, clinical features of adult onset atopic dermatitis are still not categorized. Adult atopic dermatitis can present for the first time in adult age with atypical morphology or may progress from childhood onset. This article reviews the characteristic clinical features of adult atopic dermatitis, associated risk factors and management. PMID:27904186

  10. Adult onset retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  11. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  12. Electroporation of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Madhusudhana; Rambabu, K Murali; Rao, S Harinarayana

    2008-01-01

    We generated transient transgenic zebrafish by applying electrical pulses subsequent to injection of DNA into muscle tissue of 3-6-month old adult zebrafish. Electroporation parameters, such as number of pulses, voltage, and amount of plasmid DNA, were optimized and found that 6 pulses of 40 V/cm at 15 mug/fish increased the luciferase expression by 10-fold compared with those in controls. By measuring the expression of luciferase, in vivo by electroporation in adult zebrafish and in vitro using fish cell line (Xiphophorus xiphidium A2 cells), the strength of three promoters (CMV, human EF-1alpha, and Xenopus EF-1alpha) was compared. Subsequent to electroporation after injecting DNA in the mid region of zebrafish, expression of green fluorescent protein was found far away from the site of injection in the head and the tail sections. Thus, electroporation in adult zebrafish provides a rapid way of testing the behavior of gene sequences in the whole organism.

  13. Back pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stumbo, Jessica R

    2013-06-01

    This article provides a summary of the many causes of back pain in adults. There is an overview of the history and physical examination with attention paid to red flags that alert the clinician to more worrisome causes of low back pain. An extensive differential diagnosis for back pain in adults is provided along with key historical and physical examination findings. The various therapeutic options are summarized with an emphasis on evidence-based findings. These reviewed treatments include medication, physical therapy, topical treatments, injections, and complementary and alternative medicine. The indications for surgery and specialty referral are also discussed.

  14. [Adult oligosymptomatic coeliac disease].

    PubMed

    Cabral Rodríguez, R; Arrieta Blanco, F J; Vicente Sánchez, F; Cordobés Martín, F J; Moreno Caballero, B

    2004-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic pathology of the small intestine. The pathogenic mechanism is caused by gluten intolerance. This disease present a characteristic and unspecific injury that causes nutrients and vitamins malabsorption. In adults is an underdiagnosed entity due to atypical forms. To make a premature diagnosis is basic because gluten-free diet prevent the complications after long-term like the intestinal T lymphoma and other digestives malignancies, and decrease the mortality of these patients. We present a case of adult oligosymptomatic coeliac disease in a patient with iron deficiency anaemia and vaginal bleeding. We study the clinic-nutrition and the alterations evolution of the patient.

  15. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

  16. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  17. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  18. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  19. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  20. Adult Basic Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

  1. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  2. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  3. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  4. How Do Adults Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan; Illeris, Knud

    2003-01-01

    This dialog between Alan Rogers and Knud Illeris debates arguments Rogers made in a previous article about the differences between adult and child learning. Rogers emphasizes differences in teacher-learner relationships. Illeris believes the differences result from different motivations for learning. (SK)

  5. Encyclopedia of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert, Ed.

    This encyclopedia contains 106 articles on adult development that were written by more than 75 specialists in such diverse fields as anthropology, communication, education, health sciences, history, and psychology. In a guide to related topics that is presented at the beginning of the encyclopedia, the 106 articles are grouped under the following…

  6. Sinusitis in adults - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000563.htm Sinusitis in adults - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your sinuses are chambers in ... They are filled with air. Sinusitis is an infection of these chambers, which causes ...

  7. Helping Adults to Spell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Catherine

    This book presents a range of strategies for adult literacy tutors and offers a wealth of practical advice on teaching spelling within the context of writing. Chapters 1-3 offer basic information on talking with the student about spelling, finding out how the student spells and helping the student to see himself/herself as a "good" speller, and…

  8. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  9. Profiles of Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Library, Springfield.

    Since January 1986, when the Illinois Secretary of State Literacy Grant Program began funding a wide variety of adult literacy programs, more than 30,000 students have sought help with reading. They have been matched with 25,000 tutors who have provided more than 2 million hours of volunteer instruction. The profiles in this booklet are stories of…

  10. Adult Literacy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.

    This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected…

  11. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...

  12. TRENDS IN ADULT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JUSTIN H.

    TRENDS EVIDENT IN ADULT READING DURING THE 1960'S IN THE AREAS OF ADMINISTRATION, PROGRAMS, TEACHING, TECHNIQUES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, AND METHODS OF PROMOTION OF READING PROGRAMS ARE DISCUSSED. TWO INSTANCES OF COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION BASED ON INTENSE AND OFTEN FALLACIOUS ADVERTISING AND ON PUBLIC IGNORANCE ARE CITED. A POSITIVE TREND IN THE AREA…

  13. Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults Related Topics on AIDS.gov Aging with HIV/AIDS National HIV/AIDS ... an Emerging Challenge Last revised: 07/10/2015 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  14. Utah Adult Education Services. Adult Education Report 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…

  15. What is Young Adult Literature? (Young Adult Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines some of the many confusions about young adult literature. Sheds some light on what young adult literature is (defining it as all genres of literature published since 1967 that are written for and marketed to young adults). Discusses briefly how it can be used in schools. Offers a list of the author's 20 favorite books for teenagers. (SR)

  16. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  17. Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... and genetics may play a role. Why congenital heart disease resurfaces in adulthood Some adults may find that ... in following adults with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy Women with congenital heart disease who ...

  18. Adult Education for Social Mobilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeverria, Luis

    1981-01-01

    Suggests some ideas that could stimulate and be incentives for defining programs of adult education in the future. These involve changing priorities, developing a framework which allows adult education programs to be established, and managing decision-making processes. (CT)

  19. College-Age & Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Age & Young Adults College Addiction Studies Programs Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ...

  20. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  1. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  2. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Recommendations Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  3. Enhancing Older Adults' Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigates older adults' reading comprehension skills through syntactic measures and measures of sentence content. Analyzes the apparent reading difficulties of older adults. Provides guidelines for the preparation of prose materials for older readers. (HB)

  4. Synergistic insecticidal mode of action between sesquiterpene lactones and a phototoxin, alpha-terthienyl.

    PubMed

    Guillet, G; Harmatha, J; Waddell, T G; Philogène, B J; Arnason, J T

    2000-02-01

    The synergistic insecticidal action of characteristic defensive substances produced by the plant family Asteraceae was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Asteraceae that may form, through a Michael addition process, conjugates with glutathione were administered in a meridic diet to a herbivorous insect, Manduca sexta. By administering sesquiterpenes, variable in vivo reduced glutathione levels were observed in the insect larvae. When the Asteraceae-derived photooxidant alpha-terthienyl was co-administered, lipid peroxidation and larval mortality were significantly enhanced in the treated groups of insects with lowered in vivo glutathione levels.

  5. Electromagnetic levitation platform for wireless study of insect flight neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Verderber, Alexander; McKnight, Michael; Bozkurt, Alper

    2013-01-01

    An electromagnetic levitation platform for use in a light emitting diode (LED) arena based virtual reality environment was developed for wireless recording of neural and neuromuscular signals from the flight related muscle groups in Manduca sexta. The platform incorporates the use of Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology to implant recording electrodes into the flight muscles of late stage pupal moths. Analysis of the insects' response to changes in the LED arena rotation direction indicate that this setup could be used to perform a variety of flight behavior studies during yaw maneuvers.

  6. Evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2006-02-03

    Polyphenisms are adaptations in which a genome is associated with discrete alternative phenotypes in different environments. Little is known about the mechanism by which polyphenisms originate. We show that a mutation in the juvenile hormone-regulatory pathway in Manduca sexta enables heat stress to reveal a hidden reaction norm of larval coloration. Selection for increased color change in response to heat stress resulted in the evolution of a larval color polyphenism and a corresponding change in hormonal titers through genetic accommodation. Evidently, mechanisms that regulate developmental hormones can mask genetic variation and act as evolutionary capacitors, facilitating the origin of novel adaptive phenotypes.

  7. Adult Development and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, James M.

    Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

  8. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  9. Adult Learning. ARIS Information Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Languages and Literacy Inst. of Australia, Melbourne. Adult Education Resource and Information Service.

    This information sheet provides a summary of general observations regarding adult learners. Adults from different walks of life may seek out learning at different times in their lives, for different reasons, and for vastly different purposes. Adult learning groups may include students of different ages, cultures, and educational and socioeconomic…

  10. Assessment Tools for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefrin, Carol; Shafer, Dehra; Forlizzi, Lori

    The Assessment Tools for Adult Education project was designed to provide training and support to staff of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education (ABLE) funded programs to help them use assessment tools and procedures to document the learning gains of the adult students they serve. The following candidate assessment…

  11. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Roy

    1974-01-01

    All educational levels have been attacked by politicians and haunted by suspicion, and adult education has drawn more than its share. Interest groups have had a large effect on adult education. The construction of a theoretical model of the politics of adult education is suggested. (DS)

  12. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  13. New Thrusts in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Robert M.

    The Associate Commissioner of the Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education is responsible for two broad and important programs, career education and broader and better services in adult education. Career education is a lifelong educational process beginning in kindergarten and extending through adult and continuing education. Career…

  14. Adult Education and Development, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education…

  15. Adult Learning and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning…

  16. Adult Education through World Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi);…

  17. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  18. Insect herbivory elicits genome-wide alternative splicing responses in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Wenwu; Baldwin, Ian T; Xu, Shuqing

    2015-10-01

    Changes in gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) are involved in many responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in eukaryotic organisms. In response to attack and oviposition by insect herbivores, plants elicit rapid changes in gene expression which are essential for the activation of plant defenses; however, the herbivory-induced changes in AS remain unstudied. Using mRNA sequencing, we performed a genome-wide analysis on tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) feeding-induced AS in both leaves and roots of Nicotiana attenuata. Feeding by M. sexta for 5 h reduced total AS events by 7.3% in leaves but increased them in roots by 8.0% and significantly changed AS patterns in leaves and roots of existing AS genes. Feeding by M. sexta also resulted in increased (in roots) and decreased (in leaves) transcript levels of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins that are involved in the AS machinery of plants and induced changes in SR gene expression that were jasmonic acid (JA)-independent in leaves but JA-dependent in roots. Changes in AS and gene expression elicited by M. sexta feeding were regulated independently in both tissues. This study provides genome-wide evidence that insect herbivory induces changes not only in the levels of gene expression but also in their splicing, which might contribute to defense against and/or tolerance of herbivory.

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Adults with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problem More adults with disabilities need to get physical activity. Adults with disabilities who get no physical activity ... Adults with disabilities are more likely to get physical activity if doctors recommend it. Only 44% of adults ...

  20. An Undergraduate Course in Adult Development: When the Virtual Adult Is an Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An aspect of an undergraduate psychology course on adult development was the preparation of case records on adults who consented to be studied. Participants (1) developed their abilities to observe and accurately record adult behavior across a variety of ages and contexts; (2) withheld judgments about behavior when evidence was lacking; (3)…

  1. The adult scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Max

    2005-12-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Adult scoliosis can be separated into four major groups: Type 1: Primary degenerative scoliosis, mostly on the basis of a disc and/or facet joint arthritis, affecting those structures asymmetrically with predominantly back pain symptoms, often accompanied either by signs of spinal stenosis (central as well as lateral stenosis) or without. These curves are often classified as "de novo" scoliosis. Type 2: Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine which progresses in adult life and is usually combined with secondary degeneration and/or imbalance. Some patients had either no surgical treatment or a surgical correction and fusion in adolescence in either the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. Those patients may develop secondary degeneration and progression of the adjacent curve; in this case those curves belong to the type 3a. Type 3: Secondary adult curves: (a) In the context of an oblique pelvis, for instance, due to a leg length discrepancy or hip pathology or as a secondary curve in idiopathic, neuromuscular and congenital scoliosis, or asymmetrical anomalies at the lumbosacral junction; (b) In the context of a metabolic bone disease (mostly osteoporosis) combined with asymmetric arthritic disease and/or vertebral fractures. Sometimes it is difficult to decide, what exactly the primary cause of the curve was, once it has significantly progressed. However, once an asymmetric load or degeneration occurs, the pathomorphology and pathomechanism in adult scoliosis predominantly located in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine is quite predictable. Asymmetric degeneration leads to increased asymmetric load and therefore to a progression of the degeneration and deformity, as either scoliosis and/or kyphosis. The progression of a curve is further supported by osteoporosis, particularly in post-menopausal female

  2. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D

    2017-01-01

    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.

  3. Adult hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, L A; Valdivia, T; Nuttall, F Q

    1991-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance was diagnosed in a 69-year-old man on the basis of his medical history and the response to an intravenous fructose tolerance test. Three men of the same age as our patient were used as control subjects. Since the severity may vary and affected individuals self-impose fructose and sucrose restriction, they are essentially symptom free. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history. The prevalence of this condition in adults is unknown. It is rare but is likely to be more common than data in the literature would indicate.

  4. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  5. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  6. [Hearing loss in adults].

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Adrien A; Frachet, Bruno; Van De Water, Tom R; Eter, Elias

    2009-05-20

    The management of hearing loss in adults depends of etiology and its severity. It can be as simple as treating an external otitis, removing an impacted cerumen or a more complex one such as a surgery for otosclerosis. The hearing loss is managed mainly by new advances in hearing aids technology and implantable hearing devices which include BAHA, middle ear implant and cochlear implants. The research is focused on developing new molecules for intracochlear drug therapy to treat noise induced hearing loss, drug ototoxicity as well as hearing loss related to cochlear implant insertion trauma. Antioxidant molecules, molecules against apoptosis are at this time the most promising molecules than need further investigations.

  7. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.].

  8. Coeliac disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Corazza, G R; Gasbarrini, G

    1995-06-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic disease characterized by small bowel villous atrophy which impairs nutrient absorption and improves on withdrawal of wheat gliadins and barley, rye and oat prolamins from the diet. Knowledge of the adult form of coeliac disease has greatly improved in recent years. Although this knowledge is not yet sufficiently widespread among referring clinicians, it has, over the past few years, allowed an increasing number of patients to be diagnosed with subclinical forms characterized by minor, transient or apparently unrelated symptoms. As a consequence, our views on the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this condition, the prevalence of which in the general population is believed to be close to 1 in 300, have changed and are still changing. Since it has been demonstrated that a strict gluten-free diet is protective against the complications of adult coeliac disease, it is important that even subclinical and silent forms are diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Non-invasive screening tests, such as anti-gliadin and anti-endomysium antibody estimation, should therefore be used systematically in groups considered to be at risk of coeliac disease. These include first-degree relatives of coeliac patients and patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, iron-deficiency anaemia, epilepsy with cerebral calcification, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and dental enamel hypoplasia. Other conditions will probably be identified in the near future.

  9. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-08

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination.

  10. Sexting among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  11. Adult Acute Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, K.; Wells, D. G.; Clink, H. McD.; Kay, H. E. M.; Powles, R.; McElwain, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    Seventy-eight adult patients with acute leukaemia were classified cytologically into 3 categories: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) or acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL). The periodic acid-Schiff stain was of little value in differentiating the 3 groups. The treatment response in each group was different: 94% of patients with ALL (16/17) achieved complete remission with prednisone, vincristine and other drugs in standard use in childhood ALL; 59% of patients with AML (27/46) achieved complete remission with cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin (22 patients), or 6-thioguanine and cyclophosphamide (2 patients), 6-thioguanine, cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin (1 patient), and cytosine and Adriamycin (1 patient); only 2 out of 14 patients (14%) with acute undifferentiated leukaemia achieved complete remission using cytosine and daunorubicin after an initial trial of prednisone and vincristine had failed. Prednisone and vincristine would seem to be of no value in acute undifferentiated leukaemia. It would seem also that no benefit is obtained by classifying all patients with acute leukaemia over 20 years of age as “adult acute leukaemia” and treating them with the same polypharmaceutical regimen. The problems posed by each disease are different and such a policy serves only to obscure them. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4141625

  12. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  13. Fecal incontinence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Syed H

    2007-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is an underreported and underappreciated problem in older adults. Although fecal incontinence is more common in women than in men, this difference narrows with aging. Risk factors that lead to the development of fecal incontinence include dementia, physical disability, and fecal impaction. Treatment options include medical or conservative therapy for older adults who have mild incontinence, and surgical options can be explored in selected older adults if surgical expertise is available.

  14. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth ( Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation.

  15. Signaling by Drosophila capa neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Davies, Shireen-A; Cabrero, Pablo; Povsic, Manca; Johnston, Natalie R; Terhzaz, Selim; Dow, Julian A T

    2013-07-01

    The capa peptide family, originally identified in the tobacco hawk moth, Manduca sexta, is now known to be present in many insect families, with increasing publications on capa neuropeptides each year. The physiological actions of capa peptides vary depending on the insect species but capa peptides have key myomodulatory and osmoregulatory functions, depending on insect lifestyle, and life stage. Capa peptide signaling is thus critical for fluid homeostasis and survival, making study of this neuropeptide family attractive for novel routes for insect control. In Dipteran species, including the genetically tractable Drosophila melanogaster, capa peptide action is diuretic; via elevation of nitric oxide, cGMP and calcium in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules. The identification of the capa receptor (capaR) in several insect species has shown this to be a canonical GPCR. In D. melanogaster, ligand-activated capaR activity occurs in a dose-dependent manner between 10(-6) and 10(-12)M. Lower concentrations of capa peptide do not activate capaR, either in adult or larval Malpighian tubules. Use of transgenic flies in which capaR is knocked-down in only Malpighian tubule principal cells demonstrates that capaR modulates tubule fluid secretion rates and in doing so, sets the organismal response to desiccation. Thus, capa regulates a desiccation-responsive pathway in D. melanogaster, linking its role in osmoregulation and fluid homeostasis to environmental response and survival. The conservation of capa action between some Dipteran species suggests that capa's role in desiccation tolerance may not be confined to D. melanogaster.

  16. A simple protocol for extracting hemocytes from wild caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Stoepler, Teresa M; Castillo, Julio C; Lill, John T; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2012-11-15

    Insect hemocytes (equivalent to mammalian white blood cells) play an important role in several physiological processes throughout an insect's life cycle. In larval stages of insects belonging to the orders of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and Diptera (true flies), hemocytes are formed from the lymph gland (a specialized hematopoietic organ) or embryonic cells and can be carried through to the adult stage. Embryonic hemocytes are involved in cell migration during development and chemotaxis regulation during inflammation. They also take part in cell apoptosis and are essential for embryogenesis. Hemocytes mediate the cellular arm of the insect innate immune response that includes several functions, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, formation of nodules, phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign invaders. They are also responsible for orchestrating specific insect humoral defenses during infection, such as the production of antimicrobial peptides and other effector molecules. Hemocyte morphology and function have mainly been studied in genetic or physiological insect models, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. However, little information currently exists about the diversity, classification, morphology and function of hemocytes in non-model insect species, especially those collected from the wild. Here we describe a simple and efficient protocol for extracting hemocytes from wild caterpillars. We use penultimate instar Lithacodes fasciola (yellow-shouldered slug moth) (Figure 1) and Euclea delphinii (spiny oak slug) caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) and show that sufficient volumes of hemolymph (insect blood) can be isolated and hemocyte numbers counted from individual larvae. This method can be used to efficiently study hemocyte types in these species as well as in other related lepidopteran caterpillars harvested from the field, or it can be

  17. The Varieties of Adult Civic Engagement in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2012-01-01

    Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…

  18. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  19. Impact of Authentic Adult Literacy Instruction on Adult Literacy Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Degener, Sophie C.; Jacobson, Erik; Soler, Marta

    2002-01-01

    Investigates relationships between two dimensions of adult literacy instruction and change in the literacy practices of adult literacy students. Finds that authenticity of class literacy activities and texts had a statistically significant effect on change in student literacy practices; and increases in types of texts involved reading and writing…

  20. Young Adult Literature for Less Able Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radebaugh, Muriel Rogie

    1982-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 20 recent young adult novels that are also appropriate for use with adult readers in community college reading programs. Suggests ways of helping such students improve their reading comprehension by analyzing the novels' themes, conflicts, settings, characterization, and symbolism. (AEA)

  1. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy…

  2. Oakland Adult Reading Lab. Building Comprehension in Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Suzanne

    Many adult poor readers do not organize what they read in a way that best facilitates good comprehension. To help students overcome this problem, the Adult Day and Evening School in Oakland, California, organized a reading laboratory for their mostly low-income, educationally disadvantaged students with a diverse range of needs. Instruction in the…

  3. Adult Education in Australia: The Council of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley

    Liberal adult education in Victoria, Australia, takes its ideals, if not its form, from the pre-war university and Workers Education Association (WEA) partnerships: the university providing tutors and content, the WEA providing contact with unions and workers. Unique to Victoria is the level to which community-based adult education has been…

  4. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  5. Evaluation of Adult Education Programs. California Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    To assist adult educators in finding meaningful ways to measure the effectiveness of instruction, this monograph provides selected illustrations of specific methods used by adult education instructors to verify student learning. Obtained from teachers in the field, the examples are from programs in (1) dental assisting, (2) instrument pilot ground…

  6. Building Resilience: Helping Young Adults in the Adult Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Elly

    2000-01-01

    Because of changes in welfare eligibility, the education system, and employment and training opportunities, it has become more likely that young people who have had difficulty with the mainstream schooling system and who face a lack of employment options will end up in adult education. Educators in the adult education classroom have an opportunity…

  7. [Hemolytic anemias in adults].

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Zimmermann, R; Krause, S W

    2011-11-01

    The erythrocyte lifespan in haemolytic anemia is shortened while erythropoesis is increased. Important labaratory findings are increased reticulocytes, LDH, indirect bilirubin and a decreased haptoglobin level. The most important diagnostic tool for further work up of hemolytic anemia is the direct antiglobulin test (DAT, Coombs test) to differentiate autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) from other causes. Another important group are fragmentation syndroms (hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura). In these forms of haemolytic anemia fragmented red blood cells can be found in the blood smear together with thrombocytopenia. A severe problem in paroxysmal nocturnal hematuria is the incidence of thrombosis. The following review describes the most important forms of hemolytic anemia in the adult and the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  8. [Cochlear implant in adults].

    PubMed

    Bouccara, D; Mosnier, I; Bernardeschi, D; Ferrary, E; Sterkers, O

    2012-03-01

    Cochlear implant in adults is a procedure, dedicated to rehabilitate severe to profound hearing loss. Because of technological progresses and their applications for signal strategies, new devices can improve hearing, even in noise conditions. Binaural stimulation, cochlear implant and hearing aid or bilateral cochlear implants are the best opportunities to access to better level of comprehension in all conditions and space localisation. By now minimally invasive surgery is possible to preserve residual hearing and use a double stimulation modality for the same ear: electrical for high frequencies and acoustic for low frequencies. In several conditions, cochlear implant is not possible due to cochlear nerve tumour or major malformations of the inner ear. In these cases, a brainstem implantation can be considered. Clinical data demonstrate that improvement in daily communication, for both cochlear and brainstem implants, is correlated with cerebral activation of auditory cortex.

  9. Adult feminine hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, B S

    1996-08-01

    Adult feminine hygiene practices are the focus of this exploratory descriptive study. In a sample of 193 women, the typical respondent lived in the Southeast and was a single student who was 23 years of age, and White. Body cleansing, feminine hygiene, and menses management practices were examined. It was found that handwashing varied according to bodily involvement or specific feminine hygiene practices. Assorted menses management products were used for menses management and were used when the woman was not menstruating. The results of this study suggest that it might be possible for health care providers to teach women safe and economical health care practices, such as not douching and handwashing before and after use of menses management products to prevent infections.

  10. Secondary hypertension in adults

    PubMed Central

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. PMID:27211205

  11. [Vesicoureteral reflux in adults].

    PubMed

    Rollino, Cristiana; D'Urso, Leonardo; Beltrame, Giulietta; Ferro, Michela; Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Quarello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) may be congenital or acquired. The most frequent form of congenital VUR is primary VUR. Its prevalence in adults is not exactly known, but it is higher in women, whose greater propensity for urinary tract infections increases the likelihood of an instrumental examination leading to the diagnosis of less severe cases. In men, even severe VUR may go undiagnosed for a long time. Primary VUR is due to a defect in the valve mechanism of the ureterovesical junction. In physiological conditions, the terminal ureter enters the bladder wall obliquely and bladder contraction leads to compression of this intravesical portion. Abnormal length of the intravesical portion of the ureter due to a genetic mutation (whose location is yet to be established) leads to VUR. In its less severe forms VUR may be asymptomatic, but in 50-70% of cases it manifests with recurrent cystitis or pyelonephritis. The manifestations leading to a diagnosis of VUR in adults, besides urinary tract infections, are proteinuria, renal failure and hypertension. The gold-standard diagnostic examination is a micturating cystourethrogram. Reflux nephropathy develops as a result of a pathogenetic mechanism unrelated to high cavity pressure or urinary tract infections but due to reduced formation of the normal renal parenchyma (hypoplasia or dysplasia). Abnormal renal parenchyma development is attributable to the same genes that control the development of the ureters and ureterovesical junction. VUR is considered only a marker of this abnormal development, playing no role in scar formation. There is no conclusive evidence regarding the indications for VUR correction. However, the risk that VUR leads to recurrent pyelonephritis and reflux nephropathy must be kept in mind. VUR certainly has to be corrected in women who contemplate pregnancy.

  12. An overview of adult-learning processes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Sally S

    2006-10-01

    Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding how adults learn best. Theories of adult education are based on valuing the prior learning and experience of adults. Adult learners have different learning styles which must be assessed prior to initiating any educational session. Health care providers can maximize teaching moments by incorporating specific adult-learning principles and learning styles into their teaching strategies.

  13. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  14. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  15. Senior Adult Consumer Advisory Manual,

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ater, E. Carolyn, Ed.

    This manual is intended for use by senior adult peer advisors (age 60 and over) engaged in helping relationships in providing consumer education to other senior adults. The advisory procedures are based on a problem solving approach which incorporates the development of a self-help concept. Chapter 1 provides information on consumer advising. It…

  16. Adult Academy Tutor Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isserlis, Janet; And Others

    This handbook is for volunteer tutors, student interns, and VISTA volunteers working with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The community-based handbook contains information about adult literacy and tutoring--what tutors do, who the learners are, and how the literacy learning process works. Introductory…

  17. Adult Education at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudet, Alphonse

    This document, which examines the use of educational technologies for distance education for adults in Canada, consists of five narrative sections and a bibliography. The first section introduces the topic and the document's objectives (to describe those technologies used in Canadian adult distance education, paying particular attention to those…

  18. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  19. Women, Class and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southampton Univ. (England).

    This collection of working papers deals with the relationship among women, social class, and adult education. In her paper entitled "Women and University Extension," Pat Usher argues that by sustaining the dominant cultural, ideological, and social relationships of production in capitalist Britain, university adult education contributes…

  20. Book Display as Adult Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  1. Journey to International Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her journey to international adult education and shares some lessons learned from her journey. The author developed her interest in international adult education through the Scientific Research Institute of International and Comparative Education (SRIICE) at Beijing Normal University and discovered its…

  2. Curriculum Models in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenbach, Michael

    This book describes several curriculum models currently used in the field of adult education in an effort to assist adult educators who develop curricula as a routine part of their jobs. The book is divided into 14 chapters that are grouped into 7 sections. Each section covers a type of educational program, and each chapter describes a specific…

  3. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Art

    2016-01-01

    Art Ellison is longtime advocate for adult education, having managed numerous advocacy campaigns over the past forty years on the state and national levels. Prior to his employment in 1980 as the NH State Director of Adult Education he worked for many years as a high school teacher and as a community organizer. In this article, Ellison offers some…

  4. Re-thinking Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A.

    A study was conducted to examine the literature on literacy and adult basic education and to identify various issues, trends, problems, possible solutions, and basic principles that might guide programs and policies in adult literacy and basic education in Canada. More than 120 documents were examined, raising such issues as what is literacy and…

  5. ESOL and the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Timothy F.

    Problems of adult basic education in the United States, symptomatic of the connection between poverty, poor education, and unemployment, have forged for the disadvantaged adult most of the links in the unbreakable chain of deprivation, frustration, and despair. The problem of ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) instruction is…

  6. Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.

    Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A…

  7. Adult Learning Opportunities in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Krishna; Regmi, Sharada

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings from a study of education system in Nepal. This paper examines the adult learning opportunities within the educational and cultural contexts by reviewing available literature relevant to Nepal. Findings show that there are wider opportunities for adult learning than those considered from education and…

  8. Creating Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Dolores M.

    Adult basic education programs must teach the "social living skills" disadvantaged adults need, as well as basic literacy skills. In creating an ABE program, one must first assess the needs of the target population--through surveys, group meetings, an advisory council of members of the target population, demographic studies, and consideration of…

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  10. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  11. Predictive Modeling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

  12. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  13. Adult Transition Program without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

  14. Assessment Models for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Ellen; And Others

    This handbook was developed to provide adult educators in Texas with sufficient background in assessment models to ensure confidence in recognizing and/or selecting appropriate measurement techniques and in using evaluation results to individualize and improve instruction for adult students. The handbook is based on information derived from a…

  15. Literature for Today's Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Kenneth L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    Defining young adult literature to include any book freely chosen for reading by a person between the ages of 12 and 20, this book is intended to help educate professionals in related fields about the growing body of such literature. The first section of the book provides an introduction to young adult literature, including a discussion of the…

  16. The History of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, J. W.

    Beginning with such movements as the eighteenth century moral reformation societies and Welsh Sunday schools, and the first adult schools for both men and women in the early 1800's, this historical review traces British adult education up to 1850. Emphasis is on the extensive and widespread programs of the Mechanics' (workingmen's) Institutes and…

  17. Adult Functional Competency: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Div. of Extension.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project summary specifies the competencies which are functional to economic and educational success in society and describes devices developed for assessing those competencies. The APL theory of functional competency identifies adult needs in general knowledge areas (consumer economics, occupational knowledge,…

  18. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  19. Recruiting and Retaining Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Adult learners, long the stepchildren of colleges and universities, have nearly become the norm, and they spend billions of dollars each year on education. This chapter takes a customer-oriented approach to recruiting and retaining adult students in higher education. (GCP)

  20. Understanding Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    This book introduces readers to issues, debates and literatures related to a number of central areas of practice in adult education and training, especially in Australia. It is intended as a first attempt to define the field of adult education in Australia in an analytical and theoretical, as opposed to a theoretical and practical sense. Written…

  1. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  2. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  3. Books for Adult New Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Roberta Luther, Comp.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of recommended print materials for English-speaking adults reading at the seventh grade level or below. (Sixty percent of the titles are at fifth grade level or below). The titles were selected for their broad appeal to the average adult new reader. In the selection, special consideration was given to…

  4. Adult Learners in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bash, Lee

    1999-01-01

    Adult learners comprise almost 50 percent of all students enrolled in higher Education. Some argue they are pioneering change in today's higher educational landscape. This book is designed to assist faculty members and administrators who want to understand how the impact of adult learning programs has and is helping to transform the academy and…

  5. Adult Learners in the Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bash, Lee

    Adult learning programs are becoming increasingly important. This book is designed to serve as a wake-up call for members of the academy who prefer to work with traditional students. It provides practical advice for adult learning programs with insights drawn from case studies and the author's experience. Part 1, "Context and Overview," contains:…

  6. Research Perspectives in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. Randy, Ed.

    This book focuses on understanding the epistemological foundation of adult education, the research process, policy issues, and directions for the future. "An Epistemological Overview of the Field" (Garrison) provides an overview of adult education research: the historical development, issues, the scope of the knowledge base, and approaches to…

  7. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  8. Adult attachment and declining birthrates.

    PubMed

    Draper, Thomas W; Holman, Thomas B; White, Whitney; Grandy, Shannon

    2007-02-01

    Attachment scores for 658 young adults living in the U.S.A. were obtained using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale. The participants came from a subsample of the RELATE data set, who had also filled out the adult attachment measure. Those young adults living in Utah County, Utah, an area of the country with a higher than normal birthrate (88% members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), also had higher than average adult attachment scores. While the methodology was not sufficient to assess causal direction nor eliminate the possibility of unidentified influences, an undiscussed psychological factor, adult attachment, may play a role in the numerical declines observed among nonimmigrant communities in the USA and Europe.

  9. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  10. The day of your surgery - adult

    MedlinePlus

    Same-day surgery - adult; Ambulatory surgery - adult; Surgical procedure - adult; Preoperative care - day of surgery ... meet with them at an appointment before the day of surgery or on the same day of ...

  11. Coaching as a Strategy for Helping Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Dorothy M.; Wertheim, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the use of coaching for adult learners, the specific characteristics adults bring to the learning environment, and strategies for dealing with the obstacles adult learners may face.

  12. Environment identification in flight using sparse approximation of wing strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Krithika; Brunton, Steven L.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying different flow environments from sparse data collected by wing strain sensors. Insects regularly perform this feat using a sparse ensemble of noisy strain sensors on their wing. First, we obtain strain data from numerical simulation of a Manduca sexta hawkmoth wing undergoing different flow environments. Our data-driven method learns low-dimensional strain features originating from different aerodynamic environments using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes in the frequency domain, and leverages sparse approximation to classify a set of strain frequency signatures using a dictionary of POD modes. This bio-inspired machine learning architecture for dictionary learning and sparse classification permits fewer costly physical strain sensors while being simultaneously robust to sensor noise. A measurement selection algorithm identifies frequencies that best discriminate the different aerodynamic environments in low-rank POD feature space. In this manner, sparse and noisy wing strain data can be exploited to robustly identify different aerodynamic environments encountered in flight, providing insight into the stereotyped placement of neurons that act as strain sensors on a Manduca sexta hawkmoth wing.

  13. The structure of adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Faraone, Stephen V; Spencer, Thomas J; Berglund, Patricia; Alperin, Samuel; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in three pooled US samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors representing executive dysfunction/inattention (including, but not limited to, all the DSM-5 inattentive symptoms, with non-DSM symptoms having factor loadings comparable to those of DSM symptoms), hyperactivity, impulsivity, and emotional dyscontrol. Empirically-derived multivariate symptom profiles were broadly consistent with the DSM-5 inattentive-only, hyperactive/impulsive-only, and combined presentations, but with inattention including executive dysfunction/inattention and hyperactivity-only limited to hyperactivity without high symptoms of impulsivity. These results show that executive dysfunction is as central as DSM-5 symptoms to adult ADHD, while emotional dyscontrol is more distinct but nonetheless part of the combined presentation of adult ADHD.

  14. Craniopharyngioma in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zoicas, Flavius; Schöfl, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing benign tumors of the sellar and parasellar region with an overall incidence rate of approximately 1.3 per million. During adulthood there is a peak incidence between 40 and 44 years. There are two histopathological types, the adamantinomatous and the papillary type. The later type occurs almost exclusively in adult patients. The presenting symptoms develop over years and display a wide spectrum comprising visual, endocrine, hypothalamic, neurological, and neuropsychological manifestations. Currently, the main treatment option consists in surgical excision followed by radiation therapy in case of residual tumor. Whether gross total or partial resection should be preferred has to be balanced on an individual basis considering the extent of the tumor (e.g., hypothalamic invasion). Although the overall long-term survival is good it is often associated with substantial morbidity. Preexisting disorders are often permanent or even exacerbated by treatment. Endocrine disturbances need careful replacement and metabolic sequelae should be effectively treated. Regular follow-up by a multidisciplinary team is a prerequisite for optimal outcome of these patients. PMID:22654868

  15. Adult hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Yasawy, Mohamed Ismail; Folsch, Ulrich Richard; Schmidt, Wolfgang Eckhard; Schwend, Michael

    2009-05-21

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an under-recognized, preventable life-threatening condition. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with subnormal activity of aldolase B in the liver, kidney and small bowel. Symptoms are present only after the ingestion of fructose, which leads to brisk hypoglycemia, and an individual with continued ingestion will exhibit vomiting, abdominal pain, failure to thrive, and renal and liver failure. A diagnosis of HFI was made in a 50-year-old woman on the basis of medical history, response to IV fructose intolerance test, demonstration of aldolase B activity reduction in duodenal biopsy, and molecular analysis of leukocyte DNA by PCR showed homozygosity for two doses of mutant gene. HFI may remain undiagnosed until adult life and may lead to disastrous complications following inadvertent fructose or sorbitol infusion. Several lethal episodes of HFI following sorbitol and fructose infusion have been reported. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history, and this can present serious complications.

  16. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning.

  17. Occupation and adult gliomas.

    PubMed

    Carozza, S E; Wrensch, M; Miike, R; Newman, B; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A; Yost, M; Lee, M

    2000-11-01

    Lifetime job histories from a population-based, case-control study of gliomas diagnosed among adults in the San Francisco Bay area between August 1991 and April 1994 were evaluated to assess occupational risk factors. Occupational data for 476 cases and 462 controls were analyzed, with adjustment for age, gender, education, and race. Imprecise increased risks were observed for physicians and surgeons (odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 17.6), artists (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.5, 6.5), foundry and smelter workers (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 13.1), petroleum and gas workers (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 42.2), and painters (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 4.9). Legal and social service workers, shippers, janitors, motor vehicle operators, and aircraft operators had increased odds ratios only with longer duration of employment. Physicians and surgeons, foundry and smelter workers, petroleum and gas workers, and painters showed increased risk for both astrocytic and nonastrocytic tumors. Artists and firemen had increased risk for astrocytic tumors only, while messengers, textile workers, aircraft operators, and vehicle manufacturing workers showed increased risk only for nonastrocytic tumors. Despite study limitations, including small numbers for many of the occupational groups, a high percentage of proxy respondents among cases, and lack of specific exposure information, associations were observed for several occupations previously reported to be at higher risk for brain tumors generally and gliomas specifically.

  18. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  19. Adult outcomes of preterm children.

    PubMed

    Hack, Maureen

    2009-10-01

    The survivors of the initial years of neonatal intensive care of preterm infants reached adulthood during the last decade. Reports of their adult outcomes examined have included neurodevelopmental, behavioral and health outcomes as well as social functioning and reproduction. Despite statistically significant differences between preterm young adults and controls in most outcomes studied, the majority of preterm survivors do well and live fairly normal lives. The two major predictors of adult outcomes are lower gestational age that reflect perinatal injury and family sociodemographic status which reflects both genetic and environmental effects.

  20. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  1. Nonverbal learning disability: adult outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dugbartey, A T

    2000-07-01

    There are few empirical studies of the adult outcomes of nonverbal learning disability (NLD). An overwhelming majority of NLD studies has been devoted to the nature of academic difficulties of school children, whereas the few follow-up studies have tended to be limited to college-age young adults. Herein, it is argued that the problems of adults with NLD do not fall solely in academic areas, and that early academic remediation programs might do well to include intervention in emotional and social skills enhancement.

  2. Silencing two herbivory-activated MAP kinases, SIPK and WIPK, does not increase Nicotiana attenuata's susceptibility to herbivores in the glasshouse and in nature.

    PubMed

    Meldau, Stefan; Wu, Jianqiang; Baldwin, Ian T

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are activated by Manduca sexta attack and elicitors to mediate defense signaling in Nicotiana attenuata. Here, the ecological consequences of SIPK and WIPK silencing for N. attenuata's resistance to M. sexta and its other native herbivores were analyzed. Stably transformed plants with reduced expression of NaSIPK (irNaSIPK) and NaWIPK(irNaWIPK) were generated and characterized in field and glasshouse experiments. Both irNaSIPK and irNaWIPK plants had reduced direct and indirect defenses but were not particularly susceptible in nature. In the glasshouse, M. sexta larvae consumed less and gained the same mass on irNaSIPK and irNaWIPK as on wild-type (WT) plants. Green leaf volatile (GLV) emission was highly attenuated in irNaSIPK and irNaWIPK plants, and complementation with synthetic GLVs increased M. sexta performance. To test the hypothesis that reduced GLV emissions account for the lack of herbivory phenotype, GLV emissions were attenuated by silencing NaHPL in jasmonate-deficient plants (asNaLOX3), which are highly susceptible to herbivores. Reducing GLV emissions in asNaLOX3 plants 'rescued' these plants from being heavily damaged by M. sexta. GLV emissions in irNaSIPK and irNaWIPK plants may compensate for the impaired defenses of NaSIPK- and NaWIPK-silenced plants in nature by reducing their apparency to herbivores.

  3. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  4. Therapeutic Recreation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1993-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation is a means of empowering individuals with disabilities through arts or sports. The field has developed differently in the United States and the United Kingdom; the former emphasizes professionalization and the latter the right to adult education. (SK)

  5. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  6. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  7. Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, vaccinations, ...

  8. Split liver transplantation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues. PMID:27672272

  9. Adult Education and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Francis A.

    1972-01-01

    Author discussed American public's shifts in values and priorities" and suggests that adult educators become involved in 'real politique'" in order to help form public policy in the future. (Author/SP)

  10. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... training for health care providers. Learn More Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... older. What You Can Do to Prevent Hip Fractures You can prevent hip fractures by taking steps ...

  11. Collaborative Writing for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Lee; Irwin, Annabelle

    1992-01-01

    Presents a dialogue between the authors on what it is like to collaborate in writing young adult fiction. Discusses their writing processes, how they come up with ideas for their books, and how they get the books published. (RS)

  12. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  13. Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

  14. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fractures if needed annual flu shots. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Many older adults living at home eat ... so serious that a condition known as protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) develops. Sometimes, PCM occurs after a ...

  15. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Resources Clinical Trials Share Older Adults and Mental Health Overview It’s just as important for an older ... this helpline, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), to receive immediate counseling. Calling ...

  16. Prosthetic aspects in adult osteopetrosis.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoichiro; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Tomita, Yoko; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare condition characterized by skeletal sclerosis caused by dysfunctional osteoclasts. Though many reports have described severe infantile-malignant autosomal recessive OP, few have described the prosthetic management of adult OP. This report discusses the prosthetic treatment of adult OP. Although prosthodontists should try to reconstruct occlusal function as much as possible, a conservative prosthodontic approach may be a reasonable and recommended treatment option for minimizing the risk of further osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis.

  17. Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Robert

    The Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS) aims to reach eight and a half million adults between ages 25 and 44 and teach them reading and math skills they can use at home and on the job. ALPS proposes to reach those who have never finished high school but do have at least a sixth-grade reading level. They could use their new skills to prepare for…

  18. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes.

  19. Anaphor Comprehension in Younger and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Miura, Shari A.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated adult age differences in language comprehension with groups of young adults (age 20-35), young old adults (age 55-69), and old old adults (age 70-87). The results suggest that speed of comprehension processes required to match related terms in sentence pairs is not impaired with age as long as terms do not have to be remembered.…

  20. Adult Education and Development, No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This serial issue contains a total of 26 articles grouped under five headings: "Adult Learning: A Key for the Twenty-First Century (Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Confintea V))"; "Trends in Adult Education Policy" (Belanger); "Adult Education in Modern Times" (Geissler); "From Criticism to…

  1. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  2. Competency-Based Adult Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    This resource guide for adult education personnel describes programs and publications on APL (Adult Performance Level) and Competency-Based Adult Education (CBAE). Includes: (1) Descriptions of APL examination programs developed by the American College Testing Program, (2) brief description of Missouri project on the identification of adult basic…

  3. The Faith Development of Selected Adult Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Margaret

    Theories and studies of adult development are largely confined to adult male career development and ignore a moral or faith dimension of adult development. To determine the faith and moral dimension of adult couples, three hypotheses were examined, i.e.,: (1) religion is a significant dimension in their consciousness; (2) the family is integrally…

  4. Instructional Resources. Training and Adult Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Susann L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Describes training and adult education resources available from ERIC: "Applications of an Adult Motivational Instructional Design Model"; "Visual and Digital Technologies for Adult Learning"; "Applications of Computer-Aided Instruction in Adult Education and Literacy"; and "The San Diego CWELL Project. Report of…

  5. Literacy Education in Adult Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruidenier, John

    2002-01-01

    Adult basic education programs, sometimes called adult basic and secondary education programs, typically serve adults over the age of sixteen who do not have a high school diploma and are no longer eligible for traditional secondary education programs. Although adult basic education (ABE) is situated apart from the elementary, secondary, and…

  6. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  7. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  8. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  9. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  10. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  11. Acute Psychiatric Hospital Admissions of Adults and Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the records of 240 inpatients with mental retardation and 7 with autism discharged from a university hospital indicated that elderly adults had more medical problems than did adults, more elderly adults were transferred to a state hospital, and the most common diagnosis in both adults and elderly adults was chronic schizophrenia,…

  12. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  13. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Eng, W S; Robles, S; Vogt, R G; Wiśniewski, J R; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural 3H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated [125I]12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added 125I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of [125I]12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  14. Weight Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Lydia E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Batsis, John A.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality is lost), the increase risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults, the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population, and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  15. Pharmacotherapy considerations in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2012-08-01

    Life expectancy for Americans has increased dramatically since 1900, as have the available pharmacotherapeutic options. Unfortunately, pharmacotherapy mishaps occur commonly in the older adult population. This problem greatly affects the morbidity and mortality of elderly patients and greatly increases healthcare costs. To improve patient care among elderly adults, healthcare practitioners must consider several issues when developing a pharmacotherapy plan. A thorough understanding of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and several other factors is necessary for practitioners to develop a safe and effective drug therapy plan for older adults. This review provides a general but comprehensive review of the issues pertaining to pharmacotherapy in elderly people and offers several suggestions for improving their pharmaceutical care.

  16. Adult-onset food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  17. Adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Sola, J.; Casademont, J.; Grau, J. M.; Graus, F.; Cardellach, F.; Pedrol, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are polymorphic entities which may affect many organs and systems. Skeletal muscle involvement is frequent in the context of systemic mitochondrial disease, but adult-onset pure mitochondrial myopathy appears to be rare. We report 3 patients with progressive skeletal mitochondrial myopathy starting in adult age. In all cases, the proximal myopathy was the only clinical feature. Mitochondrial pathology was confirmed by evidence of ragged-red fibres in muscle histochemistry, an abnormal mitochondrial morphology in electron microscopy and by exclusion of other underlying diseases. No deletions of mitochondrial DNA were found. We emphasize the need to look for a mitochondrial disorder in some non-specific myopathies starting in adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1589382

  18. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  19. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  20. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community

  1. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  2. The Adult Literacy League and the Center for Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, William Michael; Nelson, Floride

    Since its foundation in 1968, the Adult Literacy League of Orlando, Florida, has dedicated itself to eradicating the educational handicaps of more than 2,575 local residents. The League, which in 1975 became part of the Open Campus of Valencia Community College (VCC), offers two courses: (1) a Literacy Tutor Training Workshop, a 10-hour program to…

  3. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annual list of adult mystery titles (in print as of September 1999) to recommend to teenagers, as well as recently published mystery readers advisory sources or nonfiction mystery-related titles that school and public libraries may want for their collections. (AEF)

  4. Aging and Adult Education: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kamp, Max

    By the year 2000, at least 20 percent of Europeans will be over 60 years old. As the labor force ages, older employees will have to contribute more to the productivity of organizations. Due to rapid technological changes, more retraining will be required. Education can fulfill important functions for older adults, but their learning style must be…

  5. Binding of the CryIVD Toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to Larval Dipteran Midgut Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, F.; Dullemans, A.; Waalwijk, C.

    1995-01-01

    Ligand-blotting experiments on dipteran brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) showed binding of CryIVD toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to proteins of 148 kDa in Anopheles stephensi and of 78 kDa in Tipula oleracea, both species being susceptible to CryIVD. Binding of CryIVD with BBMVs of A. stephensi resulted in a stronger signal than with BBMVs of T. oleracea. Likewise, larvae of A. stephensi are 10,000-fold more susceptible to the CryIVD toxin than are larvae of T. oleracea. Binding was also found with six proteins ranging in size from 48 to 110 kDa in BBMVs from the lepidopteran species Manduca sexta, but CryIVD was not toxic for M. sexta larvae. No binding of trypsinated CryIVD to BBMV proteins was observed. With the lepidopteran-specific toxin CryIA(b), no binding to dipteran BBMVs was found. Binding of CryIA(b) to nine different BBMV proteins ranging in size from 71 to 240 kDa was observed in M. sexta. The major binding signal was observed with a protein of 240 kDa for CryIA(b). PMID:16535074

  6. Proteolytic activation of pro-spätzle is required for the induced transcription of antimicrobial peptide genes in lepidopteran insects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Cheng, Tingcai; Rayaprolu, Subrahmanyam; Zou, Zhen; Xia, Qingyou; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Jiang, Haobo

    2007-01-01

    Microbial infection leads to proteolytic activation of Drosophila spätzle, which binds to the toll receptor and induces the synthesis of immune proteins. To test whether or not this mechanism exists in lepidopteran insects, we cloned the cDNA of Bombyx mori spätzle-1 and overexpressed the full-length and truncated BmSpz1 cDNA in Escherichia coli. The insoluble fusion proteins were affinity-purified under denaturing condition. After the silkworm larvae were injected with renatured BmSpz1, mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptide genes greatly increased. Similar transcriptional up-regulation was also found in Manduca sexta. Injection of pro-BmSpz1 had no such effect. When pro-BmSpz1 and Micrococcus luteus were incubated with the plasma from M. sexta larvae, we detected proteolytic processing of pro-BmSpz1. These results suggest that active spätzle is required for the induced production of antimicrobial peptides in B. mori and M. sexta. PMID:17337053

  7. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  8. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Emonet, Stéphane; Harbarth, Stephan; van Delden, Christian

    2011-04-27

    Urinary tract infections are commonly seen by general practitioners. Quinolones are frequently prescribed in this setting. The emergence of resistance to these antibiotics has led to new guidelines for the management of uncomplicated UTI, based on the use of fosfomycin and furadantine. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults.

  9. Motivational Profiles of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothes, Ana; Lemos, Marina S.; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated profiles of autonomous and controlled motivation and their effects in a sample of 188 adult learners from two Portuguese urban areas. Using a person-centered approach, results of cluster analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance revealed four motivational groups with different effects in self-efficacy, engagement,…

  10. Walking Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most ppular form of exercise among older adults and it's a great choice. What can walking do for you? strengthen muscles help prevent weight gain lower risks of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and osteoporosis improve balance lower the likelihood of falling If ...

  11. Compulsory Medical Treatment of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riga, Peter J.

    1976-01-01

    The compulsory medical treatment of adults is discussed with regard to the legal authority relevant to the problem. Attention is directed toward the "right to die" issue, the public interest and individual freedom of conscious or religion, and the courts' dealing with the freedom of the individual to control his own body. (LBH)

  12. Morphological Processing in Adult Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Mark; Hagit, Even Zur

    2006-01-01

    This study employed the masked-priming paradigm [Forster and Davis (J Exp Psychol bearn Mem Cogn 10: 680-698, 1984).], along with traditional methods of evaluation of morphological awareness and phonological processing, to obtain a finer-grained picture of the relationship between morphological abilities and reading in adult dyslexic readers.…

  13. Adult Height and Childhood Disease

    PubMed Central

    BOZZOLI, CARLOS; DEATON, ANGUS; QUINTANA-DOMEQUE, CLIMENT

    2009-01-01

    Taller populations are typically richer populations, and taller individuals live longer and earn more. In consequence, adult height has recently become a focus in understanding the relationship between health and wealth. We investigate the childhood determinants of population adult height, focusing on the respective roles of income and of disease. Across a range of European countries and the United States, we find a strong inverse relationship between postneonatal (ages 1 month to 1 year) mortality, interpreted as a measure of the disease and nutritional burden in childhood, and the mean height of those children as adults. Consistent with these findings, we develop a model of selection and stunting in which the early-life burden of undernutrition and disease not only is responsible for mortality in childhood but also leaves a residue of long-term health risks for survivors, risks that express themselves in adult height and in late-life disease. The model predicts that at sufficiently high mortality levels, selection can dominate scarring, leaving a taller population of survivors. We find evidence of this effect in the poorest and highest-mortality countries of the world, supplementing recent findings on the effects of the Great Chinese Famine. PMID:20084823

  14. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  15. Adult Students: A Priority Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugart, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Many practices in higher education evolved significantly from 1985 to 2005. The presence of adult degree completion programs in colleges and universities of all types proliferated, with satellite campuses for this purpose in metropolitan areas often far removed from the "home campus." MBA programs multiplied during this same time, as did online…

  16. Is Adult Learning Demanding Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a fascinating time for adult learning in the UK. With a plethora of reviews reaching report stage alongside ongoing discussion about funding, qualifications and quality and the review of post-16 planning and funding in Wales, there is a real sense that things are about to change after a decade of well-meant but often misfocused reform.…

  17. Adult Career Assessment: Personality Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansickle, Timothy R.; Russell, Mary T.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of five assessment instruments and discusses their contribution to adult career development: (1) California Personality Inventory; (2) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (3) Personality Research Form; (4) Occupational Stress Inventory; and (5) Personal Career Development Profile. Includes information about publishers, intended…

  18. Enhancing the Adult Classroom Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkenwald, Gordon G.

    1989-01-01

    The Adult Classroom Environment Scale measures seven dimensions of teacher behaviors or style: involvement, affiliation, teacher support, task orientation, personal goal attainment, organization and clarity, and student influence. Comparison of profiles of students' actual and ideal environments showed that students most wanted involvement,…

  19. Adult Literacy Program Personnel Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metis Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    A study was conducted to find out about the people who conduct and work in adult literacy programs in New York City (NYC). Through a questionnaire distributed to NYC literacy practitioners working in programs operated by public libraries, the City University of New York, the New York City Board of Education, and community-based organizations, the…

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANYON, RICHARD I.; SCHWARTZ, MILTON M.

    TWO PAPERS ARE INCLUDED IN THIS BULLETIN. THE MILTON SCHWARTZ PAPER, "THEORIES OF MOTIVATION AND THEIR APPLICATION TO ADULT EDUCATION," SURVEYS THE THINKING, RESEARCH, AND CONCLUSIONS OF SOME OF THE LEADING FIGURES CONCERNED WITH SOCIAL MOTIVATION. THE AUTHOR ATTEMPTS TO CLASSIFY THESE THEORIES BY GENERATING A TWO-DIMENSIONAL SCHEMA OF…

  1. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  2. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  3. Adult Education and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2008-01-01

    Due to the effects of global warming, writes Field, everyone now lives in times of plague, floods, and famine. While the UK government's track record on green issues is not all bad, still it is vulnerable to criticism. In this article, the author discusses what adult education has to offer to the environmental movement, despite existing…

  4. How Adults Learn. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, J. R.

    The book's emphasis is on learning during the years of adulthood and examines present-day practice of adult education for practitioners. This revised edition brings up to date advances in such areas of learning as controversial theory; the effects of environment; sensory processes; intellectual capacities; motivation and attitude; transactional…

  5. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older If you’re older, you may wonder if it’s too late ... it can be challenging to quit when you're older, there are proven ways to do it. ...

  6. The Economics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As the "Hamburg Declaration" makes clear, adult education (AE) is a key component of development strategies that seek to ensure the long-term well-being of nations. Yet, with few exceptions most countries systematically underinvest in AE. Of course, it is no easy task to achieve adequate investment levels that reflect an appropriate balance…

  7. NGO Perspectives on Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2004-01-01

    Since 2000, the only serious attempt to mobilise new resources for education has been the World Bank's co-ordinated "Fast Track Initiative (FTI)." However, the FTI only raises funds for achieving universal completion of primary school and it does not address early childhood education or adult literacy. To date the Global Campaign for Education has…

  8. Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Sarah A; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2016-02-01

    Cancer screening is an important tool for reducing morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In this article, performance characteristics of commonly used screening tests for colorectal, lung, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers are discussed. Guidelines are emphasized and key issues to consider in screening older adults are highlighted.

  9. Intelligence Differentiation in Adult Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abad, Francisco J.; Colom, Robert; Juan-Espinosa, Manuel; Garcia, Luis F.

    2003-01-01

    Results for 3,340 participants taking a battery of cognitive tests and an analysis of the Spanish standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III support the differentiation of intelligence across the range of ability, with WAIS-III results more supportive of the differentiation theory. (SLD)

  10. Assessing Adult Literacy by Telephone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.; And Others

    Recently, several industrialized nations have engaged in extensive and expensive assessments of adult literacy using door-to-door surveys and tests of "functional" reading. A study examined the use of simple checklists of author's names, magazine titles, famous people's names, and vocabulary works used earlier by West, Stanovich and Miller (1993)…

  11. Computer Technology in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slider, Patty; Hodges, Kathy; Carter, Cea; White, Barbara

    This publication provides materials to help adult educators use computer technology in their teaching. Section 1, Computer Basics, contains activities and materials on these topics: increasing computer literacy, computer glossary, parts of a computer, keyboard, disk care, highlighting text, scrolling and wrap-around text, setting up text,…

  12. The Older Adult and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger

    According to recent census figures, 10% of today's population are over 65 years old. It has often been stated that individual learning needs and capabilities decline with age. To challenge this idea, a study was conducted to gather information about older adults, their learning interests, activities, and obstacles. Four hypotheses were tested…

  13. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, David W; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    The biology of aging and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap, with the effect that CVD is endemic in the growing population of older adults. Moreover, CVD in older adults is usually complicated by age-related complexities, including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, and other intricacies that add to the risks of ambiguous symptoms, deconditioning, iatrogenesis, falls, disability, and other challenges. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with cardiovascular conditions. Although CR was originally designed primarily as an exercise training program for younger adults after a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, it has evolved as a comprehensive lifestyle program (promoting physical activity as well as education, diet, risk reduction, and adherence) for a broader range of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and valvular heart disease). It provides a valuable opportunity to address and moderate many of the challenges pertinent for the large and growing population of older adults with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation promotes physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness as well as strength and balance) that helps overcome disease and deconditioning as well as related vulnerabilities such as disability, frailty, and falls. Similarly, CR facilitates education, monitoring, and guidance to reduce iatrogenesis and promote adherence. Furthermore, CR fosters cognition, socialization, and independence in older patients. Yet despite all its conceptual benefits, CR is significantly underused in older populations. This review discusses benefits and the paradoxical underuse of CR, as well as evolving models of care that may achieve greater application and efficacy.

  14. Radical Ideas in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohliger, John

    The outline for an adult education colloquim states 17 discussion questions. Under each question, the outline refers to appropriate items on an eight page, 81-item, annotated bibliography. The first of three topical areas, ideas about people, considers: all people's desire to learn and their rough equality in intelligence; common people's ability…

  15. Parental Caregiving by Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Eleanor Palo

    1983-01-01

    Explored the impact of employment and familial responsibilities on the assistance provided to elderly parents (N=153) by adult children (N=502). Results showed hours of assistance varied with the level of parental impairment, the presence of the older parents' spouse, and competing demands on the helpers' time. (JAC)

  16. Boosting Adult Learning. Working Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, David

    Too many of Britain's workforce lack the skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. To remedy this will require the commitment, in time and resources, of individuals, employers, the education and training infrastructure and the state. Adults with the lowest qualifications have the least access to employer-funded training, especially in small…

  17. Essential English for Micronesian Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Jo Ann; Reinecke, Hank

    This student workbook is designed to help Micronesian adults learn everyday English. Its ten chapters move from simple one-word picture labeling to more abstract ideas in a spiraled fashion, reiterating the essential elements of the English language in different, more complicated ways. Subjects covered include names for everyday objects and…

  18. Moral Dilemmas of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rest, James R.

    This study describes moral dilemmas that young adults (ages 18-24) formulate spontaneously and examines the relationship between these dilemmas and the subjects' environment and scores on a standardized test. Fifty-two subjects were tested both in 1976 and 1978, creating 104 subject-oriented dilemmas. Thirty-two were in college, 17 were not, and…

  19. Metacognitive Aspects of Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Scott; Parecki, Andrea

    This report considers the various facets of metacognition and their relation to adult literacy. The first section provides definitions of literacy and discusses the issue of single versus multiple factor hypotheses. The second section looks at the foundation of research on metacognition and literacy development in children. It examines whether…

  20. National Adult Physical Fitness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Newsletter, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This report of a personal interview research survey conducted for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 1972 presents the following findings: (a) 45 percent of all adult Americans do not engage in any form of exercise; (b) walking is the most popular form of exercise, followed by bicycle riding, swimming, calisthenics, bowling,…

  1. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  2. Faith Development in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulik, Richard N.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces the faith development paradigm of James Fowler, describing six stages of faith development: intuitive-projective faith, mythic-literal faith, synthetic-conventional faith, individuating-reflective faith, conjunctive faith, and universalizing faith. Reviews one research project in which Fowler's paradigm was applied to older adults.…

  3. Where Now for Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

  4. Young Adults' Choices for 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents annotations of 30 trade books on the 2008 list of Young Adults' Choices that are the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Trade books (books other than textbooks) published in 2006 were submitted by more than 50 publishers. Each book had to have at least two positive reviews from…

  5. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  6. Adult Education and Development, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These two issues of a half-yearly journal for adult education cover Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Number 40 consists of 35 articles on 4 themes: Multicultural dimensions; environmental learning; cooperation and partnership with Eastern Europe; and women and training. Articles include: "It Is Time to Understand that the World Belongs to All…

  7. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  8. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    MedlinePlus

    ... state's health department . Some states have registries (Immunization Information Systems) that include adult vaccines. Unfortunately, there is no national organization that maintains vaccination records. The Centers for Disease ... (CDC) does not have this information. What To Do If You Can't Find ...

  9. Atkinson Center Adult Learning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester County Opportunities Industrialization Center, West Chester, PA.

    An evening adult literacy program was developed to provide pre-General Educational Development (GED) instruction to residents of a men's shelter who desired to become dry cleaners pressers. Because an intake assessment of the 32 enrollees revealed that only 34% of them were high school dropouts and more than 50% had some college background, the…

  10. Metric Education for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    1978-01-01

    The metric education program developed at Okaloosa-Walton Junior College, Niceville, Florida, for students and the community in general consists of three components: a metric measurement course; multimedia labor for independent study; and metric signs located throughout the campus. Instructional approaches for adult students are noted. (MF)

  11. Adult Basic Education; Operations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

    This publication is an administrative guide for Missouri school administrators and local adult basic education supervisors. First, general information is given as to legislative authority, standards for approval, procedures for implementation, expenditures and reimbursement, teacher qualifications, program administration, student eligibility and…

  12. Young adults as users of adult healthcare: experiences of young adults with complex or life-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Beresford, B; Stuttard, L

    2014-08-01

    Awareness is growing that young adults may have distinctive experiences of adult healthcare and that their needs may differ from those of other adult users. In addition, the role of adult health teams in supporting positive transitions from paediatrics is increasingly under discussion. This paper contributes to these debates. It reports a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults - all with complex chronic health conditions - as users of adult health services. Key findings from the study are reported, including an exploration of factors that help to explain interviewees' experiences. Study findings are discussed in the context of existing evidence from young adults in adult healthcare settings and theories of 'young adulthood'. Implications for training and practice are considered, and priorities for future research are identified.

  13. Cochlear implantation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Chien, Wade W; Li, Lingsheng; Clarrett, Danisa M; Niparko, John K; Francis, Howard W

    2012-09-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe to profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation (CI) is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should CI be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12-year experience with CI in adults aged ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that CI in adults aged ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores, with a mean increase of 60.0% (SD 24.1) on HINT (Hearing in Noise Test) sentences in quiet. The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation, such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1.3 percentage points less (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.6-1.9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40% and 60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10.0 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4-19.6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after CI, with possible implications for current United States Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take

  14. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  15. Adult Basic Education. Southeast Florida Training Center for Adult Literacy Educators Conference Proceedings (Miami, Florida, June 8, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Blanca R., Comp.

    Adult education is an umbrella concept under which come various dimensions, including adult literacy, adult basic education, continued education, continued professional education, and adult vocational education. To be effective, an adult educator must realize that: (1) adults learn differently than children do; (2) adult education must develop…

  16. Clofarabine in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-04

    Solid Tumors; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Adult; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Adult; Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Adult

  17. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your doctor about whether you have osteoporosis. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements ...

  18. Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)

  19. Beyond Fragments: Adults, Motivation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    1995-01-01

    A life history approach can give better understanding of adult motivation to participate in education than quantitative surveys can. Interviews with 30 adults entering higher education illustrate the technique but also raise methodological questions about this form of research. (SK)

  20. Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... will have serious permanent disabilities like brain damage, hearing loss, and limb amputations. FACT: While some adults are at increased risk and need vaccination, adolescents and young adults generally have a higher risk ...

  1. The Dynamic Mandala of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines basic assumptions and principles underlying adult education and describes today's challenges: maintaining democracy, technological changes, explosion of information, global competition/cooperation, environment, and universal human rights. Advocates a holistic world view of adult education. (SK)

  2. Screening for Hepatitis C Infections in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening: (1) Adults at high risk for ... C Virus Infection in Adults Potential Benefits and Harms of Screening and Treatment The Task Force reviewed ...

  3. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  4. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  5. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor ... or someone else, every time I have a seizure? What safety measures do I need to take ...

  6. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  7. Designing Relevant Programs for Urban Black Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Charles

    1974-01-01

    An established set of criteria for developing adult basic education programs for black adults in urban areas is needed. A reported Delphi study resulted in twelve recommended criteria which are described. (MS)

  8. Strengths and satisfaction across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Isaacowitz, Derek M; Vaillant, George E; Seligman, Martin E P

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study of Harvard graduates. In general, older adults had higher levels of interpersonal and self-regulatory strengths, whereas younger adults reported higher levels of strengths related to exploring the world. Grant study men tended to report lower strength levels than older adults from the community. Among the young adults, only hope significantly predicted life satisfaction, whereas among the middle-aged individuals, the capacity for loving relationships was the only predictor. Among community-dwelling older adults, hope, citizenship, and loving relationships all positively and uniquely predicted life satisfaction, compared with loving relationships and appreciation of beauty in the Grant sample.

  9. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Primary Liver Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  11. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  12. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  13. Adult stem cell therapy: dream or reality?

    PubMed

    Moraleda, Jose M; Blanquer, Miguel; Bleda, Patricia; Iniesta, Paqui; Ruiz, Francisco; Bonilla, Sonia; Cabanes, Carmen; Tabares, Lucía; Martinez, Salvador

    2006-12-01

    Adult stem cells may be an invaluable source of plastic cells for tissue regeneration. The bone marrow contains different subpopulations of adult stem cells easily accessible for transplantation. However the therapeutic value of adult stem cell is a question of debate in the scientific community. We have investigated the potential benefits of adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in animal models of demyelinating and motor neuron diseases. Our results suggest that transplantation of HSC have direct and indirect neuroregenerative and neuroprotective effects.

  14. Adult Learning Styles and the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, Karen Pezza

    Malcolm Knowles, in his theory of adult learning (1972, revised 1980), presents adults as motivated, self-directed learners. Basically, once a person starts seeing himself or herself as an adult, he or she has an expectation of being independent in decision-making, valuing personal experience, and desiring respect. Courses, curriculum, and…

  15. Leading Online Learning Initiatives in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen-Tracey, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Adult learners often face barriers to participation in traditional classroom instruction. As technology access grows and adults naturally incorporate technology into their daily lives, adult education programs are finding innovative ways to blend technology with instruction through quality online learning opportunities. This article highlights the…

  16. Mentoring during Adolescence and Adult Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakacki, Pola Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between mentoring and adult resilience, specifically adults that were mentored as adolescents. The study sample comprised of 657 adults from various locations across the country. For this quantitative study, they completed a two-part questionnaire made up of the…

  17. Aging in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Diana B.; Primeaux-Hart, Sharon; Loveland, Katherine A.; Cleveland, Lynne A.; Lewis, Kay R.; Lesser, Jary; Pearson, Pamela L.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sequential design was used to examine changes related to aging in adults with and without Down syndrome (ns = 55 and 75, respectively). Adults received yearly neuropsychological and medical evaluations. Support for precocious aging in adults with Down syndrome was evident only on a test of verbal fluency, with weaker support obtained on a…

  18. Competency-Based Adult Education: Florida Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth

    This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, a multi-year project designed to teach adult administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…

  19. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  20. Adult Skills Training Center: Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalski, John M.; Baratta, Anthony N.

    A 4-phase project, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a bilingual vocational skill training program for out-of-school youth and adults of the Perth Amboy Hispanic community. Sampled were 494 out-of-school youth and adults in the area. Findings include: (1) There is a significant need for an adult vocational skills training…