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Sample records for adult mental disorders

  1. Dyskinetic Movement Disorder among Adults with Mental Retardation: Phenomenology and Co-occurrence with Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of dyskinetic movement disorder and its co-occurrence with stereotypic behavior among adults with mental retardation were studied in 98 adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that stereotypic movement disorder was associated with increased dyskinesia scores and that dyskinesia and stereotypy may be related by common…

  2. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  3. 110 Teachers: Adult Education and Mentally Disordered Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations of British reports on education for mentally disordered prisoners include (1) financial flexibility to purchase educational services; (2) core teams of teachers, social service providers, and solicitors; and (3) 1 full-time teacher for every 15 offenders. (SK)

  4. Referral Trends in Mental Health Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Sturmey, Peter; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have paid increasing attention to mental health issues in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the last decades. However, little is known about how rates of clinical referrals, types of mental health diagnoses and treatment in adults with ASDs and intellectual disability have changed. We examined patterns of change in…

  5. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ... Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a ...

  6. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

  7. Childhood IQ and Adult Mental Disorders: A Test of the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Martin, Laurie T.; Kubzansky, Laura; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders. Method Participants were members of a representative 1972-1973 birth cohort of 1,037 males and females in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed up to age 32 with 96% retention. WISC-R IQ was assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11. Research diagnoses of DSM mental disorders were made at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Results Lower childhood IQ was associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorder, adult depression, and adult anxiety. Lower childhood IQ was also associated with greater comorbidity and with persistence of depression; the association with persistence of generalized anxiety disorder was nearly significant. Higher childhood IQ predicted increased risk of adult mania. Conclusions Lower cognitive reserve, as reflected by childhood IQ, is an antecedent of several common psychiatric disorders and also predicts persistence and comorbidity. Thus, many patients who seek mental health treatment may have lower cognitive ability; this should be considered in prevention and treatment planning. PMID:19047325

  8. Prevention of Mental Disorder in Older Adults: Recent Innovations and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    As the global population is aging, increased efforts should be placed on preventing mental disorders in older adults, as opposed to just focusing on sickness and treatment. We provide an overview of existing innovations in prevention in the domains of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions. These programs have shown that depression and anxiety can be prevented from recurring, incidence of new disorder can be reduced, and general mental health can be promoted. We also give direction for future research to move the field of geriatric mental health prevention forward. PMID:26290620

  9. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Latino and Asian American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report…

  10. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and family history may play a role. Your life experiences, such as stress or a history of abuse, may also matter. Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a mental disorder. A mother's exposure to viruses or toxic chemicals while pregnant may play a ...

  11. Maternal Grand Multiparity and the Risk of Severe Mental Disorders in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Marius; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Lahti, Jari; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Tuovinen, Soile; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Mikkonen, Maiju; Osmond, Clive; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that maternal grand multiparity may predict an increased risk of mental disorders in young adult offspring, but whether such effects persist throughout adulthood remains unknown. The current study examined if maternal grand multiparity predicts the risks of severe mental disorders, suicides, suicide attempts and dementias throughout adult life. Methods Our study sample comprised 13243 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934–1944 participants (6905 men and 6338 women). According to hospital birth records, 341 offspring were born to grand multiparous mothers. From Finnish national hospital discharge and causes of death registers, we identified 1682 participants diagnosed with mental disorders during 1969–2010. Results Maternal grand multiparity predicted significantly increased risks of mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 1.64, p = 0.03), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.02, p = 0.002), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio = 3.94, p = 0.01) in adult offspring. Furthermore, women born to grand multiparous mothers had significantly increased risks of any severe mental disorder (Hazard Ratio = 1.79, p = 0.01), non-psychotic substance use disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.77, p = 0.02) schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.40, p = 0.02), mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.40, p = 0.002), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.91, p<0.001), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio = 5.05, p = 0.01) in adulthood. The effects of maternal grand multiparity on offspring psychopathology risk were independent of maternal age and body mass index at childbirth, and of year of birth, sex, childhood socioeconomic position, and birth weight of the offspring. In contrast, no significant effects were found among men. Conclusions Women born to grand multiparous mothers are at an increased risk of severe mental disorders and suicide attempts across

  12. Growth differences associated with compulsive and stereotyped behavior disorders in adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Powell, S B; Bodfish, J W; Parker, D E; Crawford, T W; Golden, R N; Lewis, M H

    1996-01-01

    We have recently observed that compulsive behaviors in mentally retarded patients appear to be quite prevalent, can be reliably assessed, and have a high rate of co-occurrence with stereotyped and self-injurious behaviors in this population. As abnormal growth rate has been observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, we examined physical stature in adults with mental retardation who display repetitive movement disorders. Identification of cases with stereotypic movement disorder, and cases with compulsive behaviors was done using a symptom checklist and direct observation. Subjects with repetitive movement disorders were smaller in stature than control subjects, with gender differences observed across repetitive behavior disorders. Specifically, female subjects with compulsive behavior disorder, but not stereotypic movement disorder, were significantly shorter and weighted significantly less than same sex-matched controls. Conversely, male subjects with stereotypic movement disorder, but not compulsive disorder, were significantly shorter and weighed significantly less than same sex controls. These findings may point to a neuroendocrine abnormality associated with repetitive movement disorders. PMID:9160607

  13. Marital Status as Contingency for the Effects of Neighborhood Disorder on Older Adults' Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether the effects of neighborhood disorder on changes in levels of depression differ between the married and nonmarried, and whether these differences are because the married are less likely to experience a decrease in mastery due to neighborhood disorder. Methods Data are derived from a longitudinal study of adults aged 65 and older in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area over a 2-year period (2001–2003). Results Neighborhood disorder is positively related to change in depression and negatively related to change in mastery, but only for the nonmarried. Differences between the married and nonmarried in changes in mastery explain differences in effects of neighborhood disorder on change in depression. Conclusion This research contributes to the study of aging and health by demonstrating that neighborhood conditions continue to affect mental health well into late life by shaping older adults' mastery, but a social connection to a marital partner helps mitigate these effects. PMID:19251881

  14. The Relationship between Outpatient Mental Health Treatment and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms and Disorders in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Kosterman, Rick; Williams, James Herbert; Chandler, Kristen; Young, M. Scott; Catalano, Richard F.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate community-based outpatient mental health services for young adults. Methods Participants were interviewed at ages 21, 24, 27, and 30. Outcomes included: (1) symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety, social phobia, dysthymia and post traumatic stress individually and as a global scale; and (2) a dichotomous diagnosis variable inclusive of all above disorders. Treatment was indicated by an outpatient visit to a psychiatrist or other professional. Results Treatment did not reduce mental disorder or symptoms. Substance use, violence, poverty, community disorganization, and family history of antisocial behavior increased risks for negative outcomes, while social support was protective. Conclusions The absence of positive findings associated with outpatient treatment is troubling given the empirically supported interventions for the conditions examined. Practitioners, agencies, and managed care organizations share a responsibility to implement effective and comprehensive interventions. PMID:20186567

  15. Functional Role of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis as a Therapeutic Strategy for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Syed; Rigby, Michael J.; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural stem cells, plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, and mood regulation. In the mammalian brain, it continues to occur well into adulthood in discrete regions, namely, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in the etiology of mental disorders. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly correlated with the remission of the antidepressant effect. In this paper, we discuss three major psychiatric disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, in light of preclinical evidence used in establishing the neurobiological significance of adult neurogenesis. We interpret the significance of these results and pose questions that remain unanswered. Potential treatments which include electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, chemical antidepressants, and exercise therapy are discussed. While consensus lacks on specific mechanisms, we highlight evidence which indicates that these treatments may function via an increase in neural progenitor proliferation and changes to the hippocampal circuitry. Establishing a significant role of adult neurogenesis in the pathogenicity of psychiatric disorders may hold the key to potential strategies toward effective treatment. PMID:23346419

  16. Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

  17. Mental State Decoding Abilities in Young Adults With Borderline Personality Disorder Traits

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Adams, Reginald B.; Stevenson, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to misattribute malevolence to benign social stimuli, including facial expressions. Yet, facial emotion recognition studies examining those with BPD have yielded mixed results, with some studies showing impaired accuracy and others demonstrating enhanced accuracy in the recognition of emotions or mental states. The current study examined the ability to decode mental states from photographs of just the eye region of faces in a nonclinical sample of young adults who exhibited BPD traits (high BPD) compared with those who did not (low BPD). Group differences in mental state decoding ability depended on the valence of the stimuli. The high-BPD group performed better for negative stimuli compared with the low-BPD group, but did not perform significantly different from the low-BPD group for stimuli of neutral or positive valence. The high-BPD group also demonstrated a response bias for attributing negative mental states to facial stimuli. In addition, findings suggested that the group difference in accuracy for negative stimuli could not be explained by response bias, because the group difference in response bias for negative stimuli did not reach significance. These findings suggest that BPD traits may be associated with enhanced ability to detect negative emotions and a bias for attributing negative emotions to nonnegative social stimuli. PMID:22247796

  18. Harmed? Harmful? Experiencing Abusive Adult Children With Mental Disorder Over the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Band-Winterstein, Tova; Avieli, Hila; Smeloy, Yael

    2016-09-01

    Older parents of an adult child coping with a mental disorder that is expressed by violent deviant behavior face significant parenting challenges. The purpose of this article is to explore the ways older parents exposed to abuse by their adult children with mental disorder (ACMD) perceived their child's violent deviant behavior along the life course. In a qualitative-phenomenological study, 16 parents aged 58 to 90 were interviewed in depth. Three major themes emerged: (a) ongoing total care for the child's needs along the life course, (b) constructions and perceptions of the child through the years-Parents perceived their children over two continua, reflecting their experience of the child's deviant behavior: the child as more harmed versus more harmful, the child as normative versus pathological-and (c) the parent's emotional world toward the harmed-harmful child. The findings enable a deeper understanding of the various ways in which parents cope with living with deviant behaviors of their ACMD. Hence, this study can serve as a framework for developing tailored and differential intervention methods. PMID:25854589

  19. Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N; Takeuchi, David

    2007-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report findings from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), a national household probability psychiatric survey of 4,488 Latino and Asian American adults. Approximately 4.8% of persons interviewed identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or reported recent same-gender sexual experiences. Although few sexual orientation-related differences were observed, among men, gay/bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report a recent suicide attempt. Among women, lesbian/bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to evidence positive 1-year and lifetime histories of depressive disorders. These findings suggest a small elevation in psychiatric morbidity risk among Latino and Asian American individuals with a minority sexual orientation. However, the level of morbidity among sexual orientation minorities in the NLAAS appears similar to or lower than that observed in population-based studies of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. PMID:17907860

  20. The Autism Mental Status Exam: Sensitivity and Specificity Using DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Verbally Fluent Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Halpern, Danielle; Parides, Michael; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic heterogeneity of adults suspected of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a standardized diagnostic approach that is feasible in all clinical settings. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the observation and documentation of social, communicative and behavioral signs and…

  1. A systematic review of the predictors of health service utilisation by adults with mental disorders in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Conal D; Baldwin, David S; Hopfe, Maren; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify variables that predict health service utilisation (HSU) by adults with mental disorders in the UK, and to determine the evidence level for these predictors. Design A narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed studies published after the year 2000. The search was conducted using four databases (ie, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus with full text, MEDLINE and EMBASE) and completed on 25 March 2014. Setting The majority of included studies were set in health services across primary, secondary, specialist and inpatient care. Some studies used data from household and postal surveys. Participants Included were UK-based studies that predicted HSU by adults with mental disorders. Participants had a range of mental disorders including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and dementia. Primary outcome A wide range of HSU outcomes were examined, including general practitioner (GP) contacts, medication usage, psychiatrist contacts, psychotherapy attendances, inpatient days, accident and emergency admissions and ‘total HSU’. Results Taking into account study quality, 28 studies identified a range of variables with good preliminary evidence supporting their ability to predict HSU. Of these variables, comorbidity, personality disorder, age (heterogeneous age ranges), neurotic symptoms, female gender, a marital status of divorced, separated or widowed, non-white ethnicity, high previous HSU and activities of daily living, were associated with increased HSU. Moreover, good preliminary evidence was found for associations of accessing a primary care psychological treatment service and medication use with decreased HSU. Conclusions The findings can inform decisions about which variables might be used to derive mental health clusters in ‘payment by results’ systems in the UK. The findings also support the need to investigate whether combining broad diagnoses with care pathways is an effective method for mental health

  2. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  3. Are natural disasters in early childhood associated with mental health and substance use disorders as an adult?

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence risk for mental health and substance use disorders is critical to improve population health and reduce social costs imposed by these disorders. We examine the impact of experiencing a natural disaster-a serious fire, tornado, flood, earthquake, or hurricane-by age five on adult mental health and substance use disorders. The analysis uses data from the 2004 to 2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. The analysis sample includes 27,129 individuals ages 21-64 years. We also exploit information on parenting strategies to study how parents respond to natural disasters encountered by their children. We find that experiencing one or more of these natural disasters by age five increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood, particularly anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Parents alter some, but not all, of their parenting strategies following a natural disaster experienced by their children. It is important to provide support, for example through counseling services and financial assistance, to families and children exposed to natural disasters to mitigate future mental health and substance use problems attributable to such exposure. PMID:26789078

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-IV Mental Disorders in South Korean Adults: The Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Jee Eun; Chung, In-Won; Lee, Young Moon; Bae, Ahn; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Park, Jong-Ik; Son, Jungwoo; Chang, Sung Man; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Kim, Jin Sun; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in Korean adults. Methods Door to door household surveys were conducted with community residents aged 18-74 years from July 19, 2011, to November 16, 2011 (n=6,022, response rate 78.7%). The sample was drawn from 12 catchment areas using a multistage cluster method. Each subject was assessed using the Korean version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates were as follows: alcohol use disorders, 13.4% and 4.4%, respectively; nicotine use disorders, 7.2% and 4.0%, respectively; anxiety disorders, 8.7% and 6.8%, respectively; and mood disorders, 7.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The prevalence rates of all types of DSM-IV mental disorders were 27.6% and 16.0%, respectively. Being female; young; divorced, separated, or widowed; and in a low-income group were associated with mood and anxiety disorders after adjustment for various demographic variables, whereas being male and young were associated with alcohol use disorders. Higher income was not correlated with alcohol use disorder as it had been in the 2001 survey. Conclusion The rate of depressive disorders has increased since 2001 (the first national survey), whereas that of anxiety disorders has been relatively stable. The prevalence of nicotine and alcohol use disorders has decreased, and the male-to-female ratio of those with this diagnosis has also decreased. PMID:25866515

  5. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  6. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  7. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  8. Childhood beauty pageant contestants: associations with adult disordered eating and mental health.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich, Anna L; Ackard, Diann M; Henderson, Judith B

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between childhood beauty pageants and adult disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, and self-esteem. Eleven women who participated in childhood beauty pageants were matched on age and BMI with 11 non-participating women. Childhood pageant participants scored higher on body dissatisfaction, interpersonal distrust, and impulse dysregulation than non-participants, and showed a trend toward greater ineffectiveness. There were no significant differences between groups on measures of bulimia, body perception, depression, and self-esteem. These findings suggest childhood beauty pageant participation may influence adult body dissatisfaction, interpersonal distrust, and impulse dysregulation, but not bulimic behaviors, body perception, depression, and self-esteem. PMID:16864534

  9. Patterns of Heterotypic Continuity Associated With the Cross-Sectional Correlational Structure of Prevalent Mental Disorders in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Zald, David H.; Hakes, Jahn K.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Mental disorders predict future occurrences of both the same disorder (homotypic continuity) and other disorders (heterotypic continuity). Heterotypic continuity is inconsistent with a view of mental disorders as fixed entities. In contrast, hierarchical-dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, in which each form of psychopathology is hypothesized to have both unique and broadly shared etiologies and mechanisms, predict both homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Objective To test predictions derived from a hierarchical-dimensional model of psychopathology that (a) heterotypic continuity is widespread, even controlling for homotypic continuity, and (b) the relative magnitudes of heterotypic continuities recapitulate the relative magnitudes of cross-sectional correlations among diagnoses at baseline. Design Assess 10 prevalent diagnoses in the same persons 3 years apart. Setting Representative sample of adults in the United States. Participants The 28,958 participants in the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Condition aged 18–64 years who were assessed in both waves. Main Outcome Measure Diagnoses from reliable and valid structured interviews. Results Bivariate associations of all pairs of diagnoses from wave 1 to wave 2 exceeded chance levels for all homotypic (tetrachoric ρ = 0.41 – 0.79, median = 0.54) and for nearly all heterotypic continuities (tetrachoric ρ = 0.07 – 0.50, median = 0.28), adjusted for sex and age. Significant heterotypic continuity was widespread even when all other wave 1 diagnoses (including the same diagnosis) were simultaneous predictors of each wave 2 diagnosis. The rank correlation between age and sex adjusted tetrachoric ρs for cross-sectional associations among wave 1 diagnoses and heterotypic associations from wave 1 to wave 2 diagnoses was ρ = .86. Conclusions and Relevance For these prevalent mental disorders, heterotypic continuity was nearly universal and not an artifact of failure to

  10. Stressors and common mental disorder in informal carers – An analysis of the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Smuk, Melanie; Onwumere, Juliana; Clark, Charlotte; Pike, Cleo; McManus, Sally; Harris, Jenny; Bebbington, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates potential explanations of the association between caring and common mental disorder, using the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. We examined whether carers are more exposed to other stressors additional to caring – such as domestic violence and debt – and if so whether this explains their elevated rates of mental disorder. We analysed differences between carers and non-carers in common mental disorders (CMD), suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, recent stressors, social support, and social participation. We used multivariate models to investigate whether differences between carers and non-carers in identifiable stressors and supports explained the association between caring and CMD, as measured by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. The prevalence of CMD (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.37–1.97), suicidal thoughts in the last week (OR = 2.71 95% CI 1.31–5.62) and fatigue (OR = 1.33 95% CI 1.14–1.54) was increased in carers. However, caring remained independently associated with CMD (OR = 1.58 1.30–1.91) after adjustment for other stressors and social support. Thus caring itself is associated with increased risk of CMD that is not explained by other identified social stressors. Carers should be recognized as being at increased risk of CMD independent of the other life stressors they have to deal with. Interventions aimed at a direct reduction of the stressfulness of caring are indicated. However, carers also reported higher rates of debt problems and domestic violence and perceived social support was slightly lower in carers than in non-carers. So carers are also more likely to experience stressors other than caring and it is likely that they will need support not only aimed at their caring role, but also at other aspects of their lives. PMID:25259657

  11. [Mental disorders and dangerous acting out].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The major mental disorders which are most likely to lead to dangerous acting out are adult psychoses (schizophrenia and paranoia) and severe mood disorders (major depressive episodes and mania). Good knowledge of the symptomatology of these pathologies and their identification can help to anticipate and prevent much of the violence which people with these disorders may inflict on others or themselves. After mental assessment, those who commit wrongful and criminal acts may be ruled to be criminally irresponsible. They are then handed over to the relevant health care authorities for treatment for their mental disorders. PMID:25751907

  12. Endocannabinoids and Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Zamberletti, Erica; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical data fully support the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the etiopathogenesis of several mental diseases. In this review we will briefly summarize the most common alterations in the endocannabinoid system, in terms of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid levels, present in mood disorders (anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and suicidality) as well as psychosis (schizophrenia) and autism. The arising picture for each pathology is not always straightforward; however, both animal and human studies seem to suggest that pharmacological modulation of this system might represent a novel approach for treatment. PMID:26408164

  13. [Assessment and treatment of developmental disorder traits in adult mental disorder: from the viewpoint of maladjustment in a company and university].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the maladjustment reaction of adults with autism spectrum disorders such as Asperger syndrome to a working environment or university setting, from the viewpoint of a psychiatrist seeing them in areas of occupational and college mental health. The author is in charge of a day care program for company workers, called "The Return-to-Work Support Course", at a mental clinic. A total of 176 patients attended the program and most of them were originally diagnosed with depression and/or adjustment disorder. The author noted that five of them showed some traits of developmental disorder. They initially had been capable specialists at work, but started showing mental and psychosocial dysfunction as they received promotions and became team leaders or managers. It seems that changes in their work environment involving their superiors, co-workers, the organization, etc., easily affected their work performance and triggered their maladjustment, and finally caused their leave of absence. The author also works in a university student counseling room, and noted that some students started to show maladjustment in the course of writing their graduation thesis or applying for jobs, although they previously had performed fairly well at university. They could not maintain good communication with thesis advisers, could not perform adequately during a group discussion at a job interview, or could not cope with personnel offices appropriately. After being interviewed, they were diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Not only child psychiatrists but all psychiatrists should have a sufficient knowledge of developmental disorders, and they need to be cautious when they diagnose patients and inform them. PMID:23944126

  14. Twelve-month prevalence, comorbidity and correlates of mental disorders in Germany: the Mental Health Module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH).

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Frank; Höfler, Michael; Siegert, Jens; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Busch, Markus A; Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides up to date prevalence estimates of mental disorders in Germany derived from a national survey (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, Mental Health Module [DEGS1-MH]). A nationally representative sample (N = 5318) of the adult (18-79) population was examined by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DEGS-CIDI) to assess symptoms, syndromes and diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR (25 diagnoses covered). Of the participants 27.7% met criteria for at least one mental disorder during the past 12 months, among them 44% with more than one disorder and 22% with three or more diagnoses. Most frequent were anxiety (15.3%), mood (9.3%) and substance use disorders (5.7%). Overall rates for mental disorders were substantially higher in women (33% versus 22% in men), younger age group (18-34: 37% versus 20% in age group 65-79), when living without a partner (37% versus 26% with partnership) or with low (38%) versus high socio-economic status (22%). High degree of urbanization (> 500,000 inhabitants versus < 20,000) was associated with elevated rates of psychotic (5.2% versus 2.5%) and mood disorders (13.9% versus 7.8%). The findings confirm that almost one third of the general population is affected by mental disorders and inform about subsets in the population who are particularly affected. PMID:24729411

  15. Twelve-months prevalence of mental disorders in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults - Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH): a methodological addendum and correction.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Frank; Höfler, Michael; Strehle, Jens; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Busch, Markus A; Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    We recently published findings in this journal on the prevalence of mental disorders from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH). The DEGS1-MH paper was also meant to be the major reference publication for this large-scale German study program, allowing future users of the data set to understand how the study was conducted and analyzed. Thus, towards this goal highest standards regarding transparency, consistency and reproducibility should be applied. After publication, unfortunately, the need for an addendum and corrigendum became apparent due to changes in the eligible reference sample, and corresponding corrections of the imputed data. As a consequence the sample description, sample size and some prevalence data needed amendments. Additionally we identified a coding error in the algorithm for major depression that had a significant effect on the prevalence estimates of depression and associated conditions. This addendum and corrigendum highlights all changes and presents the corrected prevalence tables. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26184561

  16. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  17. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  18. Self-Management of Aggression in an Adult Male with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Terry L.; Altman, Reuben

    1996-01-01

    A community-based social-learning program that combined behavior modification with cognitive intervention was used to help an adult male with a history of aggressive, antisocial behavior develop self-management skills. Results showed a significant decline in physical and nonphysical aggression, allowing the man to maintain competitive employment…

  19. Stratified medicine for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Gunter; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holte, Arne; de Kloet, E Ronald; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Robbins, Trevor W; Walker-Tilley, Tom R; Bitter, Istvan; Brown, Verity J; Buitelaar, Jan; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cools, Roshan; Escera, Carles; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang; Flor, Herta; Frith, Chris D; Heinz, Andreas; Johnsen, Erik; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Klingberg, Torkel; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewis, Shon; Maier, Wolfgang; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller, Christian P; Müller, Walter E; Nutt, David J; Persico, Antonio; Perugi, Giulio; Pessiglione, Mathias; Preuss, Ulrich W; Roiser, Jonathan P; Rossini, Paolo M; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sandi, Carmen; Stephan, Klaas E; Undurraga, Juan; Vieta, Eduard; van der Wee, Nic; Wykes, Til; Haro, Josep Maria; Wittchen, Hans Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    There is recognition that biomedical research into the causes of mental disorders and their treatment needs to adopt new approaches to research. Novel biomedical techniques have advanced our understanding of how the brain develops and is shaped by behaviour and environment. This has led to the advent of stratified medicine, which translates advances in basic research by targeting aetiological mechanisms underlying mental disorder. The resulting increase in diagnostic precision and targeted treatments may provide a window of opportunity to address the large public health burden, and individual suffering associated with mental disorders. While mental health and mental disorders have significant representation in the "health, demographic change and wellbeing" challenge identified in Horizon 2020, the framework programme for research and innovation of the European Commission (2014-2020), and in national funding agencies, clear advice on a potential strategy for mental health research investment is needed. The development of such a strategy is supported by the EC-funded "Roadmap for Mental Health Research" (ROAMER) which will provide recommendations for a European mental health research strategy integrating the areas of biomedicine, psychology, public health well being, research integration and structuring, and stakeholder participation. Leading experts on biomedical research on mental disorders have provided an assessment of the state of the art in core psychopathological domains, including arousal and stress regulation, affect, cognition social processes, comorbidity and pharmacotherapy. They have identified major advances and promising methods and pointed out gaps to be addressed in order to achieve the promise of a stratified medicine for mental disorders. PMID:24176673

  20. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  1. AMTA Monograph Series. Effective Clinical Practice in Music Therapy: Music Therapy for Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Barbara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Whether new to the profession or an experienced clinician, this text provides a wealth of state-of-the-art information for undergraduates, graduates and professionals. This volume covers the wide range of mental disorder diagnoses and addresses specific populations such as forensic and drug and alcohol rehabilitation. How music therapy is used…

  2. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who

  3. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who

  4. Housing First Reduces Re-offending among Formerly Homeless Adults with Mental Disorders: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M.; Rezansoff, Stefanie N.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Palepu, Anita; Patterson, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Homelessness and mental illness have a strong association with public disorder and criminality. Experimental evidence indicates that Housing First (HF) increases housing stability and perceived choice among those experiencing chronic homelessness and mental disorders. HF is also associated with lower residential costs than common alternative approaches. Few studies have examined the effect of HF on criminal behavior. Methods Individuals meeting criteria for homelessness and a current mental disorder were randomized to one of three conditions treatment as usual (reference); scattered site HF; and congregate HF. Administrative data concerning justice system events were linked in order to study prior histories of offending and to test the relationship between housing status and offending following randomization for up to two years. Results The majority of the sample (67%) was involved with the justice system, with a mean of 8.07 convictions per person in the ten years prior to recruitment. The most common category of crime was “property offences” (mean = 4.09). Following randomization, the scattered site HF condition was associated with significantly lower numbers of sentences than treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.72). Congregate HF was associated with a marginally significant reduction in sentences compared to treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.26–1.14). Conclusions This study is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate benefits of HF among a homeless sample with mental illness in the domain of public safety and crime. Our sample was frequently involved with the justice system, with great personal and societal costs. Further implementation of HF is strongly indicated, particularly in the scattered site format. Research examining interdependencies between housing, health, and the justice system is indicated. Trial registration ISRCTN57595077 PMID:24023796

  5. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. PMID:27490515

  6. Mental and Behavioral Disorders among People with Congenital Deafblindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four…

  7. Adoption as a risk factor for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P F; Wells, J E; Bushnell, J A

    1995-08-01

    Although adoption has been viewed as a risk factor for mental disorders in children and adolescents, few studies have investigated this association in adults. To address this question, we analyzed data from a random community sample of adults where the presence of adoption in the first year of life was systematically noted and where the presence of lifetime mental disorders was determined by structured interview. In comparison to individuals raised by both biological parents, adoption was strongly associated with a history of childhood conduct disorder, antisocial personality and drug abuse or dependence. Adoption may thus be a risk factor for these mental disorders. PMID:7572257

  8. Family Impact in Intellectual Disability, Severe Mental Health Disorders and Mental Health Disorders in ID. A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Almudena; Gutierrez-Recacha, Pedro; Irazabal, Marcia; Marsa, Ferran; Garcia, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Family impact (or family burden) is a concept born in the field of mental health that has successfully been exported to the ambit of intellectual disability (ID). However, differences in family impact associated with severe mental health disorders (schizophrenia), to ID or to mental health problems in ID should be expected. Seventy-two adults with…

  9. Community-based services for homeless adults experiencing concurrent mental health and substance use disorders: a realist approach to synthesizing evidence.

    PubMed

    O'Campo, Patricia; Kirst, Maritt; Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole; Firestone, Michelle; Scott, Allison; McShane, Kelly

    2009-11-01

    Consultations with community-based service providers in Toronto identified a lack of strong research evidence about successful community-based interventions that address the needs of homeless clients experiencing concurrent mental health and substance use disorders. We undertook a collaborative research effort between academic-based and community-based partners to conduct a systematic evidence synthesis drawing heavily from Pawson's realist review methodology to focus on both whether programs are successful and why and how they lead to improved outcomes. We examined scholarly and nonscholarly literature to explore program approaches and program elements that lead to improvements in mental health and substance use disorders among homeless individuals with concurrent disorders (CD). Information related to program contexts, elements, and successes and failures were extracted and further supplemented by key informant interviews and author communication regarding reviewed published studies. From the ten programs that we reviewed, we identified six important and promising program strategies that reduce mental health and, to a far lesser degree, substance use problems: client choice in treatment decision-making, positive interpersonal relationships between client and provider, assertive community treatment approaches, providing supportive housing, providing supports for instrumental needs, and nonrestrictive program approaches. These promising program strategies function, in part, by promoting and supporting autonomy among homeless adults experiencing CD. Our realist informed review is a useful methodology for synthesizing complex programming information on community-based interventions. PMID:19760155

  10. Transition to adult mental health services for young people with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a qualitative analysis of their experiences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little research on the process of transition between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS). More recently, there is growing recognition that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may persist into adulthood requiring services beyond age 18. However, despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Guidance which recommends specialist services for adults with ADHD, there is currently a lack of such services in the UK. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences of young people with ADHD during transition from CAMHS to AMHS. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with ADHD patients accessing CAMHS clinics in Nottinghamshire were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Ten semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed. We found that patients’ relationships with their clinician were a key factor in both their reported experience of CAMHS and the transition process. Perceived responsibility of care was also pivotal in how the transition process was viewed. Nature and severity of problems and patients expectations of adult services were also contributing factors in the transition process. The need for continued parental support was openly accepted and thought to be required by the majority of young people with ADHD during transition. Conclusions Timely preparation, joint working, good clinician relationships and parental support serve to facilitate the process of transition for young people with ADHD. Nature and severity of problems are perceived to impede or facilitate transition, with predominantly more ‘complex presentations’ with associated mental health problems more familiar to AMHS (e.g. self-harm, depression) making for smoother transitions to adult services. Transitions to AMHS were more difficult when ADHD was viewed as the main or sole clinical problem. Further exploration of young people’s experiences of transition

  11. Religious Involvement and Mental Disorders in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G.; Zhang, Yuhong; Ma, Wanrui; Huang, Yueqin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study aims to examine the association between religious involvement and mental disorder (anxiety disorder, mood disorder, alcohol use disorder) in a general Chinese population, and explore connections between religious belief and mental disorders in the Hui and Han ethnic groups. Method Data were examined from a representative sample of 2,770 community-dwelling adults in the province of Ningxia located in western China. Self-reported religious attendance and the importance of religious in daily life were measured. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose mental disorders. Results In the overall sample, the importance of religious affiliation was positively associated with mental disorders (especially anxiety) (p<0.01). No association was found between any religious characteristic and mood disorders or alcohol use disorders. With regard to analyses within different ethnic groups, religious affiliation was positively associated with mental disorder in Han ethnicity (p<0.01), but not in Hui ethnicity. When stratified by age and ethnic group, religious affiliation was associated positively with mental disorder in younger Han (p<0.01); whereas high religiosity was associated positively with mental disorder in older Hui (p<0.05). Among older Hui, however, religious affiliation was inversely associated with mood disorder (p<0.05). Conclusions In contrast to most previous studies in Western populations, religious involvement is less likely to be inversely related to mental disorder in Mainland China, although this association varies by age and ethnic group. PMID:26030906

  12. Mental health and disorders. Editorial.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". PMID:24375538

  13. Behavioral Patterns in Mental Health and Mental Illness--Adults: PT IIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Lori

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Patterns in Mental Health and Mental Illness--Adults," a course for nursing and psychiatric technician students on psychopathology, the dynamics of psychiatric disorders, and the behavioral patterns associated with these disorders. A glossary of instruction-related terms is followed by a course description,…

  14. Adherence to Oral Antihyperglycemic Agents Among Older Adults With Mental Disorders and Its Effect on Health Care Costs, Quebec, Canada, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Préville, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nonadherence to oral antihyperglycemic agents (OHAs) leads to an increase in use of health care resources and overall expenditures due to type 2 diabetes and its complications. People with type 2 diabetes are almost twice as likely to have anxiety and depression as the general population. Our aim was to examine health care costs associated with adherence to OHAs and the effect of depression and anxiety disorders on these in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods We used data from a representative sample (N = 2,811) of community-dwelling adults in Quebec aged 65 years or older who participated in the Étude sur la Santé des Aînés survey. The final sample consisted of 301 participants who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and who were taking OHAs. Total health care costs were calculated as the sum of the costs of hospitalizations and outpatient clinic services. Adherence to OHAs was measured using the medication possession ratio. Depression and anxiety disorders were assessed using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. We also analyzed data by the Charlson Comorbidity Index, age, sex, education, and marital status, using generalized linear models. Results Nonadherence among people without depression or anxiety was associated with higher total health care costs ($4,477; 95% confidence interval [CI], $3,754–$5,201; P < .001), as was nonadherence among people with depression or anxiety ($11,124; 95% CI, $9,685–$12,562; P < .001). Conclusion Improving adherence to OHAs among people with type 2 diabetes, particularly those with underlying mental disorders such as depression or anxiety, can decrease health care costs. PMID:26719900

  15. Violence and mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Mullen, P E

    1988-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that certain groups of mentally ill patients are at greater risk of behaving violently. The majority of the violence occurs in established cases of schizophrenia who have drifted out of ongoing care and supervision. Improved community services and more rigorous follow-up of at-risk groups could both improve the quality of life for these patients and reduce the chance of their acting violently. PMID:3067818

  16. Effects of a major U.S. hurricane on mental health disorder symptoms among adolescent and young adult females

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examines the effects of Hurricane Ike-related damage, job loss, injury, and mortality of friends and family on mental health symptoms among affected young women and adolescents. Methods Data from a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 2,536 young women aged 16-24 years affected by Hurricane Ike was examined. Poisson regression estimated the effect of types of hurricane-related damage, job loss, injury, and mortality of family or friends on depressive and hurricane-related post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Results Nearly half (46.3%) of the respondents suffered damage, and 13% lost jobs as a result of Ike. Hurricane-related damage, job loss, injury to self, and injury to and mortality of friends or family were associated with increased Ike-related PTSD symptoms. Damage and job loss were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusion Accessible mental health services and plans to reduce job loss among adolescents and those they depend on for income are needed in areas affected by hurricanes to help mitigate psychological consequences among low-income young women. PMID:23562221

  17. Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its…

  18. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group. PMID:27052238

  19. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O’Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension remains unclear. Further, there is little data available on how such associations vary by gender or over life course. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys (comprising 19 countries, and 52,095 adults) were used. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of common mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension, with and without psychiatric comorbidity adjustment. Variations in the strength of associations by gender and by life course stage of onset of both the mental disorder and hypertension were investigated. Results After psychiatric comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of hypertension (with ORs ranging from 1.1 to 1.6). Number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with subsequent hypertension in a dose-response fashion. For social phobia and alcohol abuse, associations with hypertension were stronger for males than females. For panic disorder, the association with hypertension was particularly apparent in earlier onset hypertension. Conclusions Depression, anxiety, impulsive eating disorders, and substance use disorders disorders were significantly associated with the subsequent diagnosis of hypertension. These data underscore the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and of physical health monitoring in people with these conditions.. PMID:24342112

  20. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    PubMed

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  1. Association of Painful Musculoskeletal Conditions and Migraine Headache With Mental and Sleep Disorders Among Adults With Disabilities, Spain, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Failde, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions and migraine headache or any other headache in a sample of Spanish adults with disabilities and their association with anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Spanish national disability and dependence survey (2007–2008) of 16,932 adults aged 18 or older who have disabilities. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of painful musculoskeletal conditions was determined according to a diagnosis of arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, muscular dystrophy, and neck or back pain. The prevalence of migraine or other headache was also calculated. Factors associated with these painful conditions were analyzed separately for men and women by using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions was 66.9% (95% CI, 66.2%–67.6%) and that of migraine or other headache was 23.4% (95% CI, 22.8%–24.1%), both of which were higher in women than in men. Factors associated with these conditions in both men and women included older age, a sleep disorder, and concomitant chronic anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions and migraine or other headache is high in people with disability in Spain, especially in women, and these conditions often coexist with depression, anxiety, and/or a sleep disorder. To design programs for rehabilitating and improving the quality of life of adults with disability and painful conditions, treatments for mental and/or sleep disorders should be considered in addition to conventional treatments. PMID:24576397

  2. Endocrine Disorders Associated with Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Churku Mohan

    1980-01-01

    Endocrine disorders associated with mental retardation are described in relation to clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, diagnostic procedures, and treatment. Some endocrine disorders, particularly hypothyroidism, nephrogenic-diabetes insipidus, and hypoglycemic conditions, are frequently associated with mental retardation. Early diagnosis and prompt and proper management reduce mortality and the incidence of mental retardation associated with endocrine disorders. PMID:7392067

  3. The Stigma of Childhood Mental Disorders: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…

  4. Neuroeconomic approaches to mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; King-Casas, Brooks; Montague, P. Read

    2010-01-01

    The pervasiveness of decision-making in every area of human endeavor highlights the importance of understanding choice mechanisms and their detailed relationship to underlying neurobiological function. This review surveys the recent and productive application of game theoretic probes (economic games) to mental disorders. Such games typically possess concrete concepts of optimal play, thus providing quantitative ways to track when subjects’ choices match or deviate from optimal. This feature equips economic games with natural classes of control signals that should guide learning and choice in the agents that play them. These signals and their underlying physical correlates in the brain are now being used to generate objective biomarkers that may prove useful for exposing and understanding the neurogenetic basis of normal and pathological human cognition. Thus, game theoretic probes represent some of the first steps toward producing computationally principled, objective measures of cognitive function and dysfunction useful for the diagnosis, treatment and understanding of mental disorders. PMID:20797532

  5. [Are Mental Disorders Natural Kinds?].

    PubMed

    Flórez Quintero, Daian Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    A problem for both philosophers of Psychiatry and Psychiatrists within the domain of nosology is to determine which could be the more appropriate model to classify mental illnesses. Such an endeavor also requires questioning the very nature of mental illness. While trying to cope with the philosophical challenges of such a task, Peter Zachar purports to show that the nosological work in Psychiatry should not adhere to the model of natural kinds. He even considers that it is mistaken to treat mental disorders as natural kinds. Nonetheless, Zachar's view on the existence of natural kinds-even in domains where there is little room for doubting about their existence, like Chemistry-is very unstable. In 2001 he holds that there are no natural kinds, but in 2008 he argues that his objections to the model of natural kinds are more the manifestation of his skepticism against a tradition. Although the problem of the existence of natural kinds shall not be dealt with in this article, a brief description on how deflated is Zachar's view on this matter in 2008 is presented, with the central part of the article devoted to reconstruct and examine his rationale for the thesis that mental disorders are not natural kinds. In the critical section of this paper, it is suggested that, although Zachar's thesis may be right, the arguments he gives to support it are quite flawed. PMID:26578221

  6. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  7. Experiences and Perceptions of Mental Health Professionals Considered Effective in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erb, Bonita H.

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that has been documented in medical and mental health literature for over 100 years (Still, 1902). ADHD is a neurobiological based disorder characterized by three major symptoms identified at clinical levels and validated by diagnostic criteria established for the diagnosis of children…

  8. The Impact of a Substance Abuse Disorder on the Well-Being of Family Caregivers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The impact that substance use has on an individual with mental illness has been documented; however, little is known about the impact that this may have for a family caregiver. Data was collected in a cross sectional study using mailed questionnaires to a convenience sample of family members of persons with mental illness (n = 110). Hierarchical…

  9. Supporting the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegel, David E.; Kola, Lenore A.; Ronis, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Significant barriers exist to the implementation of evidence-based practices into routine mental health and substance abuse settings. This paper discusses the role and function of technical assistance centers to help support the implementation process using, as a guide, the experience of the Ohio Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Coordinating…

  10. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    PubMed

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults. PMID:27142205

  11. The separation of adult separation anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent. PMID:27503572

  12. Supplemental Security Income Benefits for Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Perrin, James M; Houtrow, Amy; Kelleher, Kelly; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stein, Ruth E K; Zima, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    The Supplemental Security Income Program (SSI) provides financial support to low-income households with children and youth with severe disabilities. The program included children when it began in the early 1970s. The numbers of children receiving SSI benefits increased substantially in the early 1990s, in part through an expansion of the listings of mental health conditions with which children could become eligible. Over the past 20 years, larger numbers of children have received SSI benefits for mental disorders, and these increases have led to questions from the press and Congress regarding these numbers. Do they indicate more of an increase in mental disorders among SSI children than in the general population? The National Academy of Medicine (NAM; formerly the Institute of Medicine) convened a study panel to examine what is known about mental disorders among the child SSI population and how that compares with evidence about mental disorders in children in general. The NAM report provides detailed information about how SSI works, about the changing numbers of children receiving SSI for mental disorders, and some comparisons with other evidence about rising rates of mental disorders in the general population and especially among children living in poverty. The report indicates that increasing numbers of children with mental disorders in SSI mirror similar increases in the population in general. This article summarizes key evidence from the NAM report and suggests the implications for pediatricians. PMID:27279648

  13. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  14. Proportion of patients without mental disorders being treated in mental health services worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Bruffaerts, Ronny; Posada-Villa, Jose; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Karam, Elie G.; Borges, Guilherme; Florescu, Silvia E.; Williams, David R.; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ono, Yutaka; de Graaf, Ron; Browne, Mark Oakley; Bunting, Brendan; Xavier, Miguel; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the worried well’. Aims To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with DSM-IV disorders. Method The World Health Organization’s World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries (n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs. Results Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose-response associations were found between number of indicators of need and treatment. Conclusions The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from treatment. PMID:25395690

  15. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and outcome of mental disorders. Admittedly leptin and adiponectin are involved in pathophysiology of depression. A lot of disturbances in secretion and plasma levels of adipokines are observed in eating disorders with a significant impact on the symptoms and course of a disease. It is still a question whether observed dysregulation of adipokines secretion are primary or secondary. Moreover findings in this area are somewhat inconsistent, owing to differences in patient age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, level of physical activity, eating pathology, general health or medication. This was the rationale for our detailed investigation into the role of the endocrine functions of adipose tissue in mental disorders. It seems that we are continually at the beginning of understanding of the relation between adipose tissue and mental disorders. PMID:25540725

  16. Mental Disorder or "Normal Life Variation"? Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, David H.

    2014-01-01

    "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition" ("DSM-5") promises a refined definition of mental disorder, which is tantamount to acknowledging that prior "DSM" definitions have failed to clarify what mental disorder is and why a person should be considered mentally disordered. Since the…

  17. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  18. Mental Disorders in Megacities: Findings from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andreoni, Solange; Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Alexandrino-Silva, Clovis; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Nishimura, Raphael; Anthony, James C.; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessler, Ronald C.; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. Methods and Results A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. Discussion Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the

  19. Manic Depressive Disorder in Mental Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, T. P.; Jones, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    Eight cases of early onset bipolar affective disorder in adolescents with mental impairment are described, focusing on age of onset; common characteristics such as rapid cycling, mixed affective states, and lithium resistance; and the likelihood that cerebral dysfunction might cause a secondary form of bipolar disorder. (JDD)

  20. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  1. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diagnosis of mental... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by...

  2. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diagnosis of mental... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by...

  3. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diagnosis of mental... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by...

  4. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diagnosis of mental... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by...

  5. Spino-Cerebellar Degeneration, Hormonal Disorder, Hypogonadism, Deaf Mutism and Mental Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Post mortem examinations were done on two adult siblings (one female and one male) who had been clinically described as suffering from mental handicap, deaf mutism, ataxia, hypogonadism, and hormonal disorders. (DB)

  6. An Adult Education Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Jean; Damron, Imogene

    This curriculum guide is intended for use with mentally retarded adults who are enrolled in adult basic education classes. The curriculum provides guidelines to improve students' competencies in three main areas: general functioning skills and independence (transportation, interpersonal relationships, health and safety, goal setting, planning and…

  7. What about the mental health of adults?

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression have surfaced and are affecting many residents in Fukushima prefecture as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disaster. It has also been reported that such mental health problems appeared and persisted after large-scale nuclear accidents in the past, such as the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents, widely affecting the disaster victims. PMID:25747615

  8. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  9. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625

  10. A Dimensional Liability Model of Age Differences in Mental Disorder Prevalence: Evidence from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M.; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. PMID:25858414

  11. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: evidence from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. PMID:25858414

  12. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a widely underrecognized and undertreated medical illness. Depression often co-occurs with other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Because many older adults face these illnesses as well as various social and ...

  13. Building The Mental Health Workforce Capacity Needed To Treat Adults With Serious Mental Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Olfson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    There are widespread shortages of mental health professionals in the United States, especially for the care of adults with serious mental illnesses. Such shortages are aggravated by maldistribution of mental health professionals and attractive practice opportunities treating adults with less severe conditions. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) and legislation extending mental health parity coverage are contributing to an increasing demand for mental health services. I consider four policy recommendations to reinvigorate the mental health workforce to meet the rising mental health care demand by adults with serious mental illnesses: expanding loan repayment programs for mental health professionals to practice in underserved areas; raising Medicaid reimbursement for treating serious mental illness; increasing training opportunities for social workers in relevant evidence-based psychosocial services; and disseminating service models that integrate mental health specialists as consultants in general medical care. Achieving progress in attracting mental health professionals to care for adults with serious mental illnesses will require vigorous policy interventions. PMID:27269013

  14. Praxic Skills in Down and Mentally Retarded Adults: Evidence for Multiple Action Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoia, Stefania; Pelamatti, Giovanna; Rumiati, Raffaella I.

    2004-01-01

    Functional relationships between praxic performance and visual recognition ability of mentally retarded adults are discussed, in an attempt to integrate findings from developmental disorders of action with those described in the adult literature. Three groups of participants took part in the study: adults with Down's syndrome (D), Mentally…

  15. [Pandora's digital box: mental disorders in cyberspace].

    PubMed

    Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D

    2011-01-01

    The emersion of the Internet did not only change human communication and information seeking, it also contributed to manifold alterations in the manifestation, perception and treatment of mental disorders. Thus, one focus of current psychological research lies on the relationship between the new medium and psychosocial functioning. This review embraces recent results on this topic following a discussion from two different perspectives: first, it poses the question, whether the Internet - due to its very specific character - is capable of creating new mental disorders and second, it asks whether rare disorders may possibly be uncovered by the Internet or if already known disorders may be sustained and intensified by the online medium. Accordingly, the first part of this review deals with the conceptual basis of problematic Internet use, Internet addiction and problematic online-gaming as an example of specific internet use. Predisposing psychosocial factors, such as social isolation, depression and compulsive behavior are reviewed as potential triggers for these new internet- related disorders. The second part however draws upon two already existing groups of psychological disorders: eating disorders in relation to Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia on the one hand and Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) on the other hand. Recent research is discussed to explore the sustaining and intensifying effect of the Internet on these disorders. PMID:22136939

  16. Ophthalmologic Screening of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Joel G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ophthalmological screening was conducted on 113 clients in a work activity center for adults with mental retardation. Abnormalities that were neither refractive nor strabismic were found in 32 percent of clients. Findings suggest the value of conducting screenings in settings familiar to such clients. (Author/DB)

  17. Reversing Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ehninger, Dan; Li, Weidong; Fox, Kevin; Stryker, Michael P.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in brain development, thought to be irreversible in adults, have long been assumed to underlie the neurological and psychiatric symptoms associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Surprisingly, a number of recent animal model studies of neurodevelopmental disorders demonstrate that reversing the underlying molecular deficits can result in substantial improvements in function even if treatments are started in adulthood. These findings mark a paradigmatic change in the way we understand and envision treating neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:19109903

  18. Does stigma impair prevention of mental disorders?

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of mental disorders can be effective, but is rarely implemented in routine settings. Here we propose a matrix to show how different aspects of stigma, discrimination and lack of knowledge can hinder different types of prevention, including early intervention. Programmes to reduce stigma's impact and so to facilitate prevention are needed. PMID:24692749

  19. Beliefs About Essences and the Reality of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Flanagan, Elizabeth H.; Marsh, Jessecae K.; Sanislow, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Do people believe mental disorders are real and possess underlying essences? The current study found that both novices and practicing clinicians held weaker essentialist beliefs about mental disorders than about medical disorders. They were also unwilling to endorse the idea that mental disorders are real and natural. Furthermore, compared with novices, mental health clinicians were less likely to endorse the view that there is a shared cause underlying a mental disorder and that one needs to remove the cause to get rid of the mental disorder. Clinicians were polarized on their views about whether mental disorders are categorical or dimensional. These findings reflect current controversies about mental disorders in the field at large. PMID:16984292

  20. Mental disorders of people with disability pension in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Danelia, M; Gyr, N; Boer, W; Zurabashvili, D; Chigladze, L; Tsereteli, D

    2011-09-01

    Correct assessment due to mental diseases is rather important. WHO developed International Classification for Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and there are two approaches to its implementation - development of disease specific or generic core sets. In order to know which way to choose up to date information is needed on disorders that most frequently lead to disability in Georgia. The study aimed at identification of the most prevalent mental diseases that led to disability pension in Georgia in 2010. Cross-sectional study of the population of pension beneficiaries was conducted. We have calculated 10% of 607 (diagnosed with disability in 2010) to be included in the survey. They were selected using random sampling method. Patient data were collected from the case histories. Paranoid schizophrenia (F 20.0) was the leading cause of disability both in men and women - 51.6% in men and 50% in women. In men persistent delusional disorder and mild mental retardation with significant impairment of behavior accounted for 9.7% each, while in women persistent delusional disorder led to disability in 15.0% of cases and moderate mental retardation - in 10.0%. All children receiving disability pension are mentally retarded. Paranoid schizophrenia - relatively less common disorder has high associated impairment among adults in Georgia, whereas in children mental retardation is the most frequent disabling condition. However, there are many other diseases that lead to disability. Therefore the best way to move further might be to first develop a generic core set for all psychiatric disability. PMID:22156679

  1. Civil commitment of sex offenders to mental institutions: should the standard be based on serious mental illness or mental disorder?

    PubMed

    Alexander, R

    2000-01-01

    Civil commitment to mental institutions requires that an individual be both seriously mentally ill and dangerous. This principle is erroneously being applied to incarcerated sex offenders nearing release from prison under the theory that they have antisocial personalities or paraphilia disorders, which are called mental illnesses. However, the mental health and legal communities are at odds regarding the use of a diagnosis of personality disorder or paraphilia to justify civil commitment. The author reviews the differences between serious mental illness and mental disorder, the flaws with assessing sex offenders as mentally ill, and the ethical dilemma for social workers employed in mental hospitals. PMID:10557893

  2. Neurosurgery for mental disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Heeramun-Aubeeluck, A; Lu, Z

    2013-05-01

    Neurosurgical interventions date back to ancient civilization, 5100 BC through a practice known as trephination. Due to past abuse and ethical considerations, neurosurgical interventions in psychiatry remain a controversial issue. This article aims to review the different surgical techniques and their current application in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave its approval for vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for the management of treatment-resistant depression in 2005 and deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) in 2009. These invasive but non destructive techniques represent the future of neurosurgery for mental disorder. PMID:23739819

  3. Free will and mental disorder: Exploring the relationship

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions “an important loss of freedom” as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how “an important loss of freedom” should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, I will explore the link between mental disorder and free will. I examine two domains in which a connection between mental disorder and free will is present: the philosophy of free will and forensic psychiatry. As it turns out, philosophers of free will frequently refer to mental disorders as conditions that compromise free will and reduce moral responsibility. In addition, in forensic psychiatry, the rationale for the assessment of criminal responsibility is often explained by referring to the fact that mental disorders can compromise free will. Yet, in both domains, it remains unclear in what way free will is compromised by mental disorders. Based on the philosophical debate, I discuss three senses of free will and explore their relevance to mental disorders. I conclude that in order to further clarify the relationship between free will and mental disorder, the accounts of people who have actually experienced the impact of a mental disorder should be included in future research. PMID:20931360

  4. [Greek students' attitudes towards mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches

  5. Narrative Structures of Maya Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B; Caal, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Several Indigenous communities around the globe maintain unique conceptions of mental illness and disorder. The Q'eqchi' Maya of southern Belize represent one Indigenous community that has maintained, due to highly "traditional" ways of life and the strong presence of many active localized healers or bush doctors, distinct conceptions of mental disorders as compared to Western psychiatric nosology. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to understand and interpret Q'eqchi' nosological systems of mental disorders involving the factors--spiritual, cultural, social, historical, cosmological, or otherwise--implicated in their articulation and construction. Over a period of 9 months, and with the help of cultural advisors from several Q'eqchi' communities, 94 interviews with five different traditional Q'eqchi' healers were conducted. This paper demonstrates that the mental illnesses recognized by the Q'eqchi' healers involved narrative structures with recognizable variations unfolding over time. What we present in this paper are 17 recognizable illnesses of the mind grouped within one of four broad "narrative genres." Each genre involves a discernible plot structure, casts of characters, themes, motifs, and a recognizable teleology or "directedness." In narrative terms, the healer's diagnostic and therapeutic work can be understood as an ability to discern plot, to understand and interpret a specific case within the board, empirically based structure of Q'eqchi' medical epistemology. PMID:25676172

  6. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  7. Mental Health Clinicians’ Beliefs About the Biological, Psychological, and Environmental Bases of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Proctor, Caroline C.; Flanagan, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    The current experiments examine mental health clinicians’ beliefs about biological, psychological, and environmental bases of the DSM-IV-TR mental disorders and the consequences of those causal beliefs for judging treatment effectiveness. Study 1 found a large negative correlation between clinicians’ beliefs about biological bases and environmental/psychological bases, suggesting that clinicians conceptualize mental disorders along a single continuum spanning from highly biological disorders (e.g., autistic disorder) to highly nonbiological disorders (e.g., adjustment disorders). Study 2 replicated this finding by having clinicians list what they thought were the specific causes of nine familiar mental disorders and rate their bio–psycho–environmental bases. Study 3 further found that clinicians believe medication to be more effective for biologically based mental disorders and psychotherapy to be more effective for psychosocially based mental disorders. These results demonstrate that even expert mental health clinicians make strong distinctions between psychological and biological phenomena. PMID:20411158

  8. Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Nancy H.; Vasey, Paul L.; Bukowski, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates empirical studies to determine whether Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in children meets DSM-IV definitional criteria of mental illness. Concludes that children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in their culturally prescribed sex role but do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have a…

  9. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ≥ 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  10. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  11. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  12. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  13. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  14. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  15. Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Context Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety-mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The “gender roles” hypothesis suggests that these differences should narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal. Objective To study time-space (i.e., cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative and determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality (GRT) as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control. Design/Setting and Participants Face-to face household surveys of 72,933 community-dwelling adults in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Main Outcomes The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in Female:Male (F:M) odds-ratios (ORs) of these disorders across cohorts defined by age ranges 18–34, 35–49, 50–64, and 65+. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in GRT on these ORs. Results Women had more anxiety-mood disorders than men and men more externalizing-substance disorders than women in all cohorts and countries. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (MDD) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in GRT. Conclusion While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied, substantial inter-cohort narrowing of

  16. Compensation for occupational neurological and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Inah

    2014-06-01

    Standards for the recognition of occupational diseases (ODs) in Korea were established in 1954 and have been amended several times. In 2013, there was a significant change in these standards. On the basis of scientific evidence and causality, the International Labour Organization list, European Commission schedule, and compensated cases in Korea were reviewed to revise the previous standards for the recognition of ODs in Korea. A disease-based approach using the International Classification of Diseases (10th version) was added on the previous standards, which were agent-specific approaches. The amended compensable occupational neurological disorders and occupational mental disorders (OMDs) in Korea are acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS) disorders, toxic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, manganese-related disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Several agents including trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, vinyl chloride, organotin, methyl bromide, and carbon monoxide (CO) were newly included as acute CNS disorders. TCE, lead, and mercury were newly included as chronic CNS disorders. Mercury, TCE, methyl n-butyl ketone, acrylamide, and arsenic were newly included in peripheral neuropathy. Post-traumatic stress disorders were newly included as the first OMD. This amendment makes the standard more comprehensive and practical. However, this amendment does not perfectly reflect the recent scientific progress and social concerns. Ongoing effort, research, and expert consensus are needed to improve the standard. PMID:25006326

  17. Epilepsy, Mental Health Disorder, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Beletsky, Vadim; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a subset of the seizure disorder family, represents a complex neuropsychiatric illness, where the neurological presentation may be complemented by varying severity of affective, behavioral, psychotic, or personality abnormalities, which, in turn, may not only lead to misdiagnosis, but also affect the management. This paper outlines a spectrum of mental health presentations, including psychosis, mood, anxiety, panic, and dissociative states, associated with epilepsy that make the correct diagnosis a challenge. PMID:22934158

  18. Annual Research Review: Hoarding Disorder-- Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of a New Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…

  19. Adult Neurogenesis and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunchai; Wen, Zhexing; Song, Hongjun; Christian, Kimberly M; Ming, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders continue to be among the most challenging disorders to diagnose and treat because there is no single genetic or anatomical locus that is causative for the disease. Current treatments are often blunt tools used to ameliorate the most severe symptoms, at the risk of disrupting functional neural systems. There is a critical need to develop new therapeutic strategies that can target circumscribed functional or anatomical domains of pathology. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be one such domain. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional regulation and forms of learning and memory that include temporal and spatial memory encoding and context discrimination, and that its dysregulation is associated with psychiatric disorders, such as affective disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Further, adult neurogenesis has proven to be an effective model to investigate basic processes of neuronal development and converging evidence suggests that aberrant neural development may be an etiological factor, even in late-onset diseases. Constitutive neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the mature brain reflects large-scale plasticity unique to this region and could be a potential hub for modulation of a subset of cognitive and affective behaviors that are affected by multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:26801682

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  1. Mental, Emotional and Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…

  2. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Asian Americans: Nativity, Gender, and Sociodemographic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seunghye; Walton, Emily; Tamaki, Emi; Sabin, Janice A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines lifetime prevalence estimates of mental disorders among Asian Americans with a focus on differences by nativity, gender, and other relevant sociodemographic correlates. We analyze cross-sectional data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans which used a probability sample of household resident adults in the United States (N=2,095). US-born Asian Americans are more likely to experience lifetime mood disorders, substance use disorders, and any mental disorders compared to immigrants. Lifetime substance use disorders are more likely to occur among men rather than women. Nativity and gender show joint associations with different mental disorders: US-born women are at the greatest risk for any mood disorders; US-born men are at the greatest risk for any substance use disorders; and immigrant women are at the lowest risk for substance use disorders compared to all other groups. Analysis of the sociodemographic correlates reveals that the youngest immigrant women showed significantly higher rates of any mood disorder compared to other immigrant women. Additionally, among immigrant men, those with low household income are at a higher risk for mood disorders, and those who report fair/poor English proficiency have a higher prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides documentation of prevalence differences in detailed mental health categories along salient axes of stratification among Asian Americans and provides a foundation for future research aimed at understanding the causes and correlates of mental health disparities. PMID:25621123

  3. [Mental disorders after mild traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Gonschorek, A S; Schwenkreis, P; Guthke, T

    2016-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a frequent neurological disorder following a closed head injury. It is often accompanied by temporary changes of consciousness as well as cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms. These symptoms subside in the vast majority of affected persons within a few weeks; however, in recent years it has become increasingly more apparent that functionally significant long-term effects can remain after an initially diagnosed mTBI. In these cases mental disorders, such as impairment of cognitive and emotional functions as well as somatic disorders play an important role. This article presents the frequency, diagnosis, therapy and possible mechanisms of cognitive and emotional dysfunction after mTBI, including medicolegal aspects. PMID:27119532

  4. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  5. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  6. The stigma of childhood mental disorders: A conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children’s mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus on theory and measurement. 145 articles in PsychInfo and 77 articles in MEDLINE met search criteria. The review process involved identifying and appraising literature convergence on the definition of critical dimensions of stigma, antecedents, and outcomes reported in empirical studies. Results We found concurrence on three dimensions of stigma (negative stereotypes, devaluation and discrimination), two contexts of stigma (self, general public), and two targets of stigma (self/individual, family). Theory and empirics on institutional and self stigma in child populations were sparse. Literature reports few theoretic frameworks and conceptualizations of child mental illness stigma. One model of help-seeking (the FINIS) explicitly acknowledges the role of stigma in children’s access and utilization of mental health services. Conclusions Compared to adults, children are subject to unique stigmatizing contexts that have not been adequately studied. The field needs conceptual frameworks that get closer to stigma experiences that are causally linked to how parents/caregivers cope with children’s emotional and behavioral problems such as seeking professional help. To further research in child mental illness, we suggest an approach to adapting current theoretical frameworks and operationalizing stigma highlighting three dimensions of stigma, three contexts of stigma (including institutions), and three targets of stigma (self/child, family and services). PMID:20215931

  7. Gender, traumatic events, and mental health disorders in a rural Asian setting.

    PubMed

    Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Williams, Nathalie E; Scott, Kate M

    2013-01-01

    Research shows a strong association between traumatic life experience and mental health and important gender differences in that relationship in the western European Diaspora; but much less is known about these relationships in other settings. We investigate these relationships in a poor rural Asian setting that recently experienced a decade-long armed conflict. We use data from 400 adult interviews in rural Nepal. The measures come from World Mental Health survey instruments clinically validated for this study population to measure depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder. Our results demonstrate that traumatic life experience significantly increases the likelihood of mental health disorders in this setting, and that these traumatic experiences have a larger effect on the mental health of women than men. These findings offer important clues regarding the potential mechanisms producing gender differences in mental health in many settings. PMID:24311755

  8. Gender, Traumatic Events, and Mental Health Disorders in a Rural Asian Setting*

    PubMed Central

    Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Williams, Nathalie E.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows a strong association between traumatic life experience and mental health and important gender differences in that relationship in the Western European Diaspora, but much less is known about these relationships in other settings. We investigate these relationships in a poor rural Asian setting that recently experienced a decade-long armed conflict. We use data from 400 adult interviews in rural Nepal. The measures come from World Mental Health survey instruments clinically validated for this study population to measure Depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED). Our results demonstrate that traumatic life experience significantly increases the likelihood of mental health disorders in this setting and that these traumatic experiences have a larger effect on the mental health of women than men. These findings offer important clues regarding the potential mechanisms producing gender differences in mental health in many settings. PMID:24311755

  9. Be vigilant for common mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Common mental health disorders (CMHD) affect one in six people in the community. These disorders are even more common in primary care. A New Zealand study found that 20.7% of people presenting to primary care had suffered a CMHD over a 12-month period, compared with 14.8% in the community. Most sufferers do not consult their GP, even when patients do present with symptoms they are often not diagnosed. Only 24% of sufferers in the ONS survey were receiving treatment: 14% medication; 5% counselling or therapy and 5% both. The new NICE guideline on identifying CMHD brings together recommendations on identification, assessment and referral in one place, for easy reference. The NICE depression guidelines recommend that GPs are alert for depression in those with a past history of depression, and in patients with a chronic physical health problem. The GAD and panic guideline also recommends that practitioners look for anxiety disorders in those with chronic physical disorders, plus frequent attenders with multiple functional somatic symptoms, and patients with excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:23251989

  10. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and diabetes mellitus: a role for impulse control disorders and depression

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jordi; Stein, Dan J.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fukao, Akira; Bunting, Brendan; Haro, Josep Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Hu, Chiyi; Sasu, Carmen; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis No studies have evaluated whether the frequently observed associations between depression and diabetes could reflect the presence of comorbid psychiatric conditions and their associations with diabetes. We therefore examined the associations between a wide range of pre-existing Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Methods We performed a series of cross-sectional face-to-face household surveys of community-dwelling adults (n=52,095) in 19 countries. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Diabetes was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis together with its timing. We analysed the associations between all mental disorders and diabetes, without and with comorbidity adjustment. Results We identified 2,580 cases of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (21 years +). Although all 16 DSM-IV disorders were associated with diabetes diagnosis in bivariate models, only depression (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1, 1.5), intermittent explosive disorder (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), binge eating disorder (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7, 4.0) and bulimia nervosa (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3, 3.4) remained after comorbidity adjustment. Conclusions/interpretation Depression and impulse control disorders (eating disorders in particular) were significantly associated with diabetes diagnosis after comorbidity adjustment. These findings support the focus on depression as having a role in diabetes onset, but suggest that this focus may be extended towards impulse control disorders. Acknowledging the comorbidity of mental disorders is important in determining the associations between mental disorders and subsequent diabetes. PMID:24488082

  11. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936

  12. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    PubMed

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform. PMID:25274147

  13. Mental Disorders and Subsequent Educational Attainment in a US National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Lane, Michael; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation of the adverse effects of mental disorders on role functioning, we examined the associations of early-onset mental disorders with subsequent educational attainment in a large nationally representative survey of the US adult population. Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 17 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-report with the fully-structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI). Survival analysis was used to examine the associations between early-onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent termination of schooling with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and childhood adversities (i.e. childhood traumatic events, childhood neglect, parental mental illness, family disruption, and low parental educational attainment). Mental disorders were found to be significantly associated with termination of schooling prior to completion of each of four educational milestones (primary school graduation, high school graduation, college entry, college graduation), with odds ratios in the range of 1.3 to 7.0. The proportion of school terminations attributable to mental disorders was largest for high school graduation (10.2%) but also meaningful for primary school graduation (3.8%), college entry (4.4%) and college graduation (2.6%). These results add to a growing body of evidence documenting a wide variety of adverse life course effects of mental disorders. PMID:18331741

  14. Multidisciplinary team perspectives on older adult hoarding and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Terry L; Leiste, Matthew R; Spano, Richard; Chapin, Rosemary K

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined multidisciplinary team members' perspectives of their involvement in older adult hoarding cases. Fifteen informants, as representatives of four hoarding teams, described cases in which teams did or did not work well together. Specifically, informants described their (a) team characteristics, (b) awareness of hoarding as a mental health illness, (c) barriers to providing mental health services for older adults who hoard, and (d) components of successful teamwork within the team and with the older adult as hoarder. Implications include research to better guide interventions, team training to develop common perspectives, and policy development that supports mental health representation on teams and in-home mental health treatment. PMID:23289417

  15. Supplement to Programming for the Adult Mentally Handicapped Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugerman, Phyllis; And Others

    This supplement to a source book providing information on developing a training program for mentally handicapped adults describes in detail group counseling and community experience components. It offers concrete information emanating from the East Brunswick (New Jersey) Adult Mentally Handicapped Program. The first section overviews the current…

  16. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  17. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent non-fatal, self-reported stroke

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Nicola R.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Levinson, Daphna; Fiestas, Fabian; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Posada-Villa, Jose; Haro, Josep Maria; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Xavier, Miguel; Iwata, Noboru; de Jonge, Peter; Bruffaerts, Ronny; O’Neill, Siobhan; Kessler, Ron C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations between a wide range of mental disorders and subsequent onset of stroke. Lifecourse timing of stroke was examined using retrospectively reconstructed data from cross-sectional surveys. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys were accessed. This data was collected from general population surveys over 17 countries of 87,250 adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV mental disorders. A weighted subsample (n = 45,288), was used for analysis in the present study. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent stroke onset. Results Bivariate models showed that 12/16 mental disorders were associated with subsequent stroke onset (ORs ranging from 1.6 to 3.8). However, after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity and smoking, only significant relationships between depression and stroke (OR 1.3) and alcohol abuse and stroke (OR 1.5) remained. Among females, having a bipolar disorder was also associated with increased stroke incidence (OR 2.1). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with stroke onset in a dose–response fashion (OR 3.3 for 5+ disorders). Conclusions Depression and alcohol abuse may have specific associations with incidence of non-fatal stroke. General severity of psychopathology may be a more important predictor of non-fatal stroke onset. Mental health treatment should be considered as part of stroke risk prevention. Limitations of retrospectively gathered cross sectional surveys design mean further research on the links between mental health and stroke incidence is warranted. PMID:26094010

  18. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05) and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001). Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05), simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001) and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05) were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05) and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001) were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  19. Comorbidity in "DSM" Childhood Mental Disorders: A Functional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I address the issue of comorbidity and its prevalence in the prior "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") classification systems. The focus on the topography or form of presenting problems as the venue for determining mental disorders is scrutinized as the possible cause. Addressing the…

  20. Eating Disorders: National Institute of Mental Health's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Mark; Insel, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of…

  1. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency shall... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diagnosis of...

  2. Anger and Paranoia in Mentally Disordered Offenders.

    PubMed

    Darch, Kayleigh; Ellett, Lyn; Fox, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have identified a positive relationship between aggression and paranoia, yet the relationship between the emotion of anger and paranoia in forensic populations has not been examined. Possible confounding variables, such as social desirability and mood, should also be considered. Sixty-six participants who had a violent conviction and mental disorder completed self-report questionnaires that measured anger, paranoid ideation, socially desirable responding, anxiety, and depression. The findings indicated that increased anger was associated with increased paranoia. Partial correlations showed that anger remained significantly associated with paranoia after socially desirable responding, anxiety, depression, gender, and violence history were controlled, suggesting anger and paranoia were not associated due to indirect relationships with these constructs. This could suggest that integrative psychological interventions that consider experiences of both anger and paranoia may be beneficial with forensic populations. PMID:26513511

  3. War and first onset of suicidality: the role of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karam, E. G.; Salamoun, M. M.; Mneimneh, Z. N.; Fayyad, J. A.; Karam, A. N.; Hajjar, R.; Dimassi, H.; Nock, M. K.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide rates increase following periods of war; however, the mechanism through which this occurs is not known. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the associations of war exposure, mental disorders, and subsequent suicidal behavior. Method A national sample of Lebanese adults was administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to collect data on lifetime prevalence and age of onset of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt, and mental disorders, in addition to information about exposure to stressors associated with the 1975–1989 Lebanon war. Results The onset of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt was associated with female gender, younger age, post-war period, major depression, impulse-control disorders, and social phobia. The effect of post-war period on each type of suicide outcome was largely explained by the post-war onset of mental disorders. Finally, the conjunction of having a prior impulse-control disorder and either being a civilian in a terror region or witnessing war-related stressors was associated with especially high risk of suicide attempt. Conclusions The association of war with increased risk of suicidality appears to be partially explained by the emergence of mental disorders in the context of war. Exposure to war may exacerbate disinhibition among those who have prior impulse-control disorders, thus magnifying the association of mental disorders with suicidality. PMID:22370047

  4. The association between family history of mental disorders and general cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, J J; Wray, N R; Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B; Greve, A N; Petersen, L

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging literature linking cognitive ability with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. These findings have led to the hypothesis that diminished ‘cognitive reserve' is a causal risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is also feasible that a family history of mental disorders may confound this relationship, by contributing to both a slight impairment in cognitive ability, and an increased risk of psychiatric disorder. On the basis of a large, population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n=160 608), we examined whether the presence of a family history of a range of mental disorders was associated with cognitive ability, as tested by the Børge Priens Prøve. In those with no individual-level history of mental disorder, a family-level history of a mental disorder was associated with a slight reduction in cognitive ability. In general, this pattern was found regardless of the nature of the psychiatric disorder in the family. Our study suggests that shared familial factors may underpin both cognitive ability and the risk of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Convergent evidence from epidemiology and genetics suggests that shared genetic factors underpin an unexpectedly diverse range of psychiatric disorders. On the basis of the findings of the current study, we speculate that these same shared genetic factors also contribute to general cognitive ability. PMID:25050992

  5. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems. PMID:27183901

  6. Prevention of mental and behavioural disorders: implications for policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    SAXENA, SHEKHAR; JANÉ-LLOPIS, EVA; HOSMAN, CLEMENS

    2006-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity have proven to reduce mental health problems. Specific interventions to increase resilience in children and adolescents through parenting and early interventions, and programmes for children at risk for mental disorders such as those who have a mentally ill parent or have suffered parental loss or family disruption, have also shown to increase mental well-being and decrease depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive disorders. Interventions for the adult population, from macro-policy strategies, such as taxation of alcohol products or workplace legislation, to individual support for those with signs of a mental disorder, can reduce mental health problems and associated social and economic burdens. Exercise, social support or community participation have also shown to improve mental health of older populations. Public mental health will benefit from continuing building the evidence base through combining different evaluation methods across low, middle and high income countries. The translation of evidence into policy and practice calls for action at the international, national and local level, including building capacity, advocacy, mainstreaming mental health into public health and other policies and securing infrastructures and sustainability. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in improving the evidence on prevention and promotion in mental health, in engaging relevant stakeholders for developing programmes, and as professional care providers in their practice. PMID:16757984

  7. Mental disorders associated with subpopulations of women affected by violence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Martins, Silvia S; Petras, Hanno; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-08-01

    Violence against women is a major public health problem associated with mental disorders. Few studies have examined the heterogeneity of interpersonal violence and abuse (IVA) among women and associated mental health problems. Latent class analysis was used to identify subpopulations of women with similar lifetime histories of IVA victimization and to examine 10 associated past-year mental disorders. Participants were 19,816 adult women who participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The 3-class model was best supported by the data. Class 1 (6.7%) had a high probability of witnessing domestic violence as a child. Class 2 (21.8%) had a low probability of all events except lifetime sexual assault. Class 3 (71.5%) had a low probability for all events. Mental disorders were more common among members of Classes 1 and 2 than Class 3. For example, members in Class 1 were approximately 8 and 9 times more likely than members in Class 3 to have had posttraumatic stress disorder or a drug use disorder, respectively, during the past year. Of the 10 mental disorders, 5 were more common among members of Class 1 than of Class 2. Findings suggest the mental health consequences of IVA among women are extensive and interventions should be tailored for distinct subpopulations affected by IVA. PMID:23813596

  8. Missed opportunities: mental disorder in children of parents with depression

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Robert; Mars, Becky; Eyre, Olga; Legge, Sophie; Ford, Tamsin; Sellers, Ruth; Craddock, Nicholas; Rice, Frances; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that early intervention and prevention programmes for mental health problems in the offspring of parents with depression are important. Such programmes are difficult to implement if children with psychiatric disorder are not identified and are not accessing services, even if their parents are known to primary care. Aim To investigate service use in children of parents who have recurrent depression, and factors that influence such contact. Design and setting A total of 333 families were recruited, mainly through primary health care, in which at least one parent had received treatment for recurrent depression and had a child aged 9–17 years. Method Psychiatric assessments of parents and children were completed using research diagnostic interviews. The service-use interview recorded current (in the 3 months prior to interview) and lifetime contact with health, educational, and social services due to concerns about the child’s emotions or behaviour. Results Only 37% of children who met criteria for psychiatric disorder were in contact with any service at the time of interview. A third, who were suicidal or self-harming and had a psychiatric disorder at that time, were not in contact with any service. Lack of parental worry predicted lower service use, with higher rates in children with comorbidity and suicidality. Conclusion Most children with a psychiatric disorder in this high-risk sample were not in contact with services. Improving ease of access to services, increasing parental and professional awareness that mental health problems can cluster in families, and improving links between adult and child services may help early detection and intervention strategies for the offspring of parents with depression. PMID:22781997

  9. Diagnosed Prevalence and Health Care Expenditures of Mental Health Disorders among Dual Eligible Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Terry Y.; Parashuram, Shriram; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Wysocki, Andrea; Shippee, Nathan D.; Homyak, Patricia; Kane, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about mental health disorders (MHDs) and their associated health care expenditures for the dual eligible elders across long-term care (LTC) settings. We estimated the 12-month diagnosed prevalence of MHDs among dual eligible older adults in LTC and non-LTC settings and calculated the average incremental effect of MHDs on…

  10. The Relationship between Religion and Mental Disorders in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Ik; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Subin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The question of whether religion has beneficial or detrimental effects on the mental well-being of the adult individual is debatable. Because most Korean citizens are free to select their own religion, there is a higher proportion of non-believers than believers among the Korean population. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between spiritual values and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mental disorders in Korea across all types of belief systems, including Koreans not affiliated with a particular religion. Methods The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was used to interview 6,275 people across South Korea in 2001. While controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between mental disorders (both current and past) and the types of religion and spiritual values. Results Strong spiritual values were positively associated with increased rates of current depressive disorder and decreased rates of current alcohol use disorder. Using "atheist" as the reference category, Catholics had higher lifetime odds of single episodes of depression whilst Protestants had higher lifetime odds of anxiety disorder and lower lifetime odds of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that depressive episodes often lead to a search for spirituality and that religion may be helpful in overcoming depression or becoming less vulnerable to relapsing. The associations between religion, spiritual values, and mental health have not been fully elucidated and warrant further exploration. PMID:22396682

  11. TRICARE; Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    This final rule modifies the TRICARE regulation to reduce administrative barriers to access to mental health benefit coverage and to improve access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment for TRICARE beneficiaries, consistent with earlier Department of Defense and Institute of Medicine recommendations, current standards of practice in mental health and addiction medicine, and governing laws. This rule seeks to eliminate unnecessary quantitative and non-quantitative treatment limitations on SUD and mental health benefit coverage and align beneficiary cost-sharing for mental health and SUD benefits with those applicable to medical/surgical benefits, expand covered mental health and SUD treatment under TRICARE to include coverage of intensive outpatient programs and treatment of opioid use disorder and to streamline the requirements for mental health and SUD institutional providers to become TRICARE authorized providers, and to develop TRICARE reimbursement methodologies for newly recognized mental health and SUD intensive outpatient programs and opioid treatment programs. PMID:27592499

  12. Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram; Kleinman, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    A review of English-language journals published since 1990 and three global mental health reports identified 11 community studies on the association between poverty and common mental disorders in six low- and middle-income countries. Most studies showed an association between indicators of poverty and the risk of mental disorders, the most consistent association being with low levels of education. A review of articles exploring the mechanism of the relationship suggested weak evidence to support a specific association with income levels. Factors such as the experience of insecurity and hopelessness, rapid social change and the risks of violence and physical ill-health may explain the greater vulnerability of the poor to common mental disorders. The direct and indirect costs of mental ill-health worsen the economic condition, setting up a vicious cycle of poverty and mental disorder. Common mental disorders need to be placed alongside other diseases associated with poverty by policy-makers and donors. Programmes such as investment in education and provision of microcredit may have unanticipated benefits in reducing the risk of mental disorders. Secondary prevention must focus on strengthening the ability of primary care services to provide effective treatment. PMID:14576893

  13. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alhamzawi, Ali Obaid; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Chatterji, Somnath; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gal, Gilad; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chi-yi; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Tsang, Adley; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Vassilev, Svetlozar; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders. Aims To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM–IV disorders in World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in 21 countries. Method Nationally or regionally representative surveys of 51 945 adults assessed childhood adversities and lifetime DSM–IV disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Results Childhood adversities were highly prevalent and interrelated. Childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning (e.g. parental mental illness, child abuse, neglect) were the strongest predictors of disorders. Co-occurring childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning had significant subadditive predictive associations and little specificity across disorders. Childhood adversities account for 29.8% of all disorders across countries. Conclusions Childhood adversities have strong associations with all classes of disorders at all life-course stages in all groups of WMH countries. Long-term associations imply the existence of as-yet undetermined mediators. PMID:21037215

  14. Acute Psychiatric Hospital Admissions of Adults and Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the records of 240 inpatients with mental retardation and 7 with autism discharged from a university hospital indicated that elderly adults had more medical problems than did adults, more elderly adults were transferred to a state hospital, and the most common diagnosis in both adults and elderly adults was chronic schizophrenia,…

  15. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  16. The role of common mental and physical disorders in days out of role in the Iraqi general population: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Lindberg, Marrena; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to support mental health policy planning efforts in conjunction with the reconstruction of Iraq, a nationally representative face-to-face household survey was carried out that assessed the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders in the Iraqi population. A total of 4,332 adult (ages 18+) respondents were interviewed (95.2% response rate). The current report presents data on the role impairments (number of days out-of-role in the past 30 days) associated with the nine mental disorders assessed in the survey in comparison to the impairments associated with ten chronic physical disorders also assessed in the survey. These disorders were all assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Days out-of-role was assessed with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Both individual-level and societal-level effects of the disorders were estimated. Strongest individual-level predictors were bipolar and drug abuse disorders (176-95 days per year), with mental disorders making up five of the seven strongest predictors. The strongest population-level predictors were headache/migraine and arthritis (22-12% population proportions). Overall population proportions were 57% of days out-of-role due to the chronic physical disorders considered here and 18% for the mental disorders. Despite commonly-occurring mental disorders accounting for more individual-level days out-of-role than the physical disorders, mental disorders are much less likely to receive treatment in Iraq (e.g., due to stigma). These results highlight the need for culturally tailored mental health prevention and treatment programs in Iraq. PMID:24581572

  17. Temporal Comorbidity of Mental Disorder and Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Cawthorpe, David; Davidson, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that rarely exists in isolation in affected patients. We examined the association of ulcerative colitis and International Classification of Diseases mental disorder, as well as the temporal comorbidity of three broad International Classification of Diseases groupings of mental disorders in patients with ulcerative colitis to determine if mental disorder is more likely to occur before or after ulcerative colitis. Methods: We used physician diagnoses from the regional health zone of Calgary, Alberta, for patient visits from fiscal years 1994 to 2009 for treatment of any presenting concern in that Calgary health zone (763,449 patients) to identify 5113 patients age younger than 1 year to age 92 years (2120 males, average age = 47 years; 2993 females, average age = 48 years) with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Results: The 16-year cumulative prevalence of ulcerative colitis was 0.0058%, or 58 cases per 10,000 persons (95% confidence interval = 56–60 per 10,000). Although the cumulative prevalence of mental disorder in the overall sample was 5390 per 10,000 (53.9%), we found that 4192 patients with ulcerative colitis (82%) also had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. By annual rate of ulcerative colitis, patients with mental disorder had a significantly higher annual prevalence. The mental disorder grouping neuroses/depressive disorders was most likely to arise before ulcerative colitis (odds ratio = 1.87 for males; 2.24 for females). Conclusions: A temporal association was observed between specific groups of International Classification of Diseases mental disorder and ulcerative colitis, indicating a possible etiologic relationship between the disorders or their treatments, or both. PMID:25663206

  18. Staff perspectives on two rare mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Samantha; Lowe, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS)/pervasive arousal withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) and conversion disorder (CD) are two rare mental health disorders that commonly affect children and young people. In the most extreme cases of PRS/PAWS, young people may be unable to perform activities of daily living and rely on adults for physical and emotional support. CD can present as loss of sensation in vision and touch, pain in certain areas and an inability to walk. It is important that children's nurses are aware of these disorders and have some insight into the most helpful approaches. Young people need to feel that their experiences are validated, which can elicit feelings in staff from an urge to help to intense frustration. It is essential for staff to be able to talk and reflect to allow such feelings to be understood. Although these are rare conditions, this article outlines what to do if young people present with features of PRS/PAWS or CD in a general healthcare setting. PMID:27063052

  19. Ego development and the therapeutic goal-setting capacities of mentally ill adults.

    PubMed

    Stackert, Richelle A; Bursik, Krisanne

    2006-01-01

    What capacity do chronically mentally ill adults have for envisioning personal development as evidenced by the ability to set therapeutic goals? This study explored how individual differences in ego development (Loevinger, 1976) predict the therapeutic goal-setting capacities of adults with chronic mental illness receiving therapy in a community mental health setting. The sample included 51 men and 49 women, ages 25 to 65, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. Utilizing correlational and multiple regression analyses, results confirmed a relationship between higher stages of ego development and greater complexity of therapeutic goals, as well as greater commitment to therapeutic goals. Rehabilitation goals were more prevalent at lower stages of ego development, while goals such as enhancing one's personal relationships, and gaining increased insight emerged at higher stages. Implications for therapeutic change are discussed. PMID:17340946

  20. Management of persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorder: program implications

    PubMed Central

    DRAKE, ROBERT E; MUESER, KIM T; BRUNETTE, MARY F

    2007-01-01

    Adults with severe mental illness have extraordinarily high rates of co-occurring substance use disorders, typically around 50% or more, which adversely affect their current adjustment, course, and outcome. Separate and parallel mental health and substance abuse treatment systems do not offer interventions that are accessible, integrated, and tailored for the presence of co-occurrence. Recent integrated interventions for this population have the specific goal of ameliorating substance use disorder and the general goal of improving adjustment and quality of life. The authors overview the current research and offer guidelines related to mission and philosophy, leadership, comprehensive reorganization, training, specific programs, and quality improvement. PMID:18188429

  1. Psychotic Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Engagement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy within an Outpatient Sample of Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Mueser, Kim T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Xie, Haiyi; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.

    2010-01-01

    Depression with psychotic features afflicts a substantial number of people, and has been characterized by significantly greater impairment, higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs, and poorer response to psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions than non-psychotic depression. Those with psychotic depression also experience a host of co-occurring disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is not surprising, given the established relationships between trauma exposure and increased rates of psychosis, and between PTSD and major depression. To date, there has been very limited research on the psychosocial treatment of psychotic depression, and even less is known about those who also suffer from PTSD. The purpose of this study was to better understand the rates and clinical correlates of psychotic depression in those with PTSD. Clinical and symptom characteristics of 20 individuals with psychotic depression and 46 with non-psychotic depression, all with PTSD, were compared prior to receiving CBT for PTSD treatment or TAU. Patients with psychotic depression exhibited significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety, a weaker perceived therapeutic alliance with their case managers, more exposure to traumatic events and more negative beliefs related to their traumatic experiences, as well as increased levels of maladaptive cognitions about themselves and the world, compared to participants without psychosis. Implications for CBT treatment aimed at dysfunctional thinking for this population are discussed. PMID:21220064

  2. Recognising falls risk in older adult mental health patients and acknowledging the difference from the general older adult population.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen; Al Omari, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Older adults admitted to inpatient mental health units present with complex mental health care needs which are often compounded by the challenges of living with physical co-morbidities. They are a mobile population and a high risk group for falling during hospitalisation. To address quality and safety concerns around the increased risk for falls, a qualitative research study was completed to obtain an improved understanding of the factors that increase the risk of falling in this patient cohort. Focus groups were conducted with mental health professionals working across older adult mental health services in metropolitan Western Australia. Data were analysed using content analysis and three themes emerged that were significant concepts relevant to falls risk in this patient group. These themes were (1) limitations of using generic falls risk assessment and management tools, (2) assessment of falls risk not currently captured on standardised tools, and (3) population specific causes of falls. The findings demonstrate that older adult mental health patients are a highly mobile group that experience frequent changes in cognition, behaviour and mental state. The mix of patients with organic or functional psychiatric disorders within the same environment also presents complex and unique care challenges and multi-disciplinary collaboration is central to reduce the risk of falls. As this group of patients are also frequently admitted to both general inpatient and aged care settings, the findings are relevant to the assessment and management of falls risk across all health care settings. PMID:27188045

  3. Are Adult Mentalizing Abilities Associated with Mind-Mindedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Ana Luísa; Pasco Fearon, R. M.; Osório, Ana; Meins, Elizabeth; Martins, Carla

    2016-01-01

    The precise nature of the relation between adult mentalizing abilities and parental representations of the child as a mental agent (mind-mindedness) is under current debate. While some authors state that it is the same competence expressed in different contexts, others assert that they are different constructs. This study examined the relation…

  4. Development of the Fear Survey for Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lukenbill, James F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the fear survey for adults with mental retardation (FSAMR) and provides initial evidence of its psychometric properties. The FSAMR was designed to be sensitive to the assessment needs of individuals with mental retardation. The items were developed through open-ended interviews, a review of existing…

  5. Eating Disorders: National Institute of Mental Health’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Mark; Insel, Tom R.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of the eating disorders, there are still significant challenges that need to be addressed. This article briefly describes some of these challenges, recent NIMH-supported research and research-related activities directed at addressing these challenges, and approaches and areas of research that hold promise for furthering the understanding and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:17469895

  6. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Bech, Per; Beckers, Tom; Berger, Thomas; Berking, Matthias; Berrocal, Carmen; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Chouinard, Guy; Colom, Francesc; Csillag, Claudio; Cujipers, Pim; David, Daniel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Essau, Cecilia A; Fava, Giovanni A; Goschke, Thomas; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Lutz, Wolfgang; Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Tossani, Eliana; van der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram; Haro, Josep M; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional "personalized medicine" that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders. PMID:24375534

  7. A Metastructural Model of Mental Disorders and Pathological Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such comorbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions—internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism—can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. Methods We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders, and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric outpatients. Results Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism, and detachment. Conclusions These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders, and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder. PMID:25903065

  8. Seasonality of hospital admissions for mental disorders in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown a relationship between seasonality in weather patterns and depressive and behavioural disorders, especially in temperate climate regions. However, there is a lack of studies describing the seasonal patterns of hospital admissions for a variety of mental disorders in tropical and subtropical nations. The aim of this study has been to examine the relationship between seasons and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders in Hanoi, Vietnam. Designs A 5-year database (2008–2012) compiled by Hanoi Mental Hospital covering mental disorder admissions diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases 10 was analysed. A negative binominal regression model was applied to estimate the associations between seasonality and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders, for all causes and for specific diagnoses. Results The summer season indicated the highest relative risk (RR=1.24, confidence interval (CI)=1.1–1.39) of hospital admission for mental disorders, with a peak in these cases in June (RR=1.46, CI=1.19–1.7). Compared to other demographic groups, males and the elderly (aged over 60 years) were more sensitive to seasonal risk changes. In the summer season, the RR of hospital visits among men increased by 26% (RR=1.26, CI=1.12–1.41) and among the elderly by 23% (RR=1.23, CI=1.03–1.48). Furthermore, when temperatures including minimum, mean, and maximum increased 1°C, the number of cases for mental disorders increased by 1.7%, 2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The study results showed a correlation between hospital admission for mental disorders and season. PMID:27566716

  9. [Complementary methods of rehabilitation in borderline mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Elfimov, M A; Kotenko, K V; Korchazhkina, N B; Filatova, E V; Portnov, V V; Chervinskaya, A V; Mikhailova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The article covers treatment results of 417 patients (186 males and 231 females) aged 18 to 71 years, with borderline mental disorders. Findings are that using specified complementary methods, more when treatment complex is applied, causes better psycho-emotional state in patients with borderline mental disorders, that is supported by results of medical diagnostic tests including psychometry tests (abridged minnesota multiphasic personality inventory, Beck depression inventory, Spielberger-Hanin, test "feeling, activity, mood"). PMID:27164743

  10. Global Epidemiology of Mental Disorders: What Are We Missing?

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Patton, George; Scott, Kate M.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based studies provide the understanding of health-need required for effective public health policy and service-planning. Mental disorders are an important but, until recently, neglected agenda in global health. This paper reviews the coverage and limitations in global epidemiological data for mental disorders and suggests strategies to strengthen the data. Methods Systematic reviews were conducted for population-based epidemiological studies in mental disorders to inform new estimates for the global burden of disease study. Estimates of population coverage were calculated, adjusted for study parameters (age, gender and sampling frames) to quantify regional coverage. Results Of the 77,000 data sources identified, fewer than 1% could be used for deriving national estimates of prevalence, incidence, remission, and mortality in mental disorders. The two major limitations were (1) highly variable regional coverage, and (2) important methodological issues that prevented synthesis across studies, including the use of varying case definitions, the selection of samples not allowing generalization, lack of standardized indicators, and incomplete reporting. North America and Australasia had the most complete prevalence data for mental disorders while coverage was highly variable across Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific, and poor in other regions of Asia and Africa. Nationally-representative data for incidence, remission, and mortality were sparse across most of the world. Discussion Recent calls to action for global mental health were predicated on the high prevalence and disability of mental disorders. However, the global picture of disorders is inadequate for planning. Global data coverage is not commensurate with other important health problems, and for most of the world's population, mental disorders are invisible and remain a low priority. PMID:23826081

  11. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities. PMID:26901806

  12. Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5), even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2). CONCLUSIONS Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders PMID:24789634

  13. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Design A MEDLINE search was conducted to search for papers concerning the association between Central Auditory Processing Disorders and mental disorders. The research focused on the diagnostic methods providing the inter-connection of various mental disorders and central auditory deficits. Measurements and Main Results The medline research revealed 564 papers when using the keywords 'auditory deficits' and 'mental disorders'. 79 papers were referring specifically to Central Auditory Processing Disorders in connection with mental disorders. 175 papers were related to Schizophrenia, 126 to learning disabilities, 29 to Parkinson's disease, 88 to dyslexia and 39 to Alzheimer's disease. Assessment of the Central Auditory System is carried out through a great variety of tests that fall into two main categories: psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic testing. Different specialties are involved in the diagnosis and management of Central Auditory Processing Disorders as well as the mental disorders that may co-exist with them. As a result it is essential that they are all aware of the possibilities in diagnostic procedures. Conclusions Considerable evidence exists that mental disorders may correlate with CAPD and this correlation could be revealed through psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology. Mental disorders that relate to Central Auditory Processing Disorders are: Schizophrenia, attention deficit disorders, Alzheimer's disease, learning disabilities, dyslexia, depression, auditory

  14. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  15. Heatwaves and Hospital Admissions for Mental Disorders in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Kullgren, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Studies in high-income countries have shown an association between heatwaves and hospital admissions for mental disorders. It is unknown whether such associations exist in subtropical nations like Vietnam. The study aim was to investigate whether hospital admissions for mental disorders may be triggered, or exacerbated, by heat exposure and heatwaves, in a low- and middle-income country, Vietnam. For this, we used data from the Hanoi Mental Hospital over five years (2008–2012) to estimate the effect of heatwaves on admissions for mental disorders. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression model accounting for seasonality, time trend, days of week, and mean humidity was used to analyse the relationship. Heatwave events were mainly studied as periods of three or seven consecutive days above the threshold of 35°C daily maximum temperature (90th percentile). The study result showed heatwaves increased the risk for admission in the whole group of mental disorders (F00-79) for more persistent heatwaves of at least 3 days when compared with non-heatwave periods. The relative risks were estimated at 1.04 (0.95–1.13), 1.15 (1.005–1.31), and 1.36 (1–1.90) for a one-, three- and seven-day heatwave, respectively. Admissions for mental disorders increased among men, residents in rural communities, and the elderly population during heatwaves. The groups of organic mental disorders, including symptomatic illnesses (F0-9) and mental retardation (F70-79), had increased admissions during heatwaves. The findings are novel in their focus on heatwave impact on mental diseases in a population habituating in a subtropical low- and middle-income country characterized by rapid epidemiological transitions and environmental changes. PMID:27195473

  16. Heatwaves and Hospital Admissions for Mental Disorders in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Kullgren, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Studies in high-income countries have shown an association between heatwaves and hospital admissions for mental disorders. It is unknown whether such associations exist in subtropical nations like Vietnam. The study aim was to investigate whether hospital admissions for mental disorders may be triggered, or exacerbated, by heat exposure and heatwaves, in a low- and middle-income country, Vietnam. For this, we used data from the Hanoi Mental Hospital over five years (2008-2012) to estimate the effect of heatwaves on admissions for mental disorders. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression model accounting for seasonality, time trend, days of week, and mean humidity was used to analyse the relationship. Heatwave events were mainly studied as periods of three or seven consecutive days above the threshold of 35°C daily maximum temperature (90th percentile). The study result showed heatwaves increased the risk for admission in the whole group of mental disorders (F00-79) for more persistent heatwaves of at least 3 days when compared with non-heatwave periods. The relative risks were estimated at 1.04 (0.95-1.13), 1.15 (1.005-1.31), and 1.36 (1-1.90) for a one-, three- and seven-day heatwave, respectively. Admissions for mental disorders increased among men, residents in rural communities, and the elderly population during heatwaves. The groups of organic mental disorders, including symptomatic illnesses (F0-9) and mental retardation (F70-79), had increased admissions during heatwaves. The findings are novel in their focus on heatwave impact on mental diseases in a population habituating in a subtropical low- and middle-income country characterized by rapid epidemiological transitions and environmental changes. PMID:27195473

  17. Managed Mental Health Care: Intentional Misdiagnosis of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sharon A.; Cox, Jane A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mental health counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…

  18. Ophthalmic Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified. PMID:22570648

  19. Psychiatric disorders in adults with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, C.S.; Levitas, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a multiple anomaly/mental retardation syndrome currently mapped to 16p13.3 and characterized by microephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, curved nose, elongated nasal columelia and broad thumbs and great toes, often with medial or lateral angulation. Although there are reports of attentional problems and impulsivity among children with RTS there have been no studies to date of behavioral characteristics of the syndrome. Since 1988 we have identified 7 adults with classic RTS and psychiatric disorders among 1500 mentally retarded individuals ascertained primarily for behavioral and psychiatric problems; these patients all had microcephaly, characteristic facies and broad halluces, frequently with angulation. An additional 6 adults with psychiatric disorders had some features suggesting RTS but not classic for the disorder; these patients had microcephaly, characteristic nasal configuration and somewhat broad thumbs but lacked hypertelorism, downslant of palpebral fissures, angulation of halluces, and/or other dysmorphic features typical of classic RTS. Among the seven with classic RTS, three had tic disorder and/or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, one had Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features and one had Major Depressive Disorder with obsessive-compulsive features. The six with some RTS features had similar psychiatric disorders. All patients were extremely sensitive to side effects of antidopaminergic medication, with the exception of clozapine. This clustering of psychiatric disorders and sensitivity suggests possible dysfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in at least some patients with RTS. The 16p13.3 region should be examined for possible genes affecting metabolism or receptors of these neurotransmitters.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Israeli Adolescents: Results from a National Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…

  1. Manipulation of Visual Mental Images in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandimonte, M. A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Adults and 6 and 10 year olds performed tasks in which they combined and subtracted parts of visual images to discover new images. Results indicated that adults and children were able to transform a mental image so as to yield another image. (BC)

  2. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  3. Mental disorders, health inequalities and ethics: A global perspective.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ndetei, David; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2010-01-01

    The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations. PMID:20528652

  4. Mental disorders, health inequalities and ethics: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    NGUI, EMMANUEL M.; KHASAKHALA, LINCOLN; NDETEI, DAVID; ROBERTS, LAURA WEISS

    2010-01-01

    The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations. PMID:20528652

  5. Transition Planning for the College Bound Adolescent with a Mental Health Disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Cara C; Calloway, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Health promotion, disease prevention and anticipatory guidance are the hallmarks of nursing practice, particularly in pediatrics. While there is a wealth of information on anticipatory guidance for the pediatric patient at different ages and developmental stages, there is a paucity of information on anticipatory guidance for the adolescent and emerging adult in transitioning to manage their own health care. While an established need for anticipatory guidance and a transition plan from pediatric to adult health care is apparent for youth routinely followed for significant medical, intellectual, or developmental conditions, a group particularly vulnerable to destabilization of their health as they transition to self-directed adult health care management is composed of youth with mental health disorders. The risk for destabilization increases as they move away from social supports to the university setting. This article reviews available literature on anticipatory guidance for the college bound adolescent with a mental health disorder and makes recommendations for transition planning including examining the college and community services that would support mental health as well as personal choices regarding lifestyle habits while attending the university. Recommendations are made for nurses to be the leaders in filling this anticipatory guidance gap in preparing youth with mental health disorders for a successful transition to and through college life. PMID:26173385

  6. The mental health of individuals referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood: A clinic report.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ailsa J; Murphy, Clodagh M; Wilson, Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Brown, Cordelia; Robertson, Dene M; Craig, Michael C; Deeley, Quinton; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Kate; McAlonan, Grainne M; Spain, Deborah; Murphy, Declan Gm

    2016-07-01

    Growing awareness of autism spectrum disorders has increased the demand for diagnostic services in adulthood. High rates of mental health problems have been reported in young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, sampling and methodological issues mean prevalence estimates and conclusions about specificity in psychiatric co-morbidity in autism spectrum disorder remain unclear. A retrospective case review of 859 adults referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder compares International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision diagnoses in those that met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (n = 474) with those that did not (n = 385). Rates of psychiatric diagnosis (>57%) were equivalent across both groups and exceeded general population rates for a number of conditions. The prevalence of anxiety disorders, particularly obsessive compulsive disorder, was significantly higher in adults with autism spectrum disorder than adults without autism spectrum disorder. Limitations of this observational clinic study, which may impact generalisability of the findings, include the lack of standardised structured psychiatric diagnostic assessments by assessors blind to autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and inter-rater reliability. The implications of this study highlight the need for careful consideration of mental health needs in all adults referred for autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. PMID:26471427

  7. Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change. PMID:18186112

  8. [Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment].

    PubMed

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change. PMID:20795523

  9. Challenging Behavior and Co-Morbid Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jane; Hemmings, Colin; Kravariti, Eugenia; Dworzynski, Katharina; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings.…

  10. 75 FR 51335 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Mental Disorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Why are we proposing to revise the listings for mental disorders? We... disorders listings for children (persons under age 18)--on December 12, 1990.\\2\\ \\1\\ 50 FR 35038 (1985). \\2\\ 55 FR 51208 (1990). Although the 1985 and 1990 listings were significant advancements in our rules...

  11. Insurance Financing Increased For Mental Health Conditions But Not For Substance Use Disorders, 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Yee, Tracy; Levit, Katharine R; Camacho-Cook, Jessica; Cutler, Eli; Carroll, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    This study updates previous estimates of US spending on mental health and substance use disorders through 2014. The results reveal that the long-term trend of greater insurance financing of mental health care continued in recent years. The share of total mental health treatment expenditures financed by private insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid increased from 44 percent in 1986 to 68 percent in 2014. In contrast, the share of spending for substance use disorder treatment financed by private insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid was 45 percent in 1986 and 46 percent in 2014. From 2004 to 2013, a growing percentage of adults received mental health treatment (12.6 percent and 14.6 percent, respectively), albeit only because of the increased use of psychiatric medications. In the same period, only 1.2-1.3 percent of adults received substance use disorder treatment in inpatient, outpatient, or residential settings, although the use of medications to treat substance use disorders increased rapidly. PMID:27269010

  12. Sport specificity of mental disorders: the issue of sport psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Markser, Valentin Z

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among elite athletes is still under debate. More and more evidence has accumulated that high-performance athletes are not protected from mental disorders as previously thought. The authors discuss the issue of the sport specificity of selected mental diseases in elite athletes. Specific aspects of eating disorders, exercise addiction, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and mood disorders in the context of overtraining syndrome are examined. In particular, the interrelationship between life and work characteristics unique to elite athletes and the development of mental disorders are reviewed. Differences of clinical presentation and some therapeutic consequences are discussed. The authors suggest that the physical and mental strains endured by elite athletes might influence the onset and severity of their psychiatric disorder. Beside the existing research strategies dealing with the amount of exercise, its intensity and lack of recreation experienced by athletes, further research on psycho-social factors is needed to better understand the sport-specific aetiology of mental disorders in high-performance athletes. PMID:24091603

  13. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders. PMID:24464242

  14. Darwinian psychiatry and the concept of mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Alfonso; McGuire, Michael

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the concept of mental disorder from the perspective of Darwinian psychiatry. Using this perspective does not resolve all of the quandaries which philosophers of medicine face when trying to provide a general definition of disease. However, it does take an important step toward clarifying why current methods of psychiatric diagnosis are criticizable and how clinicians can improve the identification of true mental disorders. According to Darwinian psychiatry, the validity of the conventional criteria of psychiatric morbidity is dependent on their association with functional impairment. Suffering, statistical deviance, and physical lesion are frequent correlates of mental disorders but, in absence of dysfunctional consequences, none of these criteria is sufficient for considering a psychological or behavioral condition as a psychiatric disorder. The Darwinian concept of mental disorder builds from two basic ideas: (1) the capacity to achieve biological goals is the best single attribute that characterizes mental health; and (2), the assessment of functional capacities cannot be properly made without consideration of the environment in which the individual lives. These two ideas reflect a concept of mental disorder that is both functional and ecological. A correct application of evolutionary knowledge should not necessarily lead to the conclusion that therapeutic intervention should be limited to conditions that jeopardize biological adaptation. Because one of the basic aims of medicine is to alleviate human suffering, an understanding of the evolutionary foundations of the concept of mental disorder should translate into more effective ways for promoting individual and social well-being, not into the search for natural laws determining what is therapeutically right or wrong. PMID:12496733

  15. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096

  16. Sleep Disorders in Adult Sickle Cell Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Efird, Jimmy T.; Knupp, Charles; Kadali, Renuka; Liles, Darla; Shiue, Kristin; Boettger, Peter; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: While sleep apnea has been studied in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), little is known about sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep disordered breathing and its polysomnographic characteristics in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Methods: The analysis cohort included 32 consecutive adult SCD patients who underwent a comprehensive sleep evaluation and overnight polysomnography in an accredited sleep center after reporting symptoms suggesting disordered sleep or an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 10. Epworth score, sleep parameters, comorbid conditions, and narcotic use were reviewed and compared in patients with and without sleep disordered breathing. SCD complication rates in the two groups also were compared. Results: In adult SCD patients who underwent overnight polysomnography, we report a high prevalence (44%) of sleep disordered breathing. Disease severity was mild to moderate (mean apnea-hypopnea index = 17/h (95% CI: 10–24/h). Concomitant sleep disorders, including insomnia complaints (57%) and delayed sleep-phase syndrome (57%), also were common in this population. In this limited cohort, we did not find increased SCD complications associated with sleep disordered breathing in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: A high burden of sleep disordered breathing and other sleep-related complaints were identified in the adult sickle cell population. Our results provide important information on this unique population. Citation: Sharma S, Efird JT, Knupp C, Kadali R, Liles D, Shiue K, Boettger P, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):219–223. PMID:25515282

  17. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  18. Support from the Internet for Individuals with Mental Disorders: Advantages and Disadvantages of e-Mental Health Service Delivery.

    PubMed

    Moock, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are common in almost all industrialized countries and many emerging economies. While several trials have shown that effective treatments exist for mental disorders, such as pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions, and self-help programs, the treatment gap in mental health care remains pervasive. Unrestricted access to adequate medical care for people with mental disorders will be one of the pressing public mental health tasks in the near future. In addition, scarcity of financial resources across the public mental health sector is a powerful argument for investigating innovative alternatives of delivering mental health care. Thus, one challenge that arises in modern mental health care is the development of innovative treatment concepts. One possibility for improving mental health care services is to deliver them via the Internet. Online-based mental health services have the potential to address the unmet need for mental health care. PMID:24967221

  19. Community Mental Health Services in Latin America for People with Severe Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Minoletti, Alberto; Galea, Sandro; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent in Latin American countries and exact a serious emotional toll, yet investment in public mental health remains insufficient. Most countries of the region have developed national and local initiatives to improve delivery of mental health services over the last 22 years, following the technical leadership of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). It is especially notable that PAHO/WHO facilitated the development of national policies and plans, as well as local programs, to deliver specialized community care for persons with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, at present, the majority of Latin American countries maintain a model of services for severe mental disorders based primarily on psychiatric hospitals that consume most of the national mental health budget. To accelerate the pace of change, this article emphasizes the need to develop cross-country regional initiatives that promote mental health service development, focusing on severe mental disorders. As one specific example, the authors describe work with RedeAmericas, which has brought together an interdisciplinary group of international investigators to research regional approaches and train a new generation of leaders in public mental health. More generally, four regional strategies are proposed to complement the work of PAHO/ WHO in Latin America: 1) to develop multi-country studies on community services, 2) to study new strategies and interventions in countries with more advanced mental health services, 3) to strengthen advocacy groups by cross-country interchange, and 4) to develop a network of well-trained leaders to catalyze progress across the region. PMID:25339792

  20. Mental Health Services for Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Johanna K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to date, findings suggest that they face a multitude of cooccurring psychiatric (e.g., anxiety, depression), psychosocial, and functional issues, all of which occur in addition to their ASD symptomatology. Despite this, traditional mental health services and supports are falling short of meeting the needs of these adults. This review highlights the service needs and the corresponding gaps in care for this population. It also provides an overview of the literature on psychiatric risk factors, identifies areas requiring further study, and makes recommendations for how existing mental health services could include adults with HFASD. PMID:25276425

  1. Treatment of late-life mental disorders in primary care: we can do a better job.

    PubMed

    Moak, Gary S

    2011-01-01

    Health care services provided to older adults today are not as effective as they should be. The quality of care for late-life mental disorders often falls short of desired standards. The growth of the elderly population makes it imperative for the health care system to address late-life mental disorders more effectively. Intervention strategies based in primary care settings show the most promise, but effectiveness will depend on solving the geriatric psychiatry workforce crisis. Collaborative care is one promising model for improving geriatric mental health care delivery in primary care. Diffusion of collaborative care into the health care system and integrating geriatric psychiatry into other models such as geriatric medical homes will require redesign of the organization and financing of primary care and psychiatry to overcome current barriers. Public policy should reflect the essential role of psychiatry in geriatrics and promote the integration of geriatric psychiatry with primary care. PMID:21740202

  2. Assessment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Diagnostic Criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubarych, Thomas S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Hettema, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated measurement properties of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition," generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (VATSPSUD). The two studies used different widely used…

  3. Parent psychopathology and offspring mental disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Gadermann, Anne M.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee Nasser; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Murphy, Samuel D.; Nizamie, S. Haque; Posada-Villa, José; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Associations between specific parent and offspring mental disorders are likely to have been overestimated in studies that have failed to control for parent comorbidity. Aims To examine the associations of parent with respondent disorders. Method Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (n = 51 507). Respondent disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and parent disorders with informant-based Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria interviews. Results Although virtually all parent disorders examined (major depressive, generalised anxiety, panic, substance and antisocial behaviour disorders and suicidality) were significantly associated with offspring disorders in multivariate analyses, little specificity was found. Comorbid parent disorders had significant sub-additive associations with offspring disorders. Population-attributable risk proportions for parent disorders were 12.4% across all offspring disorders, generally higher in high- and upper-middle- than low-/lower-middle-income countries, and consistently higher for behaviour (11.0-19.9%) than other (7.1-14.0%) disorders. Conclusions Parent psychopathology is a robust non-specific predictor associated with a substantial proportion of offspring disorders. PMID:22403085

  4. Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis is Significantly Lower in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Mental Disorders Than in Those Without Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity improves health in patients with mental disorders. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) represents energy expenditure due to daily physical activities other than volitional exercise. We aimed to evaluate NEAT in type 2 diabetic patients with and without accompanying mental disorders. Between September 2010 and September 2014, we studied 150 patients with type 2 diabetes, 50 of whom also had a diagnosis of mental disorder, such as schizophrenia or mood disorder. We evaluated their NEAT in structured interviews using a validated questionnaire, and investigated differences in NEAT score and metabolic parameters between patients with and without mental disorders. The NEAT score was significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in those without (56.3 ± 9.9 vs 61.9 ± 12.1; P = 0.005). Patients with mental disorders had significantly higher triglyceride (184.5 ± 116.3 vs 146.4 ± 78.4 mg/dL; P = 0.02) and insulin levels (18.7 ± 20.1 vs 11.2 ± 8.5 μU/mL; P = 0.006), and significantly lower B-type natriuretic peptide (12.1 ± 13.3 vs 26.3 ± 24.8 pg/mL; P < 0.001) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels (1501 ± 371 vs 1699 ± 367 cm/s; P = 0.003) than patients without mental disorders. In patients with schizophrenia, specifically, NEAT showed a negative correlation with hemoglobin A1c levels (β = −0.493, P = 0.031), and a positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.519, P = 0.023) and B-type natriuretic peptide levels (β = 0.583, P = 0.02). Our results suggest that NEAT may be beneficial for the management of obesity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles in patients with mental disorders. Incorporating NEAT into interventions for type 2 diabetes in patients with mental disorders, especially schizophrenia, shows promise and warrants further investigation. PMID:26765475

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome: relations with functional, mental, and somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Hausteiner-Wiehle, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter

    2014-05-28

    This review describes the conceptual and clinical relations between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), other functional, somatoform, and mental disorders, and points to appropriate future conceptualizations. IBS is considered to be a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with a considerable symptom overlap with other FSSs like chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia syndrome. IBS patients show an increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, especially depression and anxiety. IBS is largely congruent with the concepts of somatoform and somatic symptom disorders. Roughly 50% of IBS patients complain of gastrointestinal symptoms only and have no psychiatric comorbidity. IBS concepts, treatment approaches, as well as health care structures should acknowledge its variability and multidimensionality by: (1) awareness of additional extraintestinal and psychobehavioral symptoms in patients with IBS; (2) general and collaborative care rather than specialist and separated care; and (3) implementation of "interface disorders" to abandon the dualistic classification of purely organic or purely mental disorders. PMID:24876725

  6. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W

    2015-12-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary study, we examined the clinical presentation of SAD in adults with ASD (n = 28), relative to SAD uncomplicated by ASD (n = 26). A large subset (50 %) of the adults with ASD met diagnostic criteria for SAD. The adults with ASD plus SAD differed from those with ASD without SAD on several characteristics. Findings demonstrate that many adults with ASD are aware of their social difficulties and experience impairing social anxiety. PMID:26243138

  7. Bone marrow transplantation in subjects with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Akaho, Rie; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Yoshino, Miyo; Hagiya, Katsuko; Akiyama, Hideki; Sakamaki, Hisashi

    2003-06-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a critical treatment of malignant illnesses including leukemia and others. Successful achievement of BMT requires the patients to tolerate isolation for several weeks to avoid infections. They are also required to follow several regulations and instructions to survive the treatment because the patients' physical condition is complicated due to the malignant illness, preparatory treatment and transplant of bone marrow from other subjects. These could be a significant challenge for patients with mental disorders. Here the cases are reported of seven leukemia patients who were referred to the Metropolitan Komagome Hospital for BMT from April 1996 through May 2000, who had been suffering from mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar I mood disorder, panic disorder, dysthymic disorder, autistic disorder, and borderline personality disorder, prior to the treatment. The BMT was achieved in six out of the seven subjects; the exception was a subject with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric treatments, including medication, to improve and maintain mental status appeared to be critical for the achievement of BMT in several patients. Understanding of the status of the malignant disease and the role of BMT was another significant issue. Test admission seemed to be helpful to reduce concerns and anxiety both in the patients and hospital staff. PMID:12753572

  8. A psychiatric study of deviant eating behaviour among mentally handicapped adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, G; Whitehouse, A M

    1990-08-01

    A study of deviant eating behaviour among mentally handicapped adults in community placements is reported. Those individuals with a psychiatric disorder showed more deviant eating behaviour. Depressed subjects, in particular, showed an excess of the amount eaten and time spent searching for food, as well as the tendency to eat all sweet food presented to them. Non-food pica was uncommon, even among the autistic subjects. PMID:2224381

  9. Self-Reported Mental Disorders and Distress by Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; VanKim, Nicole A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; McAlpine, Donna D.; Lust, Katherine A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexual minority college students (i.e., those not identifying as heterosexual, or those reporting same-sex sexual activity) may be at increased risk of poor mental health, given factors such as minority stress, stigma, and discrimination. Such disparities could have important implications for students’ academic achievement, future health, and social functioning. This study compares reports of mental disorder diagnoses, stressful life events, and frequent mental distress across five gender-stratified sexual orientation categories. Methods Data were from the 2007–2011 College Student Health Survey, which surveyed a random sample of college students (N=34,324) at 40 Minnesota institutions. Data analysis was conducted in 2013–2014. The prevalence of mental disorder diagnoses, frequent mental distress, and stressful life events were calculated for heterosexual, discordant heterosexual, gay or lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association between sexual orientation and mental health outcomes. Results Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students were more likely to report any mental health disorder diagnosis than heterosexual students (p<0.05). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and unsure students were significantly more likely to report frequent mental distress compared to heterosexual students (OR range, 1.6–2.7). All sexual minority groups, with the exception of unsure men, had significantly greater odds of experiencing two or more stressful life events (OR range, 1.3–2.8). Conclusions Sexual minority college students experience worse mental health than their heterosexual peers. These students may benefit from interventions that target the structural and social causes of these disparities, and individual-level interventions that consider their unique life experiences. PMID:25997903

  10. Mental Health Service and Drug Treatment Utilization: Adolescents with Substance Use/Mental Disorders and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    This research is a secondary data analysis of the impact of adolescents' mental/substance-use disorders and dual diagnosis on their utilization of drug treatment and mental health services. By analyzing the same teenagers who participated in the NIMH Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) study, logistic…

  11. Preparation of Mental Health Clinicians to Work with Children with Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…

  12. Reducing the treatment gap for mental disorders: a WPA survey

    PubMed Central

    PATEL, VIKRAM; MAJ, MARIO; FLISHER, ALAN J.; DE SILVA, MARY J.; KOSCHORKE, MIRJA; PRINCE, MARTIN; Tempier, Raymond; Riba, Michelle; Sanchez, Mauricio; Delgado Campodonico, Fabrizio; Risco, Luis; Gask, Linda; Wahlberg, Henrik; Roca, Miquel; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Soghoyan, Armen; Moussaoui, Driss; Baddoura, Charles; Adeyemi, Joseph; Rataemane, Solomon; Jalili, S. Ahmed; Mohandas, E; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Freidin, Julian; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Puig, Ines Josefina; Kirkby, Kenneth; Musalek, Michael; Ismayilov, Nadir; Harvey, Sharon; Sabbe, Bernard; Noya-Tapia, Nils; Burgic-Radmanovic, Marija; Hetem, Luiz Alberto; Vasconcellos, Fatima; Maass, Juan; Miranda, Carlos; Papaneophytou, Neophytos; Raboch, Jiri; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Okasha, Ahmed; Korkeila, Jyrki; Guelfi, Julien Daniel; Schneider, Frank; Ohene, Sammy; Christodoulou, George; Soldatos, Constantin R.; See King, Emilio Quinto Barrera; Mendoza, Mario; Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham; Gudarzi, Shahrokh S.; Lafta, Mohammed R.; Bassi, Mariano; Clerici, Massimo; Gibson, Roger; Kojima, Takuya; Nurmagambetova, Saltanat; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kadyrova, Tamilla; Mikati, Nabil; Bajraktarov, Sojan; Hoe Yen, Teck; Ayushjav, Bayanhuu; Stevovic, Lidija Injac; Sequeira Molina, José Santiago; Gureje, Oye; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid; Al-Ashhab, Bassam; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Prelipceanu, Dan; Krasnov, Valery; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Jasovic-Gasic, Miroslava; Vavrusova, Livia; Pregelj, Peter; Liria, Alberto Fernandez; Abdelrahman, Abdallah; Udomratn, Pichet; Ulas, Halis; Gokalp, Peykan; Kigozi, Fred N.; Richardson, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The treatment gap for people with mental disorders exceeds 50% in all countries of the world, approaching astonishingly high rates of 90% in the least resourced countries. We report the findings of the first systematic survey of leaders of psychiatry in nearly 60 countries on the strategies for reducing the treatment gap. We sought to elicit the views of these representatives on the roles of different human resources and health care settings in delivering care and on the importance of a range of strategies to increase the coverage of evidence-based treatments for priority mental disorders for each demographic stage (childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age). Our findings clearly indicate three strategies for reducing the treatment gap: increasing the numbers of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals; increasing the involvement of a range of appropriately trained non-specialist providers; and the active involvement of people affected by mental disorders. This is true for both high income and low/middle income countries, though relatively of more importance in the latter. We view this survey as a critically important first step in ascertaining the position of psychiatrists, one of the most influential stakeholder communities in global mental health, in addressing the global challenge of scaling up mental health services to reduce the treatment gap. PMID:20975864

  13. Eating disorders: A serious problem of mental health seeks solution.

    PubMed

    Varsou, Eleftheria

    2010-01-01

    Eating Disorders are a group of mental disorders with considerable peculiarities and present a challenge for both the scientific community and the general public. More specific in our country a great attention and concern has being observed recently, caused to some extend by the role of public media, as they turned to "inform" about these disorders. Popular television programs are frequently focusing on famous individuals suffering from the disorder. Or they deal with dramatic presentation of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) cases, as they describe their wander around from inpatient services of general hospitals to private practices either of psychiatrists who only prescribed psychopharmaceutics drugs or gynecologists who recommended oral contraceptives. PMID:21914617

  14. [Mental disorders in adolescence: current trends in therapy].

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ulrike; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the high prevalence for behavioural problems and mental disorders in adolescence and its persistence into adulthood it is tested whether and based upon which emphasis this topic is considered in the recent discussion on psychotherapy. Therefore, a bibliometric analysis is given that summarizes the issue in the 2011 and 2012 volumes of representative German child and adolescent psychological and psychiatric journals. The focus lies on conduct disorder, depression, deliberate self-harm, dissociative disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24032315

  15. Mentalization: ontogeny, assessment, and application in the treatment of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Choi-Kain, Lois W; Gunderson, John G

    2008-09-01

    This article aims to review the development of the concept of mentalization, its applications in the understanding and treatment of borderline personality disorder, and the issue of its assessment. While conceptually derivative of theory of mind, Fonagy's concept of mentalization concerns more affectively and interpersonally complex understandings of oneself and others, reflecting abilities that enable an individual not only to navigate the social world effectively but also to develop an enriched, stable sense of self. The components of mentalization can be organized around self-/other-oriented, implicit/explicit, and cognitive/affective dimensions. Concepts of mindfulness, psychological mindedness, empathy, and affect consciousness are shown to partially overlap with mentalization within these three dimensions. Mentalization is assessed by the measure of reflective function, a scale to be used adjunctively on semistructured narrative interviews such as the Adult Attachment Interview. Its validity has not been fully tested, and its usage has been hampered by the time and expense it requires. Although the concept of mentalization is a useful heuristic that enables clinicians to adopt a coherent treatment approach, it may be too broad and multifaceted to be operationalized as a marker for specific forms of psychopathology such as borderline personality disorder. Research elucidating the relationship between reflective function, overlapping concepts, and features of borderline psychopathology is needed. PMID:18676591

  16. Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes in women with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Brenner, Benjamin; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-02-01

    The brain and the placenta synthesize identical peptides and proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, oxytocin, vascular endothelial growth factor, cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinases. Given the promiscuity between neurochemistry and the mechanism of placentation, it would be expected that mental disorders occurring during pregnancy would increase the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Indeed, expectant mothers with anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, or depressive disorders are at higher risk of preterm birth, low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age infants than controls. These mental illnesses are accompanied by a procoagulant phenotype and low activity of tissue plasminogen activator, which may contribute to placental insufficiency. Another risk factor for pregnancy complications is hyperemesis gravidarum, more common among women with eating disorders or anxiety disorders than in controls. Severe hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and malnutrition, all of which may increase the risk of miscarriages, of low-birth-weight babies and preterm birth. This paper reviews some aspects of mental disorders that may influence pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25903540

  17. Nonmalignant Adult Thoracic Lymphatic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Maxim; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-09-01

    The thoracic lymphatic disorders are a heterogeneous group of uncommon conditions that are associated with thoracic masses, interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, and chylous complications. Accurate diagnosis of the thoracic lymphatic disorders has important implications for the newest approaches to management, including embolization and treatment with antilymphangiogenic drugs. New imaging techniques to characterize lymphatic flow, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiogram, are redefining approaches to disease classification and therapy. PMID:27514588

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome: Relations with functional, mental, and somatoform disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hausteiner-Wiehle, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the conceptual and clinical relations between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), other functional, somatoform, and mental disorders, and points to appropriate future conceptualizations. IBS is considered to be a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with a considerable symptom overlap with other FSSs like chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia syndrome. IBS patients show an increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, especially depression and anxiety. IBS is largely congruent with the concepts of somatoform and somatic symptom disorders. Roughly 50% of IBS patients complain of gastrointestinal symptoms only and have no psychiatric comorbidity. IBS concepts, treatment approaches, as well as health care structures should acknowledge its variability and multidimensionality by: (1) awareness of additional extraintestinal and psychobehavioral symptoms in patients with IBS; (2) general and collaborative care rather than specialist and separated care; and (3) implementation of “interface disorders” to abandon the dualistic classification of purely organic or purely mental disorders. PMID:24876725

  19. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations. Methods: We analyzed data from 577 adult men and women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Six questions assessed discrimination due to sexual orientation. Weighted multivariable logistic regression examined associations between experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and both mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual minority men and women, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results: Sexual minority men who ever experienced discrimination (57.4%) reported higher odds of any lifetime drug use disorder and cannabis use disorder compared to sexual minority men who never experienced discrimination. Sexual minority women who ever experienced discrimination (42.9%) reported higher odds of any lifetime mood disorder and any lifetime anxiety disorder compared to sexual minority women who never experienced discrimination. Conclusion: The findings suggest that discrimination is differentially associated with internalizing (mental health) and externalizing (substance use) disorders for sexual minority men and women. These findings indicate a need to consider how homophobia and heteronormative discrimination may contribute to distinct health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women compared with gay and bisexual men. PMID:27383512

  20. DSM-5 and mental disorders in older individuals: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder S.; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2015-01-01

    About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, exciting considerable commentary, debate and criticism. This article briefly describes the process that led to the DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. While there have been a number of changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, the majority of these changes are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders has however seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison with DSM-IV, with the introduction of Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorders, the latter equated with dementia. A common language is introduced for the criteria of the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field. PMID:26332215

  1. Interconnected or disconnected? Promotion of mental health and prevention of mental disorder in the digital age

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Joseph F; Maughan, Daniel L; Grant-Peterkin, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Summary To date there have been few peer-reviewed studies on the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of digital technologies for mental health promotion and disorder prevention. Any evaluation of these evolving technologies is complicated by a lack of understanding about the specific risks and possible benefits of the many forms of internet use on mental health. In order to adequately meet the mental health needs of today’s society, psychiatry must engage in rigorous assessment of the impact of digital technologies. PMID:26932479

  2. Major Mental Disorders, Substance Use Disorders, Comorbidity, and HIV-AIDS Risk Behaviors in Juvenile Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives This study determined the prevalence of 20 HIV-AIDS risk behaviors of four groups of juvenile detainees: those with major mental disorders alone, those with substance use disorders alone, those with comorbid mental and substance use disorders, and those without any major mental or substance use disorder. Methods Interviewers administered the AIDS Risk Behavior Assessment to 800 randomly selected juvenile detainees aged ten to 18 years who were initially arrested between 1997 and 1998. Diagnoses were determined with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version 2.3. Results The sample included 340 females and 460 males. As with the other groups of detainees, youths with major mental disorders had a high prevalence of most HIV-AIDS risk behaviors, much higher than the rates found among youths in the general population. Comorbid substance use disorders substantially increased risk; 96 percent of youths in this group had been sexually active, 62 percent had had multiple partners within the past three months, and 59 percent had had unprotected vaginal sex in the past month. Among youths with a substance use disorder, either alone or with a comorbid major mental disorder, more than 63 percent had engaged in five or more sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Delinquents with substance use disorders, either with or without comorbid major mental disorders, are at particular risk of HIV-AIDS. The juvenile justice and public health systems must provide HIV-AIDS interventions as well as mental health and substance abuse treatment. Greater coordination between community services and correctional facilities can reduce the prevalence of HIV-AIDS risk behaviors of juvenile delinquents and stem the spread of HIV infection among young people. PMID:16020814

  3. CJDATS Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument for Mental Disorders (CODSI-MD)

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Stanley; Melnick, Gerald; Coen, Carrie; Banks, Steven; Friedmann, Peter D.; Grella, Christine; Knight, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to screen male and female offenders for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. This phase developed and pilot tested (N = 100) the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS) Co-occurring Disorders Screening Instrument for Mental Disorders (CODSI-MD), a 6-item instrument derived from three standard mental health screeners. The overall accuracy of the CODSI-MD (81%) compared favorably with the three standard instruments. A second 3-item instrument, developed to screen for severe mental disorders (the CODSI-SMD), had an overall accuracy of 82%. The results of this pilot study must be viewed cautiously, pending validation of the findings with a larger sample. PMID:22140276

  4. Adult attachment style modulates neural responses in a mentalizing task.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Kircher, T

    2015-09-10

    Adult attachment style (AAS) is a personality trait that affects social cognition. Behavioral data suggest that AAS influences mentalizing proficiency, i.e. the ability to predict and explain people's behavior with reference to mental states, but the neural correlates are unknown. We here tested how the AAS dimensions "avoidance" (AV) and "anxiety" (ANX) modulate neural correlates of mentalizing. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 164 healthy subjects during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (Prisoner's Dilemma Game). AAS was assessed with the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, including the subscales AV and ANX. Our task elicited a strong activation of the mentalizing network, including bilateral precuneus, (anterior, middle, and posterior) cingulate cortices, temporal poles, inferior frontal gyri (IFG), temporoparietal junctions, superior medial frontal gyri as well as right medial orbital frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and amygdala. We found that AV is positively and ANX negatively correlated with task-associated neural activity in the right amygdala, MFG, midcingulate cortex, and superior parietal lobule, and in bilateral IFG. These data suggest that avoidantly attached adults activate brain areas implicated in emotion regulation and cognitive control to a larger extent than anxiously attached individuals during mentalizing. PMID:26162239

  5. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Claudia S; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; dos Santos, Debora França; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8), being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7) when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8), and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0) compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6). The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years) than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years). We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4). CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups. PMID:26910549

  6. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Claudia S; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; dos Santos, Debora França; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8), being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7) when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8), and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0) compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6). The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years) than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years). We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4). CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups. PMID:26910549

  7. Adopting a Clinical Assessment Framework in Older Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hung, Lillian; Lee, Patience Anne; Au-Yeung, Andy T; Kucherova, Irina; Harrigan, MaryLou

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining new knowledge accepted and used by practitioners remains a slow process. A dearth of knowledge translation research exists that explores how to effectively move knowledge to practice in the field of older adult mental health. The current article reports findings of a knowledge translation study that examined what factors enabled the adoption of a new clinical assessment framework, P.I.E.C.E.S.™, into practice in an older adult tertiary mental health unit. Theoretical insights of appreciative inquiry were used to guide the study. Qualitative methods were used, including focus groups with 20 staff and individual interviews with three leaders. The appreciative inquiry approach helped researchers successfully facilitate knowledge translation. Enabling factors included: (a) fostering positive energy to make continuous improvement, (b) working with team members across disciplines at all levels, and (c) using knowledge translation tools to enable and sustain the new practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (7), 26-31.]. PMID:27362382

  8. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  9. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  10. Examining Reports of Mental Health in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…

  11. Curriculum Guides: Programming for the Adult Mentally Handicapped Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugerman, Phyllis B., Ed.; Toye, Bernadette, Ed.

    This volume includes a series of curricula designed specifically for adult mentally handicapped learners. Addressed in the individual curricula are the following topics: basic skills; bicycle maintenance and repair; manual wheelchair maintenance and repair; personal awareness; social, recreational, and art activity groups; woodworking; and…

  12. Coping Styles among Mothers of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    This paper describes the use of various coping strategies of mothers of adult children with mental retardation, and examines whether there is a relation between specific styles of coping and maternal characteristics and personal well-being. A group of 349 mothers completed the "Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced" scale. On average,…

  13. Career Development for Adolescents and Young Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John; Milson, Amy; Cocco, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Career development activities by professional school counselors at the elementary, middle, and high school levels can help students with mental retardation make meaningful career choices as adults. School counselors can be advocates and providers of career development activities that link the individualized educational process for students with…

  14. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  15. Adult Adjustment of Recent Graduates of Iowa Mental Disabilities Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Alan R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study investigated the adult adjustment of 318 former special education students labelled mentally retarded, 1 year after graduation. Current living situation, marital status, and leisure activities were examined as were variables related to employment (job type and status, hours worked per week, wages earned), and high school predictor…

  16. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults ...

  17. Pregnancy in a severely mentally handicapped adult.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, J

    1989-12-01

    What happens when we discover that a severely mentally handicapped girl, resident under our care, is heavily pregnant? What options are open to us in her management? What are the legal and ethical issues involved? How do we ensure that she receives the best possible care and protection and will the involvement of the police actually make the situation worse? Few of us have had the experience of working through such dilemmas, and little help can be found in consulting 'experts' who are awaiting the result of 'test cases' in the High Courts. This article highlights some of the problems we encountered with such a case. PMID:2614790

  18. Mental disorder among the Incas in ancient Peru.

    PubMed

    Elferink, J G

    1999-09-01

    The work of the chroniclers served as a source of information about the occurrence of mental diseases among the Incas. From this source it appears that melancholy was by far the most important disease among mental disorders. The disease did not only affect the common Incas: melancholy was rather frequent among the family of the Inca emperor. Like other diseases, mental diseases were treated by the Incas with a mixture of magic and empirical medicinal products. The latter were mainly of botanical nature, but also some minerals were applied to treat depressive disorders. Some typical syndromes of contemporary folk medicine, such as susto and related ailments, were not mentioned by the chroniclers. PMID:11624006

  19. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  20. Understanding Bipolar Disorder: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, J. Steve; Hinkle, J. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of bipolar disorder, including a discussion of diagnostic indicators, etiological theories, and psychopharmacological treatment. Examines treatment implications for mental health counselors, including role in psychiatric liaison, individual counseling, marriage and family therapy, and vocational counseling. (Author/ABL)

  1. Law, Mental Disorders and the Juvenile Process. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Samuel; And Others

    This five-year (1967-71) study of the District of Columbia's program for identification and treatment of delinquent juveniles with mental disorders found the child guidance clinic referral model to be ineffective and anachronistic. Volume 1 of the four-volume report examined referrals made to the clinic during the period May 1969-December 1969 and…

  2. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  3. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Pearl L.H.; Webb, Roger T.; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-01-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971–1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  4. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility.

    PubMed

    Mok, Pearl L H; Webb, Roger T; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-07-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971-1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  5. Mental Disorders and Their Association With Disability Among Internally Displaced Persons and Returnees in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Makhashvili, Nino; Chikovani, Ivdity; McKee, Martin; Bisson, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Bayard

    2014-01-01

    There remains limited evidence on comorbidity of mental disorders among conflict-affected civilians, particularly internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs who have returned to their home areas (returnees). The study aim was to compare patterns of mental disorders and their influence on disability between IDPs and returnees in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted with adult IDPs from the conflicts in the 1990s, the 2008 conflict, and returnees. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and disability were measured using cut scores on Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Among the 3,025 respondents, the probable prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity (>1 condition) was 23.3%, 14.0%, 10.4%, 12.4%, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients (p < .001) were .40 (PTSD with depression), .38 (PTSD with anxiety), and .52 (depression with anxiety). Characteristics associated with mental disorders in regression analyses included displacement (particularly longer-term), cumulative trauma exposure, female gender, older age, poor community conditions, and bad household economic situation; coefficients ranged from 1.50 to 3.79. PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity were associated with increases in disability of 6.4%, 9.7%, 6.3%, and 15.9%, respectively. A high burden of psychiatric symptoms and disability persist among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. PMID:25322880

  6. “Church-Based Health Programs for Mental Disorders among African Americans: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective African Americans, compared to White Americans, underutilize traditional mental health services. A systematic review is presented of studies involving church-based health promotion programs (CBHPP) for mental disorders among African Americans to assess the feasibility of utilizing such programs to address racial disparities in mental health care. Methods A literature review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ATLA Religion databases was conducted to identify articles published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria included the following: studies were conducted in a church; primary objective(s) involved assessment, perceptions/attitudes, education, prevention, group support, or treatment for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV mental disorders or their correlates; number of participants was reported; qualitative and/or quantitative data were reported; and African Americans were the target population. Results Of 1,451 studies identified, 191 studies were eligible for formal review. Only eight studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies focused on substance related disorders (n=5), were designed to assess the effects of a specific intervention (n=6), and targeted adults (n=6). One study focused on depression and was limited by a small sample size of seven participants. Conclusion Although CBHPP have been successful in addressing racial disparities for several chronic medical conditions, the published literature on CBHPP for mental disorders is extremely limited. More intensive research is needed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing church-based health programs as a possible resource for screening and treatment to improve disparities in mental health care for African Americans. PMID:22388529

  7. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  8. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  9. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  10. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  11. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  12. Prescription Use Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This article will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested. PMID:20958847

  13. Mental health care use in adolescents with and without mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Jörg, Frederike; Visser, Ellen; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of adolescents with and without a psychiatric diagnosis receiving specialist mental health care and investigate their problem levels as well as utilization of other types of mental health care to detect possible over- and undertreatment. Care utilization data were linked to psychiatric diagnostic data of 2230 adolescents participating in the TRAILS cohort study, who were assessed biannually starting at age 11. Psychiatric diagnoses were established at the fourth wave by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Self-, parent- and teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems and self-reported mental health care use were assessed at all four waves. Of all diagnosed adolescents, 35.3 % received specialist mental health care. This rate increased to 54.5 % when three or more disorders were diagnosed. Almost a third (28.5 %) of specialist care users had no psychiatric diagnosis; teachers gave them relatively high ratings on attention and impulsivity subscales. Diagnosed adolescents without specialist mental health care also reported low rates of other care use. We found no indication of overtreatment. Half of the adolescents with three or more disorders do not receive specialist mental health care nor any other type of care, which might indicate unmet needs. PMID:26275772

  14. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  15. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  16. Incidence of ADHD in adults with severe mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Kennemer, Kordell; Goldstein, Sam

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders in an adult inpatient psychiatric setting. Patient charts were reviewed from a state hospital in the western United States. Of the 292 persons served in 2002, only 6 received a diagnosis of ADHD. Of these patients, 2 received additional diagnoses for Major Depression, 1 for General Anxiety and 1 for Bipolar Disorder. Five of the 6 ADHD participants had a history of substance abuse and 4 were diagnosed with Personality Disorders. None of the 6 diagnosed with ADHD received a diagnosis of Learning Disability. A variety of nonstimulant medications were utilized to treat these patients. Characteristics of adult psychiatric populations are reviewed. Prevalence, comorbidity and implications for future research regarding adult ADHD are discussed. PMID:16083396

  17. The influence of mental health problems on AIDS-related risk behaviors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stiffman, A R; Doré, P; Earls, F; Cunningham, R

    1992-05-01

    This paper explores how symptoms of mental health problems influence acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related risk behaviors, and how changes in those symptoms relate to risk behaviors engaged in by young adults. Repeated interviews with 602 youths since 1984 provide a history of change in behaviors. Mental health symptoms during adolescence (alcohol/drug [r = .28]; conduct disorder [r = .27]; depression [r = .16]; suicide [r = .14]; anxiety [r = .16]; and posttraumatic stress [r = .09]) are associated with higher numbers of risk behaviors (specifically, prostitution, use of intravenous drugs, and choice of a high-risk sex partner) during young adulthood. Changes in mental health symptoms between adolescence and young adulthood are related to the number of risk behaviors engaged in by young adulthood (total number of symptoms [B = .10], alcohol/drug abuse or dependence [B = .34], depression [B = .20], suicidality [B = .35], anxiety [B = .13], and posttraumatic stress [B = .14]). Changes in symptoms of mental health problems are associated specifically with those risk behaviors that are initiated primarily in young adulthood: intravenous drug use, prostitution, and choice of risky partners. The findings show that prevention and treatment of mental health problems are important components of preventive interventions for human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk teens and young adults. PMID:1583474

  18. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. Methods A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants. Results Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants. Conclusions The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization. PMID:23284760

  19. Family Burden Related to Clinical and Functional Variables of People with Intellectual Disability with and without a Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irazabal, M.; Marsa, F.; Garcia, M.; Gutierrez-Recacha, P.; Martorell, A.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Ochoa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have been found that to assess the factors that explain higher levels of family burden in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and intellectual disability and mental disorders (ID-MD). The aims of this study were to assess family burden in people with ID and ID-MD and to determine which sociodemographic, clinical and functional…

  20. 38 CFR 4.126 - Evaluation of disability from mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evaluation of disability... VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.126 Evaluation of disability from mental disorders. (a) When evaluating a mental disorder, the rating agency shall consider...

  1. 38 CFR 4.126 - Evaluation of disability from mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evaluation of disability... VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.126 Evaluation of disability from mental disorders. (a) When evaluating a mental disorder, the rating agency shall consider...

  2. Approach to attention deficit disorder in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adults. SOURCES OF INFORMATION PsycINFO, PubMed, and Psychiatry 24x7.com were searched. Several books on ADD in adults were reviewed. I also drew on my own clinical experience assessing and treating adults with ADD for more than 20 years. MAIN MESSAGE The classic triad of ADD symptoms are inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity or restlessness. Although ADD is a well established brain disorder, the diagnosis remains controversial. Attention deficit disorder has been called a fad, not a legitimate diagnosis, but it is a well established, well documented, medical condition that can cause much suffering if left untreated. At one time we thought children would outgrow ADD at puberty, but we now know that many will continue to have residual symptoms throughout adolescence and adulthood. If left untreated, ADD can interfere with relationships, employment, and self-esteem. Treatment with stimulants and adjunctive care is often effective. CONCLUSION Attention deficit disorder in adults represents a substantial burden of illness. It can be diagnosed and treated successfully. PMID:17273498

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  4. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M

    1980-07-01

    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community. PMID:7446566

  5. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    PubMed

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  6. Promotion of mental health and prevention of mental disorders: priorities for implementation.

    PubMed

    Barry, M M; Clarke, A M; Petersen, I

    2015-07-01

    There is compelling evidence from high-quality studies that mental health promotion and primary prevention interventions can reduce the risk of mental disorders, enhance protective factors for good mental and physical health, and lead to lasting positive effects on a range of social and economic outcomes. This paper reviews the available evidence in order to guide the implementation of mental health promotion and prevention interventions in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The paper identifies a number of priority areas that can generate clear health and social gains in the population and be implemented and sustained at a reasonable cost. The interventions cover population groups across the lifespan from infancy to adulthood and include actions delivered across different settings and delivery platforms. "Best practices" were identified as interventions for which there is evidence not only of their effectiveness but also of their feasibility within resource constraints. The implications of the findings for capacity development are considered. PMID:26442891

  7. [Virtual reality in the treatment of mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Malbos, Eric; Boyer, Laurent; Lançon, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    Virtual reality is a media allowing users to interact in real time with computerized virtual environments. The application of this immersive technology to cognitive behavioral therapies is increasingly exploited for the treatment of mental disorders. The present study is a review of literature spanning from 1992 to 2012. It depicts the utility of this new tool for assessment and therapy through the various clinical studies carried out on subjects exhibiting diverse mental disorders. Most of the studies conducted on tested subjects attest to the significant efficacy of the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) for the treatment of distinct mental disorders. Comparative studies of VRET with the treatment of reference (the in vivo exposure component of the cognitive behavioral therapy) document an equal efficacy of the two methods and in some cases a superior therapeutic effect in favor of the VRET. Even though clinical experiments set on a larger scale, extended follow-up and studies about factors influencing presence are needed, virtual reality exposure represents an efficacious, confidential, affordable, flexible, interactive therapeutic method which application will progressively widened in the field of mental health. PMID:23702202

  8. Detecting Mental Disorder in Juvenile Detainees: Who Receives Services

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Pikus, Ann K.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether or not juvenile detainees with major mental disorders received treatment, and the variables that predicted who received services. Methods. Our sample was 1829 randomly selected juvenile detainees taking part in the Northwestern Juvenile Project. To determine need for mental health services, independent interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and rated functional impairment using the Child Global Assessment Scale. Records on service provision were obtained from the juvenile justice and public health systems. Results. Among detainees who had major mental disorders and associated functional impairments, 15.4% received treatment in the detention center and 8.1% received treatment in the community by the time of case disposition or 6 months, whichever came first. Significantly more girls than boys were detected and treated. Receiving treatment was predicted by clinical variables (having a major mental disorder or reported treatment history or suicidal behavior) and demographic variables. Conclusions. The challenge to public health is to provide accessible, innovative, and effective treatments to juvenile detainees, a population that is often beyond the reach of traditional services. PMID:16186454

  9. Mental disorder as a black box essentialist concept.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, J C

    1999-08-01

    This is a reply to commentaries on the target article (J. C. Wakefield, 1999) on the evolutionary foundations of the concept of mental disorder in defense of the harmful dysfunction analysis (HDA) of disorder. The author argues that the HDA is adequate to explain disorder and nondisorder judgments and is not disconfirmed by any of the claimed counterexamples put forward by the commentators; the commentators' proposed alternatives to the HDA are inadequate to explain disorder and nondisorder judgments; and the concept of natural function is a factual, scientific concept, contrary to K. W. M. Fulford's (1999) claim that it is inherently evaluative. The foundations of the HDA are clarified by providing a black box essentialist analysis (H. Putnam, 1975; J. C. Wakefield, 1997, in press) of the concept of natural function that underlies the concept of disorder. PMID:10466270

  10. [What does the Public Know and Think About Mental Disorders?].

    PubMed

    Mnich, Eva E; Makowski, Anna C; Kofahl, Christopher; Lambert, Martin; Bock, Thomas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2015-07-01

    Public knowledge about and attitudes towards mental illness were analyzed. Furthermore, changes in knowledge and attitudes after an information and awareness campaign were examined. The basis were two telephone surveys in 2011 (t0) and 2014 (t1) in Hamburg (intervention) and Munich (control). In 2011, the public was relatively well informed about mental disorders. Regarding the level of information of the public before the campaign and inconsistent results of previous evaluation studies the anticipated impact of the awareness campaign at t1 are moderate. PMID:26135274

  11. Biochemical screening for inherited metabolic disorders in the mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Henderson, H E; Goodman, R; Schram, J; Diamond, E; Daneel, A

    1981-11-01

    A biochemical screening programme for the detection of inherited metabolic disease was carried out on urine and blood samples from inmates of the Alexandra Institute for the mentally retarded, Cape Town. Of the 1087 patients screened, positive results for phenylketonuria were obtained in 3, for cystinuria in 2 and for Hartnup disease in 1. The overall frequency of metabolic disorders was 0,6%. It is evident that genetic metabolic disease as detected by current screening procedures makes only a small contribution to the overall burden of mental retardation. PMID:6795726

  12. Mental health disorders and solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Parker, Richard; Webb, Kerry; Neuberger, James M

    2013-10-15

    Depression affects up to 60% of solid-organ recipients and is independently associated with both mortality (hazard ratio for death of ~2) and de novo malignancy after transplantation, although the mechanism is not clear. Both pretransplantation psychosis and depression occurring more than 2 years after transplantation are associated with increased noncompliance and graft loss. It remains to be shown that effective treatment of depression is associated with improved outcomes and quality of life. Immunosuppressive drugs (especially corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors) and physiologic challenges can precipitate deterioration in mental health. All potential transplant candidates should be assessed for mental health problems and preexisting medical conditions that can mimic mental health problems, such as uremic, hepatic, or hypoxic encephalopathy, should be identified and treated appropriately. Expert mental health review of those with identified risk factors (such as previous suicide attempts, history of mental illness or noncompliance with medications) is advisable early in the transplant assessment process to mitigate risk and support the patient. Patients with mental health disorders, when adequately controlled and socially supported, have outcomes similar to the general transplant population. Therefore, exclusion from transplantation based on the diagnosis alone is neither ethically nor medically justified. However, it is ethically and clinically justifiable to deny access to transplantation to those who, despite full support, would have a quality of life that is unacceptable to the candidate or are likely to be noncompliant with treatment or follow-up, which would lead to graft loss. PMID:23743726

  13. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n = 364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. Results In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. Trials registration This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374. PMID:24726046

  14. Prevalence of the Major Mental Disorders among the Korean Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Hae Woo; Sohn, Jee Hoon

    2011-01-01

    With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as important public health concern. Despite the short history of psychiatric epidemiology in Korea, recently, epidemiologic data regarding geriatric psychiatric problems has started to accumulate. In the current study, we reviewed epidemiological findings regarding geriatric mental health in Korea. It was found that up to 10% of the elderly suffer from dementia, and 10% to 20% from depressive disorder. Further, prevalence estimates of Alzheimer's disease ranged from 4.2% to 9.0%, and vascular dementia from 1.0% to 4.8%. Annual incidence rates for Alzheimer's were 2.7% to 3.4% whereas that for vascular dementia was found to be as low as 0.3%. The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 4.2% to 9.1%, while that of clinically significant depressive symptom was between 9.1% and 33.0%. Finally, those with alcohol use disorders were found to comprise up to 13.6% of elderly population and additionally, 22% to 58% of the elderly were found to have sleep difficulties. Thus major mental disorders are already prevalent among the Korean elderly and are likely to increase rapidly. PMID:21218022

  15. Prevalence of the major mental disorders among the Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Cho, Maeng Je; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Hae Woo; Sohn, Jee Hoon

    2011-01-01

    With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as important public health concern. Despite the short history of psychiatric epidemiology in Korea, recently, epidemiologic data regarding geriatric psychiatric problems has started to accumulate. In the current study, we reviewed epidemiological findings regarding geriatric mental health in Korea. It was found that up to 10% of the elderly suffer from dementia, and 10% to 20% from depressive disorder. Further, prevalence estimates of Alzheimer's disease ranged from 4.2% to 9.0%, and vascular dementia from 1.0% to 4.8%. Annual incidence rates for Alzheimer's were 2.7% to 3.4% whereas that for vascular dementia was found to be as low as 0.3%. The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 4.2% to 9.1%, while that of clinically significant depressive symptom was between 9.1% and 33.0%. Finally, those with alcohol use disorders were found to comprise up to 13.6% of elderly population and additionally, 22% to 58% of the elderly were found to have sleep difficulties. Thus major mental disorders are already prevalent among the Korean elderly and are likely to increase rapidly. PMID:21218022

  16. Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20-45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families' use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  17. A Global Workspace perspective on mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent developments in Global Workspace theory suggest that human consciousness can suffer interpenetrating dysfunctions of mutual and reciprocal interaction with embedding environments which will have early onset and often insidious staged developmental progression, possibly according to a cancer model, in which a set of long-evolved control strategies progressively fails. Methods and results A rate distortion argument implies that, if an external information source carries a damaging 'message', then sufficient exposure to it, particularly during critical developmental periods, is sure to write a sufficiently accurate image of it on mind and body in a punctuated manner so as to initiate or promote similarly progressively punctuated developmental disorder, in essence either a staged failure affecting large-scale brain connectivity, which is the sine qua non of human consciousness, or else damaging the ability of embedding goal contexts to contain conscious dynamics. Conclusion The key intervention, at the population level, is clearly to limit exposure to factors triggering developmental disorders, a question of proper environmental sanitation, in a large sense, primarily a matter of social justice which has long been known to be determined almost entirely by the interactions of cultural trajectory, group power relations, and economic structure, with public policy. Intervention at the individual level appears limited to triggering or extending periods of remission, representing reestablishment of an extensive, but largely unexplored, spectrum of evolved control strategies, in contrast with the far better-understood case of cancer. PMID:16371149

  18. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Psychiatric Hospitals in Ontario: Clinical Profile and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Gracey, Carolyn; Bradley, Elspeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) represent a small, but challenging sub-group of patients within Ontario's mental health care system. However, few studies have documented the clinical characteristics of this population and examined how such individuals differ from other psychiatric patients, with or without intellectual…

  19. Childhood Determinants of Adult Psychiatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fryers, Tom; Brugha, Traolach

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the current evidence from longitudinal studies for childhood determinants of adult mental illness. Because of the variable and often prolonged period between factors in childhood and the identification of mental illness in adults, prospective studies, particularly birth cohorts, offer the best chance of demonstrating associations in individuals. A review was undertaken in 2006 of the published literature from longitudinal studies, together with some large-scale retrospective studies and relevant reviews which provided supplementary evidence. The main focus was upon potentially ameliorable characteristics, experiences or situations of childhood; however, other factors, not determinants but pre-cursors, associated with later mental illness could not be left out. Seven major electronic data-bases of published research were interrogated with a range of key-words and the results supplemented from personal searches, enquiries and reference trails. In excess of 1,500 abstracts were read to select 250 papers for full review. The material was assessed in relation to ten factors: Psychological disturbance; Genetic Influences; Neurological Deviance; Neuroticism; Behaviour; School Performance; Adversity; Child Abuse or Neglect; Parenting and parent-child relationships; Disrupted and Disfunctional Families. In 2011 the search was repeated for the period 2006 to mid-2011, using the same search terms and supplemented in the same manner. Over 1,800 abstracts emerged and almost 200 papers selected for more detailed review. These were then integrated into the original text with modifications where necessary. The whole text was then revised and edited in January / February 2012. There is continuing evidence for the association with later mental ill-health for each of these ten factors, but with different degrees of conviction. The evidence for each is discussed in detail and weighed both separately and in relation to others. These are then

  20. Childhood determinants of adult psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Fryers, Tom; Brugha, Traolach

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the current evidence from longitudinal studies for childhood determinants of adult mental illness. Because of the variable and often prolonged period between factors in childhood and the identification of mental illness in adults, prospective studies, particularly birth cohorts, offer the best chance of demonstrating associations in individuals. A review was undertaken in 2006 of the published literature from longitudinal studies, together with some large-scale retrospective studies and relevant reviews which provided supplementary evidence. The main focus was upon potentially ameliorable characteristics, experiences or situations of childhood; however, other factors, not determinants but pre-cursors, associated with later mental illness could not be left out. Seven major electronic data-bases of published research were interrogated with a range of key-words and the results supplemented from personal searches, enquiries and reference trails. In excess of 1,500 abstracts were read to select 250 papers for full review. The material was assessed in relation to ten factors: Psychological disturbance; Genetic Influences; Neurological Deviance; Neuroticism; Behaviour; School Performance; Adversity; Child Abuse or Neglect; Parenting and parent-child relationships; Disrupted and Disfunctional Families. In 2011 the search was repeated for the period 2006 to mid-2011, using the same search terms and supplemented in the same manner. Over 1,800 abstracts emerged and almost 200 papers selected for more detailed review. These were then integrated into the original text with modifications where necessary. The whole text was then revised and edited in January / February 2012. There is continuing evidence for the association with later mental ill-health for each of these ten factors, but with different degrees of conviction. The evidence for each is discussed in detail and weighed both separately and in relation to others. These are then

  1. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-05-01

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment. PMID:26039016

  2. Mental Health Disorders in Young Urban Sexual Minority Men

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Very few studies have examined mental disorders among male sexual minority youth. We describe demographic correlates, comorbidity, and history of mental disorders and suicidality in a large sample of male sexual minority youth. Methods Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 449 racially diverse, urban sexual minority males, ages 16-20, who were recruited using a social-network driven sampling methodology. Results Lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) affected 33.2% of the youth. Lifetime conduct disorder (23.6%), alcohol abuse/dependence (19.6%), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 16.0%), and nicotine dependence (10.7%) were also common. Black participants were less likely than White participants to be diagnosed with lifetime MDE, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, suicidal ideation, and anorexia, as well as past 12-month alcohol abuse/dependence (OR's range from .08-.46). Relative to participants identifying as gay, bisexual identified youth were at higher risk for lifetime PTSD (OR=2.04), and participants who did not identify as gay or bisexual were at higher risk for both lifetime and past 12-month nicotine dependence (OR's = 4.36 and 3.46, respectively). Most participants with mental disorders never received treatment, and comorbidity was common. Conclusions MDE, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, PTSD, and nicotine dependence are common and infrequently treated in young sexual minority men. Some within-group disparities emerged, suggesting factors related to racial background and self-identification may help to understand resilience to the unique stressors experienced by these young men. PMID:25294230

  3. Effects of biological explanations for mental disorders on clinicians’ empathy

    PubMed Central

    Lebowitz, Matthew S.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are increasingly understood in terms of biological mechanisms. We examined how such biological explanations of patients’ symptoms would affect mental health clinicians’ empathy—a crucial component of the relationship between treatment-providers and patients—as well as their clinical judgments and recommendations. In a series of studies, US clinicians read descriptions of potential patients whose symptoms were explained using either biological or psychosocial information. Biological explanations have been thought to make patients appear less accountable for their disorders, which could increase clinicians’ empathy. To the contrary, biological explanations evoked significantly less empathy. These results are consistent with other research and theory that has suggested that biological accounts of psychopathology can exacerbate perceptions of patients as abnormal, distinct from the rest of the population, meriting social exclusion, and even less than fully human. Although the ongoing shift toward biomedical conceptualizations has many benefits, our results reveal unintended negative consequences. PMID:25453068

  4. Role of common mental and physical disorders in partial disability around the world

    PubMed Central

    Bruffaerts, Ronny; Vilagut, Gemma; Demyttenaere, Koen; Alonso, Jordi; AlHamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Varghese, Matthew; Williams, David R.; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental and physical disorders are associated with total disability, but their effects on days with partial disability (i.e. the ability to perform some, but not full-role, functioning in daily life) are not well understood. Aims To estimate individual (i.e. the consequences for an individual with a disorder) and societal effects (i.e. the avoidable partial disability in the society due to disorders) of mental and physical disorders on days with partial disability around the world. Method Respondents from 26 nationally representative samples (n = 61 259, age 18+) were interviewed regarding mental and physical disorders, and day-to-day functioning. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess mental disorders; partial disability (expressed in full day equivalents) was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule in the CIDI 3.0. Results Respondents with disorders reported about 1.58 additional disability days per month compared with respondents without disorders. At the individual level, mental disorders (especially post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and bipolar disorder) yielded a higher number of days with disability than physical disorders. At the societal level, the population attributable risk proportion due to physical and mental disorders was 49% and 15% respectively. Conclusions Mental and physical disorders have a considerable impact on partial disability, at both the individual and at the societal level. Physical disorders yielded higher effects on partial disability than mental disorders. PMID:22539779

  5. Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

  6. Community Violence Perpetration and Victimization Among Adults With Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Johnson, Kiersten L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n = 4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population. PMID:24524530

  7. Clozapine's Effect on Recidivism Among Offenders with Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Depiang, Gu

    2016-03-01

    Mental disorder is associated with criminal reoffending, especially violent acts of offending. Features of mental disorder, psychosocial stresses, substance use disorder, and personality disorder combine to increase the risk of criminal recidivism. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is indicated in the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. This article is the report of a community follow-up study of a matched control of those treated with clozapine (n = 41) and those treated with other antipsychotics (n = 21). Rates of reoffending behavior in the general, nonviolent, violent, and sexual categories were calculated after two years of follow-up. Although not statistically significant, the two-year criminal conviction rates of those treated with other antipsychotics in all offense categories except sexual reoffending were two-fold higher than in those treated with clozapine. The time from release to the first offense and crime-free time in the community were significantly longer in the clozapine group. By prolonging the time it takes from release to first offense, clozapine confers additional crime-reduction advantages. PMID:26944747

  8. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  9. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  10. Correlates of Mental Health Disorders among Children with Hearing Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellinger, Johannes; Holzinger, Daniel; Sattel, Heribert; Laucht, Manfred; Goldberg, David

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate factors related to the high rate of mental health disorders seen in those with impaired hearing, including social factors and audiological measures. Method: A representative sample of 95 pupils (47 females, 48 males; mean age 11y 1mo, range 6y 5mo to 16y, SD 2y 7mo) with hearing impairments of at least…

  11. Common Mental Disorders in Public Transportation Drivers in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Samalvides, Frine; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Kruger, Hever

    2014-01-01

    Background Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD). A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05). The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7–16.6%), 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4–28.8%) and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8–17.4%) respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69–81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC): 7.8%). Conclusion Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population. PMID:24979057

  12. [Assassination of Henri IV, mental disorders and criminal responsibility].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    On 14th May 1610, François Ravaillac, a delusional mystic, assassinated King Henri IV. Under the Ancien Regime, regicide was considered as a supreme act of patricide and received the ultimate punishment even if the perpetrator showed obvious signs of insanity. What would the situation be today? A study of this notorious historical episode provides a reflection on the way dangerousness linked to mental disorders has been viewed and treated over the last four centuries. PMID:21155330

  13. Dimensional psychiatry: mental disorders as dysfunctions of basic learning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Beck, Anne; Wackerhagen, Carolin

    2016-08-01

    It has been questioned that the more than 300 mental disorders currently listed in international disease classification systems all have a distinct neurobiological correlate. Here, we support the idea that basic dimensions of mental dysfunctions, such as alterations in reinforcement learning, can be identified, which interact with individual vulnerability and psychosocial stress factors and, thus, contribute to syndromes of distress across traditional nosological boundaries. We further suggest that computational modeling of learning behavior can help to identify specific alterations in reinforcement-based decision-making and their associated neurobiological correlates. For example, attribution of salience to drug-related cues associated with dopamine dysfunction in addiction can increase habitual decision-making via promotion of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer as indicated by computational modeling of the effect of Pavlovian-conditioned stimuli (here affectively positive or alcohol-related cues) on instrumental approach and avoidance behavior. In schizophrenia, reward prediction errors can be modeled computationally and associated with functional brain activation, thus revealing reduced encoding of such learning signals in the ventral striatum and compensatory activation in the frontal cortex. With respect to negative mood states, it has been shown that both reduced functional activation of the ventral striatum elicited by reward-predicting stimuli and stress-associated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in interaction with reduced serotonin transporter availability and increased amygdala activation by aversive cues contribute to clinical depression; altogether these observations support the notion that basic learning mechanisms, such as Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer, represent a basic dimension of mental disorders that can be mechanistically characterized using computational modeling and

  14. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    Mental health professionals seldom recognize psychopathy in their daily practice. Usually forensic psychiatrists and psychologists are involved because individuals with psychopathic personality are involved in serious criminal behavior and implicated with the law. Most of the times the profiles of children who evolve in adult psychopaths have components from other disorders, especially conduct disorder. The term psychopathy originates from the Greek words "psyche" (soul) and "pathos" (passion) and was used to identify initially every mental illness. Although in the bibliography the terms Antisocial Personality Disorder, Psychopathic Personality, Psychopathy and Sociopathy are used as synonyms, it has not been clarified if the Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality constitute two different entities or if the latter constitutes the more serious and hard core subtype of the first. The prevalence of Psychopathic Personality in the general population is estimated as 1%, with the proportion of men: women to be 3:1. The adult male psychopaths are responsible for almost 50% of the serious criminal behavior. Diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality is completed with the use of specific psychometric tools: Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV). The most recognizable elements of psychopathy are the non-existence of conscience and their shallow emotional relations. They are individuals with persuasion, that use the suitable phraseology in order to approach, impress and charm their prey. Nuclear characteristic is the inability to feel guilt, remorse and the nonexistence of moral rules. They lose their temper easily and present aggressiveness without obvious or insignificant reason. They develop various antisocial behaviors that are repeated with success, the gravity of violent behavior tends to increase and they have problems with the law. Nevertheless, people with Psychopathic Personality at one point

  15. Measuring victim empathy among mentally disordered offenders: validating VERA-2.

    PubMed

    Young, S; Sedgwick, O; Perkins, D; Lister, H; Southgate, K; Das, M; Kumari, V; Bishopp, D; Gudjonsson, G H

    2015-01-01

    There are very few, if any, valid and victim-specific situation empathy measures available at present for use with mentally disordered offenders. The aim of this study was to validate a modified version (VERA-2) of the Victim Empathy Response Assessment (VERA) tool which was developed earlier (Young et al., 2008) to enable victim-specific situation empathy measurement in offenders. A total of 55 mentally disordered in-patients residing in a maximum security hospital were assessed on VERA-2 as well as on measures of antisocial personality traits, global affective empathy, violent cognitions, and reported remorse for the index offence. The VERA-2 cognitive and affective empathy scales were negatively correlated with antisocial personality traits and violent cognitions, and positively related to remorse for the index offence. Global affective empathy was positively related to VERA-2 affective empathy. Participants with a history of sexual offending had significantly higher cognitive empathy than other offenders. Acceptance of violence and remorse for the index offence were the best predictors of both cognitive and affective empathy. The findings suggest that the VERA-2 is a valid instrument for measuring victim empathy among mentally disordered offenders, and may prove useful in the context of future risk assessment and outcomes in this population. PMID:25466221

  16. CJDATS CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS SCREENING INSTRUMENT (CODSI) FOR MENTAL DISORDERS (MD)

    PubMed Central

    SACKS, STANLEY; MELNICK, GERALD; COEN, CARRIE; BANKS, STEVE; FRIEDMANN, PETER D.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE; KNIGHT, KEVIN; ZLOTNICK, CARON

    2011-01-01

    Three standardized screening instruments—the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener (GSS), the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview–Modified (MINI-M), and the Mental Health Screening Form (MHSF)—were compared to two shorter instruments, the 6-item Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument for Mental Disorders (CODSI-MD) and the 3-item CODSI for Severe Mental Disorders (CODSI-SMD) for use with offenders in prison substance-abuse treatment programs. Results showed that the CODSI screening instruments were comparable to the longer instruments in overall accuracy and that all of the instruments performed reasonably well. The CODSI instruments showed sufficient value to justify their use in prison substance-abuse treatment programs and to warrant validation testing in other criminal justice populations and settings. PMID:21976780

  17. Treatment of Smokers with Co-Occurring Disorders: Emphasis on Integration in Mental Health and Addiction Treatment Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research on the treatment of cigarette smoking in individuals who have comorbid mental illnesses or non-nicotinic addictions. The prevalence of smoking in mentally ill and substance-abusing populations is presented, as well as reasons for this high prevalence. The historical role of cigarettes and tobacco in mental illness and addiction is reviewed to help the reader better understand the pervasiveness of smoking in these disorders and the relative absence of intervention efforts in mental heath and addiction treatment settings. The article then discusses the several reasons for integrating smoking treatment into mental health and addiction settings. The outcome research for adult and adolescent comorbid smokers is reviewed, and barriers to treatment are discussed. The review closes with a brief discussion of models of integration and thoughts about prevention. PMID:19327035

  18. Modeling Mental Health Information Preferences During the Early Adult Years: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Walker, John R.; Eastwood, John D.; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P.; Bracken, Keyna

    2013-01-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtual segment (28.7%) preferred working independently on the Internet to obtain information recommended by young adults who had experienced anxiety or depression. Self-assessment options and links to service providers were more important to this segment. Conventional participants (30.1%) preferred books or pamphlets recommended by a doctor, endorsed by mental health professionals, and used with a doctor's support. They would devote more time to information acquisition but were less likely to use Internet social networking options. Brief sources of information were more important to the low interest segment (41.2%). All segments preferred information about alternative ways to reduce anxiety or depression rather than psychological approaches or medication. Maximizing the use of information requires active and passive approaches delivered through old-media (e.g. books) and new-media (e.g., Internet) channels. PMID:24266450

  19. Modeling mental health information preferences during the early adult years: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Walker, John R; Eastwood, John D; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P; Bracken, Keyna; The Mobilizing Minds Research Group

    2014-04-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtual segment (28.7%) preferred working independently on the Internet to obtain information recommended by young adults who had experienced anxiety or depression. Self-assessment options and links to service providers were more important to this segment. Conventional participants (30.1%) preferred books or pamphlets recommended by a doctor, endorsed by mental health professionals, and used with a doctor's support. They would devote more time to information acquisition but were less likely to use Internet social networking options. Brief sources of information were more important to the low interest segment (41.2%). All segments preferred information about alternative ways to reduce anxiety or depression rather than psychological approaches or medication. Maximizing the use of information requires active and passive approaches delivered through old-media (e.g., books) and new-media (e.g., Internet) channels. PMID:24266450

  20. Quality assessment of mental health care by people with severe mental disorders: a participatory research project.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Angelo; Bajoni, Alessia; Rapisarda, Filippo; D'Anza, Vito; De Luca, Luigi Fabrizio; Inglese, Cristiana; Iapichino, Sonia; Mauriello, Fabrizio; D'Avanzo, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the perceived quality of care by consumers with severe mental disorders. A questionnaire investigating service quality was developed by a consumer focus group and filled by 204 consumers. In five areas the negative evaluations exceeded or closely approximated the positive ones: choice of professionals, waiting times, information about illness and medications. All five do not refer to the outcomes of care, but to the concept of responsiveness. The results confirmed that people with severe mental disorders can give value judgments on various aspects of care. However, even in a service strongly oriented towards community care, the consumers' needs in sensitive areas concerning choices, respect and autonomy are not met. The application of the concept of responsiveness to quality improvement may help services to meet consumers' expectations. PMID:24318768

  1. Gait and balance disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Salzman, Brooke

    2010-07-01

    Gait and balance disorders are common in older adults and are a major cause of falls in this population. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced level of function. Common causes include arthritis and orthostatic hypotension; however, most gait and balance disorders involve multiple contributing factors. Most changes in gait are related to underlying medical conditions and should not be considered an inevitable consequence of aging. Physicians caring for older patients should ask at least annually about falls, and should ask about or examine for difficulties with gait and balance at least once. For older adults who report a fall, physicians should ask about difficulties with gait and balance, and should observe for any gait or balance dysfunctions. The Timed Up and Go test is a fast and reliable diagnostic tool. Persons who have difficulty or demonstrate unsteadiness performing the Timed Up and Go test require further assessment, usually with a physical therapist, to help elucidate gait impairments and related functional limitations. The most effective strategy for falls prevention involves a multifactorial evaluation followed by targeted interventions for identified contributing factors. Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for gait and balance disorders is limited because of the lack of standardized outcome measures determining gait and balance abilities. However, effective options for patients with gait and balance disorders include exercise and physical therapy. PMID:20590073

  2. A typology of community violence perpetration and victimization among adults with mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kiersten L; Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A; Grimm, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    The primary objective of this article was to evaluate the overlap between community violence perpetration and victimization in a large, heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses (N = 4,474). We also explored participant characteristics differentiating four categories of perpetration and victimization: non-victim/non-perpetrators, victims only, perpetrators only, and victim-perpetrators. Results indicated that adults with mental illnesses were unlikely to report violent outcomes but, when they did, were more likely to report perpetration and victimization, rather than perpetration alone. In addition, bivariate and multivariable analyses showed that sex, age, race/ethnicity, and primary diagnosis differed across categories. Victim-perpetrators, for example, were more likely to be young, Black, and have a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, substance use disorder, or "other." Altogether, our findings provide evidence for a victim-perpetrator overlap in this population and suggest that preventive measures targeting violence and victimization may be more effective than those with separate strategies for each. PMID:24919996

  3. A Typology of Community Violence Perpetration and Victimization Among Adults With Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten L.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to evaluate the overlap between community violence perpetration and victimization in a large, heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses (N = 4,474). We also explored participant characteristics differentiating four categories of perpetration and victimization: non-victim/non-perpetrators, victims only, perpetrators only, and victim–perpetrators. Results indicated that adults with mental illnesses were unlikely to report violent outcomes but, when they did, were more likely to report perpetration and victimization, rather than perpetration alone. In addition, bivariate and multivariable analyses showed that sex, age, race/ethnicity, and primary diagnosis differed across categories. Victim–perpetrators, for example, were more likely to be young, Black, and have a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, substance use disorder, or “other.” Altogether, our findings provide evidence for a victim–perpetrator overlap in this population and suggest that preventive measures targeting violence and victimization may be more effective than those with separate strategies for each. PMID:24919996

  4. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  5. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  6. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  7. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  8. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  9. Sleep Disturbances and Common Mental Disorders in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Kia; Gelaye, Bizu; Tadessea, Mahlet G.; Williams, Michelle A.; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhanec, Yemane

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) and examine the association of sleep disorders with presence of CMDs. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic information and behavioral characteristics among 2,645 undergraduate students in Ethiopia. Standard questionnaires were used to assess CMDs, evening chronotype, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Results A total of 716 students (26.6%) were characterized as having CMDs. Female students had higher prevalence of CMDs (30.6%) compared to male students (25.4%). After adjusting for potential confounders, daytime sleepiness (OR=2.02; 95% CI 1.64-2.49) and poor sleep quality (OR=2.36; 95% CI 1.91-2.93) were associated with increased odds of CMDs. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of CMDs comorbid with sleep disorders among college students. PMID:25309939

  10. Myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Jugal; Gupta, Avni; Jiloha, Ram Chander; Bantman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in general population and medical professionals of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 436 subjects (360 subjects from urban and rural communities of Delhi and 76 medical professionals working in different organizations in Delhi). A pre-tested questionnaire consisting items on perceptions, myths, and beliefs about causes, treatment, and health-seeking behavior for mental disorders was used. The collected data were statistically analyzed using computer software package Epi-info. Appropriate tests of significance were applied to detect any significant association. Results: The mental disorders were thought to be because of loss of semen or vaginal secretion (33.9% rural, 8.6% urban, 1.3% professionals), less sexual desire (23.7% rural, 18% urban), excessive masturbation (15.3% rural, 9.8% urban), God's punishment for their past sins (39.6% rural, 20.7% urban, 5.2% professionals), and polluted air (51.5% rural, 11.5% urban, 5.2% professionals). More people (37.7%) living in joint families than in nuclear families (26.5%) believed that sadness and unhappiness cause mental disorders. 34.8% of the rural subjects and 18% of the urban subjects believed that children do not get mental disorders, which means they have conception of adult-oriented mental disorders. 40.2% in rural areas, 33.3% in urban areas, and 7.9% professionals believed that mental illnesses are untreatable. Many believed that psychiatrists are eccentric (46.1% rural, 8.4% urban, 7.9% professionals), tend to know nothing, and do nothing (21.5% rural, 13.7% urban, 3.9% professionals), while 74.4% of rural subjects, 37.1% of urban subjects, and 17.6% professionals did not know that psychiatry is a branch of medicine. More people in rural areas than in urban area thought that keeping fasting or a faith healer can cure them from mental illnesses, whereas

  11. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p < 0.001) and all personality traits (range, p = 0.03 to p = 0.001) improved, but there was almost no correlation between changes on these 2 measures. Conversely, of 11 Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. PMID:27082828

  12. Maternal mental health and children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors: Beyond maternal substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Li, Libo; Kahn, Emily; Evans, Elizabeth; Schulte, Marya

    2014-01-01

    Maternal substance abuse and mental disorders can have adverse impacts on child development. We investigated the impact of maternal mental health on child behaviors based on a long-term follow-up study of mothers and their children approximately 10 years after mothers’ admission to drug abuse treatment. Mothers (n=396) were assessed at admission to drug treatment during 2000 to 2002, and at follow-up in 2010–2011. At follow-up, each mother was asked to assess one target child using the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6–18 (CBCL). Mothers’ mental disorder diagnoses were obtained from records maintained by the California Department of Mental Health in 2009. About 46% of mothers had comorbid mental disorders; 27% had depressive disorder, 15% bipolar disorder, 15% adjustment disorder, 13% anxiety disorder, and 6% psychotic disorder. Of these mothers, more than half had two or more mental disorder diagnoses. The average age of the target child was approximately 10 years old (range 6 to 17). Relative to children of mothers without comorbid mental disorders, children were more likely to demonstrate internalizing behaviors if their mothers had comorbid depression/anxiety disorders (OR=2.0, 95%CI:1.0–4.0) or severe mental disorders (psychoses, bipolar) (OR=3.4, 95%CI:1.5–7.6). For externalizing behaviors, family problems was the only significant predictor (OR=3.2, 95%CI:1.7–6.0 for children of mothers with depression/anxiety disorders, OR=3.9, 95%CI:1.9–7.8 for severe mental disorders). Addressing maternal mental disorders (particularly severe mental disorders) and family problems are important for child well-being as these factors were significantly related to emotional and problem behaviors of children. PMID:25750503

  13. Psychological Disorder in Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantam, Digby

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome suggests that these individuals commonly develop a psychological disorder secondary to Asperger syndrome including affective disorders, anxiety-related disorders, and conduct disorders. Treatment usually involves a combination of psychoeducation, social change,…

  14. Trucking organization and mental health disorders of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Shattell, Mona; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Collins, Chad; Sönmez, Sevil; Fehrenbacher, Caitlin

    2012-07-01

    There are over 3 million truck drivers employed in the commercial transportation and material moving occupations, one of the largest occupational groups in the United States. Workers in this large and growing occupational segment are at risk for a range of occupational health-induced conditions, including mental health and psychiatric disorders due to high occupational stress, low access and use of health care, and limited social support. The purpose of this study was to explore male truck drivers' mental health risks and associated comorbidities, using a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data were collected from a random sample of 316 male truckers between the ages of 23 and 76 at a large truck stop located within a 100-mile radius of Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, using a self-administered 82-item questionnaire. Surveyed truckers were found to have significant issues affecting their mental health, such as loneliness (27.9%), depression (26.9%), chronic sleep disturbances (20.6%), anxiety (14.5%), and other emotional problems (13%). Findings have potential to help researchers develop interventions to improve the emotional and occupational health of truck drivers, a highly underserved population. Mental health promotion, assessment, and treatment must become a priority to improve the overall trucking environment for truckers, the transportation industry, and safety on US highways. PMID:22757596

  15. The ABE/AMH Manual. An Instructional Guide for ABE Programs Serving Mentally Handicapped Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Scott C.; Edgar, S. Keith

    This handbook provides adult basic education teachers with instructional materials for working with adult mentally handicapped students. Section 1 examines planning programs for adult mentally retarded students (getting started, specific considerations, various kinds of program sites) and implementing instruction (staff selection and training).…

  16. Learning Journeys: A Resource Handbook on Adult Learning and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue

    This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…

  17. Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence.

    PubMed

    Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie

    2016-06-01

    Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices. PMID:26780106

  18. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  19. Mental Health Nursing of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Illness: A Review of Empirical Studies 1994-2013.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Trine Lise; Sageng, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities and mental illness is underresearched. The aim of this review is to summarize empirical mental health nursing studies including adults with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness. Out of 137 hits, 16 articles were reviewed in full text. Thirteen of the articles presented modified nursing interventions. Three articles discussed training and education. The main finding is that mental health nursing interventions in patients with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness are in line with mental health nursing for the general population. There are still not many publications on empirical studies concerning mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities. Clinical implications are primarily related to the need for facilitated nurse-patient communication adjusted to the patients' cognitive levels. Insights drawn from this review illuminate the importance of mental health nursing interventions adjusting to the particular patients' symptoms, instead of targeting behavior change. The findings underpin factors found to have a positive impact on patients with mental illness in the general population as relevant topics for future research. PMID:26992884

  20. [Mental disorders in pregnancy and postpartum : Prevalence, course, and clinical diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kühner, C

    2016-09-01

    The peripartum period represents a critical phase for the onset and course of mental disorders. During this phase, mental disorders occur as first onset or, more often, as recurrent or ongoing chronic conditions with onset and further course of illness in- or outside the peripartal period. No clear risk increase exists for the more prevalent mental disorders such as depressive and anxiety disorders during this period, whereas there is an increased risk for bipolar disorder. Peripartal mental disorders may impact fetal and child development through different mechanisms. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) does not sufficiently take into account particularities of peripartal disorders with possible prognostic relevance. The present article gives an overview on prevalence, course, and clinical diagnostics and presents a proposal for consistent categorization of peripartal mental disorders. PMID:27456195

  1. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  2. Evidenced-Based Practice for Anxiety Disorders in College Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health concerns in the United States and they tend to be among the most frequently reported in college mental health. While efficacious research for the psychotherapy treatment of specific anxiety disorders (e.g., social phobia, panic disorder, etc.) exists, the picture is more complex in clinical…

  3. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  4. Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Childhood Disorder Grows Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    Asperger syndrome is a chronic developmental disorder characterized by problems in social relatedness, empathic communication and understanding, and circumscribed interests. The inclusion of Asperger's Disorder (Asperger syndrome) in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), has…

  5. Public beliefs about treatment and outcome of mental disorders: a comparison of Australia and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Christensen, Helen; Yoshioka, Kumiko; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Wata, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Background Surveys of the public in a number of countries have shown poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment that often diverge from those of health professionals. This lack of mental health literacy can limit the optimal use of treatment services. Australia and Japan are countries with very different mental health care systems, with Japan emphasising hospital care and Australia more oriented to community care. Japan is also more collectivist and Australia more individualist in values. These differences might influence recognition of disorders and beliefs about treatment in the two countries. Methods Surveys of the public were carried out in each country using as similar a methodology as feasible. In both countries, household interviews were carried out concerning beliefs in relation to one of four case vignettes, describing either depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia or chronic schizophrenia. In Australia, the survey involved a national sample of 3998 adults aged 18 years or over. In Japan, the survey involved 2000 adults aged between 20 and 69 from 25 regional sites spread across the country. Results The Japanese public were found to be more reluctant to use psychiatric labels, particularly for the depression cases. The Japanese were also more reluctant to discuss mental disorders with others outside the family. They had a strong belief in counsellors, but not in GPs. They generally believe in the benefits of treatment, but are not optimistic about full recovery. By contrast, Australians used psychiatric labels more often, particularly "depression". They were also more positive about the benefits of seeking professional help, but had a strong preference for lifestyle interventions and tended to be negative about some psychiatric medications. Australians were positive about both counsellors and GPs. Psychiatric hospitalization and ECT were seen negatively in both countries. Conclusion There are some major

  6. Clinician Experiences Assessing Work Disability Related to Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Hees, Hiske; Trojanowski, Lucy; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews. Results Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular. Conclusions Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of “partial disability”. In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability. PMID:25789478

  7. Resilience in the Face of Disaster: Prevalence and Longitudinal Course of Mental Disorders following Hurricane Ike

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hamblen, Jessica L.; Southwick, Steven M.; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Natural disasters may increase risk for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, both in the short- and in the medium-term. We sought to determine the prevalence and longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), depression, and suicidality in the first 18 months after Hurricane Ike. Methods Six hundred fifty-eight adults representative of Galveston and Chambers Counties, Texas participated in a random, population-based survey. The initial assessment was conducted 2 to 5 months after Hurricane Ike struck Galveston Bay on September 13, 2008. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 5 to 9 and 14 to 18 months after Hurricane Ike. Results Past-month prevalence of any mental disorder (20.6% to 10.9%) and hurricane-related PTSD (6.9% to 2.5%) decreased over time. Past-month prevalence of PTSD related to a non-disaster traumatic event (5.8% to 7.1%), GAD (3.1% to 1.8%), PD (0.8% to 0.7%), depression (5.0% to 5.6%), and suicidality (2.6% to 4.2%) remained relatively stable over time. Conclusions PTSD, both due to the hurricane and due to other traumatic events, was the most prevalent psychiatric disorder 2 to 5 months after Hurricane Ike. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders declined rapidly over time, suggesting that the vast majority of individuals exposed to this natural disaster ‘bounced back’ and were resilient to long-term mental health consequences of this large-scale traumatic event. PMID:22761716

  8. Integrating mental health parity for homebound older adults under the medicare home health care benefit.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Joan K; Gellis, Zvi D

    2011-04-01

    Despite high rates of mental illness, very few homebound older adults receive treatment. Comorbid mental illness exacerbates physical health conditions, reduces treatment adherence, and increases dependency and medical costs. Although effective treatments exist, many home health agencies lack capacity to effectively detect and treat mental illness. This article critically analyzes barriers within the Medicare home health benefit that impede access to mental health treatment. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are made to integrate mental health parity in home health care. In particular, creative use of medical social work can improve detection and treatment of mental illness for homebound older adults. PMID:21462061

  9. Cognitive Training in Mental Disorders: Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Rumsey, Judith; Sherrill, Joel; Wagner, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we review the conceptual basis, definitions, and evolution of cognitive training (CT) approaches for the treatment of mental disorders. Method We review the current state of the knowledge on CT in psychiatric illnesses, and its neural and behavioral targets, and summarize the factors that appear to relate to a successful response to CT, including learner characteristics that influence clinical outcome. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to the development and testing of CT approaches, with the goal of creating maximally efficient and effective approaches to training. Finally, we identify gaps in existing knowledge, and outline key research directions for the future. Results While much of the early work has been conducted in schizophrenia, CT has more recently been applied to a widening range of neuropsychiatric illnesses, including attention deficit disorder, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. CT harnesses the inherent neuroplastic capacities of the brain, targeting neural system function across psychiatric disorders, and thus improving cognitive processes that play a role in emotion regulation, clinical symptoms, and adaptive community functioning. Conclusions CT offers considerable promise, especially given the limited efficacy of pharmacological interventions in ameliorating cognitive deficits. However, more work is needed to understand mechanisms underlying CT, predictors of response, generalization and real-world applicability, and approaches to dissemination in practice settings. PMID:24700194

  10. A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants. Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative studies that reported resilience and mental health outcomes among forcibly displaced persons (aged 18+) by way of exploring associations, links, pathways and causative mechanisms were included. Fourteen bibliographic databases and seven humanitarian study databases/websites were searched and a four stage screening process was followed. Results Twenty three studies were included in the final review. Ten qualitative studies identified highlighted family and community cohesion, family and community support, individual personal qualities, collective identity, supportive primary relationships and religion. Thirteen quantitative studies were identified, but only two attempted to link resilience with mental disorders, and three used a specific resilience measure. Over-reliance on cross-sectional designs was noted. Resilience was generally shown to be associated with better mental health in displaced populations, but the evidence on this and underlying mechanisms was limited. Discussion The review highlights the need for more epidemiological and qualitative evidence on resilience in forcibly displaced persons as a potential avenue for intervention development, particularly in resource-poor settings. PMID:25177360

  11. Depression and the Onset of Dementia in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Diana Byrd; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of 61 adults with Down's syndrome and 43 adults with mental retardation resulting from other causes found that 8 Down's syndrome adults had both depression and declines in functioning, whereas no adults in the other group showed functional declines. Greater severity of depression was related to poor functioning in adults with Down's…

  12. US patterns of mental health service utilization for transition-age youth and young adults.

    PubMed

    Pottick, Kathleen J; Bilder, Scott; Vander Stoep, Ann; Warner, Lynn A; Alvarez, Mike F

    2008-10-01

    This study examines rates of admission and patterns of mental health service use by persons of transition age (16-25 years) in the USA based on the nationally representative 1997 Client/Patient Sample Survey and population data from the US Census Bureau. A precipitous decline in utilization was observed at the age of emancipation: the yearly admission rate for inpatient, outpatient, and residential services was 34 per 1,000 for 16- and 17-year-olds and 18 per 1,000 for 18- and 19-year-olds. Among 20- and 21-year-olds, more were referred from criminal justice and fewer from family or friends and social services, and proportionately more were Medicaid recipients. Targeting resources to enhance shared planning between child and adult systems may facilitate continuity of care for young adult clients who are aging out of child mental health systems, as well as for those who experience their first episodes of mental disorder in early adulthood. PMID:18026842

  13. [Facts visualized through job support activities for mentally disordered persons--what is the objective of medical treatment for mental disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent investigation by the Public Employment Security Office, the rate of employing mentally disordered persons is increasing. In the report, it was predicted that the number of employed mentally disordered persons will exceed the number of physically disordered persons within a few years, and will become the highest of the main three disabled types. Despite the strong desire of mentally disordered persons to work, supporting systems have been inadequate. In 2007, mental clinic doctors in Osaka took the lead and established the NPO Osaka Job Support Network for Mentally Disordered Persons (JSN) to support their employment persons. We aimed to establish a support system for mentally disordered persons who have a strong will to work, stating "I would like to work" to their family doctors, who introduce JSN to the patients, and then the family doctors and JSN cooperate to support the patients to realize the desire to "work". Since April 2013, 49 persons have found a job and "graduated" from JSN. Over 6 years until the end of March, 2013, a total of 154 persons found jobs and "graduated" from JSN. From now on, it is expected that around 50 persons will find jobs and "graduate" from JSN every year. It is definitely insufficient just to repeat "temporary" medical treatment for mental disorders with a long course like schizophrenia. A care management view that values the hopes and dreams of patients is required in psychiatric treatment. PMID:25098153

  14. Associations between anxiety disorders, suicide ideation, and age in nationally representative samples of Canadian and American adults.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Sarah; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Erickson, Julie; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    Suicidal behaviors are of significant concern for the individuals displaying such behavior and for service providers who encounter them. Using nationally representative samples of Canadian and American adults, we aimed to examine: whether age moderates the relationship between having any anxiety disorder and suicide ideation (SI), the prevalence of SI among younger and older adults, and whether age and individual anxiety disorders were differentially associated with SI. Age moderated the relationship between any anxiety disorder and SI among Americans only. Past-year SI was less prevalent among older, compared to younger, adults; though, nearly every anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of SI among younger and older Canadian and American adults after controlling for covariates. Effect sizes were particularly large for older American adults, but were coupled with large confidence intervals. Findings contribute to a growing literature suggesting that SI in the context of anxiety is a highly prevalent and complex mental health problem across the adult lifespan. PMID:25306089

  15. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  16. A Preliminary Study/Survey for Demonstration Community Housing Programs for the Adult Mentally Retarded, Physically Handicapped and Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Thomas W., Jr.; Hyman, Milton

    A study was conducted for the Michigan State Housing Development Authority to gather background data necessary to initiate prototype community housing for mentally and physically handicapped independent adults. In an extensive survey and analysis of the literature and existing facilities, the problem of mental retardation, including legislation…

  17. The impact of childhood abuse and neglect on adult mental health: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A V; Widom, C S; McLaughlin, J; White, H R

    2001-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of three types of victimization in childhood--sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect--on lifetime measures of mental health among adults. In contrast to research that relies on retrospective recall of childhood victimization, this work uses a prospective sample gathered from records of documented court cases of childhood abuse and neglect in a midwestern city around 1970. These subjects were interviewed about twenty years later. In addition, this research compares outcomes of the 641 members of the abuse and neglect group with a matched control group of 510 persons who did not have documented cases of abuse or neglect. The results indicate that men who were abused and neglected as children have more dysthymia and antisocial personality disorder as adults than matched controls, but they did not have more alcohol problems. Abused and neglected women report more symptoms of dysthymia, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol problems than controls. After controlling for stressful life events, however, childhood victimization had little direct impact on any lifetime mental health outcome. This research indicates the importance of adopting an approach that places childhood victimization in the context of other life stressors and of prospective changes over the life course. PMID:11467252

  18. A multi-site controlled trial of a cognitive skills program for mentally disordered offenders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of offending behaviour programs in forensic mental health settings is not well established. Thus this study aimed to evaluate the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health program (R&R2 MHP) among a mentally disordered offender (MDO) population. Methods A sample of 121 adult males drawn from 10 forensic mental health sites completed questionnaires at baseline and post-treatment to assess violent attitudes, locus of control, social problem-solving and anger. An informant measure of social and psychological functioning, including disruptive behaviour, was completed by unit staff at the same time. At three month follow-up patients completed again the violent attitudes and locus of control questionnaires. The data of 67 patients who participated in the group condition were compared with 54 waiting-list controls who received treatment as usual. Results 78% of group participants completed the program. In contrast to controls, significant treatment effects were found at outcome on self-reported measures of violent attitudes, rational problem-solving and anger cognitions. Improvements were endorsed by informant ratings of social and psychological functioning within the establishments. At follow-up significant treatment effects were found for both violent attitudes and locus of control. Conclusions R&R2 MHP was effective in a sample of MDOs and had a comparatively low drop-out rate. Future research should use a randomized controlled design. PMID:22607165

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Brian M; Seguin, Jennifer; Sieswerda, Lee E

    2007-01-01

    Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in mood

  20. A diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders history of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-04-01

    The proposals to include a menstruation-related mood disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R), and DSM-IV led to intense public and behind-the-scenes controversy. Although the controversies surrounding the DSM-5 revision were greater in number than the controversies of the earlier revisions, the DSM-5 proposal to include a menstruation-related mood disorder was not among them. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was made an official disorder in the DSM-5 with no significant protest. To understand the factors that led to this change, we interviewed those psychiatrists and psychologists who were most involved in the DSM-IV revision. On the basis of these interviews, we offer a list of empirical and nonempirical considerations that led to the DSM-IV compromise and explore how key alterations in these considerations led to a different outcome for the DSM-5. PMID:24647220

  1. Ras and Rap Signaling in Synaptic Plasticity and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stornetta, Ruth L.; Zhu, J. Julius

    2011-01-01

    The Ras family GTPases (Ras, Rap1, and Rap2) and their downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK) and PI3K signaling cascades control various physiological processes. In neuronal cells, recent studies have shown that these parallel cascades signal distinct forms of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptor trafficking during experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and adaptive behavior. Interestingly, both hypo- and hyper-activation of Ras/Rap signaling impair the capacity of synaptic plasticity, underscoring the importance of a “happy-medium” dynamic regulation of the signaling. Moreover, accumulating reports have linked various genetic defects that either up- or down-regulate Ras/Rap signaling with a number of mental disorders associated with learning disability (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Angelman syndrome, autism, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Coffin-Lowry syndrome, Costello syndrome, Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes, fragile X syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, schizophrenia, tuberous sclerosis, and X-linked mental retardation), highlighting the necessity of happy-medium dynamic regulation of Ras/Rap signaling in learning behavior. Thus, the recent advances in understanding of neuronal Ras/Rap signaling provide a useful guide for developing novel treatments for mental diseases. PMID:20431046

  2. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  3. Modeling indoor TV/screen viewing and adult physical and mental health: Health Survey for England, 2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to model indoor TV/screen viewing and a series of adult health conditions and cognitive performance in a country-wide, population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from Health Survey for England, 2012. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, and TV and/or screen watching hours in adults was collected by household interviews. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal modeling were performed. Of 8114 English adults aged 18-98, 4138 people (51.1 %) watched TV and/or screen daily for 2 h or more on average. Two thousand five-hundred people (30.9 %) watched for 3 h or more. TV and/or screening watching for 2+ hours was associated with endocrine or metabolic disorders, diabetes, mental disorders (including poor scores in General Health Questionnaire and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), nervous system disorders, eye complaints, circulatory system disorders, respiratory system disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders, and self-rated health. TV and/or screen watching for 3+ hours was associated with digestive disorders and clotting disorder. TV and/or screen watching for 5+ hours was associated with cancer. TV and/or screen watching for 6+, 8+, or 11+ hours was associated with bladder disease, genito-urinary system disorders or bowel disease, respectively. There were no risk associations (within 20 h) found with ear complaints, infectious disease, and blood system disorders. Future educational and public health programs minimizing TV and/or screen viewing in order to protect from physical inactivity and X-radiation might be needed while research on the combined effect of physical inactivity and X-radiation should be explored. PMID:26944424

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  5. The Medicare Part D coverage gap: implications for non-dually eligible older adults with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bakk, Louanne; Woodward, Amanda Toler; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the Medicare Part D coverage gap impacts non-dually eligible older adults with a mental illness. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 case managers from community-based agencies serving persons, age 55 and over, with a mental disorder. Five themes illustrating the central difficulties associated with the Part D gap emerged: medication affordability, beneficiary understanding, administrative barriers, Low-Income Subsidy income and asset guidelines, and medication compliance. Although the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act gradually reduces cost sharing within the gap, findings suggest that medication access and adherence may continue to be impacted by the benefit's structure. PMID:24377835

  6. Computerized Adaptive Diagnosis and Testing of Mental Health Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Robert D; Weiss, David J; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2016-03-28

    In this review we explore recent developments in computerized adaptive diagnostic screening and computerized adaptive testing for the presence and severity of mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and mania. The statistical methodology is unique in that it is based on multidimensional item response theory (severity) and random forests (diagnosis) instead of traditional mental health measurement based on classical test theory (a simple total score) or unidimensional item response theory. We show that the information contained in large item banks consisting of hundreds of symptom items can be efficiently calibrated using multidimensional item response theory, and the information contained in these large item banks can be precisely extracted using adaptive administration of a small set of items for each individual. In terms of diagnosis, computerized adaptive diagnostic screening can accurately track an hour-long face-to-face clinician diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder (as an example) in less than a minute using an average of four questions with unprecedented high sensitivity and specificity. Directions for future research and applications are discussed. PMID:26651865

  7. Stigmatizing attitudes differ across mental health disorders: a comparison of stigma across eating disorders, obesity, and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current article was to compare stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with stigma toward another weight-related condition (obesity) and a non-weight-related mental disorder (major depressive disorder [MDD]). Participants (N = 447) read five vignettes describing a woman with AN, BN, BED, obesity, or MDD and responded to questionnaires examining stigmatizing attitudes. The targets with EDs were blamed more for their condition than the targets with MDD, whereas persons with obesity were held more responsible for their condition than any other target. On the other hand, the target with MDD was perceived as more impaired than any other target. Lack of self-discipline was attributed more to the development of BED and obesity than to any other condition. Stigmatizing attitudes vary across mental health disorders, and future research should aim to specifically target stigmatizing beliefs to reduce and prevent discrimination toward mental health disorders and obesity. PMID:23538972

  8. Mental Health Service Use by Persons of Asian Ancestry With DSM-IV Mental Disorders in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Yeon; Martins, Silvia S.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Lee, Hochang B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study compared the prevalence and odds of mental health service utilization among people of Asian ancestry with lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, alcohol, and drug use disorders with utilization by members of other racial and ethnic groups with similar disorders. Methods Between 2001 and 2002, a total of 43,093 noninstitutionalized individuals were assessed by the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) study of lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and mental health service utilization among various ethnic and racial groups. Results Among individuals with lifetime mood disorders, Asians had significantly lower mental health service utilization compared with whites (odds ratio [OR]=.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.21–.46), Hispanics (OR=.49, CI=.33–71), and Native Americans (OR=.27, CI=.15–.48) but similar utilization compared with blacks. There were no statistically significant differences in lifetime mental health service utilization for alcohol and drug use disorders among racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions Asians with lifetime mood disorders underutilized mental health services even after adjustment was made for socioeconomic variables and years of residency in the United States. Future studies of culture-specific attitudes, correlates, and barriers to mental health service utilization are warranted. PMID:21969644

  9. The Diagnostic Validity and Reliability of an Internet-Based Clinical Assessment Program for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny; Austin, David William; Abbott, Jo-Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-based assessment has the potential to assist with the diagnosis of mental health disorders and overcome the barriers associated with traditional services (eg, cost, stigma, distance). Further to existing online screening programs available, there is an opportunity to deliver more comprehensive and accurate diagnostic tools to supplement the assessment and treatment of mental health disorders. Objective The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the electronic Psychological Assessment System (e-PASS), an online, self-report, multidisorder, clinical assessment and referral system. Methods Participants were 616 adults residing in Australia, recruited online, and representing prospective e-PASS users. Following e-PASS completion, 158 participants underwent a telephone-administered structured clinical interview and 39 participants repeated the e-PASS within 25 days of initial completion. Results With structured clinical interview results serving as the gold standard, diagnostic agreement with the e-PASS varied considerably from fair (eg, generalized anxiety disorder: κ=.37) to strong (eg, panic disorder: κ=.62). Although the e-PASS’ sensitivity also varied (0.43-0.86) the specificity was generally high (0.68-1.00). The e-PASS sensitivity generally improved when reducing the e-PASS threshold to a subclinical result. Test-retest reliability ranged from moderate (eg, specific phobia: κ=.54) to substantial (eg, bulimia nervosa: κ=.87). Conclusions The e-PASS produces reliable diagnostic results and performs generally well in excluding mental disorders, although at the expense of sensitivity. For screening purposes, the e-PASS subclinical result generally appears better than a clinical result as a diagnostic indicator. Further development and evaluation is needed to support the use of online diagnostic assessment programs for mental disorders. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  10. Prevalence and predictors of mental disorders in intentionally and unintentionally injured emergency center patients.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K; Stein, Dan J; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders among injured emergency center (EC) patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Patients presenting with either an intentional or unintentional injury were recruited (N = 200). Mental health, injury, and psychological trauma histories were assessed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were conducted, and predictors of current mental disorder were identified. Diagnostic criteria for a current mental disorder, including substance use disorders, were met by 59.5% of the participants. Compared with those with an unintentional injury, the intentionally injured participants were more likely to be diagnosed with a current mental disorder (66.9% vs. 48.8%, p = .01). High frequencies of previous intentional injuries predicted for current mental disorder (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.08-1.98), whereas male gender and witnessed community violence predicted substance use disorder diagnoses. The findings indicate that injured EC patients, particularly those with intentional injuries, are at risk for mental disorders. Psychosocial interventions in the EC context can potentially make an important contribution in reducing the burden of mental disorders and injuries in LMICs. PMID:25126754

  11. Prevalence and predictors of mental disorders in intentionally and unintentionally injured emergency centre patients

    PubMed Central

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K.; Stein, Dan J.; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders amongst injured emergency centre (EC) patients in low- and middle-income countries. Patients presenting with either an intentional or unintentional injury were recruited (n=200). Mental health, injury and psychological trauma histories were assessed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were conducted and predictors for current mental disorder were identified. Diagnostic criteria for a current mental disorder, including substance use disorders, were met by 59.5% of participants. Compared to those with an unintentional injury, intentionally injured participants were more likely to be diagnosed with a current mental disorder (66.9% vs 48.8%; p=0.01). High frequencies of previous intentional injuries predicted for current mental disorder (OR = 1.460, 95% CI 1.08-1.98), while male gender and witnessed community violence predicted substance use disorder diagnoses. Findings indicate that injured EC patients, particularly those with intentional injuries, are at risk for mental disorders. Psychosocial interventions in the EC context can potentially make an important contribution in reducing the burden of mental disorders and injuries in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25126754

  12. E-Mental Health Care Among Young Adults and Help-Seeking Behaviors: A Transversal Study in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, Aude; Menard, Estelle; Melchior, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely used by young people and could serve to improve insufficient access to mental health care. Previous information on this topic comes from selected samples (students or self-selected individuals) and is incomplete. Objective In a community sample of young adults, we aimed to describe frequency of e-mental health care study-associated factors and to determine if e-mental health care was associated with the use of conventional services for mental health care. Methods Using data from the 2011 wave of the TEMPO cohort study of French young adults (N=1214, aged 18-37 years), we examined e-mental health care and associated factors following Andersen’s behavioral model: predisposing factors (age, sex, educational attainment, professional activity, living with a partner, children, childhood negative events, chronic somatic disease, parental history of depression), enabling factors (social support, financial difficulties, parents’ income), and needs-related factors (lifetime major depression or anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, ADHD, cannabis use). We compared traditional service use (seeking help from a general practitioner, a psychiatrist, a psychologist; antidepressant or anxiolytics/hypnotics use) between participants who used e-mental health care versus those who did not. Results Overall, 8.65% (105/1214) of participants reported seeking e-mental health care in case of psychological difficulties in the preceding 12 months and 15.7% (104/664) reported psychological difficulties. Controlling for all covariates, the likelihood of e-mental health care was positively associated with 2 needs-related factors, lifetime major depression or anxiety disorder (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.36-4.09) and lifetime suicidal ideation (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.40-2.60), and negatively associated with a predisposing factor: childhood life events (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.93). E-mental health care did not hinder traditional care, but was associated with face

  13. Food Insecurity among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Parpouchi, Milad; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Russolillo, Angela; Somers, Julian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity and food insufficiency is high among homeless people. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among a cohort of homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Data collected from baseline questionnaires in the Vancouver At Home study were analysed to calculate the prevalence of food insecurity within the sample (n = 421). A modified version of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Adult Food Security Survey Module was used to ascertain food insecurity. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential correlates of food insecurity. Results The prevalence of food insecurity was 64%. In the multivariable model, food insecurity was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), less than high school completion (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35–0.93), needing health care but not receiving it (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.00–2.72), subjective mental health (aOR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96–0.99), having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.16–4.36), HIV/AIDS (aOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 1.36–12.96), heart disease (aOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16–0.97) and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01–2.68). Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity was extremely high in a cohort with longstanding homelessness and serious mental illness. Younger age, needing health care but not receiving it, poorer subjective mental health, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month, HIV/AIDS and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank each increased odds of food insecurity, while less than high school completion and heart disease each decreased odds of food insecurity. Interventions to reduce food insecurity in this population are urgently needed. PMID:27437937

  14. WPA guidance on the protection and promotion of mental health in children of persons with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Brockington, Ian; Chandra, Prabha; Dubowitz, Howard; Jones, David; Moussa, Suaad; Nakku, Juliet; Quadros Ferre, Isabel

    2011-06-01

    This guidance details the needs of children, and the qualities of parenting that meet those needs. Parental mental disorders can damage the foetus during pregnancy through the action of drugs, prescribed or abused. Pregnancy and the puerperium can exacerbate or initiate mental illness in susceptible women. After their birth, the children may suffer from the social disadvantage associated with severe mental illness. The parents (depending on the disorder, its severity and its persistence) may have intermittent or prolonged difficulties with parenting, which may sometimes result in childhood psychological disturbance or child maltreatment. This guidance considers ways of preventing, minimizing and remedying these effects. Our recommendations include: education of psychiatrists and related professions about the effect of parental mental illness on children; revision of psychiatric training to increase awareness of patients as caregivers, and to incorporate relevant assessment and intervention into their treatment and rehabilitation; the optimum use of pharmacological treatment during pregnancy; pre-birth planning when women with severe mental illness become pregnant; development of specialist services for pregnant and puerperal women, with assessment of their efficacy; community support for parenting by mothers and fathers with severe mental disorders; standards of good practice for the management of child maltreatment when parents suffer from mental illness; the importance of multi-disciplinary teamwork when helping these families, supporting their children and ensuring child protection; the development of child and adolescent mental health services worldwide. PMID:21633678

  15. WPA guidance on the protection and promotion of mental health in children of persons with severe mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    BROCKINGTON, IAN; CHANDRA, PRABHA; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD; JONES, DAVID; MOUSSA, SUAAD; NAKKU, JULIET; QUADROS FERRE, ISABEL

    2011-01-01

    This guidance details the needs of children, and the qualities of parenting that meet those needs. Parental mental disorders can damage the foetus during pregnancy through the action of drugs, prescribed or abused. Pregnancy and the puerperium can exacerbate or initiate mental illness in susceptible women. After their birth, the children may suffer from the social disadvantage associated with severe mental illness. The parents (depending on the disorder, its severity and its persistence) may have intermittent or prolonged difficulties with parenting, which may sometimes result in childhood psychological disturbance or child maltreatment. This guidance considers ways of preventing, minimizing and remedying these effects. Our recommendations include: education of psychiatrists and related professions about the effect of parental mental illness on children; revision of psychiatric training to increase awareness of patients as caregivers, and to incorporate relevant assessment and intervention into their treatment and rehabilitation; the optimum use of pharmacological treatment during pregnancy; pre-birth planning when women with severe mental illness become pregnant; development of specialist services for pregnant and puerperal women, with assessment of their efficacy; community support for parenting by mothers and fathers with severe mental disorders; standards of good practice for the management of child maltreatment when parents suffer from mental illness; the importance of multi-disciplinary teamwork when helping these families, supporting their children and ensuring child protection; the development of child and adolescent mental health services worldwide. PMID:21633678

  16. Pilot Investigation of the Effectiveness of Respite Care for Carers of an Adult with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardim, Claudia; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Informal carers of an adult with mental illness have asked that respite care be an integral component of mental health service provision. The present study involved a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of accessing respite care for carers of individuals with a mental illness. It was hypothesised that compared to carers who have not accessed…

  17. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse compared to heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences, or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this population. The study’s objective was to examine the relationships between race/ethnicity and childhood abuse and their effect on mental health indicators in a national sample of LGB adults. Method Participants were recruited via the internet using snowball and targeted sampling methods. 669 LGB adults, 21% of whom were people of color, participated in an online survey. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Perceived Stress Scale Short-Form. Results Latina/o and Asian American participants reported the highest levels of physical abuse (p < .01), and Latina/o and African American participants reported the highest levels of sexual abuse (p < .01). Childhood emotional abuse was the strongest predictor of current psychopathology symptoms for all participants (ps < .01). Relative to White participants, emotional abuse showed a stronger relationship with current PTSD and anxiety symptoms for African American participants (ps < .01), and physical abuse showed a stronger relationship with current PTSD and anxiety symptoms for Latina/o participants (ps < .05). Conclusions Findings suggest that race/ethnicity may be an important factor when examining childhood abuse and mental health correlates among LGB populations. PMID:20658803

  18. Adjudicating mentally disordered offenders in Ghana: The criminal and mental health legislations.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mensah Agboli, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) in the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently a major public health concern. This has culminated in several empirical researches over the years, with a particular focus on addressing the problem. The present study examines the criminal and the mental health legislations available to offenders raising fitness to stand trial issues, as well as those pleading insanity at the time of the offense (insanity defense) in Ghana. The legislations are examined within a framework of reducing the overrepresentation of MDOs in the CJS. In doing so, comparisons are made to similar legislations in other commonwealth jurisdictions, when necessary. Regarding fitness to stand trial, it is evident that the Ghanaian legislation does not contain discrete fitness indicators, relative to, for instance, Canada. Yet, it is interesting that the terminologies 'unsound mind' and 'incapable of making a defence' used in the proviso convey similar meaning and requirements to those used in other jurisdictions. The insanity defense standard, on the other hand, is also heavily influenced by the M'Naughton Rules in England. The defense consists of two separate cognitive tests, each of which can result in an acquittal. One of the tests strictly emphasizes knowledge of the nature and consequences of the act while knowledge of the wrongness of the criminal act is implied in the other. However, none of the tests takes into consideration uncontrollable impulse arising from mental disorder. The study proposes some revisions and amendments to the insanity legislation in its current formulation. Recommendations are also offered for critical areas that warrant research attention in relation to MDOs in Ghana, and in Africa as a whole. PMID:26923137

  19. Clinical assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip

    2005-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, with significant levels of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Impairments associated with adult ADHD include distress from the symptoms, impaired ability to function in work and academic settings, and problems sustaining stable relationships. The disorder is commonly associated with volatile moods, antisocial behavior, and drug and alcohol misuse. There is an increased risk of developing comorbid anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and drug and alcohol dependence. Despite the proven effectiveness of drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and atomoxetine, few cases of ADHD are recognized and treated in the UK. The reasons for this are unclear, since most psychiatrists working with children and adolescents are aware that ADHD commonly persists into adult life and they also see the disorder affecting parents of children with ADHD. Issues of transition from the care of child to adult psychiatry and the need to refer adult relatives of children with ADHD to suitable psychiatric services are a major concern. Furthermore, many cases of adult ADHD go unrecognized or are seen by mental health teams that are not familiar with the subtleties of the adult presentation. As a result, misdiagnosis and treatment for conditions such as atypical depression, mixed affective disorder, cyclothymia, and borderline and unstable emotional personality disorders is not uncommon. There is therefore a requirement for further training in this area. This review will describe the common clinical presentation and provide guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adults. Any psychiatrically trained physician using standard psychiatric assessment procedures can perform clinical evaluations for adult ADHD. As with other psychiatric disorders in adulthood, ADHD has its own characteristic onset, course and psychopathology. Symptoms of ADHD are

  20. Perceptions of Biopsychosocial Services Needs among Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Met and Unmet Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cassie, Kimberly McClure

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to identify the psychiatric, physical, and social services needs experienced by older adults with severe mental illness (SMI) and to examine factors influencing their experience of need and service provision adequacy. Seventy-five older adults with SMI were recruited from a community mental health center to participate in the…

  1. The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

  2. Self-reported utilization of mental health services in the adult German population--evidence for unmet needs? Results of the DEGS1-Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH).

    PubMed

    Mack, Simon; Jacobi, Frank; Gerschler, Anja; Strehle, Jens; Höfler, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Maske, Ulrike E; Hapke, Ulfert; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides up-to-date data on service use for mental health problems and disorders among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany derived from the Mental Health Module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH; N=4483). Data are based exclusively on self-report. Respondents were examined by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview DIA-X/M-CIDI to assess diagnoses according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Service use, i.e. contact to mental health care services, due to mental health problems was assessed for the past 12 months and lifetime, by type of sector and type of institution. Among respondents with a 12-month diagnosis of a mental disorder, 23.5% of the women and 11.6% of the men reported any service use in the past 12 months. Service use depends on type of diagnosis, comorbidity and socio-demographic characteristics. Lowest 12-month utilization rates were found for substance use disorders (15.6%; lifetime use 37.3%), highest for psychotic disorders (40.5%; lifetime 72.1%). Further, a considerable time lap was found between disorder onset and subsequent service use among the majority of cases with anxiety and mood disorders. This paper provides self-reported epidemiological data on mental health service use in Germany, complementing administrative statistics and the predecessor mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS-MHS) from 1998. Despite considerable changes in the mental health field in Germany and the existence of a comprehensive mental health care system without major financial barriers, we find no indications of substantially higher utilization rates for mental disorders as compared to other comparable European countries. Further, no indications of major overall changes in utilization rates are apparent. To pinpoint areas with unmet needs, more detailed analyses of the data are needed taking into account type

  3. Prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug use in an Australian older adult mental health service.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder, known as dual diagnosis, is a significant challenge to mental health services. Few older adult specific alcohol and other drug treatment services exist, meaning older adult mental health services may become the default treatment option for many. Evidence suggests that dual diagnosis leads to substandard treatment outcomes, including higher rates of psychiatric relapse, higher costs of care and poorer treatment engagement. This paper explores the prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in an older adult community mental health service in inner Melbourne, Australia. This aim was accomplished by using a retrospective file audit of clinical intake assessments (n = 593) performed on consumers presenting to the service over a two-year period, June 2012-2014. Of consumers presenting to the service, 15.5% (n = 92) were assessed by clinicians as having co-occurring AOD use. Depression predominated in the dual diagnosis group as the primary mental health disorder. Dual diagnosis consumers in this sample were statistically more likely to be male and younger than their non-dual diagnosis counterparts. A limitation of this audit was the lack of implementation of screening tools, leaving assessment to clinical judgement or the interest of the clinician. This may also explain the discrepancy between the results of this study and previous work. Although appearing to be a relatively small percentage of assessments, the results accounted for 92 individuals with complex mental health, AOD and medical issues. Poor screening procedures in a population that is traditionally difficult to assess need to be rectified to meet the future challenges inherent in the ageing baby boomer generation, changing drug use trends and extended lifespans through harm reduction initiatives and medical advancements. PMID:26834037

  4. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms....

  5. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms....

  6. 45 CFR 147.160 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. 147.160 Section 147.160 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS... INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.160 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) In general....

  7. Selecting Effective Treatments: A Comprehensive, Systematic Guide to Treating Mental Disorders. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    This book presents an overview of the major types of mental disorders, accompanied by treatment models that are structured, comprehensive, grounded in research, and likely to be effective. Chapter topics are: (1) "Introduction to Effective Treatment Planning"; (2) "Mental Disorders in Infants, Children, and Adolescents"; (3) "Situationally…

  8. Strategies for Developing Treatment Programs for People with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Increasingly, people receiving public-supported health care are seeking help for and/or presenting with both substance abuse and mental disorders. People with these co-occurring disorders often require help from many different care systems. Consequently, no single system of care is adequately prepared to help people with both mental and substance…

  9. The Epidemiology of Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Disorders among Homeless Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Pamela J.; Breakey, William R.

    1991-01-01

    Describes research on the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental (ADM) disorders and the characteristics of homeless substance abusers and persons with mental illnesses. Reviews methodological problems. Finds prevalence rates of ADM disorders, extreme poverty, isolation from support network, and contact with correctional agencies higher in…

  10. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  11. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  12. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  13. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  14. Should Social Workers Use "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle

    2014-01-01

    Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…

  15. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  16. Triple jeopardy for HIV: substance using Severely Mentally Ill Adults.

    PubMed

    Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G; Dyer, Janyce G; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexual self-efficacy; and condom attitudes toward explaining the variance in a composite of HIV high-risk behavior among 188 SMI women and 158 SMI men. History of sexual abuse, engaging in sexual activities while high on substances, and lower cannabis use were the most significant predictors of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Given the triple jeopardy for HIV risk in this population, a triple barreled approach that simultaneously addresses multiple health risks within an integrated treatment setting is warranted. PMID:17298927

  17. Quality of life among patients with bipolar disorder in primary care versus community mental health settings

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher J.; Abraham, Kristen M.; Bajor, Laura A.; Lai, Zongshan; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Nord, Kristina M.; Goodrich, David E.; Bauer, Mark S.; Kilbourne, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar disorder is associated with functional impairment across a number of domains, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Many patients are treated exclusively in primary care (PC) settings, yet little is known how HRQOL outcomes compare between PC and community mental health (CMH) settings. This study aimed to explore the correlates of HRQOL across treatment settings using baseline data from a multisite, randomized controlled trial for adults with bipolar disorder. Methods HRQOL was measured using the SF-12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health scales. Independent sample t-tests were calculated to compare differences in HRQOL between settings. Multivariate regression models then examined the effect of treatment setting on HRQOL, adjusting for covariate demographic factors, mood symptoms (Internal State Scale), hazardous drinking (AUDIT-C), and substance abuse. Results A total of 384 enrolled participants completed baseline surveys. MCS and PCS scores reflected similar impairment in HRQOL across PC and CMH settings (p = .98 and p = .49, respectively). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower MCS scores (B = −.68, p < .001) while arthritis/chronic pain was strongly related to lower PCS scores (B = −5.23, p < .001). Limitations This study lacked a formal diagnostic interview, relied on cross-sectional self-report, and sampled from a small number of sites in two states. Discussion Participants reported similar impairments in both mental and physical HRQOL in PC and CMH treatment settings, emphasizing the need for integrated care for patients with bipolar disorder regardless of where they present for treatment. PMID:22981021

  18. [The role of shame in development of the mental disorders II. Measurement of shame and relationship].

    PubMed

    Vizin, Gabriella; Unoka, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Our review is an overview of research literature aimed at evaluating the differential association of shame with various mental disorders. In the first part of this review, we present questionnaire and experimental methods applied in clinical trials for measuring shame. In the second part of our review, we review research that investigated the association between shame, and shame induced behavioral and emotional reactions, as well as the following mental disorders: anxiety disorders (social phobia, PTSD, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobias, OCD), mood disorders (unipolar depression, bipolar disorder), suicide attempts, self-harm behavior, eating disorders, somatization, personality disorders, aggression, addictions, autism and paranoia. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that this excessive emotional state associated with negative self-esteem on global self plays a central role in mental disorders, although shame is very rarely applied as diagnostic criterion in DSM. PMID:26471030

  19. Simulated job interview improves skills for adults with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Be, Morris; Fleming, Michael; Smith, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Adults with serious mental illnesses (e.g., Autism Spectrum Disorder [ASD], schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) often have difficulties obtaining employment. The Job Interview Training System with Molly Porter, developed in collaboration with Yale and Northwestern Universities and vocational rehabilitation specialists with funding from The National Institutes of Health (R43/44MH080496), allows learners to practice job interviews on computers in a stress free environment. The system includes user-driven educational materials, an interactive job application, a practice simulation with a fictional interviewer (Molly Porter), and extensive feedback. SIMmersion's PeopleSIM™ technology allows each conversation with Molly to provide a unique interview experience, enabling users to gain confidence while building skills. The on-screen coach provides insight during the conversation, and a comprehensive after-action review provides learners with feedback on the entire interview. In a randomized control trial, the system was proven effective at improving participants' interview skills and confidence. Ninety-six (96) unemployed adults with ASD (n=26), schizophrenia/other (n=37) or PTSD (n=33) were recruited. Participants were randomized into control (n=32) and experimental (n=64) conditions. The control group was "wait-listed" to receive training, and the experimental group used the training system with Molly Porter. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention role-play interviews and self-assessment questionnaires. Analyses of covariance showed that the simulation provided a highly significant training effect, with experimental group participants scoring better in the role-play interviews and self-assessing higher than control group participants. By increasing skills and confidence, this system may ultimately reduce the length of unemployment for adults with mental illnesses. PMID:24875689

  20. Simulated Job Interview Improves Skills for Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    HUMM, Laura Boteler; OLSEN, Dale; BELL, Morris; FLEMING, Michael; SMITH, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Adults with serious mental illnesses (e.g., Autism Spectrum Disorder [ASD], schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) often have difficulties obtaining employment. The Job Interview Training System with Molly Porter, developed in collaboration with Yale and Northwestern Universities and vocational rehabilitation specialists with funding from The National Institutes of Health (R43/44MH080496), allows learners to practice job interviews on computers in a stress free environment. The system includes user-driven educational materials, an interactive job application, a practice simulation with a fictional interviewer (Molly Porter), and extensive feedback. SIMmersion’s PeopleSIM™ technology allows each conversation with Molly to provide a unique interview experience, enabling users to gain confidence while building skills. The on-screen coach provides insight during the conversation, and a comprehensive after-action review provides learners with feedback on the entire interview. In a randomized control trial, the system was proven effective at improving participants’ interview skills and confidence. Ninety-six (96) unemployed adults with ASD (n=26), schizophrenia/other (n=37) or PTSD (n=33) were recruited. Participants were randomized into control (n=32) and experimental (n=64) conditions. The control group was “wait-listed” to receive training, and the experimental group used the training system with Molly Porter. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention role-play interviews and self-assessment questionnaires. Analyses of covariance showed that the simulation provided a highly significant training effect, with experimental group participants scoring better in the role-play interviews and self-assessing higher than control group participants. By increasing skills and confidence, this system may ultimately reduce the length of unemployment for adults with mental illnesses. PMID:24875689

  1. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. Objective In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Methods Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. Results We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more

  2. Measurement of Mental Health in Substance Use Disorder Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Alterman, Arthur I.; Cacciola, John S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Ivey, Megan A.; Coviello, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined mental health (MH) attributes of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. The present study examines the internal consistency, concurrent validity, and comparative level of MH attributes (i.e., optimism, life attitudes, spirituality/religiousness, social support, positive mood, hope, and vitality) in SUD patients compared to the instrument development group. The internal consistency of optimism, spirituality/religiousness, positive mood, hope, and vitality were similar in both groups. Some subscales of the social support and life attitude measures had lower internal consistency than was found for the original samples, although internal consistency of more global constructs were comparable. SUD patients had higher positive mood, spirituality/religiousness, and hope scores, while social support, life attitudes, and optimism scores were lower than in the original sample. Correlations between MH attributes and recent life problems of SUD patients generally supported the concurrent validity of the MH measures. PMID:20708901

  3. Functional alterations of astrocytes in mental disorders: pharmacological significance as a drug target

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes play an essential role in supporting brain functions in physiological and pathological states. Modulation of their pathophysiological responses have beneficial actions on nerve tissue injured by brain insults and neurodegenerative diseases, therefore astrocytes are recognized as promising targets for neuroprotective drugs. Recent investigations have identified several astrocytic mechanisms for modulating synaptic transmission and neural plasticity. These include altered expression of transporters for neurotransmitters, release of gliotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and intercellular communication through gap junctions. Investigation of patients with mental disorders shows morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes. According to these observations, manipulation of astrocytic function by gene mutation and pharmacological tools reproduce mental disorder-like behavior in experimental animals. Some drugs clinically used for mental disorders affect astrocyte function. As experimental evidence shows their role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, astrocytes have gained much attention as drug targets for mental disorders. In this paper, I review functional alterations of astrocytes in several mental disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorder, drug dependence, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The pharmacological significance of astrocytes in mental disorders is also discussed. PMID:26217185

  4. Couple-Based Interventions for Adults with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    KIRBY, JENNIFER S.; RUNFOLA, CRISTIN D.; FISCHER, MELANIE; BAUCOM, DONALD H.; BULIK, CYNTHIA M.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of adults with eating disorders fail to achieve relief from the disorder, with many dropping out from treatment or relapsing. Standard treatment remains individual therapy despite partners being negatively affected and typically wanting to help in an effective and loving way. We propose that couple-based interventions, which leverage the support of a partner and the relationship in treatment, may improve outcome and recovery rates for adults with eating disorders. In this paper, we survey the empirical literature supporting the treatment of adults in a couple context and describe our existing and emerging couple-based interventions for eating disorders. PMID:26010371

  5. Anxiety and depressive disorders and dental fear among adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Vesa; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti; Lahti, Satu

    2011-02-01

    We studied the association between dental fear and anxiety or depressive disorders, as well as the comorbidity of dental fear with anxiety and depressive disorders, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, dental attendance, and dental health. Nationally representative data on Finnish adults, ≥ 30 yr of age (n = 5,953), were gathered through interviews and clinical examination. Dental fear was measured using the question: 'How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?' Anxiety and/or depressive disorders were assessed using a standardized structured psychiatric interview according to criteria presented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) (DSM-IV).Those with depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder or social phobia more commonly reported high dental fear than did those without these disorders. When age, gender, education, dental attendance, and the number of decayed, missing, and restored teeth were considered, those with generalized anxiety disorder were more likely to have high dental fear than were participants with neither anxiety nor depressive disorders. The comorbidity of depressive and anxiety disorders also remained statistically significantly associated with dental fear; those with both depressive and anxiety disorders were more likely to have high dental fear than were those without these disorders. Our findings support the suggestion that some individuals may have a personality that is vulnerable to dental fear. PMID:21244512

  6. Inter-relationship among degree of mental retardation, living arrangements, and dental health in adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Gahnberg, L

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the inter-relationship among the degree of mental retardation, the way of living, and dental health in adults with mental retardation. One hundred and thirty-two adults between the ages of 21 and 40 years who were mentally retarded were examined on two occasions, one year apart. All subjects had had regular dental care for at least 10 years. The clinical examinations included bite-wing radiographs and were made by the same dentist. The degree of mental retardation was assessed by a professional psychologist. The results show that the degree of mental retardation as well as living arrangements are factors influencing the dental health of persons with mental retardation. Subjects who were mildly retarded had higher caries incidence and caries prevalence compared with subjects with moderate or severe mental retardation. From a preventive dental health perspective, special attention should be focused on subjects with mild mental retardation who are not living in institutions. PMID:9582703

  7. [Mental disorders in women: Natural course during premenstrual phases, peripartum period and perimenopause].

    PubMed

    Martini, J; Knappe, S; Garthus-Niegel, S; Hoyer, J

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate sex-specific differences in prevalence rates and the natural course of mental disorders. Affective, anxiety, somatoform and eating disorders are more prevalent in women than men, whereas substance use disorders occur more commonly in men, and some disorders are equally distributed in both sexes (e. g. psychotic disorders). The aim of this review is to depict the natural course of mental disorders during the reproductive stages (premenstrual phases, peripartum period, perimenopause) in women, including also neuroendocrine features associated with the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, puerperium and perimenopause. Recommendations for sex-specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are provided. PMID:27472002

  8. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA. PMID:25811340

  9. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Stephen J; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA. PMID:25811340

  10. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence among different countries have been considered together. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question: Are there similarities and differences in the incidence rates of mental disorder-related sickness absence among and within OECD identified Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American country categories? In this paper, we seek to identify differences and similarities in the literature rather than to explain them. With this review, we lay the groundwork for and point to areas for future research as well as to raise questions regarding reasons for the differences and similarities. Methods A systematic literature search of the following databases were performed: Medline Current, Medline In-process, PsycINFO, Econlit and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002–2013. The systematic literature search focused on working adults between 18–65 years old who had not retired and who had mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Intervention studies were excluded. The search focused on medically certified sickness absences. Results A total of 3,818 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; six were from Social Democratic countries. Their quality ranged from good to excellent. There was variation in the incidence rates reported by the studies from the Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American countries in this review. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that this is an emerging area of inquiry that needs to continue to grow. Priority areas to support growth include cross jurisdictional collaboration and development of a typology

  11. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Hae Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used extensively in various settings across different cultures. This study was conducted to determine the thresholds associated with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the GHQ-12 in Korean adults. Methods Data was acquired from a sample of 6,510 Korean adults, ages 18 to 64 years old, who were selected from the 2005 Census (2,581 men and 3,929 women). Participants completed the GHQ-12 and the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted. Results The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 1.63 (SD 1.98). The internal consistency of the GHQ-12 was good (Cronbach's α=0.72). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 yielded greater accuracy when identifying mood and anxiety disorders than when identifying all mental disorders as a whole. The optimal threshold of the GHQ-12 was either 1/2 or 2/3 point depending on the disorder, but was mainly 2/3. Conclusion The Korean version of the GHQ-12 could be used to screen for individuals at high risk of mental disorders, namely mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24474983

  12. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  13. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  14. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  15. Bipolar risk and mental imagery susceptibility in a representative sample of Chinese adults residing in the community

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Roger Man-kin; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; McManus, Freda; Kennerley, Helen; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Background: We need to better understand the cognitive factors associated with risk for bipolar disorders. Recent research suggests that increased susceptibility to mental imagery may be one such factor. However, since this research was primarily conducted with Western students and at a single time-point, it is not known whether the relationship between imagery susceptibility and bipolar symptoms exists across cultures or within the general community, or whether this relationship remains stable over time. Aim: This study evaluated whether Chinese adults identified as being at high (HR) versus low (LR) risk of developing bipolar disorders showed greater mental imagery susceptibility. We aimed to test whether such a relationship was stable over time by measuring imagery characteristics at baseline and at the 7-week follow-up. Method: This prospective study recruited a community sample of N = 80 Chinese adults screened for the absence of neurotic and psychotic disorders. The sample was split into HR (n = 18) and LR (n = 62) groups at baseline based on a criterion cut-off score on a measure of hypomania, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). Participants completed measures of imagery susceptibility and its impact: the Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS) and the Impact of Future Events Scale (IFES), at baseline and 7 weeks later. Results: HR group reported greater tendency to use imagery in daily life (SUIS) and greater emotional impact of prospective imagery (IFES) than LR group at baseline. These results remained stable at follow-up. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence for increased susceptibility to mental imagery in individuals at high risk of bipolar disorders recruited from a community sample of Chinese adults. This extends previous research in Western student samples suggesting that imagery (both levels of use and its emotional impact) may be a cognitive factor with cross-cultural relevance that is stable over time. PMID:26271252

  16. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Makuch, Renee A.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and…

  17. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

  18. Hypomanic Experience in Young Adults Confers Vulnerability to Intrusive Imagery After Experimental Trauma: Relevance for Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Malik, Aiysha; Goodwin, Guy M; Hoppitt, Laura; Holmes, Emily A

    2014-11-01

    Emotional mental imagery occurs across anxiety disorders, yet is neglected in bipolar disorder despite high anxiety comorbidity. Furthermore, a heightened susceptibility to developing intrusive mental images of stressful events in bipolar disorder and people vulnerable to it (with hypomanic experience) has been suggested. The current study assessed, prospectively, whether significant hypomanic experience (contrasting groups scoring high vs. low on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, MDQ) places individuals at increased risk of visual reexperiencing after experimental stress. A total of 110 young adults watched a trauma film and recorded film-related intrusive images for 6 days. Compared to the low MDQ group, the high MDQ group experienced approximately twice as many intrusive images, substantiated by convergent measures. Findings suggest hypomanic experience is associated with developing more frequent intrusive imagery of a stressor. Because mental imagery powerfully affects emotion, such imagery may contribute to bipolar mood instability and offer a cognitive treatment target. PMID:25419498

  19. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder. PMID:22800761

  20. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster. PMID:23364127

  1. Clustering of symptoms of mental disorder in the medium-term following conflict: an epidemiological study in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Silove, Derrick; Ivancic, Lorraine; Rees, Susan; Bateman-Steel, Catherine; Steel, Zachary

    2014-10-30

    It is important to define subpopulations with mental health and psychosocial reactions in the medium-term following conflict to ensure that an appropriate array of services are provided to meet the diversity of needs. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on epidemiological data drawn from an urban and rural sample of 1221 adults (581 men and 640 women, response 82%) in post-conflict Timor Leste 4 years after the cessation of violence. The prevalence of PTSD was 4.9%; severe distress 4.8%; anger attacks 38.3%; and paranoid-like symptoms 10.9%. The best fitting LCA yielded three classes comprising those with no or minimal symptoms (86%), a class with anger-paranoia (13%) and a comorbid mental disorder class (1.5%) characterized by PTSD (100%) and severe distress (98%). The comorbid mental disorder class had an over-representation of men, the unemployed, residents in the urban area and persons with the greatest exposure to human rights trauma, murder and health stress. The anger-paranoia class experienced moderate levels of trauma and had an over-representation of urban dwellers, women, and those with higher levels of education. The analysis assists in clarifying the populations with mental disorder and adverse psychosocial reactions in need of intervention in the medium-term following conflict. PMID:24930578

  2. Structured group psychotherapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of an open multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Richter, Harald; Peters, Julia; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther; Colla, Michael; Münzebrock, Mirka; Scheel, Corinna; Jacob, Christian; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Hesslinger, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder that often persists in adulthood. In a pilot study, a structured skills training group program for adult ADHD led to significant symptomatic improvements. The present study evaluated the program's effectiveness, feasibility, and patient acceptability in a multicenter setting. Seventy-two adult ADHD patients were assigned to 13 two-hour weekly sessions at 4 different therapy sites. The therapy was well tolerated and led to significant improvements of ADHD, depressive symptoms, and personal health status (p < 0.001). The factors treatment site and medication did not contribute to the overall improvement. Patients regarded the program topics "behavioral analyses," "mindfulness," and "emotion regulation" as the most helpful. In this multicenter study, the therapy program showed therapist-independent effects and seemed to be disorder-specific. This warrants the effort of organizing further controlled studies. PMID:18091195

  3. Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis is Significantly Lower in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Mental Disorders Than in Those Without Mental Disorders: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Ezaki, Osamu; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves health in patients with mental disorders. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) represents energy expenditure due to daily physical activities other than volitional exercise. We aimed to evaluate NEAT in type 2 diabetic patients with and without accompanying mental disorders.Between September 2010 and September 2014, we studied 150 patients with type 2 diabetes, 50 of whom also had a diagnosis of mental disorder, such as schizophrenia or mood disorder. We evaluated their NEAT in structured interviews using a validated questionnaire, and investigated differences in NEAT score and metabolic parameters between patients with and without mental disorders.The NEAT score was significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in those without (56.3 ± 9.9 vs 61.9 ± 12.1; P = 0.005). Patients with mental disorders had significantly higher triglyceride (184.5 ± 116.3 vs 146.4 ± 78.4 mg/dL; P = 0.02) and insulin levels (18.7 ± 20.1 vs 11.2 ± 8.5 μU/mL; P = 0.006), and significantly lower B-type natriuretic peptide (12.1 ± 13.3 vs 26.3 ± 24.8 pg/mL; P < 0.001) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels (1501 ± 371 vs 1699 ± 367 cm/s; P = 0.003) than patients without mental disorders. In patients with schizophrenia, specifically, NEAT showed a negative correlation with hemoglobin A1c levels (β = -0.493, P = 0.031), and a positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.519, P = 0.023) and B-type natriuretic peptide levels (β = 0.583, P = 0.02).Our results suggest that NEAT may be beneficial for the management of obesity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles in patients with mental disorders. Incorporating NEAT into interventions for type 2 diabetes in patients with mental disorders, especially schizophrenia, shows promise and warrants further investigation. PMID:26765475

  4. Obesity and weight-related medical problems of incarcerated persons with and without mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Fabrikant, Nicole; Schumann, Brooke E

    2012-07-01

    This study examined weight and weight-related medical conditions of soon-to-be released inmates with and without a mental disorder. The sample included 4,204 males and females aged 18 or older residing in 11 state prisons. Three quarters or more of the inmates were overweight or obese. Mental health status was not found to be a significant factor in the presence or absence of overweight or obesity. Male inmates with mental disorders had higher rates of breathing, walking, and intense pain problems compared to those without mental disorders. Obese male inmates with schizophrenia or bipolar were more likely than those without a mental disorder to report medication treatment for diabetes, cardiovascular problems, arthritis, and intense pain. Evidence-based interventions are needed to monitor weight and obesity during incarceration and to teach weight management skills as part of an integrated psychiatric and medical program. PMID:22569903

  5. Beliefs and attitudes among Italian high school students toward people with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Serra, Marianna; Lai, Alessandra; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria; Preti, Antonio; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita

    2013-04-01

    The negative attitudes surrounding mental disorders and their treatment are a major obstacle to the correct identification and treatment of emerging psychopathologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate mental health literacy in a large and representative sample of high school students in Italy, via a booklet containing several questionnaires delivered to 1032 teenagers. The items in the questionnaires probed knowledge about mental health and illness, stigmatization, stereotypes, behaviors, opinions, and attitudes. In general, the students had a reasonable knowledge of mental disorders and were able to distinguish these from somatic disorders. However, a large portion of the students nourished some misconceptions about mental disorders and was also rather skeptical about the effectiveness of treatment or the chance of recovery for people with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, roughly half of the students reported being willing to provide help to someone with a mental disorder when in need. Poor mental health literacy is a major barrier to seeking help and receiving effective treatment. Young people are the ideal target of raising awareness and antistigma campaigns because they are at a higher risk for developing a psychopathology. PMID:23538976

  6. Stigma and mental disorder: conceptions of illness, public attitudes, personal disclosure, and social policy.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, S P; Cicchetti, D

    2000-01-01

    The end of the last millennium witnessed an unprecedented degree of public awareness regarding mental disorder as well as motivation for policy change. Like Sartorius, we contend that the continued stigmatization of mental illness may well be the central issue facing the field, as nearly all attendant issues (e.g., standards of care, funding for basic and applied research efforts) emanate from professional, societal, and personal attitudes towards persons with aberrant behavior. We discuss empirical and narrative evidence for stigmatization as well as historical trends regarding conceptualizations of mental illness, including the field's increasing focus on genetic and neurobiological causes and determinants of mental disorder. We next define stigma explicitly, noting both the multiple levels (community, societal, familial, individual) through which stigma operates to dehumanize and delegitimize individuals with mental disorders and the impact of stigma across development. Key developmental psychopathology principles are salient in this regard. We express concern over the recent oversimplification of mental illness as "brain disorder," supporting instead transactional models which account for the dynamic interplay of genes, neurobiology, environment, and self across development and which are consistent with both compassion and societal responsibility. Finally, we consider educational and policy-related initiatives regarding the destigmatization of mental disorder. We conclude that attitudes and policy regarding mental disorder reflect, in microcosmic form, two crucial issues for the next century and millennium: (a) tolerance for diversity (vs. pressure for conformity) and (b) intentional direction of our species' evolution, given fast-breaking genetic advances. PMID:11202034

  7. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli; O'Rourke, Linda; Woodhouse, Emma; Ashwood, Karen; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip

    2015-12-15

    This study examines the rate of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). One hundred and thirty-one male MDOs with a primary diagnosis of either severe mental illness (SMI) or personality disorder (PD) completed screening questionnaires for ADHD. If positive, they were invited for a comprehensive diagnostic interview. Additional data pertaining to self-rated impairments, and objective records of critical incidents and episodes of seclusion were obtained from patient records. Twenty-six patients screened positive (7 with SMI, 19 with PD). On further assessment, no SMI patients met criteria for ADHD. Four PD patients met criteria for persistent 'syndromatic' ADHD, whereas six met 'symptomatic' ADHD criteria, giving overall prevalence estimates of 8.6% and 12.9% respectively. Greater functional impairments were self-reported by the PD+ADHD screener positive group, compared with screener negative peers, with large effect sizes. A significant but small effect was found for spending longer in seclusion. Compared with population norms, a high rate of ADHD and associated impairments are present in MDO's with a primary diagnosis of PD. These individuals have complex needs and both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are required for their rehabilitation. PMID:26410772

  8. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model

    PubMed Central

    Martins Carvalho, Fernando; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms.

  9. Coping skills, mental disorders, and suicide among rural youths in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyao; Zhang, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The strain theory of suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. Lack of coping skills is one of the four strains. This article focuses on the effect of lack of coping skills on individual mental disorders and suicide. Data including 392 suicide cases and 416 community-living controls were from a large psychological autopsy study conducted in rural China. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R were used for the diagnosis of mental disorders. Coping skills were measured by the Coping Response Inventory. The logical analysis and cognitive avoidance coping skills were negatively associated with mental disorders, whereas the taking problem-solving action and acceptance/resignation coping skills were positively associated with mental disorders. This study supports the hypothesis that lack of coping skills to certain strains is likely to lead to mental disorders and suicidal behavior. Improving people's coping strategies may be an effective way to lower the prevalence of mental disorders and suicide. PMID:22986278

  10. Obesity and mental health.

    PubMed

    Talen, Mary R; Mann, Misty M

    2009-06-01

    Mental health factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obese status in children, adolescents, and adults. Binge eating disorder (BED), body image, self-esteem, mood disorders, and social and family factors affect individuals in different ways and contribute to weight gain and failure in weight loss management. Assessment of these mental health factors and treatment by 1 of several mental health treatment models may not only improve self-worth but also weight loss and maintenance. PMID:19501244

  11. Picture Activity Schedules and Engagement of Adults with Mental Retardation in a Group Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Michele D.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.; McAdam, David

    1997-01-01

    A study involving three adults with mental retardation found engagement in typical adult activities was greater when picture schedules were provided. The schedules provided a reminder for the adults and teaching counselors, provided an easy reference to assist them in determining the next activity, and reduced transition time between activities.…

  12. Descriptive Assessment of Sleep Patterns among Community-Living Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…

  13. Barriers and Facilitation Measures Related to People With Mental Disorders When Using the Web: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sabariego, Carla; Cieza, Alarcos

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders (MDs) affect almost 1 in 4 adults at some point during their lifetime, and coupled with substance use disorders are the fifth leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. People with these disorders often use the Web as an informational resource, platform for convenient self-directed treatment, and a means for many other kinds of support. However, some features of the Web can potentially erect barriers for this group that limit their access to these benefits, and there is a lack of research looking into this eventuality. Therefore, it is important to identify gaps in knowledge about “what” barriers exist and “how” they could be addressed so that this knowledge can inform Web professionals who aim to ensure the Web is inclusive to this population. Objective The objective of this study was to provide an overview of existing evidence regarding the barriers people with mental disorders experience when using the Web and the facilitation measures used to address such barriers. Methods This study involved a systematic review of studies that have considered the difficulties people with mental disorders experience when using digital technologies. Digital technologies were included because knowledge about any barriers here would likely be also applicable to the Web. A synthesis was performed by categorizing data according to the 4 foundational principles of Web accessibility as proposed by the World Wide Web Consortium, which forms the necessary basis for anyone to gain adequate access to the Web. Facilitation measures recommended by studies were later summarized into a set of minimal recommendations. Results A total of 16 publications were included in this review, comprising 13 studies and 3 international guidelines. Findings suggest that people with mental disorders experience barriers that limit how they perceive, understand, and operate websites. Identified facilitation measures target these barriers in addition to

  14. Beyond clergy: congregations' sponsorship of social services for people with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Steven M

    2014-03-01

    This study examines U.S. congregations' sponsorship of social services for people with mental disorders using data from a nationally representative sample of congregations. The analysis finds that 8.0 % of congregations sponsor social services for people with mental disorders, and that congregations' religious tradition influences the likelihood that they sponsor them. Most of the services assist people with substance use disorders. Coupled with findings from previous studies, we conclude that most of the support and care people with mental disorders receive from congregations comes from clergy rather than formal social services. Organizations interested in partnering with congregations to provide social services for people with mental disorders should take note of the findings about the programs already underway and their patterning in order to accurately pinpoint nexuses of congregational receptivity. PMID:23179015

  15. Lost Working Years Due to Mental Disorders: An Analysis of the Norwegian Disability Pension Registry

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Øverland, Simon; Hotopf, Matthew; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Mental disorders are prevalent diagnoses in disability benefit statistics, with awards often granted at younger age than for other diagnoses. We aimed to compare the number of lost working years following disability benefit award for mental disorders versus other diagnostic groups. Methods Data from the complete Norwegian official registry over disability benefit incidence, including primary diagnoses, were analyzed for the period 2001 to 2003 (N = 77,067), a time-period without any reform in the disability benefit scheme. Lost working years due to disability benefit award before scheduled age retirement at age 67 were calculated. Results Musculoskeletal disorders were the commonest reason for disability benefit awards (36.3%) with mental disorders in second place (24.0%). However, mental disorders were responsible for the most working years lost (33.8%) compared with musculoskeletal disorders (29.4%). Individuals awarded disability benefit for a mental disorder were on average 8.9 years younger (46.1 years) than individuals awarded for a musculoskeletal disorder (55.0 years), and 6.9 years younger than individuals awarded for any other somatic disorder (53.0 years). Anxiety and depressive disorders were the largest contributors to lost working years within mental disorders. Conclusion Age at award is highly relevant when the total burden of different diagnoses on disability benefits is considered. There is great disparity in total number of lost working years due to disability benefit award for different diagnostic groups. The high number of lost working years from mental disorders has serious consequences for both the individual and for the wider society and economy. PMID:22905150

  16. Vegetarian diet and mental disorders: results from a representative community survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study investigated associations between vegetarian diet and mental disorders. Methods Participants were drawn from the representative sample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey and its Mental Health Supplement (GHS-MHS). Completely vegetarian (N = 54) and predominantly vegetarian (N = 190) participants were compared with non-vegetarian participants (N = 3872) and with a non-vegetarian socio-demographically matched subsample (N = 242). Results Vegetarians displayed elevated prevalence rates for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders. Due to the matching procedure, the findings cannot be explained by socio-demographic characteristics of vegetarians (e.g. higher rates of females, predominant residency in urban areas, high proportion of singles). The analysis of the respective ages at adoption of a vegetarian diet and onset of a mental disorder showed that the adoption of the vegetarian diet tends to follow the onset of mental disorders. Conclusions In Western cultures vegetarian diet is associated with an elevated risk of mental disorders. However, there was no evidence for a causal role of vegetarian diet in the etiology of mental disorders. PMID:22676203

  17. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among adult survivors two months after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuqing; Shi, Zhanbiao; Wang, Wenzhong

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and associated risk factors among adult survivors 2 mo. after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. 228 survivors completed the Chinese version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 43%. The significant predictive factors for the severity of PTSD symptoms included being female, having lower educational level, being bereaved, and witnessing death. Findings of this study suggest that PTSD is a common mental health problem among earthquake survivors in China. Given inadequate knowledge and practices concerning the mental health of disaster victims in China, the information provided by this study is useful for directing, strengthening, and evaluating disaster-related mental health needs and interventions after earthquakes. PMID:20099550

  18. Important Questions Remain to Be Addressed before Adopting a Dimensional Classification of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull (2007). Widiger and Trull raised important nosological issues that warrant serious consideration not only for the personality disorders but for all mental disorders as the Diagnostic…

  19. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  20. What Are Young Adults Saying About Mental Health? An Analysis of Internet Blogs

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward

  1. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Mami

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS). Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of the human brain, leading to various neurological dysfunctions. In the adult brain, impairment of THs, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, can cause psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression. Although impact of hypothyroidism on synaptic transmission and plasticity is known, its effect on glial cells and related cellular mechanisms remain enigmatic. This mini-review article summarizes how THs are transported into the brain, metabolized in astrocytes and affect microglia and oligodendrocytes, demonstrating an example of glioendocrine system. Neuroglial effects may help to understand physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of THs in the CNS and how hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may cause mental disorders. PMID:26089777

  2. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Noda, Mami

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS). Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of the human brain, leading to various neurological dysfunctions. In the adult brain, impairment of THs, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, can cause psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression. Although impact of hypothyroidism on synaptic transmission and plasticity is known, its effect on glial cells and related cellular mechanisms remain enigmatic. This mini-review article summarizes how THs are transported into the brain, metabolized in astrocytes and affect microglia and oligodendrocytes, demonstrating an example of glioendocrine system. Neuroglial effects may help to understand physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of THs in the CNS and how hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may cause mental disorders. PMID:26089777

  3. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  4. The working practices of the police in relation to mentally disordered offenders and diversion services.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, P J; Kelly, M; Pullen, N

    2001-01-01

    A research study was undertaken to examine the working practices of four bridewells in Hampshire in relation to mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) and diversion services. A consecutive sample of individuals detained in cells and not identified by the police as having a mental disorder were screened for the presence of mental disorder and their suitability for diversion. Custody and detention staff were observed and interviewed to elicit their views and working practices in relation to MDOs. The findings revealed that in bridewells with diversion schemes an average of about 7% of detained individuals had mental disorders who were suitable for diversion but were not detected by the police. In the bridewell without a diversion scheme the figure was 14%. Conversely, many individuals without a formal mental disorder were inappropriately referred to diversion schemes. The effectiveness of screening processes by custody staff was variable. Facilities in the bridewells were not suitable for containing disturbed individuals. Delays in obtaining mental health assessments caused considerable concern for police officers and prolonged the discomfort of vulnerable individuals. Further preparation and training of custody staff is needed to improve screening procedures. Reception and detention facilities for mentally disordered individuals should be reviewed and response times for approved social workers (ASWs) and psychiatrists would benefit from improvement. PMID:11219117

  5. The experiences and needs of female adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-05-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data fromn = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health, education, employment, social and community activities. Where relevant, comparisons are provided with the male subset of the same study population; however, in the majority of analyses, no discernible gender differences emerged. The findings highlight the diverse and complex challenges faced by women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, including high levels of mental health disorder, unmet support needs in education settings and the workplace, and social exclusion and isolation. PMID:26111537

  6. Delays before Diagnosis and Initiation of Treatment in Patients Presenting to Mental Health Services with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Shetty, Hitesh; Jackson, Richard; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although existing treatments are effective, there is often a substantial delay before diagnosis and treatment initiation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the delay before diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the onset of treatment in secondary mental healthcare. Method Retrospective cohort study using anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) Case Register on 1364 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder between 2007 and 2012. The following predictor variables were analysed in a multivariable Cox regression analysis: age, gender, ethnicity, compulsory admission to hospital under the UK Mental Health Act, marital status and other diagnoses prior to bipolar disorder. The outcomes were time to recorded diagnosis from first presentation to specialist mental health services (the diagnostic delay), and time to the start of appropriate therapy (treatment delay). Results The median diagnostic delay was 62 days (interquartile range: 17–243) and median treatment delay was 31 days (4–122). Compulsory hospital admission was associated with a significant reduction in both diagnostic delay (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 2.18–3.06) and treatment delay (4.40, 3.63–5.62). Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with increased diagnostic delay, particularly alcohol (0.48, 0.33–0.41) and substance misuse disorders (0.44, 0.31–0.61). Prior diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic depression were associated with reduced treatment delay. Conclusions Some individuals experience a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder after initiation of specialist mental healthcare, particularly those who have prior diagnoses of alcohol and substance misuse disorders. These findings highlight a need for further study on strategies to better identify

  7. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status. PMID:26242431

  8. How do probation officers assess and manage recidivism and violence risk for probationers with mental disorder? An experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Louden, Jennifer Eno; Skeem, Jennifer L

    2013-02-01

    Persons with mental disorder are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. Once involved in the criminal justice system, offenders with mental disorder are more likely to return to custody while on probation than their nondisordered counterparts, often for breaking the rules of community supervision. Risk assessments and risk management strategies employed by probation officers can lead to higher rates of returns to custody for probationers with mental disorder, and the current study is the first to examine these experimentally. Here, 234 probation officers provided risk assessments and risk management decisions based on a vignette portraying a probationer with mental disorder, substance abuse disorder, both, or neither. Although substance abuse is a relatively stronger risk factor than mental disorder, mental disorder had a stronger effect on officers' risk assessments. In terms of risk management, mental disorder had the strongest effect on officers' desire to manage risk with forced mental health treatment. These findings suggest that training for probation officers in the relative utility of mental disorder in predicting risk, in addition to evidence-based risk management strategies that take the focus off mental disorder, may improve outcomes for probationers with mental disorder. PMID:22468760

  9. Epidemiological survey of mental disorders and knowledge attitude practice upon mental health among people in Bangkok Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Thavichachart, N; Intoh, P; Thavichachart, T; Meksupa, O; Tangwongchai, S; Sughondhabirom, A; Worakul, P

    2001-06-01

    To find the prevalence of 8 mental disorders and study knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) upon mental health among people in Bangkok Metropolis a cross sectional, descriptive community survey was conducted. Two thousand, nine hundred and forty eight samples aged 15-60 years were selected by a multistage simple random sampling technique. Data collection was made by qualified interviewers who had experience in mental health care and had been trained to use the questionaires. The questionaires had been modified from DSM-IV and CIDI that had been tested for good validity and reliability. The survey methodology was divided into 2 stages, screening and diagnosis. The results showed that the life time prevalence of mental disorders were; schizophrenia (1.3%), mood disorders; manic episode (9.3%), major depressive episode (19.9%), dysthymia (1%), anxiety disorders (10.2%), mental retardation (1.8%), epilepsy (1.3%), suicidal idea (7.1%), drug and substances use disorders (11.2%), and alcohol use disorders (18.4%). Knowledge score was good, attitude was fairly good, practice was still weak in promotion and prevention aspects. As such, this study was used as a pattern to conduct a national survey in 14 provinces all over Thailand and the results are being summarized. The information is similar to the Global Burden of Diseases. We produced a national training program on "Detection and Management of Depression" for Primary Care Physicians that was, a 2 days' workshop. Other national programs promoting prevention and control have also been set up. PMID:11529323

  10. [Assessment of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Gross, J; Blocher, D; Trott, G E; Rösler, M

    1999-01-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders in childhood and adolescence with a prevalence of app. 5%. The importance of ADHD in childhood as a factor of vulnerability for psychiatric disorders in adults is becoming a focus of discussion. It was shown that there is a comorbidity in adults with substance abuse, delinquency and personality disorders. There is a growing evidence that ADHD will persist in a significant number of patients during adulthood. This is the first german study to evaluate this interdependence. We examined 164 adult inpatients and 48 healthy volunteers with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a retrospective self-evaluation scale for the diagnosis of ADHD in childhood, and the Eysenck impulsiveness questionnaire I7. It could be shown that the WURS and the I7 are suitable instruments for the evaluation of the ADHD in adults especially concerning the aspects of attention deficits and impulsiveness. PMID:10087514

  11. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  12. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women’s lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women’s health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant’s intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child’s health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother’s lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother’s mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with

  13. [Supply and demand in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, Teresinha Cid; de Andrade, Angela Nobre

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a development of a doctoral thesis presented at the Federal University of Espírito Santo. It seeks to analyze the elucidation of needs, development of supply and demand in the provision of care and the relationship between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders. A qualitative research approach was used as the method of choice to achieve the proposed objectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health professionals from two psychosocial care centers (CAPS) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo, and with family members of frequenters of these institutions. After thematic analysis of content, senses, meanings and values assigned to the needs, supplies and demands present in this relationship were revealed. It highlighted the disparity between supply and demand and the lack of awareness of the needs of family members and their demands related to the routines of mental institutions. Using ethics in the philosophy of Spinoza as a benchmark, the ramifications of this process are discussed in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders and the micropolitics of the provision of care in the context of these actors. PMID:25715127

  14. Reliability of reports of violent victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among men and women with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Goodman, L A; Thompson, K M; Weinfurt, K; Corl, S; Acker, P; Mueser, K T; Rosenberg, S D

    1999-10-01

    Although violent victimization is highly prevalent among men and women with serious mental illness (SMI; e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder), future research in this area may be impeded by controversy concerning the ability of individuals with SMI to report traumatic events reliably. This article presents the results of a study exploring the temporal consistency of reports of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual abuse, and adult physical abuse, as well as current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 50 people with SMI. Results show that trauma history and PTSD assessments can, for the most part, yield reliable information essential to further research in this area. The study also demonstrates the importance of using a variety of statistical methods to assess the reliability of self-reports of trauma history. PMID:10646178

  15. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. PMID:23864520

  16. Excess Mortality in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders in 1996-2010 in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lumme, Sonja; Pirkola, Sami; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Keskimäki, Ilmo

    2016-01-01

    Unselected population-based nationwide studies on the excess mortality of individuals with severe mental disorders are scarce with regard to several important causes of death. Using comprehensive register data, we set out to examine excess mortality and its trends among patients with severe mental disorders compared to the total population. Patients aged 25–74 and hospitalised with severe mental disorders in 1990–2010 in Finland were identified using the national hospital discharge register and linked individually to population register data on mortality and demographics. We studied mortality in the period 1996–2010 among patients with psychotic disorders, psychoactive substance use disorders, and mood disorders by several causes of death. In addition to all-cause mortality, we examined mortality amenable to health care interventions, ischaemic heart disease mortality, disease mortality, and alcohol-related mortality. Patients with severe mental disorders had a clearly higher mortality rate than the total population throughout the study period regardless of cause of death, with the exception of alcohol-related mortality among male patients with psychotic disorders without comorbidity with substance use disorders. The all-cause mortality rate ratio of patients with psychotic disorders compared to the total population was 3.48 (95% confidence interval 2.98–4.06) among men and 3.75 (95% CI 3.08–4.55) among women in the period 2008–10. The corresponding rate ratio of patients with psychoactive substance use disorders was 5.33 (95% CI 4.87–5.82) among men and 7.54 (95% CI 6.30–9.03) among women. Overall, the mortality of the total population and patients with severe mental disorders decreased between 1996 and 2010. However, the mortality rate ratio of patients with psychotic disorders and patients with psychoactive substance use disorders compared to the total population increased in general during the study period. Exceptions were alcohol

  17. Health-related quality of life and utility scores in people with mental disorders: a comparison with the non-mentally ill general population.

    PubMed

    Prigent, Amélie; Auraaen, Ane; Kamendje-Tchokobou, Blaise; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Chevreul, Karine

    2014-03-01

    There is a lack of comparable health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility data across all mental disorders and all inpatient and outpatient settings. Our objective was to investigate the HRQoL and utility scores of people with mental disorders in France, treated in outpatient and inpatient settings, and to identify the HRQoL and utility score losses attributable to mental disorders compared to the non-mentally ill general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess HRQoL (SF-12) and utility scores of patients with mental disorders and followed in four psychiatric sectors in France. Scores were described by demographic and clinical characteristics and were then adjusted on age and gender and compared with those of the non-mentally ill general population. Median HRQoL and utility scores were significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in the non-mentally ill general population; median differences amounted to 5.4 for the HRQoL physical score, to 11.8 for the HRQoL mental score and to 0.125 for the utility score. Our findings underscore the negative impact of mental disorders on HRQoL in France and provide a baseline to assess the global impact of current and future organizational changes in the mental health care system. PMID:24608903

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life and Utility Scores in People with Mental Disorders: A Comparison with the Non-Mentally Ill General Population

    PubMed Central

    Prigent, Amélie; Auraaen, Ane; Kamendje-Tchokobou, Blaise; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Chevreul, Karine

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of comparable health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility data across all mental disorders and all inpatient and outpatient settings. Our objective was to investigate the HRQoL and utility scores of people with mental disorders in France, treated in outpatient and inpatient settings, and to identify the HRQoL and utility score losses attributable to mental disorders compared to the non-mentally ill general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess HRQoL (SF-12) and utility scores of patients with mental disorders and followed in four psychiatric sectors in France. Scores were described by demographic and clinical characteristics and were then adjusted on age and gender and compared with those of the non-mentally ill general population. Median HRQoL and utility scores were significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in the non-mentally ill general population; median differences amounted to 5.4 for the HRQoL physical score, to 11.8 for the HRQoL mental score and to 0.125 for the utility score. Our findings underscore the negative impact of mental disorders on HRQoL in France and provide a baseline to assess the global impact of current and future organizational changes in the mental health care system. PMID:24608903

  19. Developing Mental Imagery Using a Digital Camera: A Study of Adult Vocational Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryba, Ken; Selby, Linda; Brown, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the use of a digital camera for mental imagery training of a vocational task with two young adult men with Down syndrome. The results indicate that these particular men benefited from the use of a collaborative training process that involved mental imagery for learning a series of photocopying operations. An…

  20. Mental Imagery of Concrete Proverbs: A Developmental Study of Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Jill K.; Nippold, Marilyn A.; Billow, Jesse L.; Mansfield, Tracy C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of mental imagery in relation to the comprehension of concrete proverbs (e.g., "one rotten apple spoils the barrel") was examined in children, adolescents, and adults who were ages 11 to 29 years old (n = 210). The findings indicated that age-related changes occurred in mental imagery and in proverb comprehension during the years…

  1. Outpatient Psychotherapy for Adults with Mental Retardation and Concomitant Psychopathology: Research and Clinical Imperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezu, Christine M.; Nezu, Arthur M.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning effective outpatient psychotherapy alternatives for adults with mental retardation. Focuses on psychodynamic, behavioral, and group psychotherapy approaches for those with dual diagnosis of mental retardation and psychological difficulties. Offers research agenda for future directions and includes model of clinical…

  2. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Version of the Psychopathology Inventory for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Carina; Sonnander, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Given the difficulties with symptom identification and the assessment of mental health problems in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) there has been a focus on the development of relevant assessment schedules for persons with ID. A Swedish version of the psychopathology inventory for mentally retarded adults (PIMRA, informant version), an…

  3. Shaping with Visual Feedback and Token Reinforcement: Effects on Voice Volume Changes in Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Carrie; Gurski, John C.

    In an attempt to confirm earlier results with a group of mentally retarded females, 12 mentally retarded institutionalized adults (8 male, 4 female) were trained to either reduce (Loud group) or increase (Soft group) their voice volumes with a combination of visual feedback and token reinforcement. The feedback unit provided a binary light on-off…

  4. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  5. A Psychosynthesis Approach to the Use of Mental Imagery with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    States that the techniques of mental imagery can help adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse access the inner wisdom necessary to identify, understand, and creatively address issues from the past and develop new and healthier patterns of thinking and behaving. Documents the innovative ways psychosynthesis uses mental imagery with this client…

  6. The Role of Context-Related Parameters in Adults' Mental Computational Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naresh, Nirmala; Presmeg, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Researchers who have carried out studies pertaining to mental computation and everyday mathematics point out that adults and children reason intuitively based upon experiences within specific contexts; they use invented strategies of their own to solve real-life problems. We draw upon research areas of mental computation and everyday mathematics…

  7. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses. Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43–54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20–34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13–27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10–14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6–15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12–24) and 11% (95% CI 7–15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2–6). High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  8. Adapting supported employment for emerging adults with serious mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Marsha L; Klodnick, Vanessa V; Bond, Gary R; Krzos, Izabela M; Kaiser, Susan M; Fagan, Marc A; Davis, Maryann

    2015-04-01

    Effective services are needed to assist young people with serious mental health conditions to successfully transition to employment or education, especially among those with intensive adolescent mental health service utilization. To meet these needs, the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment was adapted and its feasibility was tested in a psychiatric treatment program for early-emerging adults. Participants were 17-20 years old (mean age = 18.5 years). Most were African American, under the custody of the state, with a primary mood disorder diagnosis. Adaptations to IPS included adding the following: near age peer mentors, a supported education component, and a career development focus. This open trial feasibility study tracked the model's development, recruitment, and retention and tracked vocational and educational outcomes for 12 months. Model refinement resulted in the development of a separate educational specialist position, greater integration of the peer mentor with the vocational team, and further specification of the role of peer mentor. There was an 80% retention rate in the feasibility evaluation. Of the 35 participants, 49% started a job and/or enrolled in an education program over the 12-month period. PMID:25391357

  9. Substance Use, Mental Illness and Violence: The Co-occurrence of Problem Behaviors among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Williams, James Herbert; Del-Colle, Melissa; Hawkins, J. David

    2008-01-01

    A paucity of research exists in which the co-occurrence of substance use, mental illness and violence in young adults is examined. Concurrently, there is also a lack of research explicating the contribution of theoretically-based risk factors for these problematic outcomes in this population. This lack of both outcome and explanatory research equally affects the utility of theories and interventions for this population. This article utilizes a sample of N=633 21 year olds to examine the prevalence of 1) violence and substance use, 2) mental illness (i.e., mood and anxiety disorders) and substance use, and 3) the use of multiple substances and investigates the relationship between various social determinants and said outcomes. Overall, the prevalence rates for the comorbid conditions were low; although on average males have higher rates than do females. Individual attitudes, perceived opportunities, and recent stressful life events are associated with the co-occurrence of outcomes. Implications for behavioral health are explored. PMID:19089641

  10. Difficulties of familes in caring for children and adolescents with mental disorders: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Campelo, Lany Leide de Castro Rocha; Costa, Sarah Maria Esequiel; Colvero, Luciana de Almeida

    2014-08-01

    Objective To identify the difficulties of families with children and/or adolescents with mental disorder. Method This is an integrative review. In December 2013, an electronic search was performed on Latin American Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences databases (LILACS) and on Electronic Medicus Index of the National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE) indexed in the Health Virtual Library (BVS) using a combination of descriptors and boolean operators as follows: mental disorders and child or adolescent and caregivers and/not health staff. Results 557 studies were identified, of which 15 were selected for this study. The findings indicated difficulties related to the care for or to interaction with children/adolescents with mental disorder. Conclusion The studies revealed difficulties related to everyday practices of care and feelings expressed during care practices, as well as in relationships with children or adolescents with mental disorder. PMID:25517854

  11. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment. PMID:21262057

  12. Population Mean Scores Predict Child Mental Disorder Rates: Validating SDQ Prevalence Estimators in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: For adult physical and mental health, the population mean predicts the proportion of individuals with "high" scores. This has not previously been investigated for child mental health. It is also unclear how far symptom scores on brief questionnaires provide an unbiased method of comparing children with different individual, family or…

  13. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT) and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiologically. Methods We conducted a qualitative interview study with 16 women and 16 men (21-28 years), recruited from a cohort of university students on the basis of reporting high computer (n = 28) or mobile phone (n = 20) use at baseline and reporting mental symptoms at the one-year follow-up. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with open-ended questions about possible connections between the use of computers and mobile phones, and stress, depression, and sleep disturbances. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and summarized in a model. Results Central factors appearing to explain high quantitative ICT use were personal dependency, and demands for achievement and availability originating from the domains of work, study, social life, and individual aspirations. Consequences included mental overload, neglect of other activities and personal needs, time pressure, role conflicts, guilt feelings, social isolation, physical symptoms, worry about electromagnetic radiation, and economic problems. Qualitative aspects (destructive communication and information) were also reported, with consequences including vulnerability, misunderstandings, altered values, and feelings of inadequacy. User problems were a source of frustration. Altered ICT use as an effect of mental symptoms was reported, as well as possible positive effects of ICT on mental health. Conclusions The concepts and ideas of the young adults with high ICT use and mental symptoms generated a model of

  14. Reducing stigma related to mental disorders: initiatives, interventions, and recommendations for nursing.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D; Logsdon, M Cynthia

    2009-02-01

    Twenty percent of Americans suffer from mental disorders, but most do not receive treatment. Stigma is an important barrier to mental health treatment and recovery. This article aims to summarize current national initiatives to reduce stigma, clarify the current knowledge of stigma-reducing interventions, and provide recommendations to nurses on implementing and investigating stigma-reducing interventions. PMID:19216986

  15. Modified Therapeutic Community Treatment for Offenders with Co-Occurring Disorders: Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Joann Y.; Stommel, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes 12 months post-prison release for offenders with co-occurring disorders (n = 185) randomly assigned to either a mental health control treatment (C) or a modified therapeutic community (E). Significant between-group differences were not found for mental health measures, although improvements were observed for each…

  16. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

  17. Tobacco use and cessation in psychiatric disorders: National Institute of Mental Health report.

    PubMed

    Ziedonis, Douglas; Hitsman, Brian; Beckham, Jean C; Zvolensky, Michael; Adler, Lawrence E; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Breslau, Naomi; Brown, Richard A; George, Tony P; Williams, Jill; Calhoun, Patrick S; Riley, William T

    2008-12-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) convened a meeting in September 2005 to review tobacco use and dependence and smoking cessation among those with mental disorders, especially individuals with anxiety disorders, depression, or schizophrenia. Smoking rates are exceptionally high among these individuals and contribute to the high rates of medical morbidity and mortality in these individuals. Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors may explain these high smoking rates, including the lack of smoking cessation treatment in mental health settings. Historically, "self-medication" and "individual rights" have been concerns used to rationalize allowing ongoing tobacco use and limited smoking cessation efforts in many mental health treatment settings. Although research has shown that tobacco use can reduce or ameliorate certain psychiatric symptoms, overreliance on the self-medication hypothesis to explain the high rates of tobacco use in psychiatric populations may result in inadequate attention to other potential explanations for this addictive behavior among those with mental disorders. A more complete understanding of nicotine and tobacco use in psychiatric patients also can lead to new psychiatric treatments and a better understanding of mental illness. Greater collaboration between mental health researchers and nicotine and tobacco researchers is needed to better understand and develop new treatments for cooccurring nicotine dependence and mental illness. Despite an accumulating literature for some specific psychiatric disorders and tobacco use and cessation, many unstudied research questions remain and are a focus and an emphasis of this review. PMID:19023823

  18. Severity of Victimization and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders among Substance Using Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabri, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Co-occurring mental health disorders are widespread among substance using adolescents. Severity of victimization may be an important factor in explaining co-occurrence of mental health problems among adolescents with substance misuse problems. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether severe victimization experiences…

  19. Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Received Services through Community Mental Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Stephanie A.; Corrigan, Susan K.; McDonald, Thomas P.; Holmes, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mental health services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of…

  20. Guns, Impulsive Angry Behavior, and Mental Disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Sampson, Nancy A; Petukhova, Maria V; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Swartz, Marvin S; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-06-01

    Analyses from the National Comorbidity Study Replication provide the first nationally representative estimates of the co-occurrence of impulsive angry behavior and possessing or carrying a gun among adults with and without certain mental disorders and demographic characteristics. The study found that a large number of individuals in the United States self-report patterns of impulsive angry behavior and also possess firearms at home (8.9%) or carry guns outside the home (1.5%). These data document associations of numerous common mental disorders and combinations of angry behavior with gun access. Because only a small proportion of persons with this risky combination have ever been involuntarily hospitalized for a mental health problem, most will not be subject to existing mental health-related legal restrictions on firearms resulting from a history of involuntary commitment. Excluding a large proportion of the general population from gun possession is also not likely to be feasible. Behavioral risk-based approaches to firearms restriction, such as expanding the definition of gun-prohibited persons to include those with violent misdemeanor convictions and multiple DUI convictions, could be a more effective public health policy to prevent gun violence in the population. PMID:25850688

  1. Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for the comorbidity between metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nousen, Elizabeth K.; Franco, Juliana G.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence and high comorbidity of metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders have prompted investigation into the potential contributing mechanisms. There is a bidirectional association between metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Medication side effects and social repercussions are contributing environmental factors, but there are a number of shared underlying neurological and physiological mechanisms that explain the high comorbidity between these two disorders. Inflammation is a state shared by both disorders, and it contributes to disruptions of neuroregulatory systems, including the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and neuropeptide Y systems, as well as dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Metabolic syndrome in pregnant women also exposes the developing fetal brain to inflammatory factors that predispose the offspring to metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders. Due to the shared nature of these conditions, treatment should address aspects of both mental health and metabolic disorders. Additionally, interventions need to be developed that can interrupt the transfer of increased risk of the disorders to the next generation. PMID:24080959

  2. Diagnosing High Incidence Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), particularly the high incidence conditions of autism, PDD NOS, and Asperger's Syndrome, have become increasingly popular topics of study in the mental health field. Traditionally, the focus has been on young children and early recognition and diagnosis. However, given that these conditions are life long in nature,…

  3. Polypharmacy Profiles and Predictors among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Johanna K.; Balogh, Robert; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions are frequently used to treat commonly associated mental health and behavioural issues in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite high rates of psychotropic drug use documented in children with ASD, very few studies have examined medication profiles, side effects, and rates of polypharmacy in…

  4. Psychiatric adverse effects of zonisamide in patients with epilepsy and mental disorder comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Seri, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few years, zonisamide has been proposed as a potentially useful medication for patients with focal seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Since psychiatric adverse effects, including mania, psychosis, and suicidal ideation, have been associated with its use, it was suggested that the presence of antecedent psychiatric disorders is an important factor associated with the discontinuation of zonisamide therapy in patients with epilepsy. We, therefore, set out to assess the tolerability profile of zonisamide in a retrospective chart review of 23 patients with epilepsy and comorbid mental disorders, recruited from two specialist pediatric (n=11) and adult (n=12) neuropsychiatry clinics. All patients had a clinical diagnosis of treatment-refractory epilepsy after extensive neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations. The vast majority of patients (n=22/23, 95.7%) had tried previous antiepileptic medications, and most adult patients (n=9/11, 81.8%) were on concomitant medication for epilepsy. In the majority of cases, the psychiatric adverse effects of zonisamide were not severe. Four patients (17.4%) discontinued zonisamide because of lack of efficacy, whereas only one patient (4.3%) discontinued it because of the severity of psychiatric adverse effects (major depressive disorder). The low discontinuation rate of zonisamide in a selected population of patients with epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidity suggests that this medication is safe and reasonably well-tolerated for use in patients with treatment-refractory epilepsy. Given the limitations of the present study, including the relatively small sample size, further research is warranted to confirm this finding. PMID:24070880

  5. Lifestyle factors in preventing mental health disorders: an interview with Felice Jacka.

    PubMed

    Jacka, Felice N

    2015-01-01

    In this video Q&A, we talk to Associate Professor Felice Jacka about population health approaches to the primary prevention of mental disorders across the lifespan. These include addressing lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking and physical activity. Latest strategies are being developed through epidemiological studies and clinical trial evidence. Challenges in preventing mental disorders in general and specifically in the workplace are discussed, together with future directions on promoting well-being. PMID:26462470

  6. "A terror to their neighbors": beliefs about mental disorder and violence in historical and cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Monahan, J

    1992-01-01

    This tribute to the enduring legacy of Bernard Diamond explores public perceptions of a link between mental disorder and violent behavior. Research on contemporary American beliefs is summarized and compared both to historical accounts of public perceptions in Western cultures and to anthropological investigations of public perceptions in non-Western cultures. The conclusion of these reviews is that the belief that mental disorder bears some moderate association with violent behavior is both historically invariant and culturally universal. PMID:1633340

  7. Rates of Sexual Victimization in Prison for Inmates With and Without Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Blitz, Cynthia L.; Shi, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study estimated the rates of sexual victimization among prison inmates with and without a mental disorder. Methods The study sampled inmates aged 18 or older in 13 prisons within a single mid-Atlantic state prison system (12 facilities for men and one for women). A total of 7,528 inmates completed the survey instrument, which was administered by audio-computer-assisted technology. Of the 6,964 male respondents, 58.5% were African American, 16.2% were non-Hispanic white, 19.8% were Hispanic, and 5.5% were of another race or ethnicity. Of the 564 female respondents, 48.4% were African American, 30.9% were non-Hispanic white, 14.4% were Hispanic, and 7.3% were of another race or ethnicity. Mental disorder was based on self-reported previous mental health treatment for particular mental disorders. Sexual victimization was measured by using questions adapted from the National Violence Against Women and Men surveys. Results Approximately one in 12 male inmates with a mental disorder reported at least one incident of sexual victimization by another inmate over a six-month period, compared with one in 33 male inmates without a mental disorder. Among those with a mental disorder, sexual victimization was three times as high among female inmates (23.4%) as among male inmates (8.3%). African-American and Hispanic inmates with a mental disorder, independent of gender, reported higher rates of sexual victimization than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Conclusions Prisons are hazardous places. Steps must be taken to protect inmates from predators inside prison, to screen them for posttraumatic stress disorder, to provide trauma-related treatment, and to keep them safe. PMID:17664520

  8. Sexual Knowledge and Victimization in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Lavoie, S. M.; Viecili, M. A.; Weiss, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a significant gap in understanding the risk of sexual victimization in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the variables that contribute to risk. Age appropriate sexual interest, limited sexual knowledge and experiences, and social deficits, may place adults with ASD at increased risk. Ninety-five adults with ASD and 117…

  9. Diagnosis of Auditory Perceptual Disorders in Previously Undiagnosed Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasbrouck, Jon M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four adult patients who presented to a number of hospital services with complaints related to difficulty in hearing, understanding, remembering, or writing were examined for auditory perceptual disorders. Results support the desirability of examining auditory perceptual abilities in adults even though the tools available are designed…

  10. Perceptions of Social Challenges of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Laurie A.; Mesibov, Gary B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines perceptions of social challenges by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The investigators analyzed three separate, regularly scheduled social group meetings attended by a total of 18 adults with ASD where the activity was a discussion of social issues. Participants generated social questions and challenges they had…

  11. Driving Behaviors in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Patrick, Kristina E.; Brinckman, Danielle D.; Schultheis, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated driving history and driving behaviors between adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as compared to non-ASD adult drivers. Seventy-eight licensed drivers with ASD and 94 non-ASD comparison participants completed the Driver Behavior Questionnaire. Drivers with ASD endorsed significantly lower ratings of…

  12. Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Unusual sensory processing has been widely reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the majority of research in this area has focused on children. The present study assessed sensory processing in adults with ASD using the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), a 60-item self-report questionnaire assessing levels of sensory…

  13. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Onofrio; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Giliberti, Tiziana; Caratozzolo, Gennaro; Cagnazzo, Maria Grazia; Scarpelli, Franco; Nocerino, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated sleep-related breathing disorders in six adults with Down syndrome. Five were found to have respiratory events justifying the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. Results suggest that the nocturnal respiratory pattern of adults with Down syndrome depends on several pathogenetic factors such as age, severity of upper airway…

  14. Patterns of Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Jukes, Kaylee; Goddard, Lorna

    2012-01-01

    Two studies are presented that explored the effects of experimental manipulations on the quality and accessibility of autobiographical memories in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to a typical comparison group matched for age, gender and IQ. Both studies found that the adults with ASD generated fewer specific memories than the…

  15. A second visually impaired, mentally retarded male with pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder and Ganser's syndrome: diagnostic classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kerbeshian, J; Burd, L

    The authors report a second visually impaired, mentally retarded male who presents with symptoms consistent with atypical pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder, and a syndrome of approximate answers (Ganser's syndrome). Both this case and an earlier reported case are significant in that they identify two children with strikingly similar long-standing symptoms and developmental histories. Since these findings may have broader relevance to children with multiple coexisting disorders, diagnostic and intervention strategies in this population are reviewed. PMID:3459721

  16. The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

  17. Health risks and changes in self-efficacy following community health screening of adults with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Jonikas, Jessica A; Yost, Chantelle; Burke, Larisa; Steigman, Pamela J; Santos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%), hypertension (32%), diabetes (14%), smoking (44%), nicotine dependence (62%), alcohol abuse (17%), drug abuse (11%), and coronary heart disease (10%). A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%). Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants' self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care. PMID:25875181

  18. Health Risks and Changes in Self-Efficacy Following Community Health Screening of Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Judith A.; Razzano, Lisa A.; Swarbrick, Margaret A.; Jonikas, Jessica A.; Yost, Chantelle; Burke, Larisa; Steigman, Pamela J.; Santos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%), hypertension (32%), diabetes (14%), smoking (44%), nicotine dependence (62%), alcohol abuse (17%), drug abuse (11%), and coronary heart disease (10%). A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%). Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants’ self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care. PMID:25875181

  19. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  20. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Allison G.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M.; Frisman, Linda K.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut’s public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  1. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset: beyond depression

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia E.; Hu, Chiyi; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José A.; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies on the depression-heart disease association have not usually used diagnostic measures of depression, nor taken other mental disorders into consideration. As a result, it is not clear whether the association between depression and heart disease onset reflects a specific association, or the comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders. Additionally, the relative magnitude of associations of a range of mental disorders with heart disease onset is unknown. Methods Face-to-face household surveys were conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095; person years=2,141,194). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Heart disease was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis, or self-report of heart attack, together with their timing (year). Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset. Results After comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders were associated with heart disease onset (ORs 1.3–1.6). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with heart disease in a dose-response fashion. Mood disorders and alcohol abuse were more strongly associated with earlier onset than later onset heart disease. Associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions Depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with heart disease onset; depression was the weakest predictor. If confirmed in future prospective studies, the breadth of psychopathology’s links with heart disease onset has substantial clinical and public health implications. PMID:23993321

  2. Personality, Attentional Biases towards Emotional Faces and Symptoms of Mental Disorders in an Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Pihl, Robert O.; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of personality factors and attentional biases towards emotional faces, in establishing concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorder diagnosis in adolescence. Method Data were obtained as part of the IMAGEN study, conducted across 8 European sites, with a community sample of 2257 adolescents. At 14 years, participants completed an emotional variant of the dot-probe task, as well two personality measures, namely the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale and the revised NEO Personality Inventory. At 14 and 16 years, participants and their parents were interviewed to determine symptoms of mental disorders. Results Personality traits were general and specific risk indicators for mental disorders at 14 years. Increased specificity was obtained when investigating the likelihood of mental disorders over a 2-year period, with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale showing incremental validity over the NEO Personality Inventory. Attentional biases to emotional faces did not characterise or predict mental disorders examined in the current sample. Discussion Personality traits can indicate concurrent and prospective risk for mental disorders in a community youth sample, and identify at-risk youth beyond the impact of baseline symptoms. This study does not support the hypothesis that attentional biases mediate the relationship between personality and psychopathology in a community sample. Task and sample characteristics that contribute to differing results among studies are discussed. PMID:26046352

  3. Childhood dyspraxia predicts adult-onset nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jason; Mittal, Vijay; Kline, Emily; Mortensen, Erik L; Michelsen, Niels; Ekstrøm, Morten; Millman, Zachary B; Mednick, Sarnoff A; Sørensen, Holger J

    2015-11-01

    Several neurological variables have been investigated as premorbid biomarkers of vulnerability for schizophrenia and other related disorders. The current study examined whether childhood dyspraxia predicted later adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders. From a standardized neurological examination performed with children (aged 10-13) at genetic high risk of schizophrenia and controls, several measures of dyspraxia were used to create a scale composed of face/head dyspraxia, oral articulation, ideomotor dyspraxia (clumsiness), and dressing dyspraxia (n = 244). Multinomial logistic regression showed higher scores on the dyspraxia scale predict nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders relative to other psychiatric disorders and no mental illness outcomes, even after controlling for genetic risk, χ2 (4, 244) = 18.61, p < .001. Findings that symptoms of dyspraxia in childhood (reflecting abnormalities spanning functionally distinct brain networks) specifically predict adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders are consistent with a theory of abnormal connectivity, and they highlight a marked early-stage vulnerability in the pathophysiology of nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders. PMID:26439077

  4. The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Tino; Jacksteit, Robert; Behrens, Martin; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    The link between mental representation (MREP) structures and motor performance has been evidenced for a great variety of movement skills, but not for the human gait. Therefore the present study sought to investigate the cognitive memory structures underlying the human gait in young and older adults. In a first experiment, gait parameters at comfortable gait speed (OptoGait) were compared with gait-specific MREPs (structural dimensional analysis of MREP; SDA-M) in 36 young adults. Participants were divided into a slow- and fast-walking group. The proven relationship between gait speed and executive functions such as working memory led to the hypothesis that gait pattern and MREP differ between slow- and fast-walking adults. In a second experiment, gait performance and MREPs were compared between 24 young (27.9 years) and 24 elderly (60.1 years) participants. As age-related declines in gait performance occur from the seventh decade of life onward, we hypothesized that gait parameters would not be affected until the age of 60 years accompanied by unchanged MREP. Data of experiment one revealed that gait parameters and MREPs differed significantly between slow and fast walkers. Notably, eleven previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries were documented for the slow walkers but only two injuries and one disorder for fast walkers. Experiment two revealed no age-related differences in gait parameters or MREPs between healthy young and older adults. In conclusion, the differences in gait parameters associated with lower comfortable gait speeds are reflected by differences in MREPs, whereby SDA-M data indicate that the single limb support phase may serve as a critical functional period. These differences probably resulted from previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries. Our data further indicate that the human gait and its MREP are stable until the age of 60. SDA-M may be considered as a valuable clinical tool for diagnosis of gait abnormalities and monitoring of

  5. Mental health first aid for eating disorders: pilot evaluation of a training program for the public

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. Methods A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. Results 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and

  6. Personality Pathology of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults with Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…

  7. Effectiveness of Internet-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Leonie; Baumeister, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are highly prevalent and associated with considerable disease burden and personal and societal costs. However, they can be effectively reduced through prevention measures. The Internet as a medium appears to be an opportunity for scaling up preventive interventions to a population level. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically summarize the current state of research on Internet-based interventions for the prevention of mental disorders to give a comprehensive overview of this fast-growing field. Methods A systematic database search was conducted (CENTRAL, Medline, PsycINFO). Studies were selected according to defined eligibility criteria (adult population, Internet-based mental health intervention, including a control group, reporting onset or severity data, randomized controlled trial). Primary outcome was onset of mental disorder. Secondary outcome was symptom severity. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Meta-analytical pooling of results took place if feasible. Results After removing duplicates, 1169 studies were screened of which 17 were eligible for inclusion. Most studies examined prevention of eating disorders or depression or anxiety. Two studies on posttraumatic stress disorder and 1 on panic disorder were also included. Overall study quality was moderate. Only 5 studies reported incidence data assessed by means of standardized clinical interviews (eg, SCID). Three of them found significant differences in onset with a number needed to treat of 9.3-41.3. Eleven studies found significant improvements in symptom severity with small-to-medium effect sizes (d=0.11- d=0.76) in favor of the intervention groups. The meta-analysis conducted for depression severity revealed a posttreatment pooled effect size of standardized mean difference (SMD) =−0.35 (95% CI, −0.57 to −0.12) for short-term follow-up, SMD = −0.22 (95% CI, −0.37 to −0.07) for medium-term follow-up, and SMD = −0

  8. Latino adults' access to mental health care: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Zayas, Luis H; Hansen, Marissa C

    2006-05-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological studies using state-of-the-art methodologies have documented the unmet mental health needs of Latinos adults in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. This paper reviews 16 articles based on seven epidemiological studies, examines studies methodologies, and summarizes findings about how Latino adults access mental health services. Studies consistently report that, compared to non-Latino Whites, Latinos underutilize mental health services, are less likely to receive guideline congruent care, and rely more often on primary care for services. Structural, economic, psychiatric, and cultural factors influence Latinos' service access. In spite of the valuable information these studies provide, methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs, scarcity of mixed Latino group samples) constrict knowledge about Latinos access to mental health services. Areas for future research and development needed to improve Latinos' access and quality of mental health care are discussed. PMID:16598658

  9. Proportional differences in emergency room adult patients with PTSD, mood disorders, and anxiety for a large ethnically diverse geographic sample.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane; Helm, Susana; Koyanagi, Chad; Fukuda, Michael; Hishinuma, Earl; Takeshita, Junji; Ona, Celia

    2013-05-01

    Underserved populations often utilize the emergency room in place of primary care, particularly for short term behavioral health services. This study examined emergency department (ED) utilization rates for rurality, insurance, sex, and ethnicity in a large sample of adult patients in Hawai'i hospitals from 2000-2010 with a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mood disorder, or other anxiety disorder. Findings showed a higher rate of use by rural and suburban residents with a diagnosis of PTSD or other anxiety than by urban residents. Utilization of EDs by African Americans and Other Pacific Islanders with PTSD was proportionally higher than for those with mood disorders or other anxiety disorders. Military ED visits were also proportionally higher for individuals with PTSD than for those with mood or other anxiety disorders. Limited economic resources and increasingly costly mental health disorders such as PTSD highlight the importance of better understanding the needs for behavioral health services for underserved populations. PMID:23728057

  10. Prevalence of mental illness in a rehabilitation unit for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D; Evans, M; King, D

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was studied in 78 elderly people in a rehabilitation unit for older adults. The patients were assessed using the Evans Liverpool depression rating scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and Mini-Mental State Examination. Twenty-eight (35.9%) patients were found to be depressed, 15 of these also had raised anxiety. Thirty-one (41.0%) patients had significant cognitive impairment and 14 of these had associated depression. Only 33 (42%) had no evidence of either cognitive impairment or mood disorder. On discharge, 20 (25.6%) patients were on antidepressant treatment but only 50% of those had this diagnosis recorded on the discharge summary. Our results showed higher prevalence of depression in this situation compared with the reported prevalence of 20-30% in the acute hospital setting. We recommend that all patients undergoing rehabilitation should be routinely screened for depression as it is common and treatment will improve the overall outcome.


Keywords: depression; elderly; rehabilitation; psychiatric morbidity; screening PMID:10684325

  11. Mental disorder is a cause of crime: the cornerstone of forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Radovic, Susanna; Svennerlind, Christer; Höglund, Pontus; Radovic, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that mental disorder is a cause of crime is the foundation of forensic psychiatry, but conceptual, epistemological, and empirical analyses show that neither mental nor crime, or the causation implied, are clear-cut concepts. "Mental" denotes heterogeneous aspects of a person such as inner experiences, cognitive abilities, and behaviour patterns described in a non-physical vocabulary. In psychology and psychiatry, mental describes law-bound, caused aspects of human functioning that are predictable and generalizable. Problems defined as mental disorders are end-points of dimensional inter-individual differences rather than natural categories. Deficits in cognitive faculties, such as attention, verbal understanding, impulse control, and reality assessment, may be susceptibility factors that relate to behaviours (such as crimes) by increasing the probability (risk) for a negative behaviour or constitute causes in the sense of INUS conditions (Insufficient but Non-redundant parts of Unnecessary but Sufficient conditions). Attributing causes to complex behaviours such as crimes is not an unbiased process, and mental disorders will attract disproportionate attention when it comes to explanations of behaviours that we wish to distance ourselves from. Only by rigorous interpretation of what psychiatry actually can inform us about, using empirical analyses of quantified aggressive antisocial behaviours and their possible explanatory factors, can we gain a clearer notion of the relationship between mental disorder and crime. PMID:19800122

  12. A conceptual framework for the revision of the ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising the ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, under the leadership of the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse and within the framework of the overall revision framework as directed by the World Health Assembly. This article describes WHO’s perspective and priorities for mental and behavioural disorders classification in ICD-11, based on the recommendations of the International Advisory Group for the Revision of ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders. The WHO considers that the classification should be developed in consultation with stakeholders, which include WHO member countries, multidisciplinary health professionals, and users of mental health services and their families. Attention to the cultural framework must be a key element in defining future classification concepts. Uses of the ICD that must be considered include clinical applications, research, teaching and training, health statistics, and public health. The Advisory Group has determined that the current revision represents a particular opportunity to improve the classification’s clinical utility, particularly in global primary care settings where there is the greatest opportunity to identify people who need mental health treatment. Based on WHO’s mission and constitution, the usefulness of the classification in helping WHO member countries, particularly low- and middle-income countries, to reduce the disease burden associated with mental disorders is among the highest priorities for the revision. This article describes the foundation provided by the recommendations of the Advisory Group for the current phase of work. PMID:21633677

  13. Treatment Guidelines for Substance Use Disorders and Serious Mental Illnesses: Do They Address Co-Occurring Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E.; Bunger, Alicia; Bender, Kimberly; Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2012-01-01

    Practice guidelines are important tools for improving the delivery of evidence-based practices and reducing inappropriate variation in current treatment approaches. This study examined the degree to which guidelines targeted to the treatment of substance use disorders or serious mental illness address treatment of co-occurring disorders. Guidelines archived by the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) were retrieved in December 2007 and content analyzed. Nineteen pertinent guidelines were identified, and 11 included recommendations regarding the assessment and/or treatment of co-occurring disorders. None of the guidelines making recommendations for treatment of co-occurring disorders included outcomes that clearly targeted both substance use and mental health disorders. Limitations and implications of this study are noted. PMID:20441462

  14. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  15. Improving outcome for mental disorders by enhancing memory for treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Lee, Jason; Smith, Rita L; Gumport, Nicole B; Hollon, Steven D; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Hein, Kerrie; Dolsen, Michael R; Haman, Kirsten L; Kanady, Jennifer C; Thompson, Monique A; Abrons, Deidre

    2016-06-01

    Patients exhibit poor memory for treatment. A novel Memory Support Intervention, derived from basic science in cognitive psychology and education, is tested with the goal of improving patient memory for treatment and treatment outcome. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to 14 sessions of cognitive therapy (CT)+Memory Support (n = 25) or CT-as-usual (n = 23). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 6 months later. Memory support was greater in CT+Memory Support compared to the CT-as-usual. Compared to CT-as-usual, small to medium effect sizes were observed for recall of treatment points at post-treatment. There was no difference between the treatment arms on depression severity (primary outcome). However, the odds of meeting criteria for 'response' and 'remission' were higher in CT+Memory Support compared with CT-as-usual. CT+Memory Support also showed an advantage on functional impairment. While some decline was observed, the advantage of CT+Memory Support was evident through 6-month follow-up. Patients with less than 16 years of education experience greater benefits from memory support than those with 16 or more years of education. Memory support can be manipulated, may improve patient memory for treatment and may be associated with an improved outcome. PMID:27089159

  16. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…

  17. The psychological perspective on mental health and mental disorder research: introduction to the ROAMER work package 5 consensus document.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the theoretical framework of the Psychological Sciences' reviews and describes how improved psychological research can foster our understanding of mental health and mental disorders in a complementary way to biomedical research. Core definitions of the field and of psychological interventions and treatment in particular are provided. The work group's consensus regarding strength and weaknesses of European Union (EU) research in critical areas is summarized, highlighting the potential of a broader comprehensive "Behaviour Science programme" in forthcoming programmatic EU funding programmes. PMID:24375533

  18. Has evidence-based psychosocial treatment for anxiety disorders permeated usual care in community mental health settings?

    PubMed

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Zimmermann, Martha; Arch, Joanna J; De Guzman, Earl; Lagomasino, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), particularly when it includes an exposure component, is an empirically supported psychosocial treatment for anxiety disorders that has been shown to be highly efficacious, desirable to patients, and cost-effective. However, access to and receipt of exposure-based treatment CBT anxiety remains lacking despite these benefits. The current study reviewed electronic medical records at a large public outpatient psychiatry clinic in order to clarify what usual care for anxiety disorders entails, and to determine the extent to which effective psychosocial treatment is accessible to, and implemented with anxiety disorder patients. Database queries generated from the billing and medical record system at the Los Angeles County Adult Outpatient Psychiatry Clinic identified 582 patients presenting with an anxiety disorder diagnosis in a 6-month time frame. These patients' electronic medical records were reviewed using a standardized data collection form. Findings indicated that the majority of patients received pharmacological treatment for their anxiety. The majority of the psychosocial treatment delivered was supportive therapy. Among the minority of patients who did initiate CBT, an even smaller minority received treatment that included an exposure component, and those who did receive exposure likely received a sub-optimal dose. Understanding usual care delivery patterns is an important preliminary step to identifying and addressing barriers to optimal anxiety disorder treatment in adult community mental health settings. PMID:26159908

  19. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  20. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Marco; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D’Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, MRC AIMS; Craig, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an ‘atypical connectivity’ involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a ‘whole brain’ non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate—predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms