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Sample records for adult mental disorders

  1. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  2. Dyskinetic Movement Disorder among Adults with Mental Retardation: Phenomenology and Co-occurrence with Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of dyskinetic movement disorder and its co-occurrence with stereotypic behavior among adults with mental retardation were studied in 98 adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that stereotypic movement disorder was associated with increased dyskinesia scores and that dyskinesia and stereotypy may be related by common…

  3. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  4. 110 Teachers: Adult Education and Mentally Disordered Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations of British reports on education for mentally disordered prisoners include (1) financial flexibility to purchase educational services; (2) core teams of teachers, social service providers, and solicitors; and (3) 1 full-time teacher for every 15 offenders. (SK)

  5. Prevalence of HIV risk behaviors, risk perceptions, and testing among US adults with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Dickey, Wayne C

    2003-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders may lack the knowledge, skills, and social networks that help limit the spread of HIV by reducing risk behaviors. Nationally representative data from the 1999 U.S. National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among civilian noninstitutionalized adults with and without at least one of three psychiatric conditions (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic attacks) in the previous 12 months. Relative to adults without these mental disorders, adults with a mental disorder (8.8% of adults nationally) were more likely to have engaged in HIV risk behaviors since 1980 (5.5% vs. 1.6%). Adults with a mental disorder were also more likely to report a high or medium chance of becoming infected, were more likely to have been tested for HIV infection, and were more likely to expect to be tested within the next 12 months.

  6. Caring for juveniles with mental disorders in adult corrections facilities.

    PubMed

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2017-02-01

    Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice. Recommendations for future directions in adolescent psychiatric care are presented.

  7. Referral Trends in Mental Health Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Sturmey, Peter; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have paid increasing attention to mental health issues in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the last decades. However, little is known about how rates of clinical referrals, types of mental health diagnoses and treatment in adults with ASDs and intellectual disability have changed. We examined patterns of change in…

  8. Childhood antecedents and risk for adult mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-01-03

    Progress in treating and preventing mental disorders may follow from research that integrates development, genetics, and neuroscience. This review first delineates how longitudinal research has identified three particular groups of disorders shown to differ on the basis of symptom trajectories and risk-factor profiles. In the next section, the review describes how research on genetic contributions to psychopathology has elucidated the nature of risk for two groups of disorders, the neurodevelopmental and psychotic disorders. In the third section, the review describes how research on environmental contributions to psychopathology has targeted early temperament, its associated perturbations in information-processing functions, and its relations to a third group of disorders, the emotional disorders. For all three groups of disorders, such integrative research has generated ideas about novel interventions. The hope is that over the coming decade such ideas will lead to novel treatments that alter the trajectory of risk in developmental psychopathology.

  9. Suicide Behaviors in Adult Inpatients with Mental Disorders in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qi; Fan, Hua; Di, Fei; Xia, Xue; Long, Haiying; Zhu, Huiping

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the tendency and suicidal behavior rates of Chinese adult inpatients with different types of mental disorders from 2010 to 2015. The aim was to provide some interesting clues for further studies. Methods: Adult patients with mental disorders who were hospitalized in Beijing Anding hospital from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015 were included. Chi-square tests were used to compare the difference among inpatients with mental disorders by gender and year. Frequency, trend and suicidal behavior rates of inpatients with mental disorders were graphed. Results: A total of 17,244 psychiatric adult inpatients were included in our study. About 53.2% of the inpatients had mood disorders, followed by schizophrenia, which accounted for 34.6%. The proportion of female inpatients with mental disorders was larger than that of males (52.6% to 47.4%). Of the total, 3296 psychiatric inpatients were recognized as having suicidal behaviors. The rate of suicidal behavior among all inpatients was 19.1%, and it varied over the years. The suicidal behavior rate of female inpatients with mood disorders was much higher than that of the corresponding male inpatients. Conclusions: The presence of suicidal behavior varied among people with different types of mental disorders. For each type of mental illness, identifying the risk of specific suicide behavior would help tailor-make preventive efforts accordingly. PMID:28273823

  10. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

  11. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5: implications for older adults and their families.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2013-03-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is targeted for publication in May 2013. Older adults and their families should be aware of the potential impact that changes in this important document may have on diagnosis and treatment of mental health concerns. Two specific changes related to a new category of Neurocognitive Disorders and a new interpretation of criteria for depression after bereavement are discussed in this article. Nurses can help older adults and their families understand the new DSM-5 terminology and encourage them to discuss risks, benefits, and likely outcomes of diagnoses, procedures, and treatments that may seem unfamiliar.

  12. Which Group Teaching Styles Best Promote Information Gain for Adults with Mental Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emer, Denise; McLarney, Amber; Goodwin, Melinda; Keller, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    Group psychoeducation formats were evaluated to determine which promoted the greatest learning and retention of therapeutically relevant information in adult clients with mental disorders. Study 1 compared lecture and interactive formats; Study 2 compared two types of interactive formats. Both studies also measured client satisfaction with the…

  13. Diagnosis and Fluoxetine Treatment of Compulsive Behavior Disorder of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; Madison, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Ten adults with compulsive behavior disorder and six comparison subjects, all with mental retardation, were treated using the medication fluoxetine. Seven of the 10 experimental subjects responded favorably to fluoxetine treatment; none of the comparison subjects responded favorably to the medication. There appeared to be a relation between…

  14. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Latino and Asian American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report…

  15. Psychological treatments for mental disorders in adults: A review of the evidence of leading international organizations.

    PubMed

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Gálvez-Lara, Mario; Corpas, Jorge

    2017-03-29

    Most mental health services throughout the world currently regard evidence-based psychological treatments as best practice for the treatment of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to analyze evidence-based treatments drawn from RCTs, reviews, meta-analyses, guides, and lists provided by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), Cochrane and the Australian Psychological Society (APS) in relation to mental disorders in adults. A total of 135 treatments were analyzed for 23 mental disorders and compared to determine the level of agreement among the organizations. The results indicate that, in most cases, there is little agreement among organizations and that there are several discrepancies within certain disorders. These results require reflection on the meaning attributed to evidence-based practice with regard to psychological treatments. The possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Based on these findings, proposals to unify the criteria that reconcile the realities of clinical practice with a scientific perspective were analyzed.

  16. Mental health among young adults in prison: the importance of childhood-onset conduct disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Wallinius, Märta; Billstedt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background The psychiatric health burden of prisoners is substantial. However, there is a lack of high-quality studies of psychiatric disorders among young adults with a high risk of reoffending. Aims To investigate the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders and use of mental health services among young male violent offenders and the impact of childhood-onset conduct disorder (COCD). Method A nationally representative cohort (n = 270, age 18–25) of male offenders was followed back in medical records and clinically assessed by gold standard methods. Lifetime prevalences are presented together with odds ratios (ORs) as risk estimates in relation to COCD. Results Previous use of psychiatric services among the participants was high but their lifetime psychiatric morbidity was even higher, with 93% meeting criteria for at least one Axis I disorder. The COCD group was overrepresented in most clinical categories and carried five times higher odds (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 2.0–12.8) of a psychotic disorder, three times higher odds (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.5) of a substance use disorder and two times higher odds of a mood disorder (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0) or anxiety disorder (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.5). Conclusions The mental health burden is substantial among young violent offenders, and COCD is an important indicator of future mental health problems which must be a priority for public health efforts. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28357134

  17. Housing preferences and choices among adults with mental illness and substance use disorders: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Bond, Gary R.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Godfrey, Jenna L.; Davis, Kristin E

    2010-01-01

    Housing is a crucial issue for adults with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders, as this population is particularly susceptible to housing instability and homelessness. We interviewed 40 adults with dual disorders, living in either supervised or independent housing arrangements, to examine housing preferences, decision making processes surrounding housing choices, and perceived barriers to housing. We found that many respondents indicated their housing preferences had changed over time, and some clients related housing preferences to recovery. Although the majority of clients preferred independent housing, many also described benefits of supervised housing. Clients’ current living situations appeared to be driven primarily by treatment provider recommendations and availability of housing. Common barriers to obtaining desired housing were lack of income and information. These findings have implications for supported housing models and approaches to providing housing for clients. PMID:19898935

  18. Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic…

  19. Mental representations of attachment in eating disorders: a pilot study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    PubMed

    Barone, Lavinia; Guiducci, Valentina

    2009-07-01

    Mental representations of attachment in a sample of adults with Eating Disorders (ED) were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Sixty subjects participated in the study: 30 non-clinical and 30 clinical. The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: 10% Free/Autonomous (F), 47% Insecure-Dismissing (Ds), 17% Insecure-Entangled/Preoccupied (E) and about 26% disorganized (CC/U). The two samples differed in their attachment pattern distribution and were significantly different on some coding system scales. Further information was obtained by analyzing differences between the three ED subtypes considered (i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder) and by investigating the differential role of the two parental figures in the definition of attachment representations. Results showed potential benefits in using the AAI coding system scales in addition to the main classifications in order to understand better the developmental issues involved in these disorders. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  20. Behavioural treatment of a food refusal conversion disorder in a mentally retarded adult.

    PubMed

    Weinman, B; Haydon, S; Sapan, J

    1990-12-01

    A 31-year-old woman with mental retardation who demonstrated total food refusal as the symptom of a conversion disorder was successfully treated with behavioural management techniques. The treatment utilized a shaping paradigm combined with relaxation procedures. The results supported the hypothesis that conversion disorder symptoms are maintained through their consequences, and the efficacy of behavioural treatments for those disorders.

  1. The Autism Mental Status Exam: Sensitivity and Specificity Using DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Verbally Fluent Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Halpern, Danielle; Parides, Michael; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic heterogeneity of adults suspected of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a standardized diagnostic approach that is feasible in all clinical settings. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the observation and documentation of social, communicative and behavioral signs and…

  2. A systematic review of the predictors of health service utilisation by adults with mental disorders in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Conal D; Baldwin, David S; Hopfe, Maren; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify variables that predict health service utilisation (HSU) by adults with mental disorders in the UK, and to determine the evidence level for these predictors. Design A narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed studies published after the year 2000. The search was conducted using four databases (ie, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus with full text, MEDLINE and EMBASE) and completed on 25 March 2014. Setting The majority of included studies were set in health services across primary, secondary, specialist and inpatient care. Some studies used data from household and postal surveys. Participants Included were UK-based studies that predicted HSU by adults with mental disorders. Participants had a range of mental disorders including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and dementia. Primary outcome A wide range of HSU outcomes were examined, including general practitioner (GP) contacts, medication usage, psychiatrist contacts, psychotherapy attendances, inpatient days, accident and emergency admissions and ‘total HSU’. Results Taking into account study quality, 28 studies identified a range of variables with good preliminary evidence supporting their ability to predict HSU. Of these variables, comorbidity, personality disorder, age (heterogeneous age ranges), neurotic symptoms, female gender, a marital status of divorced, separated or widowed, non-white ethnicity, high previous HSU and activities of daily living, were associated with increased HSU. Moreover, good preliminary evidence was found for associations of accessing a primary care psychological treatment service and medication use with decreased HSU. Conclusions The findings can inform decisions about which variables might be used to derive mental health clusters in ‘payment by results’ systems in the UK. The findings also support the need to investigate whether combining broad diagnoses with care pathways is an effective method for mental health

  3. Services for young people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder transitioning from child to adult mental health services: a national survey of mental health trusts in England.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Transition from child to adult mental health services is considered to be a difficult process, particularly for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article presents results from a national survey of 36 mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts across England, the findings indicate a lack of accurate data on the number of young people with ADHD transitioning to, and being seen by, adult services. Less than half of the trusts had a specialist adult ADHD service and in only a third of the trusts were there specific commissioning arrangements for adult ADHD. Half of the trusts reported that young people with ADHD were prematurely discharged from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) because there were no suitable adult services. There was also a lack of written transition protocols, care pathways, commissioned services for adults with ADHD and inadequate information sharing between services. The findings advocate the need to provide a better transition service underpinned by clear, structured guidelines and protocols, routine data collection and information sharing across child and adult services. An increase in the commission of specialist adult ADHD clinics is needed to ensure individuals have access to appropriate support and care.

  4. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  5. The Burden of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, William W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Nestadt, Gerald; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Clarke, Diana; Alexandre, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and impairments related to the disorders, and costs. This review expands the range of mental disorders considered in a report on the global burden of disease, updates the literature, presents information on the range and depth of sources of information on burden, and adds estimates of costs. The purpose is to provide an accessible guide to the burden of mental disorders, especially for researchers and policy makers who may not be familiar with this subfield of epidemiology. PMID:18806255

  6. The association between adult attachment style, mental disorders, and suicidality: findings from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Palitsky, Daniel; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Downs, A Craig; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-07-01

    Attachment theory categorically assesses how a person perceives and experiences interpersonal relationships. Attachment style is linked to numerous physical and psychological phenomena; however, there is a paucity of research examining its relationship to suicide ideation and attempt in adults. Our study addresses this and investigates the relationship of adult attachment style and mental disorders in a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N = 5692, aged >18 years), multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine these relationships. After adjusting for confounding variables, insecure attachment styles were associated with greater reporting of suicidal ideation, attempt, and all mental disorder categories analyzed (adjusted odds ratio range, 1.13-1.81). Secure attachment styles were associated with a decreased likelihood of reporting suicidal ideation, attempt, and any anxiety disorder (adjusted odds ratio range, 0.67-0.91). Clinicians should be aware of attachment issues in their patients to ensure better health outcomes and more effective physician-patient relationships.

  7. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  8. PDYN, a gene implicated in brain/mental disorders, is targeted by REST in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Richard; Bäckman, Cristina M; Harvey, Brandon K; Kadyrova, Helena; Bazov, Igor; Shippenberg, Toni S; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2014-11-01

    The dynorphin κ-opioid receptor system is implicated in mental health and brain/mental disorders. However, despite accumulating evidence that PDYN and/or dynorphin peptide expression is altered in the brain of individuals with brain/mental disorders, little is known about transcriptional control of PDYN in humans. In the present study, we show that PDYN is targeted by the transcription factor REST in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and that that interfering with REST activity increases PDYN expression in these cells. We also show that REST binding to PDYN is reduced in the adult human brain compared to SH-SY5Y cells, which coincides with higher PDYN expression. This may be related to MIR-9 mediated down-regulation of REST as suggested by a strong inverse correlation between REST and MIR-9 expression. Our results suggest that REST represses PDYN expression in SH-SY5Y cells and the adult human brain and may have implications for mental health and brain/mental disorders.

  9. Are natural disasters in early childhood associated with mental health and substance use disorders as an adult?

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence risk for mental health and substance use disorders is critical to improve population health and reduce social costs imposed by these disorders. We examine the impact of experiencing a natural disaster-a serious fire, tornado, flood, earthquake, or hurricane-by age five on adult mental health and substance use disorders. The analysis uses data from the 2004 to 2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. The analysis sample includes 27,129 individuals ages 21-64 years. We also exploit information on parenting strategies to study how parents respond to natural disasters encountered by their children. We find that experiencing one or more of these natural disasters by age five increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood, particularly anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Parents alter some, but not all, of their parenting strategies following a natural disaster experienced by their children. It is important to provide support, for example through counseling services and financial assistance, to families and children exposed to natural disasters to mitigate future mental health and substance use problems attributable to such exposure.

  10. Integrating criminal justice, community healthcare, and support services for adults with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Weisman, R L; Lamberti, J S; Price, N

    2004-01-01

    Persons with severe mental disorders are overrepresented in our nation's jails and prisons. Factors including cooccurring substance use disorders, homelessness, and lack of access to community services have contributed to this problem, as have gaps between criminal justice, healthcare, and community support systems. In order to address these issues, Project Link was developed by the University of Rochester Department of Psychiatry in collaboration with five local community agencies. Project Link is designed to prevent involvement of individuals with severe mental illness from entering the criminal justice system. While many models of diversion programs exist, they are all dependent on access to appropriate community-based services. This paper will describe the steps that Project Link has taken towards integrating criminal justice, healthcare, and community support services for individuals with severe mental disorders involved in the criminal justice system.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Temporal Relation Between Problem Gambling and Mental and Substance Use Disorders Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Ryan; Martins, Silvia S.; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the temporal relation between at-risk gambling or problem gambling (PG) and mental and substance use disorders (SUDs) in young adulthood. Our study aimed to examine whether past-year, at-risk, or PG is associated with incident mental disorders and SUDs (that is, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder [OCD], or alcohol dependence) and illegal drug use, and whether past-year mental disorders and SUDs and illegal drug use is associated with incident at-risk or PG. Method: Data for this longitudinal study were drawn from the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults (MLSYA). Respondents aged 18 to 20 years in 2007 were followed prospectively for 5 years. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, at-risk or PG was associated with increased odds of depression, OCD, alcohol dependence, and illegal drug use. In longitudinal analysis at-risk or PG at cycle 1 was associated with incident major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and illegal drug use in the follow-up period. Only illegal drug use at cycle 1 was associated with incident at-risk or PG during follow-up. Conclusions: At-risk or PG was associated with more new onset mental disorders and SUDs (depression, alcohol dependence, and illegal drug use), compared with the reverse (illegal drug use was the only association with new onset at-risk or PG). Preventing at-risk or PG from developing early in adulthood may correspond with decreases in new onset mental disorders and SUDs later in adulthood. PMID:27253701

  12. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  13. Attachment mental states and inferred pathways of development in borderline personality disorder: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    PubMed

    Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina

    2011-09-01

    We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  14. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  15. Social Support and Housing Transitions Among Homeless Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Young, Alexander S; Greenberg, Jared M; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-08-22

    Objective: Research suggests that social supports are associated with housing retention among adults who have experienced homelessness. Yet, we know very little about the social support context in consumers find and retain housing. We examined the ways and identified the junctures in which consumers' skills and deficits in accessing and mobilizing social supports influenced their longitudinal housing status. Method: We performed semi-structured qualitative interviews with VA Greater Los Angeles consumers (n = 19) with serious mental illness, substance use disorders, and a history of homelessness; interviews explored associations between longitudinal housing status (categorized as: stable, independent housing; sheltered housing, continually engaged in structured housing programs; and unstable housing) and social supports. We compared data from consumers in these 3 mutually exclusive categories. Results: All participants described social support as important for finding and maintaining housing. However, participants used formal (provider/case managers) and informal (family/friends) supports in different ways. Participants in stable housing relied on formal and informal supports to obtain/maintain housing. Participants in sheltered housing primarily used formal supports, for example, case management staff. Unstably housed participants used formal and informal supports, but some of these relationships were superficial or of negative valence. Interpersonal problems were prevalent across longitudinal housing status categories. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Social context, including patterns of formal and informal support, was associated with participants' longitudinal housing status. Within interventions to end homelessness, these findings suggest the value of future research to identify, tailor, and implement practices that can help consumers improve their social resources. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Factors Contributing to the Utilization of Adult Mental Health Services in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Carballo, Juan J.; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Alegria, Analucia A.; Basurte-Villamor, Ignacio; Sevilla-Vicente, Juncal; Navarro-Jimenez, Rocio; Legido-Gil, Teresa; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Jimenez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine whether age of First diagnosis, gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment modalities (pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy) at Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) moderate the risk of Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) utilization in patients diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS. Methods. Data were derived from the Madrid Psychiatric Cumulative Register Study. The target population comprised 32,183 patients who had 3 or more visits at CAMHS. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess survival data. A series of logistic regression analyses were performed to study the role of age of diagnosis, gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment modalities. Results. 7.1% of patients presented with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS. Compared to preschool children, children and adolescents first diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS were more likely to use AMHS. Female gender and comorbidity with affective disorders, schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders increased the risk of use of AMHS. Pharmacological or combined treatment of hyperkinetic disorder diagnosed at CAMHS was associated with increased risk of use at AMHS. Conclusions. Older age of first diagnosis, female gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and pharmacological treatment at CAMHS are markers of risk for the transition from CAMHS to AMHS in patients with hyperkinetic disorder diagnosed at CAMHS. PMID:22654608

  17. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method The sample included 38,993 adults in 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess a range of DSM-IV disorders that included an expanded definition of separation anxiety disorder allowing onsets in adulthood. Analyses focused on prevalence, age at onset, comorbidity, predictors of onset and persistence, and separation anxiety-related role impairment. Results Lifetime separation anxiety disorder prevalence averaged 4.8% across countries (interquartile range [25th–75th percentiles]=1.4%–6.4%), with 43.1% of lifetime onsets occurring after age 18. Significant time-lagged associations were found between earlier separation anxiety disorder and subsequent onset of internalizing and externalizing DSM-IV disorders and conversely between these disorders and subsequent onset of separation anxiety disorder. Other consistently significant predictors of lifetime separation anxiety disorder included female gender, retrospectively reported childhood adversities, and lifetime traumatic events. These predictors were largely comparable for separation anxiety disorder onsets in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and across country income groups. Twelve-month separation anxiety disorder prevalence was considerably lower than lifetime prevalence (1.0% of the total sample; interquartile range=0.2%–1.2%). Severe separation anxiety-related 12-month role impairment was significantly more common in the presence (42.4%) than absence (18.3%) of 12-month comorbidity. Conclusions Separation anxiety disorder is a common and highly comorbid disorder that can have onset across the lifespan. Childhood adversity and lifetime trauma are

  18. [Prevalence of mental disorders in adults in Subtiava, León, Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in the Subtiava district of León, Nicaragua. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select 219 families (n = 584 persons). The study was carried out in two phases. In the first, probable mental disorder cases were screened using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. In the second, the diagnoses were confirmed through the Present State Examination questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires had been confirmed in a pilot study. The present study was conducted in October and November 1987, when Nicaragua was still immersed in armed conflict. Construction of a family map made it possible to analyze, through the multiple imputation method, the characteristics of persons who were absent at the time of the interviews or who did not respond. The estimated prevalence percentages and their respective 95% confidence intervals were as follows: neurosis, 7.5% (5.2%-9.8%); depression, 6.2% (2.6%-8.1%); reactive crisis, 3.3% (2.6-6.5%); alcoholism, 5.8% (3.9%-8.9%); organic brain syndrome, 3.9% (1.7%-5.2%); psychosis, 0.5% (0.2%-1.6%); and other disorders, 0.7% (0.2%-1.6%). The estimated overall prevalence of mental disorders in the study population was 27.9%. Disorders were more prevalent among men (30.8%) than women (26.3%). It is concluded that these high estimated prevalences are associated with stress caused by the war.

  19. Prevalence of sleep disorders by sex and ethnicity among older adolescents and emerging adults: relations to daytime functioning, working memory and mental health.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Baldwin, Carol M

    2014-07-01

    The study determined the prevalence of sleep disorders by ethnicity and sex, and related daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health among older adolescent to emerging adult college students. Participants were U.S.A. undergraduates (N = 1684), aged 17-25, recruited from 2010 to 2011. Participants completed online questionnaires for all variables. Overall, 36.0% of the sample screened positive for sleep disorders with insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder being the most prevalent. Women reported more insomnia and daytime impairment. African-Americans reported more early morning awakenings and less daytime impairment. Students with insomnia symptoms or restless legs syndrome tended to have lower working memory capacities. Students with nightmares or parasomnias had greater odds for mental disorders. In an older adolescent to emerging adult college student sample, sleep disorders may be a common source of sleep disturbance and impairment. Certain sleep disorders may be associated with lower working memory capacity and poor mental health.

  20. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults with Severe Mental Illness: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Paul, Lisa; Egede, Leonard E.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is a great deal of research on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment of PTSD in the general population. However, we know very little about the manifestation and consequences of PTSD in more complicated patient populations. The purpose of the current paper is to provide a comprehensive review of PTSD within the context of severe mental illness (SMI; i.e., schizophrenia spectrum disorders, mood disorders). Extant data suggest that trauma and PTSD are highly prevalent among individuals with SMI relative to the general population, and both are associated with adverse clinical functioning and increased healthcare burden. However, trauma and PTSD remain overlooked in this population, with low recognition rates in public-sector settings. Additionally, there are few data on the clinical course and treatment of PTSD among individuals with SMI. Particularly lacking are longitudinal studies, randomized controlled treatment trials, and studies using ethno-racially diverse samples. Furthermore, there is a need to better understand the interplay between trauma, PTSD, and severe forms of mental illness and to further develop and disseminate evidence-based PTSD treatments in this population. The current state of the literature and future directions for practice are discussed. PMID:21596012

  1. “I was thinking too much”: experiences of HIV-positive adults with common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Bere, Tarisai; Macpherson, Kirsty; Nyamayaro, Primrose; Potter, Lucy; Makadzange, Tariro; Munjoma, Ronald; Marufu, Marshall; Araya, Ricardo; Safren, Steven; O'Cleirgh, Conall; Chibanda, Dixon; Abas, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the lived experiences of people with both poor mental health and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in high HIV prevalence settings. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 (female =31) HIV-positive adults who scored above the cut-point on a locally-validated scale for common mental disorders. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants with evidence of poor adherence. Six additional key informant interviews (female = 6) were conducted with healthcare workers. Data were collected and analysed inductively by an interdisciplinary coding team. Results The major challenges faced by participants were stressors (poverty, stigma, marital problems) and symptoms of common mental disorders (“thinking too much”, changes to appetite and sleep, “burdened heart”, and low energy levels). Thinking too much, which appears closely related to rumination, was the symptom with the greatest negative impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults with common mental disorders. In turn, thinking too much was commonly triggered by the stressors faced by people living with HIV/AIDS, especially poverty. Finally, participants desired private counselling, access to income generating activities, and family engagement in mental health care. Conclusions Better understanding of the local expression of mental disorders and of underlying stressors can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25754063

  2. Typology of adults diagnosed with mental disorders based on socio-demographics and clinical and service use characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental disorder is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Its cost and negative impact on productivity are substantial. Consequently, improving mental health-care system efficiency - especially service utilisation - is a priority. Few studies have explored the use of services by specific subgroups of persons with mental disorder; a better understanding of these individuals is key to improving service planning. This study develops a typology of individuals, diagnosed with mental disorder in a 12-month period, based on their individual characteristics and use of services within a Canadian urban catchment area of 258,000 persons served by a psychiatric hospital. Methods From among the 2,443 people who took part in the survey, 406 (17%) experienced at least one episode of mental disorder (as per the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)) in the 12 months pre-interview. These individuals were selected for cluster analysis. Results Analysis yielded four user clusters: people who experienced mainly anxiety disorder; depressive disorder; alcohol and/or drug disorder; and multiple mental and dependence disorder. Two clusters were more closely associated with females and anxiety or depressive disorders. In the two other clusters, males were over-represented compared with the sample as a whole, namely, substance abuses with or without concomitant mental disorder. Clusters with the greatest number of mental disorders per subject used a greater number of mental health-care services. Conversely, clusters associated exclusively with dependence disorders used few services. Conclusion The study found considerable heterogeneity among socio-demographic characteristics, number of disorders, and number of health-care services used by individuals with mental or dependence disorders. Cluster analysis revealed important differences in service use with regard to gender and age. It reinforces the relevance of developing targeted programs for subgroups of

  3. Gastritis and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D; Cowles, Robert A; Galea, Sandro; Jacobi, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have suggested an association between various gastrointestinal disorders and mood and anxiety disorders, no previous study has examined the relationship between a diagnosis of gastritis and mood and anxiety disorders in the community. This work aimed to investigate the association between physician-diagnosed gastritis and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders among adults in the general population, and to examine sex differences in these relationships. Data were drawn from a population-based, representative sample of 4181 adults aged 18-79 in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey. Anxiety disorders (27.0% vs. 15.3%) and affective disorders (20.1% vs. 11.5%) were significantly more common among adults with compared to without a diagnosis of gastritis. Lifetime and current physician diagnosed gastritis were associated with an increased prevalence of panic attacks, social phobia, any mood disorder and major depression, compared to those without gastritis. There were no significant sex differences in these associations. A diagnosis of gastritis appears to be associated with significantly increased odds of mood and anxiety disorders among adults in the general population. Contrary to findings from animal studies, we found the relationship between gastritis and mood/anxiety consistent among both sexes.

  4. Sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in adult women with severe mental illness: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonugli, Rebecca; H Brackley, Margaret; Williams, Gail B; Lesser, Janna

    2010-07-01

    Research indicates that women with serious mental illness (SMI) are vulnerable to sexual abuse, resulting in adverse health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the prevalence of undiagnosed PTSD among a cohort of 20 women with SMI and reporting past sexual abuse. Furthermore, the researcher sought to identify specific symptom manifestations of PTSD among women with SMI and sexual abuse histories. Finally, the feasibility of using specific data collection tools was examined. Results indicated that PTSD was not previously diagnosed or recognized in the study sample, in spite of the presence of a sexual trauma history. The screening tools were effective in identifying depression, guilt, emotional withdrawal, blunted affect, decreased psychomotor activity, suicidal ideations, sexual dysfunction, and substance abuse. Additionally, the data collection tools provided a framework for discussing sensitive issues related to sexual abuse. Implications of this pilot study suggest the need to evaluate all women with SMI and history of sexual abuse for PTSD.

  5. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  6. [Mental disorders in puberty].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Andreas

    2005-03-24

    Puberty is characterized by a complexity of different developmental tasks. During this period of sometimes dramatic changes, the adolescent must find a new balance between personal experiences and the demands made by the environment. In this period of development, some 18% of all adolescents experience a mental crisis, and 5% need specialist treatment. Such mental disorders in puberty as anorexia nervosa, depression or suicidality can be classified on the basis of their development and course. They must be taken seriously and treated as early as possible.

  7. Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Suicidal Thoughts Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults 3 Years After the Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuriko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Fukasawa, Maiko; Honma, Hiroko; Someya, Toshiyuki; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Background Japan is located in an area prone to natural disasters, and major earthquakes have occurred recently in rural areas where the proportion of elderly adults is high. Although elderly persons are vulnerable members of communities at a time of disaster, the prevalence of mental disorders among this population has yet to be reported in Japan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal thoughts among community-dwelling elderly persons 3 years after an earthquake and to identify risk factors associated with their quality of life (QOL). Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 496 community-dwelling persons aged 65 years or older in areas of Japan where 2 major earthquakes had occurred during a 3-year period. The main outcome was diagnosis of a mental disorder or suicidality. Results During the 3-year period after the earthquake, 1.6% of men and 5.5% of women had received a diagnosis of major depression. There were no cases of posttraumatic stress disorder. Women were more likely than men to report suicidality (7.8% vs 3.8%, P = 0.075). Conclusions The prevalence of mental disorders was lower than that reported in previous studies. Despite the low prevalence of mental disorders, the percentage of community-dwelling elderly persons with subclinical mental health symptoms was high. The results indicate that appropriate public health and medical interventions are warranted after a natural disaster. PMID:21325733

  8. [Assessment and treatment of developmental disorder traits in adult mental disorder: from the viewpoint of maladjustment in a company and university].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the maladjustment reaction of adults with autism spectrum disorders such as Asperger syndrome to a working environment or university setting, from the viewpoint of a psychiatrist seeing them in areas of occupational and college mental health. The author is in charge of a day care program for company workers, called "The Return-to-Work Support Course", at a mental clinic. A total of 176 patients attended the program and most of them were originally diagnosed with depression and/or adjustment disorder. The author noted that five of them showed some traits of developmental disorder. They initially had been capable specialists at work, but started showing mental and psychosocial dysfunction as they received promotions and became team leaders or managers. It seems that changes in their work environment involving their superiors, co-workers, the organization, etc., easily affected their work performance and triggered their maladjustment, and finally caused their leave of absence. The author also works in a university student counseling room, and noted that some students started to show maladjustment in the course of writing their graduation thesis or applying for jobs, although they previously had performed fairly well at university. They could not maintain good communication with thesis advisers, could not perform adequately during a group discussion at a job interview, or could not cope with personnel offices appropriately. After being interviewed, they were diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Not only child psychiatrists but all psychiatrists should have a sufficient knowledge of developmental disorders, and they need to be cautious when they diagnose patients and inform them.

  9. Twelve-month prevalence, comorbidity and correlates of mental disorders in Germany: the Mental Health Module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH).

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Frank; Höfler, Michael; Siegert, Jens; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Busch, Markus A; Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides up to date prevalence estimates of mental disorders in Germany derived from a national survey (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, Mental Health Module [DEGS1-MH]). A nationally representative sample (N = 5318) of the adult (18-79) population was examined by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DEGS-CIDI) to assess symptoms, syndromes and diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR (25 diagnoses covered). Of the participants 27.7% met criteria for at least one mental disorder during the past 12 months, among them 44% with more than one disorder and 22% with three or more diagnoses. Most frequent were anxiety (15.3%), mood (9.3%) and substance use disorders (5.7%). Overall rates for mental disorders were substantially higher in women (33% versus 22% in men), younger age group (18-34: 37% versus 20% in age group 65-79), when living without a partner (37% versus 26% with partnership) or with low (38%) versus high socio-economic status (22%). High degree of urbanization (> 500,000 inhabitants versus < 20,000) was associated with elevated rates of psychotic (5.2% versus 2.5%) and mood disorders (13.9% versus 7.8%). The findings confirm that almost one third of the general population is affected by mental disorders and inform about subsets in the population who are particularly affected.

  10. Twelve-months prevalence of mental disorders in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults - Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH): a methodological addendum and correction.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Frank; Höfler, Michael; Strehle, Jens; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Busch, Markus A; Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    We recently published findings in this journal on the prevalence of mental disorders from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH). The DEGS1-MH paper was also meant to be the major reference publication for this large-scale German study program, allowing future users of the data set to understand how the study was conducted and analyzed. Thus, towards this goal highest standards regarding transparency, consistency and reproducibility should be applied. After publication, unfortunately, the need for an addendum and corrigendum became apparent due to changes in the eligible reference sample, and corresponding corrections of the imputed data. As a consequence the sample description, sample size and some prevalence data needed amendments. Additionally we identified a coding error in the algorithm for major depression that had a significant effect on the prevalence estimates of depression and associated conditions. This addendum and corrigendum highlights all changes and presents the corrected prevalence tables. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Multidisciplinary Treatment for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders: Adapting Clinical Research Tools to Everyday Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Detrick, Susan; Fernandez, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In California, individuals with autism and co-occurring mental disorders, and their families, face two serious barriers when attempting to access the mental health services they need. The first is that the State Mental Health Specialty Service guidelines specifically exclude autism as a qualifying primary diagnosis for eligibility for mental…

  12. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Resources Clinical Trials Share Older Adults and Mental Health Overview It’s just as important for an older ... this helpline, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), to receive immediate counseling. Calling ...

  13. [The German research network for mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Banaschewski, T; Heinz, A; Kamp-Becker, I; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Padberg, F; Rapp, M A; Rupprecht, R; Schneider, F; Schulze, T G; Wittchen, H-U

    2016-09-01

    Mental disorders are among the greatest medical and social challenges facing us. They can occur at all stages of life and are among the most important commonly occurring diseases. In Germany 28 % of the population suffer from a mental disorder every year, while the lifetime risk of suffering from a mental disorder is almost 50 %. Mental disorders cause great suffering for those affected and their social network. Quantitatively speaking, they can be considered to be among those diseases creating the greatest burden for society due to reduced productivity, absence from work and premature retirement. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding a new research network from 2015 to 2019 with up to 35 million euros to investigate mental disorders in order to devise and develop better therapeutic measures and strategies for this population by means of basic and translational clinical research. This is the result of a competitive call for research proposals entitled research network for mental diseases. It is a nationwide network of nine consortia with up to ten psychiatric and clinical psychology partner institutions from largely university-based research facilities for adults and/or children and adolescents. Furthermore, three cross-consortia platform projects will seek to identify shared causes of diseases and new diagnostic modalities for anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHS), autism, bipolar disorders, depression, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders as well as substance-related and addictive disorders. The spectrum of therapeutic approaches to be examined ranges from innovative pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment to novel brain stimulation procedures. In light of the enormous burden such diseases represent for society as a whole, a sustainable improvement in the financial support for those researching mental disorders seems essential. This network aims to become a nucleus for long overdue and sustained

  14. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  15. Associations between comorbid health conditions and the use of mental health services among adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Matejkowski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined to what extent the number of comorbid health conditions was associated with various mental health service utilization among people with bipolar disorder. The results of logistic regression models indicate that a greater number of comorbid medical conditions were associated with higher odds of using specialty mental health service, while they were not associated with utilization of services provided by general health care providers. The type of bipolar disorder, functional impairment, and marital status were found to be associated with the use of a specialty service, while ethnicity was the only covariate significantly related to general health care use.

  16. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  17. AMTA Monograph Series. Effective Clinical Practice in Music Therapy: Music Therapy for Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Barbara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Whether new to the profession or an experienced clinician, this text provides a wealth of state-of-the-art information for undergraduates, graduates and professionals. This volume covers the wide range of mental disorder diagnoses and addresses specific populations such as forensic and drug and alcohol rehabilitation. How music therapy is used…

  18. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who

  19. Housing First Reduces Re-offending among Formerly Homeless Adults with Mental Disorders: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M.; Rezansoff, Stefanie N.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Palepu, Anita; Patterson, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Homelessness and mental illness have a strong association with public disorder and criminality. Experimental evidence indicates that Housing First (HF) increases housing stability and perceived choice among those experiencing chronic homelessness and mental disorders. HF is also associated with lower residential costs than common alternative approaches. Few studies have examined the effect of HF on criminal behavior. Methods Individuals meeting criteria for homelessness and a current mental disorder were randomized to one of three conditions treatment as usual (reference); scattered site HF; and congregate HF. Administrative data concerning justice system events were linked in order to study prior histories of offending and to test the relationship between housing status and offending following randomization for up to two years. Results The majority of the sample (67%) was involved with the justice system, with a mean of 8.07 convictions per person in the ten years prior to recruitment. The most common category of crime was “property offences” (mean = 4.09). Following randomization, the scattered site HF condition was associated with significantly lower numbers of sentences than treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.72). Congregate HF was associated with a marginally significant reduction in sentences compared to treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.26–1.14). Conclusions This study is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate benefits of HF among a homeless sample with mental illness in the domain of public safety and crime. Our sample was frequently involved with the justice system, with great personal and societal costs. Further implementation of HF is strongly indicated, particularly in the scattered site format. Research examining interdependencies between housing, health, and the justice system is indicated. Trial registration ISRCTN57595077 PMID:24023796

  20. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders.

  1. Mental and Behavioral Disorders among People with Congenital Deafblindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four…

  2. Family Impact in Intellectual Disability, Severe Mental Health Disorders and Mental Health Disorders in ID. A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, Almudena; Gutierrez-Recacha, Pedro; Irazabal, Marcia; Marsa, Ferran; Garcia, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Family impact (or family burden) is a concept born in the field of mental health that has successfully been exported to the ambit of intellectual disability (ID). However, differences in family impact associated with severe mental health disorders (schizophrenia), to ID or to mental health problems in ID should be expected. Seventy-two adults with…

  3. Religious Involvement and Mental Disorders in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G.; Zhang, Yuhong; Ma, Wanrui; Huang, Yueqin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study aims to examine the association between religious involvement and mental disorder (anxiety disorder, mood disorder, alcohol use disorder) in a general Chinese population, and explore connections between religious belief and mental disorders in the Hui and Han ethnic groups. Method Data were examined from a representative sample of 2,770 community-dwelling adults in the province of Ningxia located in western China. Self-reported religious attendance and the importance of religious in daily life were measured. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose mental disorders. Results In the overall sample, the importance of religious affiliation was positively associated with mental disorders (especially anxiety) (p<0.01). No association was found between any religious characteristic and mood disorders or alcohol use disorders. With regard to analyses within different ethnic groups, religious affiliation was positively associated with mental disorder in Han ethnicity (p<0.01), but not in Hui ethnicity. When stratified by age and ethnic group, religious affiliation was associated positively with mental disorder in younger Han (p<0.01); whereas high religiosity was associated positively with mental disorder in older Hui (p<0.05). Among older Hui, however, religious affiliation was inversely associated with mood disorder (p<0.05). Conclusions In contrast to most previous studies in Western populations, religious involvement is less likely to be inversely related to mental disorder in Mainland China, although this association varies by age and ethnic group. PMID:26030906

  4. Adolescent offenders with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Thomas Grisso points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its consequences for the community. In this article, Grisso examines research and clinical evidence that may help in shaping a public policy that addresses that question. Clinical science, says Grisso, offers a perspective that explains why the symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence can increase the risk of impulsive and aggressive behaviors. Research on delinquent populations suggests that youth with mental disorders are, indeed, at increased risk for engaging in behaviors that bring them to the attention of the juvenile justice system. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that most youth arrested for delinquencies do not have serious mental disorders. Grisso explains that a number of social phenomena of the past decade, such as changes in juvenile law and deficiencies in the child mental health system, appear to have been responsible for bringing far more youth with mental disorders into the juvenile justice system. Research shows that almost two-thirds of youth in juvenile justice detention centers and correctional facilities today meet criteria for one or more mental disorders. Calls for a greater emphasis on mental health treatment services in juvenile justice, however, may not be the best answer. Increasing such services in juvenile justice could simply mean that youth would need to be arrested in order to get mental health services. Moreover, many of the most effective treatment methods work best when applied in the community, while youth are with their families rather than removed from them. A more promising approach, argues Grisso, could be to develop community systems of care that create a network of services cutting across public child

  5. Adherence to Oral Antihyperglycemic Agents Among Older Adults With Mental Disorders and Its Effect on Health Care Costs, Quebec, Canada, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Préville, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nonadherence to oral antihyperglycemic agents (OHAs) leads to an increase in use of health care resources and overall expenditures due to type 2 diabetes and its complications. People with type 2 diabetes are almost twice as likely to have anxiety and depression as the general population. Our aim was to examine health care costs associated with adherence to OHAs and the effect of depression and anxiety disorders on these in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods We used data from a representative sample (N = 2,811) of community-dwelling adults in Quebec aged 65 years or older who participated in the Étude sur la Santé des Aînés survey. The final sample consisted of 301 participants who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and who were taking OHAs. Total health care costs were calculated as the sum of the costs of hospitalizations and outpatient clinic services. Adherence to OHAs was measured using the medication possession ratio. Depression and anxiety disorders were assessed using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. We also analyzed data by the Charlson Comorbidity Index, age, sex, education, and marital status, using generalized linear models. Results Nonadherence among people without depression or anxiety was associated with higher total health care costs ($4,477; 95% confidence interval [CI], $3,754–$5,201; P < .001), as was nonadherence among people with depression or anxiety ($11,124; 95% CI, $9,685–$12,562; P < .001). Conclusion Improving adherence to OHAs among people with type 2 diabetes, particularly those with underlying mental disorders such as depression or anxiety, can decrease health care costs. PMID:26719900

  6. Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its…

  7. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.

  8. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O’Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension remains unclear. Further, there is little data available on how such associations vary by gender or over life course. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys (comprising 19 countries, and 52,095 adults) were used. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of common mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension, with and without psychiatric comorbidity adjustment. Variations in the strength of associations by gender and by life course stage of onset of both the mental disorder and hypertension were investigated. Results After psychiatric comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of hypertension (with ORs ranging from 1.1 to 1.6). Number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with subsequent hypertension in a dose-response fashion. For social phobia and alcohol abuse, associations with hypertension were stronger for males than females. For panic disorder, the association with hypertension was particularly apparent in earlier onset hypertension. Conclusions Depression, anxiety, impulsive eating disorders, and substance use disorders disorders were significantly associated with the subsequent diagnosis of hypertension. These data underscore the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and of physical health monitoring in people with these conditions.. PMID:24342112

  9. Association of Painful Musculoskeletal Conditions and Migraine Headache With Mental and Sleep Disorders Among Adults With Disabilities, Spain, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Failde, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions and migraine headache or any other headache in a sample of Spanish adults with disabilities and their association with anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Spanish national disability and dependence survey (2007–2008) of 16,932 adults aged 18 or older who have disabilities. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of painful musculoskeletal conditions was determined according to a diagnosis of arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, muscular dystrophy, and neck or back pain. The prevalence of migraine or other headache was also calculated. Factors associated with these painful conditions were analyzed separately for men and women by using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions was 66.9% (95% CI, 66.2%–67.6%) and that of migraine or other headache was 23.4% (95% CI, 22.8%–24.1%), both of which were higher in women than in men. Factors associated with these conditions in both men and women included older age, a sleep disorder, and concomitant chronic anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions and migraine or other headache is high in people with disability in Spain, especially in women, and these conditions often coexist with depression, anxiety, and/or a sleep disorder. To design programs for rehabilitating and improving the quality of life of adults with disability and painful conditions, treatments for mental and/or sleep disorders should be considered in addition to conventional treatments. PMID:24576397

  10. The Stigma of Childhood Mental Disorders: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…

  11. [Are Mental Disorders Natural Kinds?].

    PubMed

    Flórez Quintero, Daian Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    A problem for both philosophers of Psychiatry and Psychiatrists within the domain of nosology is to determine which could be the more appropriate model to classify mental illnesses. Such an endeavor also requires questioning the very nature of mental illness. While trying to cope with the philosophical challenges of such a task, Peter Zachar purports to show that the nosological work in Psychiatry should not adhere to the model of natural kinds. He even considers that it is mistaken to treat mental disorders as natural kinds. Nonetheless, Zachar's view on the existence of natural kinds-even in domains where there is little room for doubting about their existence, like Chemistry-is very unstable. In 2001 he holds that there are no natural kinds, but in 2008 he argues that his objections to the model of natural kinds are more the manifestation of his skepticism against a tradition. Although the problem of the existence of natural kinds shall not be dealt with in this article, a brief description on how deflated is Zachar's view on this matter in 2008 is presented, with the central part of the article devoted to reconstruct and examine his rationale for the thesis that mental disorders are not natural kinds. In the critical section of this paper, it is suggested that, although Zachar's thesis may be right, the arguments he gives to support it are quite flawed.

  12. Philosophy, biology and mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P J

    1994-10-01

    The biological model has become the touchstone for our thinking on mental disorder. The success of this model has relegated opposing views to the sidelines. Philosophers have been considering the nature of mind for well over 2500 years, and their speculations may provide a useful antidote to the creeping reductionism and materialism inherent in simple biology. The emphasis in philosophical theories is on the nature of the mental and the structuring role of the mind in our construction of reality. This paper focuses on three philosophers, Kant, Heidegger and Husserl, and their contribution to our understanding of the nature of psychopathology. The biological theory is re-examined from the differing perspectives offered, and some of the assumptions on which it is based are subjected to criticism. The emphasis, found in the philosophical theories, on the mental as opposed to the physiological aspects of the mind, is considered to be more germane to the practical and therapeutic concerns of those who must deal with the dis-ease of mental disorder.

  13. Experiences and Perceptions of Mental Health Professionals Considered Effective in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erb, Bonita H.

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that has been documented in medical and mental health literature for over 100 years (Still, 1902). ADHD is a neurobiological based disorder characterized by three major symptoms identified at clinical levels and validated by diagnostic criteria established for the diagnosis of children…

  14. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  15. Supporting the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegel, David E.; Kola, Lenore A.; Ronis, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Significant barriers exist to the implementation of evidence-based practices into routine mental health and substance abuse settings. This paper discusses the role and function of technical assistance centers to help support the implementation process using, as a guide, the experience of the Ohio Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Coordinating…

  16. The Impact of a Substance Abuse Disorder on the Well-Being of Family Caregivers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The impact that substance use has on an individual with mental illness has been documented; however, little is known about the impact that this may have for a family caregiver. Data was collected in a cross sectional study using mailed questionnaires to a convenience sample of family members of persons with mental illness (n = 110). Hierarchical…

  17. [Mental disorders in Nicaragua: family perspective].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-09-01

    In recent years the family perspective in Psychiatry has become more important a factor. Therefore this paper is aimed at examining the family structure of mentally disordered people in León, Nicaragua, as well as presenting the use of a Genogram in epidemiological research. 201 families were randomly selected, whose members were interviewed in two steps: a screening, and a diagnostic stage. The family map or Genogram for each family was analyzed with respect to adult and child cases, generations within the family, and other background variables.

  18. Brain "Globalopathies" cause mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Peled, Abraham

    2013-12-01

    "Consciousness" "mood," "identity" and "personality" are all emergent properties from whole-brain organizations; these are typically disturbed in psychiatric disorders. This work proposes that the underlying etiopathology of mental disorders originates from disturbances to global brain dynamics, or "Globalopathies" that are divided into three major interdependent types (1) "Resting-State Networkpathies," in personality disorders, (2) "Entropiathies" in mood disorders, and (3) "Connectopathies" in psychosis and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Novel approaches of processing signals from the brain are beginning to reveal brain organization in health and disease. For example a "small world network" has been described for optimal brain functions and breakdown of that organization might underlie relevant psychiatric manifestations. A novel diagnostic reformulation can be generated based on pathologies of whole brain organizations, such new brain related diagnostic nosology is testable and thus can be validated. Once validated Globalopathies can provide for "Global-therapies" i.e., interventions that can reorganize the brain and cure psychiatric disorders. The technology for such interventions is becoming available.

  19. Improving mental health literacy as a strategy to facilitate early intervention for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F; Wright, Annemarie

    2007-10-01

    Good mental health literacy in young people and their key helpers may lead to better outcomes for those with mental disorders, either by facilitating early help-seeking by young people themselves, or by helping adults to identify early signs of mental disorders and seek help on their behalf. Few interventions to improve mental health literacy of young people and their helpers have been evaluated, and even fewer have been well evaluated. There are four categories of interventions to improve mental health literacy: whole-of-community campaigns; community campaigns aimed at a youth audience; school-based interventions teaching help-seeking skills, mental health literacy, or resilience; and programs training individuals to better intervene in a mental health crisis. The effectiveness of future interventions could be enhanced by using specific health promotion models to guide their development.

  20. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    PubMed

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  1. Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163120.html Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders 10 percent ... News) -- Nearly one in 10 patients seeking facial plastic surgery suffers from a mental illness that distorts ...

  2. Suicide Prevention: Beyond Mental Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a conscious act of the will with personal and societal ramifications. Its conscious and volitional nature deepens its tragic impact. India has high suicide rates compared to the other countries and also has intriguing distinctiveness due to the reports of higher rates from areas with better health indices and gender opportunities. In this article, I present a broader paradigm, in contrast to the usual 'mental disorder paradigm', which puts forward practical points for a multi-level engagement of healthcare service, community and policy makers. PMID:28031585

  3. Stigma and mental disorder: phenomena and terminology.

    PubMed

    Clausen, J A

    1981-11-01

    My aim in this paper is to examine the application of the concept stigma to mental disorder and to the mentally ill. I believe that the loose use of this term serves to obscure the real issues that must be confronted in attempting to change public response to mental disorder. I shall examine recent, and in my opinion ill-advised, use of the concept stigma and then present some data that bear upon social responses to mentally ill patients and former patients in contemporary America. My data are derived from a long-term study of mental patients and their families, and I shall document that their feelings of stigmatization are not so much a consequence of the response of others to their having been hospitalized for mental illness or labeled mentally ill as of self-doubts or chronic manifestations of mental illness.

  4. [Stress, mental disorders and coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Lederbogen, F; Ströhle, A

    2012-11-01

    There are numerous associations between stress, mental disorders and coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to an acute stressor leads to activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and sympathoadrenal systems and chronic stressors are associated with sustained functional changes of these systems. Experiencing acute and chronic stress is paralleled by an increased incidence of mental disorders with the most consistent evidence on the triggering of major depressive episodes. Various mental disorders, including depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Furthermore, acute and chronic stressors have been identified as risk factors or triggers of acute coronary syndromes. Thus therapeutic strategies aim at reducing subjective stress experience, therapy of mental disorders and treatment of cardiac risk factors known to be more prevalent in increased stress states and mental disorders.

  5. Supplemental Security Income Benefits for Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Perrin, James M; Houtrow, Amy; Kelleher, Kelly; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stein, Ruth E K; Zima, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    The Supplemental Security Income Program (SSI) provides financial support to low-income households with children and youth with severe disabilities. The program included children when it began in the early 1970s. The numbers of children receiving SSI benefits increased substantially in the early 1990s, in part through an expansion of the listings of mental health conditions with which children could become eligible. Over the past 20 years, larger numbers of children have received SSI benefits for mental disorders, and these increases have led to questions from the press and Congress regarding these numbers. Do they indicate more of an increase in mental disorders among SSI children than in the general population? The National Academy of Medicine (NAM; formerly the Institute of Medicine) convened a study panel to examine what is known about mental disorders among the child SSI population and how that compares with evidence about mental disorders in children in general. The NAM report provides detailed information about how SSI works, about the changing numbers of children receiving SSI for mental disorders, and some comparisons with other evidence about rising rates of mental disorders in the general population and especially among children living in poverty. The report indicates that increasing numbers of children with mental disorders in SSI mirror similar increases in the population in general. This article summarizes key evidence from the NAM report and suggests the implications for pediatricians.

  6. The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dismuke, Clara E.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As much as 45% of the US population has at least one chronic condition while 21% have multiple chronic diseases. The study examined the impact of cognitive, social and physical limitations on the personal income of U.S. adults with seven chronic diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 19,357 US adults with seven chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, depression, emphysema and joint disease) from the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) was performed. The effect of seven chronic diseases and their associated cognitive, social, and physical limitations on personal income was assessed using a two-stage Heckman model. Results: Depression emerged as the only chronic disease that was independently associated with a significant $1,914 decrease in personal income (95% CI -$2,938--$890). Social and cognitive limitations resulted in $1,944 (95% CI -$3,378--$511) and $3,039 (95% CI -$4,418-$1,659) decreases in personal incomes respectively while physical limitations did not result in a statistically significant reduction. Being Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Other Race, female, never married, married, less than a bachelor’s degree, publicly insured, uninsured, or having a health status less than very good were also associated with significant reductions in personal income. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest a need to determine the specific limitations associated with common chronic diseases and identify appropriate compensatory strategies to reduce their impact on income. PMID:26156924

  7. The bi-directional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, John J.; Saha, Sukanta; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Browne, Mark Oakley; Caldas de Almeida, Jose M.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Have, Margreet ten; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Sampson, Nancy; Posada-Villa, José; Kendler, Kenneth; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of PEs and mental disorders. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of PEs and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Results Temporally primary PEs were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of 8 of the 21 mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse), with ORs (95%CI) ranging from 1.3 (1.2–1.5; major depressive disorder) to 2.0 (1.5–2.6; bipolar disorder). In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of PEs, with ORs (95% CI) ranging from 1.5 (1.0–2.1; childhood separation anxiety disorder) to 2.8 (1.0–7.8; anorexia nervosa). Conclusions While temporally primary PEs are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent mental disorders, we found that most mental disorder are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent PEs. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships might shed light on the etiology of PEs. PMID:26988628

  8. Association of Mental Disorders With Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O’Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less clear. This information has important implications for mental health care and the primary prevention of chronic physical disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of 16 temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders with the subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 chronic physical conditions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Eighteen face-to-face, cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults were conducted in 17 countries (47 609 individuals; 2 032 942 person-years) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to retrospectively assess the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV–identified mental disorders. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2012, to September 30, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime history of physical conditions was ascertained via self-report of physician’s diagnosis and year of onset or diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated the associations of temporally prior first onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset or diagnosis of physical conditions. RESULTS Most associations between 16 mental disorders and subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 physical conditions were statistically significant, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) ranging from 1.2 (1.0–1.5) to 3.6 (2.0–6.6). The associations were attenuated after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity, but mood, anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders remained significantly associated with onset of between 7 and all 10 of the physical conditions (ORs [95% CIs] from 1.2 [1.1–1.3] to 2.0 [1.4–2.8]). An increasing number of mental disorders experienced over the life course was significantly

  9. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  10. Proportion of patients without mental disorders being treated in mental health services worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Bruffaerts, Ronny; Posada-Villa, Jose; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Karam, Elie G.; Borges, Guilherme; Florescu, Silvia E.; Williams, David R.; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ono, Yutaka; de Graaf, Ron; Browne, Mark Oakley; Bunting, Brendan; Xavier, Miguel; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the worried well’. Aims To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with DSM-IV disorders. Method The World Health Organization’s World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries (n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs. Results Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose-response associations were found between number of indicators of need and treatment. Conclusions The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from treatment. PMID:25395690

  11. [Emotional processing in adult vs adolescent patients with eating behavior disorders; emotional recognizing and the mental theory].

    PubMed

    Calvo Sagardoy, Rosa; Gallego Morales, Luis Tomás; Solórzano Ostolaza, Gloria; Kassem García, Soledad; Morales Martínez, Carmen; Codesal Julián, Rosana; Blanco Fernández, Ascensión

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo y métodos: Actualmente se destaca la importancia de las dificultades de reconocimiento emocional y los problemas en cognición social (ToM), en la predisposición y mantenimiento de los Trastornos de Conducta Alimentaria (TCA). La mayoría de los estudios han sido realizados en pacientes adultos y pocos han analizado estas características en pacientes adolescentes. Este estudio examina las dificultades de reconocimiento emocional y cognición social en 48 pacientes con Anorexia Nerviosa (AN) y Bulimia Nerviosa (BN), adultas y adolescentes, con diversos grados de gravedad y las compara con grupos control sano. Para evaluar estas dificultades se han utilizado los siguientes cuestionarios: TAS-20 y el RME. Resultados: Conforme a lo establecido en nuestras hipótesis, las pacientes con AN y BN presentan mayores dificultades en el reconocimiento que los sujetos control. Las dificultades están moduladas por la edad y la gravedad del trastorno. Las pacientes adultas y más graves presentan más problemas en el reconocimiento emocional que las adolescentes menos graves. No se han obtenido diferencias en función del diagnóstico ni del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Contrariamente a lo esperado en la hipótesis sobre la teoría de la mente, las pacientes AN y BN, adultas y adolescentes mantienen intacta su capacidad para atribuir estados mentales a otros, realizando la tarea de mentalización de forma similar a los sujetos control. Únicamente las pacientes con más tratamientos previos y mayor duración del trastorno muestran un rendimiento ligeramente inferior. No existe relación con el IMC ni con los síntomas alimentarios. Conclusiones: Dado que todas las pacientes TCA tienen dificultades emocionales, es esencial que se introduzcan técnicas terapéuticas que faciliten el reconocimiento y la aceptación en el tratamiento. Puesto que las dificultades se intensifican en el transcurso del trastorno, los tratamientos de pacientes adolescentes tienen que

  12. Prevalence of mental disorders in a Greek island.

    PubMed

    Stylianidis, S; Pantelidou, S; Chondros, P; Roelandt, J L; Barbato, A

    2014-01-01

    In Greece, the need for epidemiological data became evident at the beginning of the mental health reform during 1983 with the emergence of the necessity to develop community-based mental health services. This survey was conducted in 2005 by the Association for Regional Development and Mental Health (EPAPSY), supported by the local authorities. It followed the methodology of the survey "Mental Health in the General Population: Images and Realities" (MHGP), a large scale multisite epidemiological research conducted by the World Health Organization Collaborative Centre of Lille in France and other countries. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, sociodemographic and comorbidity patterns of mental disorders in the general adult population of Evia Island, Greece. This was a cross-sectional survey investigating point, period and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. The target population was the non-institutionalized adult population of island of Evia (population 230,000 people). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a sociodemographic data questionnaire were administered by trained interviewers to 900 residents of Evia. The quota sampling method was used to obtain a sample representative of the target population. Lifetime prevalence of any disorder, as identified by the MINI, was 29%. The prevalence of depression was high, with 17.5% of women and 14.6% of men currently meeting the criteria for diagnosis. Affective and anxiety disorders were found to be more frequent in women than men, except for dysthymia, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder which were slightly more frequent in men. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Evia was much higher than the prevalence found by other epidemiological studies in Greece and among the highest in Southern Europe. The high prevalence of mental disorders found in Evia means that almost one third of the population will suffer from a clinically significant disorder in their lifetime

  13. A network theory of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Borsboom, Denny

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the network approach to psychopathology has been advanced as an alternative way of conceptualizing mental disorders. In this approach, mental disorders arise from direct interactions between symptoms. Although the network approach has led to many novel methodologies and substantive applications, it has not yet been fully articulated as a scientific theory of mental disorders. The present paper aims to develop such a theory, by postulating a limited set of theoretical principles regarding the structure and dynamics of symptom networks. At the heart of the theory lies the notion that symptoms of psychopathology are causally connected through myriads of biological, psychological and societal mechanisms. If these causal relations are sufficiently strong, symptoms can generate a level of feedback that renders them self‐sustaining. In this case, the network can get stuck in a disorder state. The network theory holds that this is a general feature of mental disorders, which can therefore be understood as alternative stable states of strongly connected symptom networks. This idea naturally leads to a comprehensive model of psychopathology, encompassing a common explanatory model for mental disorders, as well as novel definitions of associated concepts such as mental health, resilience, vulnerability and liability. In addition, the network theory has direct implications for how to understand diagnosis and treatment, and suggests a clear agenda for future research in psychiatry and associated disciplines. PMID:28127906

  14. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency...

  15. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency...

  16. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency...

  17. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency...

  18. 38 CFR 4.125 - Diagnosis of mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.125 Diagnosis of mental disorders. (a) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder does not conform to DSM-IV or is not supported by the... substantiate the diagnosis. (b) If the diagnosis of a mental disorder is changed, the rating agency...

  19. Mental Disorder or "Normal Life Variation"? Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, David H.

    2014-01-01

    "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition" ("DSM-5") promises a refined definition of mental disorder, which is tantamount to acknowledging that prior "DSM" definitions have failed to clarify what mental disorder is and why a person should be considered mentally disordered. Since the…

  20. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO): monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-06-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the "Mental health care Monitor Older adults" (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to describe MEMO and the older adults who attend outpatient mental health care regarding their predisposing and enabling characteristics and need for care. In MEMO all patients referred to the division of old age psychiatry of the participating mental health care organisations are assessed at baseline and monitored at 4, 8 and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are mental and social functioning, consumer satisfaction, and type of treatment provided (MEMO Basic). Over the years, MEMO Basic is repeated. In each cycle, additional information on specific patient groups is added (e.g. mood disorders). Data collection is supported by a web-based system for clinicians, including direct feedback to monitor patients throughout treatment. First results at baseline showed that the majority of patients that entered the division of old age psychiatry was female (69%), had low education (83%), lived alone (53%), was depressed (42%) and had a comorbid condition (82%). It seemed that older immigrants were not sufficiently reached. The current study is the first in the Netherlands to evaluate patient characteristics and outcome in mental health care provided for older adults in day-to-day practice. If MEMO works out successfully, the method should be extended to other target groups.

  1. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  2. Mental Disorders in Megacities: Findings from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andreoni, Solange; Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Alexandrino-Silva, Clovis; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Nishimura, Raphael; Anthony, James C.; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessler, Ronald C.; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. Methods and Results A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. Discussion Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the

  3. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-09-12

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  4. Just Ask! A Handbook for Instructors of Students Being Treated for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Howard

    This handbook provides practical information about the special needs of adult students (especially in literacy programs) who are being treated for mental disorders. The handbook includes teaching strategies for meeting these needs, as well as basic information about mental disorders and their treatment. The handbook is divided into six chapters…

  5. Manic Depressive Disorder in Mental Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, T. P.; Jones, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    Eight cases of early onset bipolar affective disorder in adolescents with mental impairment are described, focusing on age of onset; common characteristics such as rapid cycling, mixed affective states, and lithium resistance; and the likelihood that cerebral dysfunction might cause a secondary form of bipolar disorder. (JDD)

  6. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  7. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.

  8. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  9. Emotional intelligence and mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Janine; Schütz, Astrid; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich

    2009-09-01

    Emotional abilities were measured with a performance test of emotional intelligence (The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002) in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, substance abuse disorder, or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a nonclinical control group. Findings showed that all clinical groups differed from controls with respect to their overall emotional intelligence score, which dovetails with previous findings from self-report measures. Specifically, we found that the ability to understand emotional information and the ability to regulate emotions best distinguished the groups. Findings showed that patients with substance abuse disorder and BPD patients were most impaired.

  10. Spino-Cerebellar Degeneration, Hormonal Disorder, Hypogonadism, Deaf Mutism and Mental Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Post mortem examinations were done on two adult siblings (one female and one male) who had been clinically described as suffering from mental handicap, deaf mutism, ataxia, hypogonadism, and hormonal disorders. (DB)

  11. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  12. Asperger disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  13. Visual Arts in Counselling Adults with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Khai Ling; Mustaffa, M. S.; Tan, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a better understanding of using visual arts in counselling adults with depressive disorders. Three in-depth case studies were conducted in the counselling unit of a mental health hospital in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied to explore three adult participants' counselling experiences.…

  14. [Empathy in severe mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Martin-Contero, M C; Secades-Villa, R; Aparicio-Migueza, A; Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2017-02-16

    Introduccion. La empatia es un subproceso de la cognicion social que se define como la capacidad de comprender y compartir los pensamientos, deseos y sentimientos de otra persona, y es crucial en muchas formas de interaccion social adaptativa. Es un fenomeno contextual, flexible y multidimensional que se relaciona con diferentes procesos y redes neuronales. Objetivo. Evaluar la empatia en una muestra de sujetos con diagnosticos que se engloban dentro de la categoria de trastorno mental grave en tratamiento en un programa de rehabilitacion psicosocial. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron 22 personas con trastorno mental grave en tratamiento en programas de rehabilitacion psicosocial y 22 controles sanos. Se aplico a cada sujeto una bateria de pruebas: cociente de empatia, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (test de la mirada) e indice de reactividad interpersonal. Resultados. En el test de la mirada, el grupo experimental puntuo significativamente menos que el grupo control (t = 2,8; p < 0,05). En el resto de variables no se encontraron diferencias estadisticamente significativas. Conclusiones. Las personas con trastorno mental grave no muestran un deficit generalizado de la empatia; sin embargo, muestran dificultades a la hora de reconocer estados emocionales mediante la mirada, lo que indica un procesamiento de la informacion para las caras diferente a los sujetos de la poblacion normal.

  15. Early criminal recidivism among mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Lund, Christina; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Criminal recidivism was studied during 2 years in a Swedish population-based cohort (N = 318) of mentally disordered male offenders who had undergone a pretrial forensic psychiatric investigation, been convicted in subsequent trials, and been sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment (FPT; n = 152), prison (n = 116), or noncustodial sanctions (n = 50). Recidivism was analysed in relation to index sanctions, levels of supervision, diagnoses, and criminological factors. Significantly lower recidivism in the FPT group was related to lower crime rates during periods at conditional liberty in this group alone, and recidivism was significantly more common among offenders with at least one of the two diagnoses of substance abuse disorder and personality disorder than among those with psychotic or other mental disorders alone. Age at index crime and number of previous crimes emerged as significant predictors of recidivism. The results of this study suggest that the relapse rates depend as much on level of supervision as on individual characteristics.

  16. [Pandora's digital box: mental disorders in cyberspace].

    PubMed

    Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D

    2011-01-01

    The emersion of the Internet did not only change human communication and information seeking, it also contributed to manifold alterations in the manifestation, perception and treatment of mental disorders. Thus, one focus of current psychological research lies on the relationship between the new medium and psychosocial functioning. This review embraces recent results on this topic following a discussion from two different perspectives: first, it poses the question, whether the Internet - due to its very specific character - is capable of creating new mental disorders and second, it asks whether rare disorders may possibly be uncovered by the Internet or if already known disorders may be sustained and intensified by the online medium. Accordingly, the first part of this review deals with the conceptual basis of problematic Internet use, Internet addiction and problematic online-gaming as an example of specific internet use. Predisposing psychosocial factors, such as social isolation, depression and compulsive behavior are reviewed as potential triggers for these new internet- related disorders. The second part however draws upon two already existing groups of psychological disorders: eating disorders in relation to Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia on the one hand and Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) on the other hand. Recent research is discussed to explore the sustaining and intensifying effect of the Internet on these disorders.

  17. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: evidence from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health.

  18. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  19. Do young people with comorbid mental and alcohol disorders experience worse behavioural problems?

    PubMed

    Salom, Caroline L; Betts, Kim S; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jackob M; Scott, James G; Alati, Rosa

    2014-10-30

    This article examines whether young individuals in the general population with comorbid alcohol use and mental health disorders experience worse internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems than those with single disorders. A large cohort of women at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, was enroled during pregnancy in a longitudinal study. Mother/offspring dyads were followed over 21 years. At age 21, offspring behaviour problems were examined using the Young Adult Self Report, alcohol and mental health disorders with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations between comorbidity and behaviour problems were assessed using multinomial logistic regression, accounting for life-course factors. Twelve per cent of young adults had alcohol/mental health DSM-IV disorders with significant temporal overlap. A further 16% had alcohol disorders only and 23% mental health disorders only. The comorbid group scored significantly higher on total and externalizing behaviour problems but not internalizing behaviour problems. Stronger associations of aggression/delinquency with comorbidity were not fully accounted for by factors known to influence separate development of mental health and alcohol disorders. Young adults with comorbid alcohol/mental health disorders experience more, and more severe, behavioural problems than those with single disorder types, indicating an increased burden from comorbidity, with implications for treatment and public order.

  20. [Greek students' attitudes towards mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches

  1. Free will and mental disorder: Exploring the relationship

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions “an important loss of freedom” as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how “an important loss of freedom” should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, I will explore the link between mental disorder and free will. I examine two domains in which a connection between mental disorder and free will is present: the philosophy of free will and forensic psychiatry. As it turns out, philosophers of free will frequently refer to mental disorders as conditions that compromise free will and reduce moral responsibility. In addition, in forensic psychiatry, the rationale for the assessment of criminal responsibility is often explained by referring to the fact that mental disorders can compromise free will. Yet, in both domains, it remains unclear in what way free will is compromised by mental disorders. Based on the philosophical debate, I discuss three senses of free will and explore their relevance to mental disorders. I conclude that in order to further clarify the relationship between free will and mental disorder, the accounts of people who have actually experienced the impact of a mental disorder should be included in future research. PMID:20931360

  2. Common mental disorders in postconflict settings.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Komproe, Ivan H; Van Ommeren, Mark

    2003-06-21

    Research into postconflict psychiatric sequelae in low-income countries has been focused largely on symptoms rather than on full psychiatric diagnostic assessment. We assessed 3048 respondents from postconflict communities in Algeria, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Palestine with the aim of establishing the prevalence of mood disorder, somatoform disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other anxiety disorders. PTSD and other anxiety disorders were the most frequent problems. In three countries, PTSD was the most likely disorder in individuals exposed to violence associated with armed conflict, but such violence was a common risk factor for various disorders and comorbidity combinations in different settings. In three countries, anxiety disorder was reported most in people who had not been exposed to such violence. Experience of violence associated with armed conflict was associated with higher rates of disorder that ranged from a risk ratio of 2.10 (95% CI 1.38-2.85) for anxiety in Algeria to 10.03 (5.26-16.65) for PTSD in Palestine. Postconflict mental health programmes should address a range of common disorders beyond PTSD.

  3. Narrative Structures of Maya Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B; Caal, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Several Indigenous communities around the globe maintain unique conceptions of mental illness and disorder. The Q'eqchi' Maya of southern Belize represent one Indigenous community that has maintained, due to highly "traditional" ways of life and the strong presence of many active localized healers or bush doctors, distinct conceptions of mental disorders as compared to Western psychiatric nosology. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to understand and interpret Q'eqchi' nosological systems of mental disorders involving the factors--spiritual, cultural, social, historical, cosmological, or otherwise--implicated in their articulation and construction. Over a period of 9 months, and with the help of cultural advisors from several Q'eqchi' communities, 94 interviews with five different traditional Q'eqchi' healers were conducted. This paper demonstrates that the mental illnesses recognized by the Q'eqchi' healers involved narrative structures with recognizable variations unfolding over time. What we present in this paper are 17 recognizable illnesses of the mind grouped within one of four broad "narrative genres." Each genre involves a discernible plot structure, casts of characters, themes, motifs, and a recognizable teleology or "directedness." In narrative terms, the healer's diagnostic and therapeutic work can be understood as an ability to discern plot, to understand and interpret a specific case within the board, empirically based structure of Q'eqchi' medical epistemology.

  4. Mental disorders among health workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Jansen, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA) and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS). It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ) was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119), the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138). The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001). In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.

  5. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  6. Update on managing generalized anxiety disorder in older adults.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Kalin M; Duncan, Nakia A; Heinrich, Krista; Shaw, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    With the recent updates to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition; DSM-5), there are many questions on how to care for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and other psychiatric conditions. The current article reviews the new changes to the DSM-5 for diagnosis of GAD, discusses new anxiety assessment scales that are validated in older adults, evaluates pharmacological agents that have been studied in older adults for GAD treatment, and provides monitoring recommendations to help those who provide care to older adults experiencing GAD.

  7. Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Nancy H.; Vasey, Paul L.; Bukowski, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates empirical studies to determine whether Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in children meets DSM-IV definitional criteria of mental illness. Concludes that children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in their culturally prescribed sex role but do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have a…

  8. Major mental disorders in Butajira, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Awas, M; Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Ethiopia lack information on the prevalence of specific mental disorders in rural communities. The lifetime and one-month prevalence of specific ICD-10 mental disorders and their associated socio-demographic factors were determined using the translated Amharic version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a rural population. A total of 501 community subjects selected from a predominantly rural district by stratified random sampling were interviewed by non-clinician interviewers. The weighted aggregate lifetime prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 31.8% (26.7% when substance dependence was not included). The most frequent specific diagnoses were: dissociative disorders (6.3%), mood disorders (6.2%), somatoform disorders (5.9%), and anxiety disorders (5.7%). After adjustment in a multivariate logistic model, female sex was shown to have a statistically significant association with mood disorders (Odds Ratio, OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 1.90, 7.73) and somatoform disorders (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.60). Severe cognitive and mood disorders were significantly associated with being elderly, i.e. 60 or more years of age (OR = 7.71, 95% CI: 1.58, 7.53; and OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.36, 9.95, respectively). Khat dependence was associated with being Muslim and with earning a low income. (OR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.02, 11.98; and OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.96, respectively). It is concluded that psychiatric morbidity is a major public health problem in the rural community.

  9. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ≥ 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  10. Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely consumed psychotropic drugs worldwide. They are largely consumed by normal individuals, but their use is even more frequent in psychiatric patients, Thus, patients with schizophrenia tend to abuse all three substances. The interrelationships between depression and alcohol are complex. These drugs can all create dependence, as understood in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Alcohol abuse is clearly deleterious to the brain, provoking acute and chronic mental disorders, ranging from intoxication with impairment of cognition, to delirium tremens, halluosis, and dementia. In contrast, the main health consequences of nicotine, notably cancer and cardiovascular disases, lie outside the realm of psychiatry However, the mes of nicotine dependence and motivation to smoke or quit are of concern to psychiatrists. PMID:22033899

  11. Mental capacity and borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ayre, Karyn; Owen, Gareth S.; Moran, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The use of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in assessing decision-making capacity in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is inconsistent. We believe this may stem from persisting confusion regarding the nosological status of personality disorder and also a failure to recognise the fact that emotional dysregulation and characteristic psychodynamic abnormalities may cause substantial difficulties in using and weighing information. Clearer consensus on these issues is required in order to provide consistent patient care and reduce uncertainty for clinicians in what are often emergency and high-stakes clinical scenarios. PMID:28184315

  12. Epilepsy, Mental Health Disorder, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Beletsky, Vadim; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a subset of the seizure disorder family, represents a complex neuropsychiatric illness, where the neurological presentation may be complemented by varying severity of affective, behavioral, psychotic, or personality abnormalities, which, in turn, may not only lead to misdiagnosis, but also affect the management. This paper outlines a spectrum of mental health presentations, including psychosis, mood, anxiety, panic, and dissociative states, associated with epilepsy that make the correct diagnosis a challenge. PMID:22934158

  13. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  14. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  15. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  16. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  17. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  18. Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Seedat, Soraya; Scott, Kate Margaret; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Berglund, Patricia; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Williams, David; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Context Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety-mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The “gender roles” hypothesis suggests that these differences should narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal. Objective To study time-space (i.e., cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative and determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality (GRT) as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control. Design/Setting and Participants Face-to face household surveys of 72,933 community-dwelling adults in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Main Outcomes The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in Female:Male (F:M) odds-ratios (ORs) of these disorders across cohorts defined by age ranges 18–34, 35–49, 50–64, and 65+. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in GRT on these ORs. Results Women had more anxiety-mood disorders than men and men more externalizing-substance disorders than women in all cohorts and countries. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (MDD) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in GRT. Conclusion While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied, substantial inter-cohort narrowing of

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in a School-Survey Sample

    PubMed Central

    Faravelli, Carlo; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Castellini, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Pallanti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most of the adult mental disorders have their origins early in life. As the epidemiology of childhood psychiatric disorder in Italy has not been extensively investigated, we have evaluated the prevalence of mental disorders and their association with socio-familiar variables in a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11. Method: The study was conducted on a school- sample of 1028 children, aged 6 to 11, attending 12 primary schools in Florence (Italy). The diagnoses were made according to DSM IV diagnostic criteria, integrated by the description of each symptom, using specially trained teachers as lay-interviewers. Odds ratios with 95% C.I. chi squares and a stepwise binary logistic analysis have been performed. Results: Nine hundred ninety nine children (506 males; 493 females) were studied. Of them, 10.5% received a psychiatric diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in males (66.7% vs.33.3, p<0.01). The most prevalent groups of mental disorders were the behavioural/impulse control (7.2%) and anxiety (6.4%) disorders. Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder was the most represented diagnosis (5.6% of the children). All the other mental disorders were relatively rare, with only separation anxiety and overanxious disorder exceeding 1% prevalence. Male gender, organic disease, having mother divorced, not present or dead, attending school full-time, cohabitation in the family were associated with an increased risk for any childhood mental disorder. Conclusions: About one in ten children aged 6-11 suffers from a mental disorder. Male gender, loss of mother and lower socio-economic status are associated with mental disorders in children. Further long-term prospective studies are needed, in order to clarify the epidemiological and psychopathological relationships between childhood and adult mental disorders. PMID:20498695

  20. Annual Research Review: Hoarding Disorder-- Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of a New Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…

  1. Mental Health Disorders Associated with Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Declan J; Robertson, Lucy J

    2016-11-01

    Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded. Despite this, it is generally accepted that there are several psychiatric disorders of unknown etiology that may be associated with microbial pathogens. Depression, autism, hypochondriasis and anxiety, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome probably have multiple contributing causes, among which foodborne pathogens may play a decisive or contributory role, possibly sharing pathophysiological pathways with other environmental triggers. This review focuses on foodborne parasites and bacterial pathogens. Some foodborne parasites, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium and tissue cysts (bradyzoites) of Toxoplasma gondii , may affect mental health by directly infecting the brain. In contrast, bacterial infections and other parasitic infections may contribute to mental illness via the immune system and/or by influencing neurotransmission pathways. Thus, cytokines, for example, have been associated with depression and schizophrenia. However, infectious disease models for psychiatry require a more complete understanding of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and microbial triggers. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the role of foodborne parasitic and bacterial pathogens in mental illness and identifies some of the gaps that should be addressed to improve diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues that are

  2. Kant on mental disorder. Part 1: an overview.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This paper sets out Kant's anthropological account of mental disorder. I begin with a discussion of the nature of Kant's 'pragmatic anthropology' and the implications of the fact that his discussion of mental disorder takes place in that context. I then set out Kant's taxonomy of the mind and discuss the various disorders affecting the cognitive faculty and the faculties of feeling and desire. I end with a brief discussion of Kant's views on the causes, preventions, and treatments of mental disorder.

  3. Mental, Emotional and Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…

  4. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults.

  5. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Asian Americans: Nativity, Gender, and Sociodemographic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seunghye; Walton, Emily; Tamaki, Emi; Sabin, Janice A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines lifetime prevalence estimates of mental disorders among Asian Americans with a focus on differences by nativity, gender, and other relevant sociodemographic correlates. We analyze cross-sectional data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans which used a probability sample of household resident adults in the United States (N=2,095). US-born Asian Americans are more likely to experience lifetime mood disorders, substance use disorders, and any mental disorders compared to immigrants. Lifetime substance use disorders are more likely to occur among men rather than women. Nativity and gender show joint associations with different mental disorders: US-born women are at the greatest risk for any mood disorders; US-born men are at the greatest risk for any substance use disorders; and immigrant women are at the lowest risk for substance use disorders compared to all other groups. Analysis of the sociodemographic correlates reveals that the youngest immigrant women showed significantly higher rates of any mood disorder compared to other immigrant women. Additionally, among immigrant men, those with low household income are at a higher risk for mood disorders, and those who report fair/poor English proficiency have a higher prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides documentation of prevalence differences in detailed mental health categories along salient axes of stratification among Asian Americans and provides a foundation for future research aimed at understanding the causes and correlates of mental health disparities. PMID:25621123

  6. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  7. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  8. Adult reversal of cognitive phenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alcino J; Ehninger, Dan

    2009-06-01

    Recent findings in mice suggest that it is possible to reverse certain neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. Changes in development, previously thought to be irreparable in adults, were believed to underlie the neurological and psychiatric phenotypes of a range of common mental health problems with a clear developmental component. As a consequence, most researchers have focused their efforts on understanding the molecular and cellular processes that alter development with the hope that early intervention could prevent the emergent pathology. Unexpectedly, several different animal model studies published recently, including animal models of autism, suggest that it may be possible to reverse neurodevelopmental disorders in adults: Addressing the underlying molecular and cellular deficits in adults could in several cases dramatically improve the neurocognitive phenotypes in these animal models. The findings reviewed here provide hope to millions of individuals afflicted with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, since they suggest that it may be possible to treat or even cure them in adults.

  9. [Severe mental disorders: cure? What an idea!

    PubMed

    Vignat, Jean-Pierre

    The evolution of mental disorders, notably the most severe forms such as schizophrenia, is a constant concern in terms of the necessary assessment of treatments and their efficiency, and to the human and economic cost of the 'chronicity' of the disorders. Many patients experience a positive evolution, evaluated in terms of subjective quality of life. However, the concept of recovery does not seem appropriate. The field of representations which the patient and the caregiver form with regard to the disease and its curability is an important element. The co-construction of the patient's future, in an approach centred on the patient, on their freedom and their autonomy, opens up the way towards recovery.

  10. Screening and Evaluation Tools for Sleep Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Choi, JiYeon; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Imes, Christopher C.; Johansson, Ann E. E.; Chasens, Eileen R.

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects of impaired sleep on physical and mental well-being in older adults have recently been recognized by health care professionals. However, researchers and clinicians may be unaware of reliable and valid screening and evaluation tools for evaluating sleep disorders in older adults. The purpose of this article is to present subjective and objective instruments that measure sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia and restless leg syndrome that are appropriate for use in adult and older adult patients. PMID:26608435

  11. Gender, Traumatic Events, and Mental Health Disorders in a Rural Asian Setting*

    PubMed Central

    Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Williams, Nathalie E.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows a strong association between traumatic life experience and mental health and important gender differences in that relationship in the Western European Diaspora, but much less is known about these relationships in other settings. We investigate these relationships in a poor rural Asian setting that recently experienced a decade-long armed conflict. We use data from 400 adult interviews in rural Nepal. The measures come from World Mental Health survey instruments clinically validated for this study population to measure Depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED). Our results demonstrate that traumatic life experience significantly increases the likelihood of mental health disorders in this setting and that these traumatic experiences have a larger effect on the mental health of women than men. These findings offer important clues regarding the potential mechanisms producing gender differences in mental health in many settings. PMID:24311755

  12. Differences in predictors of permanent work disability between immigrants and natives: a cohort study of adults with sick leave due to common mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Werlen, Laura; Helgesson, Magnus; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Immigrants with common mental disorders (CMDs) are reported to have a higher risk of disability pension (DP) compared with native residents; however, the reasons for this are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate (1) differences in morbidity (3 measures) and socioeconomic status in native Swedes, ‘Western’ and ‘non-Western’ immigrants with CMDs and (2) interactions between morbidity and socioeconomic status and immigrant status regarding subsequent DP. Design The study was a prospective population-based cohort study using national register data. Crude and multivariate HRs with 95% CIs were calculated using the Cox regression (2007–2010). Participants All individuals aged 18–59 with an incident sick-leave spell due to CMDs during 2006 were included in the study (N=66 097). The study population was divided into 3 groups based on country of birth: (1) Sweden, (2) immigrants from ‘Western’ countries (EU25, Norway, Iceland, North America and Oceania) and (3) immigrants from ‘non-Western’ countries (east Europe, Africa, Asia and South America). Results Particularly, immigrants born in non-Western countries had higher levels of morbidity and lower socioeconomic status than natives (p>0.001). No significant differences in the associations between specialised psychiatric and somatic care with regard to subsequent DP were found between immigrants and native Swedes. Being prescribed more than 1 type of psychiatric medication was associated with higher HRs for DP in immigrants from Western (HR 3.34; CI 2.3 to 4.9) and non-Western countries (3.6; 1.9 to 6.4) than in native Swedes (2.55; 2.3 to 2.8) (pinteraction=0.003). Low education was a marginally stronger predictor for DP in non-Western immigrants than in native Swedes and Western immigrants (pinteraction=0.03). Conclusions Morbidity measured by medication, but not by specialised healthcare, was a stronger predictor for DP in immigrants than in native Swedes, warranting

  13. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (< 6 cups/day) has been associated with less depressive symptoms, fewer cognitive failures, and lower risk of suicide. However, its putative therapeutic effects on depression and ADHD have been insufficiently studied. Conversely, in rare cases high doses of caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  14. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and diabetes mellitus: a role for impulse control disorders and depression

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jordi; Stein, Dan J.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fukao, Akira; Bunting, Brendan; Haro, Josep Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Hu, Chiyi; Sasu, Carmen; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis No studies have evaluated whether the frequently observed associations between depression and diabetes could reflect the presence of comorbid psychiatric conditions and their associations with diabetes. We therefore examined the associations between a wide range of pre-existing Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Methods We performed a series of cross-sectional face-to-face household surveys of community-dwelling adults (n=52,095) in 19 countries. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Diabetes was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis together with its timing. We analysed the associations between all mental disorders and diabetes, without and with comorbidity adjustment. Results We identified 2,580 cases of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (21 years +). Although all 16 DSM-IV disorders were associated with diabetes diagnosis in bivariate models, only depression (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1, 1.5), intermittent explosive disorder (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), binge eating disorder (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7, 4.0) and bulimia nervosa (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3, 3.4) remained after comorbidity adjustment. Conclusions/interpretation Depression and impulse control disorders (eating disorders in particular) were significantly associated with diabetes diagnosis after comorbidity adjustment. These findings support the focus on depression as having a role in diabetes onset, but suggest that this focus may be extended towards impulse control disorders. Acknowledging the comorbidity of mental disorders is important in determining the associations between mental disorders and subsequent diabetes. PMID:24488082

  15. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936

  16. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  17. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05) and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001). Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05), simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001) and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05) were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05) and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001) were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  18. Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.

  19. Comorbidity in "DSM" Childhood Mental Disorders: A Functional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I address the issue of comorbidity and its prevalence in the prior "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") classification systems. The focus on the topography or form of presenting problems as the venue for determining mental disorders is scrutinized as the possible cause. Addressing the…

  20. Eating Disorders: National Institute of Mental Health's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Mark; Insel, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of…

  1. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent non-fatal, self-reported stroke

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Nicola R.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Levinson, Daphna; Fiestas, Fabian; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Posada-Villa, Jose; Haro, Josep Maria; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Xavier, Miguel; Iwata, Noboru; de Jonge, Peter; Bruffaerts, Ronny; O’Neill, Siobhan; Kessler, Ron C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations between a wide range of mental disorders and subsequent onset of stroke. Lifecourse timing of stroke was examined using retrospectively reconstructed data from cross-sectional surveys. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys were accessed. This data was collected from general population surveys over 17 countries of 87,250 adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV mental disorders. A weighted subsample (n = 45,288), was used for analysis in the present study. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent stroke onset. Results Bivariate models showed that 12/16 mental disorders were associated with subsequent stroke onset (ORs ranging from 1.6 to 3.8). However, after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity and smoking, only significant relationships between depression and stroke (OR 1.3) and alcohol abuse and stroke (OR 1.5) remained. Among females, having a bipolar disorder was also associated with increased stroke incidence (OR 2.1). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with stroke onset in a dose–response fashion (OR 3.3 for 5+ disorders). Conclusions Depression and alcohol abuse may have specific associations with incidence of non-fatal stroke. General severity of psychopathology may be a more important predictor of non-fatal stroke onset. Mental health treatment should be considered as part of stroke risk prevention. Limitations of retrospectively gathered cross sectional surveys design mean further research on the links between mental health and stroke incidence is warranted. PMID:26094010

  2. Anger and Paranoia in Mentally Disordered Offenders.

    PubMed

    Darch, Kayleigh; Ellett, Lyn; Fox, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have identified a positive relationship between aggression and paranoia, yet the relationship between the emotion of anger and paranoia in forensic populations has not been examined. Possible confounding variables, such as social desirability and mood, should also be considered. Sixty-six participants who had a violent conviction and mental disorder completed self-report questionnaires that measured anger, paranoid ideation, socially desirable responding, anxiety, and depression. The findings indicated that increased anger was associated with increased paranoia. Partial correlations showed that anger remained significantly associated with paranoia after socially desirable responding, anxiety, depression, gender, and violence history were controlled, suggesting anger and paranoia were not associated due to indirect relationships with these constructs. This could suggest that integrative psychological interventions that consider experiences of both anger and paranoia may be beneficial with forensic populations.

  3. Human rights, bioethics, and mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Phil

    2008-03-01

    This article considers the international human rights instruments which set minimum standards for the content and use of mental health legislation, and the extent to which they represent 'hard law' (binding and enforceable in domestic or international courts) or 'soft law' which is not strictly binding in the same sense but which may provide persuasive authority or may be used in debate to embarrass a Government into compliance. The article considers the extent to which these various instruments impose both 'negative obligations' on states not to interfere with rights such as physical integrity or protection against arbitrary detention and 'positive' obligations on states to take positive steps to uphold the rights of individuals. The article on the case law under the European Convention on Human Rights showing how 'soft law' sources are increasingly used by the Strasbourg Court as aids to construing the scope of Convention rights. The article concludes by suggesting that whilst mentally disordered people may be afforded different treatment in relation to general bioethics instruments on the international plane, they are also entitled to rights under Disability Conventions which enjoin states to take positive steps to promote equal treatment, social inclusion and protection against discrimination and stigma.

  4. Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Jordan; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country's fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world. Sugar and sweetener supply quantity was significantly and positively associated with anxiety disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), mood disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), impulse control disorders (rho=0.78, p=0.001), and substance use disorders (rho=0.68, p=0.007). Fish and seafood supply quantity had no significant association with any mental health disorders. Mental health disorders represent a significant health problem around the world. Public health measures aimed at improving the quality and availability of a nation's food supply could have a significant positive impact on mental health. Further randomized studies are needed to further validate the study findings.

  5. Prevention of mental and behavioural disorders: implications for policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    SAXENA, SHEKHAR; JANÉ-LLOPIS, EVA; HOSMAN, CLEMENS

    2006-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity have proven to reduce mental health problems. Specific interventions to increase resilience in children and adolescents through parenting and early interventions, and programmes for children at risk for mental disorders such as those who have a mentally ill parent or have suffered parental loss or family disruption, have also shown to increase mental well-being and decrease depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive disorders. Interventions for the adult population, from macro-policy strategies, such as taxation of alcohol products or workplace legislation, to individual support for those with signs of a mental disorder, can reduce mental health problems and associated social and economic burdens. Exercise, social support or community participation have also shown to improve mental health of older populations. Public mental health will benefit from continuing building the evidence base through combining different evaluation methods across low, middle and high income countries. The translation of evidence into policy and practice calls for action at the international, national and local level, including building capacity, advocacy, mainstreaming mental health into public health and other policies and securing infrastructures and sustainability. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in improving the evidence on prevention and promotion in mental health, in engaging relevant stakeholders for developing programmes, and as professional care providers in their practice. PMID:16757984

  6. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  7. Mental disorders and thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability for suicide.

    PubMed

    Silva, Caroline; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2015-03-30

    Nearly all mental disorders increase suicide risk; however, some better predict ideation versus attempts. The interpersonal theory of suicide provides a framework to understand these relationships, via the constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability. The current study examined the relationships between various mental disorders and theory constructs among 997 adult outpatients, controlling for sex and age. Disorders generally symptomatically associated with social withdrawal or potential liability to others (i.e., depressive and bipolar disorders, social phobia, borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, certain drug dependence) were uniquely positively associated with thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Disorders associated with potential exposure to painful and provocative events (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, certain drug use) were associated with increased acquired capability. Notably, alcohol use disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes, and panic/agoraphobia were negatively associated with thwarted belongingness or perceived burdensomeness; avoidant personality disorder, and certain anxiety disorders and drug use disorders, were associated with decreased acquired capability. Importantly, disorders associated with both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness may place individuals at greatest risk for suicide if acquired capability develops. Implications for comorbidity and suicide risk assessment and treatment are discussed.

  8. Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram; Kleinman, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    A review of English-language journals published since 1990 and three global mental health reports identified 11 community studies on the association between poverty and common mental disorders in six low- and middle-income countries. Most studies showed an association between indicators of poverty and the risk of mental disorders, the most consistent association being with low levels of education. A review of articles exploring the mechanism of the relationship suggested weak evidence to support a specific association with income levels. Factors such as the experience of insecurity and hopelessness, rapid social change and the risks of violence and physical ill-health may explain the greater vulnerability of the poor to common mental disorders. The direct and indirect costs of mental ill-health worsen the economic condition, setting up a vicious cycle of poverty and mental disorder. Common mental disorders need to be placed alongside other diseases associated with poverty by policy-makers and donors. Programmes such as investment in education and provision of microcredit may have unanticipated benefits in reducing the risk of mental disorders. Secondary prevention must focus on strengthening the ability of primary care services to provide effective treatment. PMID:14576893

  9. Diagnosed Prevalence and Health Care Expenditures of Mental Health Disorders among Dual Eligible Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Terry Y.; Parashuram, Shriram; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Wysocki, Andrea; Shippee, Nathan D.; Homyak, Patricia; Kane, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about mental health disorders (MHDs) and their associated health care expenditures for the dual eligible elders across long-term care (LTC) settings. We estimated the 12-month diagnosed prevalence of MHDs among dual eligible older adults in LTC and non-LTC settings and calculated the average incremental effect of MHDs on…

  10. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youths: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…

  11. Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1) will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2). In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3). I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved. PMID:21255405

  12. Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach.

    PubMed

    Varga, Somogy

    2011-01-21

    Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1) will be followed an investigation of the 'hybrid naturalism' approach to natural functions by Jerome Wakefield (2). In the third part, I will explore two proposals that call into question the whole attempt to define mental disorder (3). I will conclude that while 'natural function objectivism' accounts fail to provide the backdrop for a reliable definition of mental disorder, there is no compelling reason to conclude that a definition cannot be achieved.

  13. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  14. Acute Psychiatric Hospital Admissions of Adults and Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the records of 240 inpatients with mental retardation and 7 with autism discharged from a university hospital indicated that elderly adults had more medical problems than did adults, more elderly adults were transferred to a state hospital, and the most common diagnosis in both adults and elderly adults was chronic schizophrenia,…

  15. The role of common mental and physical disorders in days out of role in the Iraqi general population: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Rosellini, Anthony J; Lindberg, Marrena; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to support mental health policy planning efforts in conjunction with the reconstruction of Iraq, a nationally representative face-to-face household survey was carried out that assessed the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders in the Iraqi population. A total of 4332 adult (ages 18+) respondents were interviewed (95.2% response rate). The current report presents data on the role impairments (number of days out-of-role in the past 30 days) associated with the nine mental disorders assessed in the survey in comparison to the impairments associated with ten chronic physical disorders also assessed in the survey. These disorders were all assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Days out-of-role were assessed with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Both individual-level and societal-level effects of the disorders were estimated. Strongest individual-level predictors were bipolar and drug abuse disorders (176-195 days per year), with mental disorders making up five of the seven strongest predictors. The strongest population-level predictors were headache/migraine and arthritis (22-12% population proportions). Overall population proportions were 57% of days out-of-role due to the chronic physical disorders considered here and 18% for the mental disorders. Despite commonly-occurring mental disorders accounting for more individual-level days out-of-role than the physical disorders, mental disorders are much less likely to receive treatment in Iraq (e.g., due to stigma). These results highlight the need for culturally tailored mental health prevention and treatment programs in Iraq.

  16. Staff perspectives on two rare mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Samantha; Lowe, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS)/pervasive arousal withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) and conversion disorder (CD) are two rare mental health disorders that commonly affect children and young people. In the most extreme cases of PRS/PAWS, young people may be unable to perform activities of daily living and rely on adults for physical and emotional support. CD can present as loss of sensation in vision and touch, pain in certain areas and an inability to walk. It is important that children's nurses are aware of these disorders and have some insight into the most helpful approaches. Young people need to feel that their experiences are validated, which can elicit feelings in staff from an urge to help to intense frustration. It is essential for staff to be able to talk and reflect to allow such feelings to be understood. Although these are rare conditions, this article outlines what to do if young people present with features of PRS/PAWS or CD in a general healthcare setting.

  17. The definition of mental disorder: evolving but dysfunctional?

    PubMed

    Bingham, Rachel; Banner, Natalie

    2014-08-01

    Extensive and diverse conceptual work towards developing a definition of 'mental disorder' was motivated by the declassification of homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973. This highly politicised event was understood as a call for psychiatry to provide assurances against further misclassification on the basis of discrimination or socio-political deviance. Today, if a definition of mental disorder fails to exclude homosexuality, then it fails to provide this safeguard against potential abuses and therefore fails to do an important part of the work it was intended to do. We argue that fact-based definitions of mental disorder, relying on scientific theory, fail to offer a robust definition of mental disorder that excludes homosexuality. Definitions of mental disorder based on values do not fare better: these definitions are silent on questions about the diagnostic status of individuals in oppressive societies and over-inclusive of mental or behavioural states that happen to be negatively valued in the individual's social context. We consider the latest definition proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) in light of these observations. We argue that definition fails to improve on these earlier deficiencies. Its inclusion in the manual may offer false reassurance against repetition of past misclassifications. We conclude with a provocation that if candidate definitions of mental disorder are unable to exclude homosexuality, it might perhaps be preferable not to attempt a definition at all.

  18. Associations between subjective social status and DSM-IV mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H.; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R.; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures such as education, income and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture perception of relative social status, but to date there are no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. Objective To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Design; Setting; Participants Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, the Middle East (n= 56,085). SSS was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, education and occupation. Scores on the 1–10 SSS scale were categorised into four categories: low (scores 1–3); low-mid (scores 4 and 5); high-mid (scores 6 and 7); high (scores 8–10). OSS was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, education and occupation. Main Outcome Measures The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety and impulse control disorders. Results Graded, inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds-ratios (lowest versus highest SSS categories) in the range 1.8–9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (ORs: 1.4–4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. The pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14/18 individual countries, and in low, middle and high income country groups, but was significantly stronger in higher versus lower income countries

  19. Validity and reliability of the Family Empowerment Scale for caregivers of adults with mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, M; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, S; Yokoyama, K

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Empowerment of family caregivers of adults with mental health issues has received increasing attention among mental health nurses in Japan and has been recognized as a new goal of family interventions. The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was originally developed to measure the empowerment status of parents of children with emotional disorders. However, it was later applied to broader health issues. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a Japanese version of the FES for family caregivers of adults with mental health issues (FES-AMJ) and examined the validity and reliability among parents. Results showed that the FES-AMJ had acceptable concurrent validity and reliability; however, insufficient construct validity was found, especially for the subscale regarding the service system. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Further studies need to modify the scale. Clarification of ideal family empowerment status in the service system through discussion with mental health nurses and family caregivers may be important.

  20. Prevalence of Mental Health Illness Among Patients with Adult-onset Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Basil; Hodge, David O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children diagnosed with some forms of strabismus were recently found to have an increased risk of developing mental illness by early adulthood. The purpose of this case-controlled study was to determine if adults with non-paralytic forms of strabismus are similarly at an elevated risk for developing mental illness. Methods The medical records of all patients diagnosed as adults (≥ 19 years of age) with convergence insufficiency (CI, n=118), divergence insufficiency (DI, n=80), and small angle hypertropia (HT, n=99) from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2004, were retrospectively reviewed. Each case was compared with a sex- and birthdate-matched non-strabismic control. The medical records were reviewed for mental health diagnoses, including inpatient and outpatient encounters, psychiatric ER visits, and medication use. Results Mental health disorders were diagnosed in 65 (55.1%) patients with CI compared to 54 (45.8%) controls (p=0.15), in 51 (63.8%) patients with DI compared to 42 (52.5%) controls (p=0.15), and in 63 (63.6%) patients with HT compared to 57 (57.6%) controls (p=0.38). CI patients were not more likely to have mental health disorders than their controls (p=0.15). Mental health hospitalizations (p=0.02), psychiatric medication use (p=0.04), and unspecified anxiety disorders (p=0.03) were higher in DI patients compared to controls. HT patients were found to have more generalized anxiety disorders (p=0.003) than controls. Conclusions Adults with some forms of strabismus (DI and HT) appear to have an increased risk of mental illness and its comorbidities, compared to age- and gender-matched non-strabismic controls. PMID:26559866

  1. Effects on Learning of Relaxation Training with Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranti, S. V.; Freedman, P. E.

    Research has documented that individuals with mental retardation can learn and benefit from relaxation training. To investigate the effects of anxiety reduction through relaxation training on the performance of a complex learning task, 15 mentally retarded adult males were studied. Following performance on an anxiety measure, subjects were…

  2. Are Adult Mentalizing Abilities Associated with Mind-Mindedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Ana Luísa; Pasco Fearon, R. M.; Osório, Ana; Meins, Elizabeth; Martins, Carla

    2016-01-01

    The precise nature of the relation between adult mentalizing abilities and parental representations of the child as a mental agent (mind-mindedness) is under current debate. While some authors state that it is the same competence expressed in different contexts, others assert that they are different constructs. This study examined the relation…

  3. Mentalizing functions provide a conceptual link of brain function and social cognition in major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Knut

    2014-01-01

    The review presents a research perspective that defines mentalizing functions as a very promising topic to bridge psychopathology and neurobiological foundations of mental disorders. However, the high diversity of existing observations in mentalizing research calls for a structured assessment of functional mentalizing subdomains. A notable problem is the overlap of functional systems involved in mentalizing and emotion processing. A proposed solution is to conceptualize mentalizing functions due to their content (visuospatial vs. emotional) perspective and substrates (cognitive or explicit signals). This conceptual organization is mirrored in functional imaging experiments dissociating anteromedial and posterolateral brain regions, especially the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex in mentalizing emotions and the temporoparietal cortex in visuospatial perspective taking. The present state and perspectives of mentalizing research are demonstrated in two major fields of mental disorders, depression and schizophrenia. In depression the existent contradictory findings demand a control of cognitive impairments, which are frequently associated with depressive disorders. In schizophrenia there is already consistent evidence that defines mentalizing functions as promising endophenotype, which can possibly link psychopathology to its neurobiological foundations.

  4. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Bech, Per; Beckers, Tom; Berger, Thomas; Berking, Matthias; Berrocal, Carmen; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Chouinard, Guy; Colom, Francesc; Csillag, Claudio; Cujipers, Pim; David, Daniel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Essau, Cecilia A; Fava, Giovanni A; Goschke, Thomas; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Lutz, Wolfgang; Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Tossani, Eliana; van der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram; Haro, Josep M; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional "personalized medicine" that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders.

  5. Mental disorders among college students in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Alonso, Jordi; Axinn, William G.; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David D.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.; Liu, Howard; Mortier, Philippe; Nock, Matthew K.; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie; Sampson, Nancy A.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H.; Benjet, Corina; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Elie G.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; McGrath, John J.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Scott, Kate; ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Zarkov, Zahari; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Background Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. Methods The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1,572) and nonstudents in the same age range (18–22; n = 4,178), including nonstudents who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (4 low/lower-middle income, 5 upper middle-income, 1 lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioural and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders. 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning. PMID:27484622

  6. Seasonality of hospital admissions for mental disorders in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown a relationship between seasonality in weather patterns and depressive and behavioural disorders, especially in temperate climate regions. However, there is a lack of studies describing the seasonal patterns of hospital admissions for a variety of mental disorders in tropical and subtropical nations. The aim of this study has been to examine the relationship between seasons and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders in Hanoi, Vietnam. Designs A 5-year database (2008–2012) compiled by Hanoi Mental Hospital covering mental disorder admissions diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases 10 was analysed. A negative binominal regression model was applied to estimate the associations between seasonality and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders, for all causes and for specific diagnoses. Results The summer season indicated the highest relative risk (RR=1.24, confidence interval (CI)=1.1–1.39) of hospital admission for mental disorders, with a peak in these cases in June (RR=1.46, CI=1.19–1.7). Compared to other demographic groups, males and the elderly (aged over 60 years) were more sensitive to seasonal risk changes. In the summer season, the RR of hospital visits among men increased by 26% (RR=1.26, CI=1.12–1.41) and among the elderly by 23% (RR=1.23, CI=1.03–1.48). Furthermore, when temperatures including minimum, mean, and maximum increased 1°C, the number of cases for mental disorders increased by 1.7%, 2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The study results showed a correlation between hospital admission for mental disorders and season. PMID:27566716

  7. [Mental disorders in adolescence: current trends in therapy].

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ulrike; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the high prevalence for behavioural problems and mental disorders in adolescence and its persistence into adulthood it is tested whether and based upon which emphasis this topic is considered in the recent discussion on psychotherapy. Therefore, a bibliometric analysis is given that summarizes the issue in the 2011 and 2012 volumes of representative German child and adolescent psychological and psychiatric journals. The focus lies on conduct disorder, depression, deliberate self-harm, dissociative disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder.

  8. Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5), even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2). CONCLUSIONS Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders PMID:24789634

  9. Managed Mental Health Care: Intentional Misdiagnosis of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sharon A.; Cox, Jane A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mental health counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…

  10. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities.

  11. Heatwaves and Hospital Admissions for Mental Disorders in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Phan Minh; Rocklöv, Joacim; Giang, Kim Bao; Kullgren, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Studies in high-income countries have shown an association between heatwaves and hospital admissions for mental disorders. It is unknown whether such associations exist in subtropical nations like Vietnam. The study aim was to investigate whether hospital admissions for mental disorders may be triggered, or exacerbated, by heat exposure and heatwaves, in a low- and middle-income country, Vietnam. For this, we used data from the Hanoi Mental Hospital over five years (2008–2012) to estimate the effect of heatwaves on admissions for mental disorders. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression model accounting for seasonality, time trend, days of week, and mean humidity was used to analyse the relationship. Heatwave events were mainly studied as periods of three or seven consecutive days above the threshold of 35°C daily maximum temperature (90th percentile). The study result showed heatwaves increased the risk for admission in the whole group of mental disorders (F00-79) for more persistent heatwaves of at least 3 days when compared with non-heatwave periods. The relative risks were estimated at 1.04 (0.95–1.13), 1.15 (1.005–1.31), and 1.36 (1–1.90) for a one-, three- and seven-day heatwave, respectively. Admissions for mental disorders increased among men, residents in rural communities, and the elderly population during heatwaves. The groups of organic mental disorders, including symptomatic illnesses (F0-9) and mental retardation (F70-79), had increased admissions during heatwaves. The findings are novel in their focus on heatwave impact on mental diseases in a population habituating in a subtropical low- and middle-income country characterized by rapid epidemiological transitions and environmental changes. PMID:27195473

  12. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  13. Interconnected or disconnected? Promotion of mental health and prevention of mental disorder in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Joseph F; Maughan, Daniel L; Grant-Peterkin, Hugh

    2016-03-01

    To date there have been few peer-reviewed studies on the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of digital technologies for mental health promotion and disorder prevention. Any evaluation of these evolving technologies is complicated by a lack of understanding about the specific risks and possible benefits of the many forms of internet use on mental health. To adequately meet the mental health needs of today's society, psychiatry must engage in rigorous assessment of the impact of digital technologies.

  14. The Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on the Mental Health of Young Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects on young adults (23 years) of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence using data from Britain's longitudinal National Child Development study. Found that divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on young adults' mental health; the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Israeli Adolescents: Results from a National Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…

  16. The association between family history of mental disorder and delusional-like experiences: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Daniel; Saha, Sukanta; Scott, James D; Chan, Raymond C K; McGrath, John J

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that isolated delusional-like experiences (DLE) are common in the general population. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that these experiences are more common in those with a family history of mental disorders. We had the opportunity to explore the association between family history of a wide range of mental disorders and DLE in an Australian general population survey. The Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007 examined 8,841 adult community residents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate various DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses and to assess DLE. The participants were asked to report mental disorders in their first-degree relatives. The influence of family history of mental disorders on DLE endorsement was assessed with logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, and the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in the respondents. A family history of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or alcohol or illicit drug abuse/dependence was each significantly associated with endorsement of DLE, and these associations remained significant when we adjusted for the presence of mental illness in the respondents. When we examined a more restrictive definition of DLE, only a family history of depression and schizophrenia remained significantly associated with DLE. DLE are associated with a family history of a wide range of mental disorders. These findings suggest that familial factors associated with DLE may be shared with a wide range of common mental disorders.

  17. The Mental Health of Individuals Referred for Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adulthood: A Clinic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ailsa J.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Wilson, Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Brown, Cordelia; Robertson, Dene M.; Craig, Michael C.; Deeley, Quinton; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Kate; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Spain, Deborah; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of autism spectrum disorders has increased the demand for diagnostic services in adulthood. High rates of mental health problems have been reported in young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, sampling and methodological issues mean prevalence estimates and conclusions about specificity in psychiatric…

  18. Public mental health care utilization by older adults.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Bradley E; Norris, Margaret P

    2006-11-01

    The present study examined the extent to which older adults began public mental health treatment throughout Texas in 1999, the types of services they used, and how they compared on demographic and clinical variables to younger consumers. Notwithstanding recent policy and related developments, older adults were found to use public mental health services at substantially low rates, as in past decades. Significantly, older consumers tended to be relatively healthy and independent. Among younger and, even more so, older consumers, there were relatively high proportions of rural residents and minorities, groups previously found to be unlikely to utilize private mental health services. Overall, the findings urge that greater attention be devoted to public mental health outreach and service delivery with the elderly, and raise the question of what role the public mental health system should have in nursing homes and other long-term care settings.

  19. [The role of epidemiology in mental disorder research].

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Moreno, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders, including substance abuse, are part of the Mexican epidemiologic scenario and will remain so during several decades. They may even become more prominent as causes of disease, disability, and death in our country. It is thus imperative to frame appropriate management strategies to curb these problems without delay. This paper aims at outlining epidemiology of mental diseases as a field of study, and to identify its limitations. Emphasis is made on common elements shared with other more traditional fields of epidemiology, as well as on the specific contributions made by this particular field to epidemiology and to psychiatry in general. This paper describes the main study designs and problems in this field of epidemiology, its usefulness in prevention actions, and future challenges. A unique characteristic of mental disorder epidemiology is that its target diseases manifest in two levels: behaviorally (for example, compulsive hand-washing) and as an element of the individual's mental life (e.g., obsession with bacteria being a constant, omnipresent health threat). It follows that much of the knowledge currently available on the phenomena of mental disorders in general is based on the self-reported insight of individuals. Trained clinicians have collected such reports by interview or with standardized questionnaires. This field of epidemiology is characterized by having two-sides: a mental disorder is a problem in and of itself, causing suffering and prompting the search for specialized care, as it has peculiar clinical manifestations. On the other hand, mental disorder epidemiology also focuses on determining factors (drug use, abuse, or addiction) and on the way these independent variables result in certain processes and outcomes (such as accidents, homicide, suicide, liver cirrhosis, etc.). Finally, the epidemiology of mental disorders has also been set apart by its focus in series of processes that are not suitably classified as syndromes, but

  20. Psychiatric disorders in adults with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, C.S.; Levitas, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a multiple anomaly/mental retardation syndrome currently mapped to 16p13.3 and characterized by microephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, curved nose, elongated nasal columelia and broad thumbs and great toes, often with medial or lateral angulation. Although there are reports of attentional problems and impulsivity among children with RTS there have been no studies to date of behavioral characteristics of the syndrome. Since 1988 we have identified 7 adults with classic RTS and psychiatric disorders among 1500 mentally retarded individuals ascertained primarily for behavioral and psychiatric problems; these patients all had microcephaly, characteristic facies and broad halluces, frequently with angulation. An additional 6 adults with psychiatric disorders had some features suggesting RTS but not classic for the disorder; these patients had microcephaly, characteristic nasal configuration and somewhat broad thumbs but lacked hypertelorism, downslant of palpebral fissures, angulation of halluces, and/or other dysmorphic features typical of classic RTS. Among the seven with classic RTS, three had tic disorder and/or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, one had Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features and one had Major Depressive Disorder with obsessive-compulsive features. The six with some RTS features had similar psychiatric disorders. All patients were extremely sensitive to side effects of antidopaminergic medication, with the exception of clozapine. This clustering of psychiatric disorders and sensitivity suggests possible dysfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in at least some patients with RTS. The 16p13.3 region should be examined for possible genes affecting metabolism or receptors of these neurotransmitters.

  1. Creativity, mental disorders and their treatment: recovery-oriented psychopharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses interrelations between creativity, mental disorders and their treatment. The psychology of creativity is very important for successful psychopharmacotherapy, but our knowledge about creativity is still insufficient. Even that which is known is not within the armamentarium of most practicing psychiatrists. In the first part of this article creativity and possible associations between creativity, mental health, and well-being are described. The second part deals with the intriguing relationship between creativity and mental disorders. The third part emphasizes the role of creativity in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper ends by underlining the importance of a creativity-enhancing oriented, and personal recovery-focused psychopharmacotherapy in helping psychiatric patients achieve fulfilled and purposeful lives.

  2. Language Assessment Tools for Mentally Retarded Adults: Survey and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)

  3. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  4. Programming for the Adult Mentally Handicapped. Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugerman, Phyllis B.

    This source book is designed to inform agencies and other adult education programs, in as much detail as possible, of processes and procedures involved in initiating a complete training program to address the needs and desires of the adult mentally handicapped individual. It offers concrete information emanating from the initiation of such a…

  5. [Comorbid antisocial and borderline personality disorders: mentalization-based treatment].

    PubMed

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mentalization is the process by which we implicitly and explicitly interpret the actions of ourselves and others as meaningful based on intentional mental states (e.g., desires, needs, feelings, beliefs, and reasons). This process is disrupted in individuals with comorbid antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), who tend to misinterpret others' motives. Antisocial characteristics stabilize mentalizing by rigidifying relationships within prementalistic ways of functioning. However, loss of flexibility makes the person vulnerable to sudden collapse when the schematic representation is challenged. This exposes feelings of humiliation, which can only be avoided by violence and control of the other person. The common path to violence is via a momentary inhibition of the capacity for mentalization. In this article, the authors outline their current understanding of mentalizing and its relation to antisocial characteristics and violence. This is illustrated by a clinical account of mentalization-based treatment adapted for antisocial personality disorder. Treatment combines group and individual therapy. The focus is on helping patients maintain mentalizing about their own mental states when their personal integrity is challenged. A patient with ASPD does not have mental pain associated with another's state of mind; thus, to generate conflict in ASPD by thinking about the victim will typically be ineffective in inducing behavior change.

  6. Transition Planning for the College Bound Adolescent with a Mental Health Disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Cara C; Calloway, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Health promotion, disease prevention and anticipatory guidance are the hallmarks of nursing practice, particularly in pediatrics. While there is a wealth of information on anticipatory guidance for the pediatric patient at different ages and developmental stages, there is a paucity of information on anticipatory guidance for the adolescent and emerging adult in transitioning to manage their own health care. While an established need for anticipatory guidance and a transition plan from pediatric to adult health care is apparent for youth routinely followed for significant medical, intellectual, or developmental conditions, a group particularly vulnerable to destabilization of their health as they transition to self-directed adult health care management is composed of youth with mental health disorders. The risk for destabilization increases as they move away from social supports to the university setting. This article reviews available literature on anticipatory guidance for the college bound adolescent with a mental health disorder and makes recommendations for transition planning including examining the college and community services that would support mental health as well as personal choices regarding lifestyle habits while attending the university. Recommendations are made for nurses to be the leaders in filling this anticipatory guidance gap in preparing youth with mental health disorders for a successful transition to and through college life.

  7. The mental health of individuals referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood: A clinic report.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ailsa J; Murphy, Clodagh M; Wilson, Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Brown, Cordelia; Robertson, Dene M; Craig, Michael C; Deeley, Quinton; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Kate; McAlonan, Grainne M; Spain, Deborah; Murphy, Declan Gm

    2016-07-01

    Growing awareness of autism spectrum disorders has increased the demand for diagnostic services in adulthood. High rates of mental health problems have been reported in young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, sampling and methodological issues mean prevalence estimates and conclusions about specificity in psychiatric co-morbidity in autism spectrum disorder remain unclear. A retrospective case review of 859 adults referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder compares International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision diagnoses in those that met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (n = 474) with those that did not (n = 385). Rates of psychiatric diagnosis (>57%) were equivalent across both groups and exceeded general population rates for a number of conditions. The prevalence of anxiety disorders, particularly obsessive compulsive disorder, was significantly higher in adults with autism spectrum disorder than adults without autism spectrum disorder. Limitations of this observational clinic study, which may impact generalisability of the findings, include the lack of standardised structured psychiatric diagnostic assessments by assessors blind to autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and inter-rater reliability. The implications of this study highlight the need for careful consideration of mental health needs in all adults referred for autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

  8. Approach to risk identification in undifferentiated mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, José; Rockman, Patricia; Fulford, Casey; Hunter, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with a novel approach to risk identification and related clinical decision making in the management of undifferentiated mental disorders. Sources of information We conducted a review of the literature in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar using the search terms diagnostic uncertainty, diagnosis, risk identification, risk assessment/methods, risk, risk factors, risk management/methods, cognitive biases and psychiatry, decision making, mental disorders/diagnosis, clinical competence, evidence-based medicine, interviews as topic, psychiatry/education, psychiatry/methods, documentation/methods, forensic psychiatry/education, forensic psychiatry/methods, mental disorders/classification, mental disorders/psychology, violence/prevention and control, and violence/psychology. Main message Mental disorders are a large component of practice in primary care and often present in an undifferentiated manner, remaining so for prolonged periods. The challenging search for a diagnosis can divert attention from risk identification, as diagnosis is commonly presumed to be necessary before treatment can begin. This might inadvertently contribute to preventable adverse events. Focusing on salient aspects of the patient presentation related to risk should be prioritized. This article presents a novel approach to organizing patient information to assist risk identification and decision making in the management of patients with undifferentiated mental disorders. Conclusion A structured approach can help physicians to manage the clinical uncertainty common to risk identification in patients with mental disorders and cope with the common anxiety and cognitive biases that affect priorities in risk-related decision making. By focusing on risk, functional impairments, and related symptoms using a novel framework, physicians can meet their patients’ immediate needs while continuing the search for diagnostic clarity and long

  9. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096

  10. Mental disorder as the cause of a crime.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec; Zonana, Howard

    2009-01-01

    An offender's punishment can be reduced when a court decides that his mental disorder reduces his responsibility for what he did. Courts have sought to establish whether a mentally disordered offender's responsibility is reduced by asking whether his disorder caused the crime. Acceptance of this "causation by mental disorder" criterion has fluctuated, however. This may be because causal explanations are not the types of explanations we are accustomed to offering for the kinds of acts that bring defendants, and psychiatric witnesses, to court. More often, we offer what philosophers have called "possibility" explanations for these acts. The application of psychiatry to possibility explanations has not been widely explored. It offers the potential for the improved use of psychiatric evidence in criminal proceedings.

  11. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  12. Imaging of Common Adult Neurologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Michael K.; Marotta, Thomas R.; TerBrugge, Karel G.; Marotta, Joseph T.

    1991-01-01

    The family physician is often called upon to diagnose a range of adult neurologic disorders. Clinical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies are required to discover their cause. Various imaging modalities can be used to evaluate common adult disorders of the central nervous system. ImagesFigures 1-2Figure 3Figure 4Figures 5-6Figures 7-8Figures 9-11 PMID:21229013

  13. Computational neuroscience approach to biomarkers and treatments for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Noriaki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2017-04-01

    Psychiatry research has long experienced a stagnation stemming from a lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of phenomenologically defined mental disorders. Recently, the application of computational neuroscience to psychiatry research has shown great promise in establishing a link between phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of mental disorders, thereby recasting current nosology in more biologically meaningful dimensions. In this review, we highlight recent investigations into computational neuroscience that have undertaken either theory- or data-driven approaches to quantitatively delineate the mechanisms of mental disorders. The theory-driven approach, including reinforcement learning models, plays an integrative role in this process by enabling correspondence between behavior and disorder-specific alterations at multiple levels of brain organization, ranging from molecules to cells to circuits. Previous studies have explicated a plethora of defining symptoms of mental disorders, including anhedonia, inattention, and poor executive function. The data-driven approach, on the other hand, is an emerging field in computational neuroscience seeking to identify disorder-specific features among high-dimensional big data. Remarkably, various machine-learning techniques have been applied to neuroimaging data, and the extracted disorder-specific features have been used for automatic case-control classification. For many disorders, the reported accuracies have reached 90% or more. However, we note that rigorous tests on independent cohorts are critically required to translate this research into clinical applications. Finally, we discuss the utility of the disorder-specific features found by the data-driven approach to psychiatric therapies, including neurofeedback. Such developments will allow simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders using neuroimaging, thereby establishing 'theranostics' for the first time in clinical

  14. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  15. Physical health and wellbeing of emerging and young adults with mental illness: an integrative review of international literature.

    PubMed

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Huws-Thomas, Michelle; Delgado, Cynthia

    2012-06-01

    Physical health in people with mental illness is often compromised. Chronic physical conditions and disease risk factors occur at higher rates than in the general population. Although substantial research exists regarding mental-physical comorbidities in middle to older-aged adults and mental illness consequential to childhood physical illness, research addressing physical health in young people/emerging adults of 16-24 years with primary mental illnesses is minimal. Health problems often track from youth to adulthood, indicating a need to better recognize and understand the overall health of young people with mental illness. This paper reports findings from an integrative review of published research investigating physical health of emerging/young adults with mental illness. A total of 18 research papers were systematically analysed. The review found that comorbid mental-physical illness/conditions were evident across a wide age span. Specific physical health problems, including pain, gastrointestinal, and respiratory disorders, were apparent in those 16 years to those in their mid-late 20s, and/or with first episode psychosis. Lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders occurred with some frequency and originated prior to adulthood. These findings highlight the need for targeted health screening and illness prevention strategies for emerging/young adults with mental health problems and draws attention to the need for young people to be supported in their health-care behaviours.

  16. Community Mental Health Services in Latin America for People with Severe Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Minoletti, Alberto; Galea, Sandro; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent in Latin American countries and exact a serious emotional toll, yet investment in public mental health remains insufficient. Most countries of the region have developed national and local initiatives to improve delivery of mental health services over the last 22 years, following the technical leadership of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). It is especially notable that PAHO/WHO facilitated the development of national policies and plans, as well as local programs, to deliver specialized community care for persons with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, at present, the majority of Latin American countries maintain a model of services for severe mental disorders based primarily on psychiatric hospitals that consume most of the national mental health budget. To accelerate the pace of change, this article emphasizes the need to develop cross-country regional initiatives that promote mental health service development, focusing on severe mental disorders. As one specific example, the authors describe work with RedeAmericas, which has brought together an interdisciplinary group of international investigators to research regional approaches and train a new generation of leaders in public mental health. More generally, four regional strategies are proposed to complement the work of PAHO/ WHO in Latin America: 1) to develop multi-country studies on community services, 2) to study new strategies and interventions in countries with more advanced mental health services, 3) to strengthen advocacy groups by cross-country interchange, and 4) to develop a network of well-trained leaders to catalyze progress across the region. PMID:25339792

  17. Triangulating perspectives on functional neuroimaging for disorders of mental health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging is being used in clinical psychiatry today despite the vigorous objections of many in the research community over issues of readiness. To date, a systematic examination of the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in this debate has not yet been attempted. To this fill this gap, we interviewed investigators who conduct functional neuroimaging studies involving adults with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, providers who offer clinical neuroimaging services in the open marketplace, and consumers of these services, in order to understand perspectives underlying different views and practices. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone. Verbal consent was obtained and all interviews were audio recorded. Interviews of investigators and service providers followed the same interview guide. A separate set of questions was developed for consumers. All interviews were transcribed and made software ready. We applied the qualitative methodology of constant comparison to analyze the data, whereby two researchers independently analyzed the results into textual themes. Coding discrepancies were discussed until consensus was achieved. Results Investigators, service providers, and consumers held many common perspectives about the potential or actual risks and benefits of functional neuroimaging for mental illness. However, we also found striking divergences. Service providers focused on the challenges posed by the persistence of symptoms based diagnostic categories, whereas the limitations of the science in this area was the challenge noted most frequently by investigators. The majority of consumers stated that their expectations were met. Conclusion Our findings point toward a fundamental tension between academic investigators on the one hand, and commercial service providers and their customers on the other. This scenario poses dangers to

  18. [Mental disorders and migraine: epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Guillem, E; Pelissolo, A; Lepine, J P

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in the general population, taking into account certain bias inherent to the clinical observation have confirmed the clinical impression reporting a higher psychiatric comorbidity with persons suffering from migraine than in persons without migraine. Persons with migraine are at increased risk for affective and anxiety disorders, personality traits disorders (neuroticism), suicide attempts, but not for alcohol or illicit drug abuse. The comorbidity is more important in migraine with aura than in migraine without aura. Concerning affective disorders, the lifetime prevalence of major depression is 34.4% in persons with migraine and 10.4% in persons without migraine. For bipolar I disorder, prevalence is 6.8% in migraine with aura versus 0.9% when no migraine. Compared to no migraine, the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in migraine is significantly increased in: panic disorder (10.9% vs 1.8%); generalized anxiety disorder (10.2% vs 1.9%); obsessive-compulsive disorder (8.6% vs 1.8%); phobic disorder (39.8% vs 20.6%). In addition, no psychopathological, biological or genetic explanation seems to be meaningful for the comprehension of this comorbidity pattern. These results remain primarily descriptive but they justify a clinical investigation of affective and anxiety disorders, and suicide attempts, in all person with migraine, and it also justifies the treatment of pain associated with the treatment of eventual affective or anxiety disorders.

  19. Complexity of spontaneous brain activity in mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuya

    2013-08-01

    Recent reports of functional and anatomical studies have provided evidence that aberrant neural connectivity lies at the heart of many mental disorders. Information related to neural networks has elucidated the nonlinear dynamical complexity in brain signals over a range of temporal scales. The recent advent of nonlinear analytic methods, which have served for the quantitative description of the brain signal complexity, has provided new insights into aberrant neural connectivity in many mental disorders. Although many studies have underpinned aberrant neural connectivity, findings related to complexity behavior are still inconsistent. This inconsistency might result from (i) heterogeneity in mental disorders, (ii) analytical issues, (iii) interference of typical development and aging. First, most mental disorders are heterogeneous in their clinical feature or intrinsic pathological mechanisms. Second, neurophysiologic output signals from complex brain connectivity might be characterized with multiple time scales or frequencies. Finally, age-related brain complexity changes must be considered when investigating pathological brain because typical brain complexity is not constant across generations. Future systematic studies addressing these issues will greatly expand our knowledge of neural connections and dynamics related to mental disorders.

  20. Parent psychopathology and offspring mental disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Gadermann, Anne M.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee Nasser; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Murphy, Samuel D.; Nizamie, S. Haque; Posada-Villa, José; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Associations between specific parent and offspring mental disorders are likely to have been overestimated in studies that have failed to control for parent comorbidity. Aims To examine the associations of parent with respondent disorders. Method Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (n = 51 507). Respondent disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and parent disorders with informant-based Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria interviews. Results Although virtually all parent disorders examined (major depressive, generalised anxiety, panic, substance and antisocial behaviour disorders and suicidality) were significantly associated with offspring disorders in multivariate analyses, little specificity was found. Comorbid parent disorders had significant sub-additive associations with offspring disorders. Population-attributable risk proportions for parent disorders were 12.4% across all offspring disorders, generally higher in high- and upper-middle- than low-/lower-middle-income countries, and consistently higher for behaviour (11.0-19.9%) than other (7.1-14.0%) disorders. Conclusions Parent psychopathology is a robust non-specific predictor associated with a substantial proportion of offspring disorders. PMID:22403085

  1. Prescription use disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Sullivan, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This paper will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested.

  2. Mental Health Services for Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Johanna K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to date, findings suggest that they face a multitude of cooccurring psychiatric (e.g., anxiety, depression), psychosocial, and functional issues, all of which occur in addition to their ASD symptomatology. Despite this, traditional mental health services and supports are falling short of meeting the needs of these adults. This review highlights the service needs and the corresponding gaps in care for this population. It also provides an overview of the literature on psychiatric risk factors, identifies areas requiring further study, and makes recommendations for how existing mental health services could include adults with HFASD. PMID:25276425

  3. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood.

  4. Assessment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Diagnostic Criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubarych, Thomas S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Hettema, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated measurement properties of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition," generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (VATSPSUD). The two studies used different widely used…

  5. Why mental disorders are just mental dysfunctions (and nothing more): some Darwinian arguments.

    PubMed

    De Block, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Mental disorders are often thought to be harmful dysfunctions. Jerome Wakefield has argued that such dysfunctions should be understood as failures of naturally selected functions. This suggests, implicitly, that evolutionary biology and other Darwinian disciplines hold important information for anyone working on answering the philosophical question, 'what is a mental disorder?'. In this article, the author argues that Darwinian theory is not only relevant to the understanding of the disrupted functions, but it also sheds light on the disruption itself, as well as on the harm that attends the disruption. The arguments advanced here are partially based on the view that a core feature of Darwinism is that it stresses the environmental relativity of functions and dysfunctions. These arguments show a very close empirical connection between social judgments (values) and dysfunctions (psychopathology), which is of interest for psychiatric theory. Philosophically, they lead to the conclusion that the concept of mental disorder is identical to the concept of mental dysfunction. Consequently, it is both misleading and redundant to conceptualize mental disorders as 'harmful dysfunctions', and not simply as 'mental dysfunctions'.

  6. Diagnosis and management of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert E; Kurlansik, Stuart L

    2012-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood can persist into adulthood in at least 30 percent of patients, with 3 to 4 percent of adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., diagnostic criteria. A number of conditions, such as thyroid disease, mood disorders, and substance use disorders, have symptoms similar to those of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Steroids, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, caffeine, and nicotine also can have adverse effects that mimic attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Proper diagnosis and treatment can improve daily functioning. Diagnosis relies on a thorough clinical history, supported by a number of rating scales that take five to 20 minutes to complete, depending on the scale. Clinical guidelines recommend stimulants and the nonstimulant atomoxetine as first-line treatments, followed by antidepressants. Cognitive behavior therapy has also been shown to be helpful as adjunctive treatment with medication. For adults with coexisting depression, the combination of an antidepressant and stimulants has been shown to be safe and effective. To monitor for misuse or diversion of stimulants, family physicians should consider using a controlled substances agreement and random urine drug screening in addition to regular follow-up visits.

  7. Self-Reported Mental Disorders and Distress by Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; VanKim, Nicole A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; McAlpine, Donna D.; Lust, Katherine A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexual minority college students (i.e., those not identifying as heterosexual, or those reporting same-sex sexual activity) may be at increased risk of poor mental health, given factors such as minority stress, stigma, and discrimination. Such disparities could have important implications for students’ academic achievement, future health, and social functioning. This study compares reports of mental disorder diagnoses, stressful life events, and frequent mental distress across five gender-stratified sexual orientation categories. Methods Data were from the 2007–2011 College Student Health Survey, which surveyed a random sample of college students (N=34,324) at 40 Minnesota institutions. Data analysis was conducted in 2013–2014. The prevalence of mental disorder diagnoses, frequent mental distress, and stressful life events were calculated for heterosexual, discordant heterosexual, gay or lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association between sexual orientation and mental health outcomes. Results Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students were more likely to report any mental health disorder diagnosis than heterosexual students (p<0.05). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and unsure students were significantly more likely to report frequent mental distress compared to heterosexual students (OR range, 1.6–2.7). All sexual minority groups, with the exception of unsure men, had significantly greater odds of experiencing two or more stressful life events (OR range, 1.3–2.8). Conclusions Sexual minority college students experience worse mental health than their heterosexual peers. These students may benefit from interventions that target the structural and social causes of these disparities, and individual-level interventions that consider their unique life experiences. PMID:25997903

  8. Developmental Contexts and Mental Disorders Among Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye; Gile, Krista; Alegría, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we use age of immigration as a proxy for the developmental context for understanding the association between immigration experiences and mental health. Generation defines the context under which immigrants arrive in the United States. We drew data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2,095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. Our findings reveal that age of immigration is linked to lifetime and 12-month rates of psychiatric disorder: Immigrants who arrive earlier in life are more likely to have both lifetime and 12-month disorders. U.S. born and immigrants who arrive as children are much more likely to have a mental disorder in their lifetimes than other immigrant generations. PMID:20150976

  9. Adult head-banging and stereotypic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mendez, M F; Mirea, A

    1998-09-01

    Stereotypic movement disorders (SMD) such as head-banging, which are common among children with mental retardation or pervasive developmental disorders, may also occur in intellectually normal adults. We report a 27-year history of daily head-banging with self-injury in a 49-year-old man with normal cognition. The patient had no personal or family history of Tourette's syndrome, tic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or mental retardation. The frequency of his stereotypical head-banging increased with anxiety, loud noises with startle, and boredom. He reported a sense of pleasure from his head-banging, and the frequency of this behavior decreased when he was treated with the opioid antagonist naltrexone. Although not diagnostic, the self-stimulatory or pleasurable component of head-banging, body-rocking, thumb-sucking, and other SMD may help distinguish them from tics, Tourette's syndrome, OCD, and deliberate self-harming behavior. This report reviews the disorders associated with SMD and discusses the potential mechanisms for these behaviors. The treatment of SMD includes drugs that work through opioid, serotonergic, or dopaminergic systems.

  10. Mental Health Service and Drug Treatment Utilization: Adolescents with Substance Use/Mental Disorders and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    This research is a secondary data analysis of the impact of adolescents' mental/substance-use disorders and dual diagnosis on their utilization of drug treatment and mental health services. By analyzing the same teenagers who participated in the NIMH Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) study, logistic…

  11. Preparation of Mental Health Clinicians to Work with Children with Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…

  12. Domestic violence and mental health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.

  13. Comparing barriers to mental health treatment and substance use disorder treatment among individuals with comorbid major depression and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Crum, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    Barriers to both mental health and substance use disorder treatments have rarely been examined among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders. In a sample of 393 adults with 12-month major depressive episodes and substance use disorders, we compared perceived barriers to these two types of treatments. Data were drawn from the 2005-2011 U.S. National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Overall, the same individuals experienced different barriers to mental health treatment versus substance use disorder treatment. Concerns about negative views of the community, effects on job, and inconvenience of services were more commonly reported as reasons for not receiving substance use disorder treatment. Not affording the cost of care was the most common barrier to both types of treatments, but more commonly reported as a barrier to mental health treatment. Improved financial access through the Affordable Care Act and parity legislation and integration of mental health and substance use disorder services may help to reduce treatment barriers among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance disorders.

  14. Mental disorders, functional impairment, and nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Fanny Helena Martins; Soares, Pedro San Martin; Wiener, Carolina David; Mondin, Thaise Campos; da Silva, Paula Moraes; Jansen, Karen; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important member of the neurotrophin family and its alteration has been associated with psychiatric disorders. Functionality consists of the activities that an individual can perform, as well as their social participation, which is an important factor in analyzing the carrier living conditions of subjects with psychiatric suffering. Several studies have evaluated functionality in bipolar disorder; however, no studies have evaluated the functionality in other mental disorders. There are also few studies investigating the association between functionality and the biological bases of mental disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the serum NGF levels in psychiatric patients and to verify a possible association between the serum neurotrophic levels and functionality. This was a cross-sectional study with a convenient sample obtained from the Public Mental Health Service from the south of Brazil. The final sample was composed of 286 patients enrolled from July 2013 to October 2014. Data was collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, and the diagnosis was confirmed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) and a Functioning Assessment Short Test. The serum NGF levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistic 21.0 software. NGF serum levels were increased significantly in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder compared with patients with no obsessive–compulsive disorder (P=0.015). An increase in serum NGF levels in generalized anxiety disorder patients was observed compared with patients with no generalized anxiety disorder (P=0.047). NGF was negatively associated with autonomy (P=0.024, r=−0.136), work (P=0.040, r=−0.124), and cognition (P=0.024, r=−0.137), thereby showing that changes in serum levels of NGF are associated with functionality in mental disorders. PMID:28053561

  15. Walking Habits of Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2005-01-01

    The walking activity of men and women with mental retardation residing in community settings was described. Participants were 38 women (M age = 0.7, SD = 9.5) and 65 men (M age = 35.9, SD = 11.2). They wore pedometers for 7 days. A 2 ? 2 factorial ANOVA indicated no significant gender differences in total step counts or between participants with…

  16. [Treatment of offenders with mental disorders: focusing on prison psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of

  17. Continuity of care from child and adolescent to adult mental health services: evidence from a regional survey in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Paolo; Galeotti, Simona; Mimmi, Stefano; Starace, Fabrizio; Castagnini, Augusto C

    2015-12-01

    To examine clinical and demographic factors associated with continuity of care from child-adolescent (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS), we undertook a record-linkage study to the Adult Mental Health Information System including all those 16 years old and over who were listed between 2010 and 2013 in the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Information System in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region of nearly 4.5 million residents. From a cohort of 8239 adolescents attending CAMHS (population at risk about 144,000), 821 (19.4 %) moved to AMHS, excluding cases with specific developmental disorders, whose conditions were not managed by adult psychiatrists, and those with mental retardation who attended usually social services. Young people referred for treatment to AMHS were more likely to receive a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.92; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.17-7.08), personality disorders (OR 2.69; 95 % CI 1.89-3.83), and pervasive developmental disorders (OR 2.13; 95 % CI 1.51-2.99). Further factors predicting transfer to AMHS were not living with parents, inpatient psychiatric admission, and being on medication in the previous 24 months. These findings suggest that a relatively small number of adolescents moved to AMHS and are likely to reflect the configuration of local mental health services and alternative care available, mainly for those with less-severe mental disorders.

  18. Scale up services for mental disorders: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, D; Flisher, A J; Lund, C; Patel, V; Saxena, S; Thornicroft, G; Tomlinson, M

    2007-10-06

    We call for the global health community, governments, donors, multilateral agencies, and other mental health stakeholders, such as professional bodies and consumer groups, to scale up the coverage of services for mental disorders in all countries, but especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We argue that a basic, evidence-based package of services for core mental disorders should be scaled up, and that protection of the human rights of people with mental disorders and their families should be strengthened. Three questions are critical to the scaling-up process. What resources are needed? How can progress towards these goals be monitored? What should be the priorities for mental health research? To address these questions, we first estimated that the amount needed to provide services on the necessary scale would be US$2 per person per year in low-income countries and $3-4 in lower middle-income countries, which is modest compared with the requirements for scaling-up of services for other major contributors to the global burden of disease. Second, we identified a series of core and secondary indicators to track the progress that countries make toward achievement of mental health goals; many of these indicators are already routinely monitored in many countries. Third, we did a priority-setting exercise to identify gaps in the evidence base in global mental health for four categories of mental disorders. We show that funding should be given to research that develops and assesses interventions that can be delivered by people who are not mental health professionals, and that assesses how health systems can scale up such interventions across all routine-care settings. We discuss strategies to overcome the five main barriers to scaling-up of services for mental disorders; one major strategy will be sustained advocacy by diverse stakeholders, especially to target multilateral agencies, donors, and governments. This Series has provided the evidence for advocacy

  19. Treatment of mental disorders in India.

    PubMed

    Bagadia, V N; Shah, L P; Pradhan, P V; Gada, M T

    1979-01-01

    1. Mental health gets a low priority all over the world but much more so in developing countries. 2. In India, modern psychiatric facilities are available only in the cities. Mental hospitals are becoming modernized but the backbone of psychiatry is the psychiatric department in the General Hospital where treatment is out-patient and family based except short admissions for crisis intervention. 3. Psychotropic drugs are preferred both by psychiatrists and patients, next being electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and other physical treatments followed by psychotherapies. 4. In view of paucity of facilities, 80% of the population has to depend on indigenous treatments consisting of Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine, religious treatments consisting of prayers, fasting, etc. and various witchcraft and magical rituals.

  20. Prevention of depressive disorders in older adults: An overview.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Patel, Vikram; Dias, Amit; Li, Juan; Reynolds, Charles F

    2015-03-01

    Prevention of depressive disorders is one of the most important challenges for health care in coming decades. Depressive disorders in all age groups have a high disease burden and are associated with huge economic costs, and current treatments are only capable of taking away one-third of the (nonfatal) disease burden of depression under optimal conditions. Prevention may be one alternative strategy that may help in further reducing the disease burden of depression. Because of the worldwide increase in the number of older adults, the number of depressed older adults will also increase considerably in the next few decades, making prevention of depression an important priority for research. Identifying the high-risk target groups for preventive interventions is complicated because most risk indicators have a low specificity, indicating that most people from these groups will not develop the disorder despite increased risk levels. We describe one promising method to identify the best target groups, based on the principle that the high-risk group should be as small as possible, should be responsible for as many new cases of depression as possible, and that intervention be as effective as possible. The number of trials examining the possibility to prevent the onset of depressive disorders in those who do not (yet) meet diagnostic criteria for depression is increasing rapidly. A recent meta-analysis identified more than 30 randomized trials and these studies showed that the incidence of depressive disorders was 21% lower in the prevention groups compared with the control groups who did not receive the preventive intervention. Most of these trials are aimed at adolescents and younger adults. Only six trials were specifically aimed at older adults. The development of evidence-based preventive interventions for major depression and other mental disorders should be an important scientific and public health objective for the 21st century.

  1. The role of fragile X mental retardation protein in major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is highly enriched in neurons and binds to approximately 4% of mRNAs in mammalian brain. Its loss is a hallmark of fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of mental retardation. In this review we discuss the mutation in the fragile X mental retardation-1 gene (FMR1), that leads to FXS, the role FMRP plays in neuronal cells, experiments from our own laboratory that demonstrate reductions of FMRP in additional psychiatric disorders (autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder), and potential therapies to ameliorate the loss of FMRP. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.

  2. Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to address the gap in knowledge about the extent to which perinatal mental health and risk behaviors are associated with childhood and adult experiences of abuse that arises because of barriers to screening and disclosure about past and current abuse. Survey data from an ongoing study of the effects of posttraumatic stress on childbearing were used to describe four groups of nulliparous women: those with no abuse history, adult abuse only, childhood abuse only, and abuse that occurred during both periods. The rates of abuse history disclosure were higher in the research context than in the clinical settings. Mental health morbidity and risk behaviors occurred in a dose-response pattern with cumulative abuse exposure. Rates of current posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 4.1% among those never abused to 11.4% (adult only), 16.0% (childhood only), and 39.2% (both periods). Women abused during both periods also were more likely to be using tobacco (21.5%) and drugs (16.5%) during pregnancy. We conclude that mental health and behavioral risk sequelae affect a significant portion of both childhood and adult abuse survivors in prenatal care. The integration into the maternity setting of existing evidence-based interventions for the mental health and behavioral sequelae of abuse is needed.

  3. DSM-5 and mental disorders in older individuals: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder S.; Mohan, Adith; Taylor, Lauren; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2015-01-01

    About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, exciting considerable commentary, debate and criticism. This article briefly describes the process that led to the DSM-5 and the main changes from the previous version (DSM-IV) that would be of interest to a geriatric psychiatrist. While there have been a number of changes in the areas of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, the majority of these changes are minor and unlikely to have major treatment implications. The classification of neurocognitive disorders has however seen a major revision and elaboration in comparison with DSM-IV, with the introduction of Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorders, the latter equated with dementia. A common language is introduced for the criteria of the various etiological subtypes of neurocognitive disorders. All physicians treating patients with neurocognitive disorders should familiarize themselves with these criteria. Their use in research has the potential to harmonize the field. PMID:26332215

  4. Interconnected or disconnected? Promotion of mental health and prevention of mental disorder in the digital age

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Joseph F; Maughan, Daniel L; Grant-Peterkin, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Summary To date there have been few peer-reviewed studies on the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of digital technologies for mental health promotion and disorder prevention. Any evaluation of these evolving technologies is complicated by a lack of understanding about the specific risks and possible benefits of the many forms of internet use on mental health. In order to adequately meet the mental health needs of today’s society, psychiatry must engage in rigorous assessment of the impact of digital technologies. PMID:26932479

  5. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations. Methods: We analyzed data from 577 adult men and women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Six questions assessed discrimination due to sexual orientation. Weighted multivariable logistic regression examined associations between experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and both mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual minority men and women, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results: Sexual minority men who ever experienced discrimination (57.4%) reported higher odds of any lifetime drug use disorder and cannabis use disorder compared to sexual minority men who never experienced discrimination. Sexual minority women who ever experienced discrimination (42.9%) reported higher odds of any lifetime mood disorder and any lifetime anxiety disorder compared to sexual minority women who never experienced discrimination. Conclusion: The findings suggest that discrimination is differentially associated with internalizing (mental health) and externalizing (substance use) disorders for sexual minority men and women. These findings indicate a need to consider how homophobia and heteronormative discrimination may contribute to distinct health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women compared with gay and bisexual men. PMID:27383512

  6. Adult attachment style modulates neural responses in a mentalizing task.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Kircher, T

    2015-09-10

    Adult attachment style (AAS) is a personality trait that affects social cognition. Behavioral data suggest that AAS influences mentalizing proficiency, i.e. the ability to predict and explain people's behavior with reference to mental states, but the neural correlates are unknown. We here tested how the AAS dimensions "avoidance" (AV) and "anxiety" (ANX) modulate neural correlates of mentalizing. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 164 healthy subjects during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (Prisoner's Dilemma Game). AAS was assessed with the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, including the subscales AV and ANX. Our task elicited a strong activation of the mentalizing network, including bilateral precuneus, (anterior, middle, and posterior) cingulate cortices, temporal poles, inferior frontal gyri (IFG), temporoparietal junctions, superior medial frontal gyri as well as right medial orbital frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and amygdala. We found that AV is positively and ANX negatively correlated with task-associated neural activity in the right amygdala, MFG, midcingulate cortex, and superior parietal lobule, and in bilateral IFG. These data suggest that avoidantly attached adults activate brain areas implicated in emotion regulation and cognitive control to a larger extent than anxiously attached individuals during mentalizing.

  7. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Claudia S; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; dos Santos, Debora França; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8), being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7) when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8), and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0) compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6). The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years) than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years). We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4). CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups. PMID:26910549

  8. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Claudia S; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; dos Santos, Debora França; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8), being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7) when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8), and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0) compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6). The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years) than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years). We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4). CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups.

  9. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  10. [Animal hoarding: a mental disorder with implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Gahr, M; Connemann, B J; Freudenmann, R W; Kölle, M A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C J

    2014-06-01

    Animal hoarding (AH) is a mental disorder that is characterised by an excessive number of kept animals, inability to maintain minimal standards of animal care and hygiene, and deficient insight into the thereby developing failures and problems. Although AH as a disease concept is neither represented in the DSM-5 nor the ICD-10, it may be classified as a subform of the hoarding disorder (DSM-5 300.3) that was implemented in the DSM-5 as an obsessive-compulsive disorder. Due to the hygienic deficiencies of the living spaces and the insufficient keeping of animals there is an increased risk of epizootic diseases and zoonoses. Specific epidemiological studies do not exist, however, women seem to be affected more frequently. AH is diagnosed mostly in late adulthood. Besides thorough somatic and psychiatric medical diagnostics, cooperation with the veterinary offices and authorities is usually necessary. Comorbid mental disorders (particularly depressive, obsessive-compulsive and personality disorders) are frequent. Currently, no evidence-based therapies exist. Social therapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic interventions as well as sufficient treatment of comorbid mental disorders are recommended.

  11. Motivation, Vocational Interests and Job Satisfaction of Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Shunit; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults, their work and factors they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Results demonstrate the importance of considering vocational interests and of the environment in influencing mentally retarded…

  12. Reducing Barriers to Sex Education for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…

  13. Examining Reports of Mental Health in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…

  14. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Young Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…

  15. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  16. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  17. Everyday Cognition among Mildly Mentally Retarded Adults: An Ethnographic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Harold G.; Langness, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results of participant-observation techniques used to study the everyday cognition and problem-solving process in marketing tasks defined and organized by mildly mentally retarded adults, revealed five "composites" of strategic behavior. An association between composite and early life experiences was also shown. (Author/CL)

  18. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. II. Affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of affective disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. The lifetime prevalence for specific affective disorders was as follows: bipolar disorders 0.3%, depressive episodes 2.7%, recurrent depressive episodes 0.2%, and persistent mood disorders 1.6%. The weighted lifetime prevalence of affective disorders was 5.0% (women 7.7% and men 3.2%). One-month prevalence was 3.8% (women 5.9% and men 2.3%). After adjusting for several potential confounders, the risk of affective disorders was only 29% higher in women compared to men. This difference in risk was not statistically significant. Age was also not associated with risk of affective disorders. On the other hand, education was associated with the risk of disorder, the risk decreasing with increasing educational attainment. This inverse trend was statistically significant (P for trend = 0.02). The risk was also 37% lower in the employed than the unemployed: Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.39, 1.01). There were no statistically significant associations between affective disorders and marital status or ethnicity.

  19. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Pearl L.H.; Webb, Roger T.; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-01-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971–1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  20. Exploring Professional Help-Seeking for Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Savage, Hannah; Murray, Joanna; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Brown, June S L

    2016-10-01

    Only a third of people with mental disorders seek professional help. In this study, we aimed to investigate attitudes toward help-seeking among non-help-seekers drawn from a community survey in South London. We conducted qualitative interviews with 24 participants with symptoms of mental disorders. We analyzed data using thematic analysis. Participants' reasons for not seeking professional help included perceiving their problems as normal or unsuitable for professional help, negative expectations of professional help, believing informal strategies were sufficient, fearing being stigmatized for having a mental disorder and help-seeking, and self-perceptions of being strong and/or self-reliant. A small number (n = 4) had resolved their problems. Participants with unresolved mental disorders (n = 20) had more chronic stressors, particularly about finances and family relationships, and greater concerns about professional help and stigma than other participants. Potential targets for interventions to encourage help-seeking could be focused around stigma about help-seeking as well as the self-perception of being strong.

  1. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    PubMed

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system.

  2. Reentry Planning for Mentally Disordered Inmates: A Social Investment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Bjerklie, J. R.; Maschi, Tina

    2005-01-01

    Correctional facilities are under increasing pressure to respond to the treatment needs of mentally disordered offenders during their incarceration and to arrange for treatment post release through reentry planning. This paper constructs cost estimates for three different reentry investments using data on the population (n = 2715) of male mentally…

  3. Behavior Disorders in Persons with Mental Retardation Receiving Antipsychotic Medication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    The behavior disorders of 54 Japanese individuals with mental retardation receiving antipsychotic medication were compared to 52 subjects receiving anticonvulsants and 202 subjects without medication. Results found the problem behaviors of subjects receiving antipsychotic drugs were more severe and severity of disability was associated with higher…

  4. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  5. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  6. The importance and limits of harm in identifying mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C; First, Michael B

    2013-11-01

    The In Review articles in this issue on normality and disorder by Dr Rachel Cooper and Dr Derek Bolton explore the importance of a value component of harm in the concept of mental disorder. They focus on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder's clinical significance criterion, requiring that symptoms cause significant distress or role impairment, as the expression of the harm component. As Dr Bolton argues, harm in the form of distress or role impairment has always been intimately tied to the concept of disorder and treatment decisions; as Dr Cooper argues, without the harm requirement, any disliked anomaly may be labelled a disorder. Moreover, as Cooper argues, a harm requirement is not incompatible with a natural kinds approach to distinguishing among disorders or to a categorical approach to disorder; the lack of zones of rarity on the harm continuum does not preclude categorical underlying causal processes. However, neither paper systematically develops arguments regarding the other component of disorder, the requirement that the harm must be caused by underlying dysfunction. The dysfunction component distinguishes disorders from the many other negative conditions in life. Cooper's identification of dysfunction with symptom severity ignores the fact that normal suffering can be severe, and Bolton's attempt to encompass risk of harm within harm yields an implausibly expansive conception of disorder. While the harm component is essential, clarification of the dysfunction component of the concept of disorder, pursued in part 2 of this In Review in the December 2013 issue, is also essential to establishing a coherent and plausibly limited domain of psychiatric disorder within the broader arena of harmful conditions.

  7. Mental Disorders and Their Association With Disability Among Internally Displaced Persons and Returnees in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Makhashvili, Nino; Chikovani, Ivdity; McKee, Martin; Bisson, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Bayard

    2014-01-01

    There remains limited evidence on comorbidity of mental disorders among conflict-affected civilians, particularly internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs who have returned to their home areas (returnees). The study aim was to compare patterns of mental disorders and their influence on disability between IDPs and returnees in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted with adult IDPs from the conflicts in the 1990s, the 2008 conflict, and returnees. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and disability were measured using cut scores on Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Among the 3,025 respondents, the probable prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity (>1 condition) was 23.3%, 14.0%, 10.4%, 12.4%, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients (p < .001) were .40 (PTSD with depression), .38 (PTSD with anxiety), and .52 (depression with anxiety). Characteristics associated with mental disorders in regression analyses included displacement (particularly longer-term), cumulative trauma exposure, female gender, older age, poor community conditions, and bad household economic situation; coefficients ranged from 1.50 to 3.79. PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity were associated with increases in disability of 6.4%, 9.7%, 6.3%, and 15.9%, respectively. A high burden of psychiatric symptoms and disability persist among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. PMID:25322880

  8. Chronology of Onset of Mental Disorders and Physical Diseases in Mental-Physical Comorbidity - A National Representative Survey of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tegethoff, Marion; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. Methods This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13–18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report. Onset of lifetime medical conditions and doctor-diagnosed diseases was assessed by self-report. Results The most substantial temporal associations with onset of mental disorders preceding onset of physical diseases included those between affective disorders and arthritis (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.36, 95%-confidence interval (CI) = 1.95 to 5.77) and diseases of the digestive system (HR = 3.39, CI = 2.30 to 5.00), between anxiety disorders and skin diseases (HR = 1.53, CI = 1.21 to 1.94), and between substance use disorders and seasonal allergies (HR = 0.33, CI = 0.17 to 0.63). The most substantial temporal associations with physical diseases preceding mental disorders included those between heart diseases and anxiety disorders (HR = 1.89, CI = 1.41 to 2.52), epilepsy and eating disorders (HR = 6.27, CI = 1.58 to 24.96), and heart diseases and any mental disorder (HR = 1.39, CI = 1.11 to 1.74). Conclusions Findings suggest that mental disorders are antecedent risk factors of certain physical diseases in early life, but also vice versa. Our results expand the relevance of mental disorders beyond mental to physical health care, and vice versa, supporting the concept of a more integrated mental-physical health care approach, and open new starting points for early disease prevention and better treatments, with relevance for various medical disciplines. PMID:27768751

  9. “Church-Based Health Programs for Mental Disorders among African Americans: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective African Americans, compared to White Americans, underutilize traditional mental health services. A systematic review is presented of studies involving church-based health promotion programs (CBHPP) for mental disorders among African Americans to assess the feasibility of utilizing such programs to address racial disparities in mental health care. Methods A literature review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ATLA Religion databases was conducted to identify articles published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria included the following: studies were conducted in a church; primary objective(s) involved assessment, perceptions/attitudes, education, prevention, group support, or treatment for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV mental disorders or their correlates; number of participants was reported; qualitative and/or quantitative data were reported; and African Americans were the target population. Results Of 1,451 studies identified, 191 studies were eligible for formal review. Only eight studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies focused on substance related disorders (n=5), were designed to assess the effects of a specific intervention (n=6), and targeted adults (n=6). One study focused on depression and was limited by a small sample size of seven participants. Conclusion Although CBHPP have been successful in addressing racial disparities for several chronic medical conditions, the published literature on CBHPP for mental disorders is extremely limited. More intensive research is needed to establish the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing church-based health programs as a possible resource for screening and treatment to improve disparities in mental health care for African Americans. PMID:22388529

  10. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  11. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  12. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  13. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., poisons) 9327Organic mental disorder, other (including personality change due to a general medical... 9416Dissociative amnesia; dissociative fugue; dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality...

  14. Prescription Use Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of older adults needing substance abuse treatment is projected to rise significantly in the next few decades. This article will focus on the epidemic of prescription use disorders in older adults. Particular vulnerabilities of older adults to addiction will be considered. Specifically, the prevalence and patterns of use of opioids, stimulants, and benzodiazepines will be explored, including the effects of these substances on morbidity and mortality. Treatment intervention strategies will be briefly discussed, and areas for future research are suggested. PMID:20958847

  15. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  16. Mental health care use in adolescents with and without mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Jörg, Frederike; Visser, Ellen; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of adolescents with and without a psychiatric diagnosis receiving specialist mental health care and investigate their problem levels as well as utilization of other types of mental health care to detect possible over- and undertreatment. Care utilization data were linked to psychiatric diagnostic data of 2230 adolescents participating in the TRAILS cohort study, who were assessed biannually starting at age 11. Psychiatric diagnoses were established at the fourth wave by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Self-, parent- and teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems and self-reported mental health care use were assessed at all four waves. Of all diagnosed adolescents, 35.3 % received specialist mental health care. This rate increased to 54.5 % when three or more disorders were diagnosed. Almost a third (28.5 %) of specialist care users had no psychiatric diagnosis; teachers gave them relatively high ratings on attention and impulsivity subscales. Diagnosed adolescents without specialist mental health care also reported low rates of other care use. We found no indication of overtreatment. Half of the adolescents with three or more disorders do not receive specialist mental health care nor any other type of care, which might indicate unmet needs.

  17. Evidence-Based Psychological Treatments of Pediatric Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Monica S; Hamblin, Rebecca J; Storch, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    With many youth presenting to primary care settings for mental health difficulties, knowledge of the respective evidence-based psychotherapies is imperative in ensuring that these youth receive the appropriate interventions in a timely manner. Most frequently, children present with internalizing and/or externalizing disorders, which cover a broad range of common pediatric mental disorders. Treatments of these disorders generally incorporate cognitive and/or behavioral components, which are derived from theoretical underpinnings and empirical support. Although the interventions share common components, they are distinctive in nature and are further tailored toward the idiosyncratic needs of children and their families. Careful consideration of the apposite intervention and individual needs of youth are pertinent to the effective amelioration of symptomology.

  18. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    PubMed

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  19. Approach to attention deficit disorder in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adults. SOURCES OF INFORMATION PsycINFO, PubMed, and Psychiatry 24x7.com were searched. Several books on ADD in adults were reviewed. I also drew on my own clinical experience assessing and treating adults with ADD for more than 20 years. MAIN MESSAGE The classic triad of ADD symptoms are inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity or restlessness. Although ADD is a well established brain disorder, the diagnosis remains controversial. Attention deficit disorder has been called a fad, not a legitimate diagnosis, but it is a well established, well documented, medical condition that can cause much suffering if left untreated. At one time we thought children would outgrow ADD at puberty, but we now know that many will continue to have residual symptoms throughout adolescence and adulthood. If left untreated, ADD can interfere with relationships, employment, and self-esteem. Treatment with stimulants and adjunctive care is often effective. CONCLUSION Attention deficit disorder in adults represents a substantial burden of illness. It can be diagnosed and treated successfully. PMID:17273498

  20. Handbook of Comparative Treatments for Adult Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Troy; Janzen, Henry L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes and evaluates text providing background, conceptual understanding, and treatment options for major adult disorders. Strengths include comprehensiveness, treatment comparisons, and a process emphasis. Weaknesses center on biases toward psychoanalytic, behavioral, and pharmacological treatments while neglecting cognitive and "cutting edge"…

  1. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  2. 78 FR 73696 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH62 Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System... date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations... Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations. In this...

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FINDINGS ON PREVALENCE OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen epidemiological studies on psychiatric morbidity in India have been analysed. National all-India prevalence rates for ‘all mental disorders’ and five specific disorders have been worked out The national prevalence rates for ‘all mental disorders’ arrived at are 70.5 (rural), 73 (urban) and 73 (rural + urban) per 1000 population. Prevalence of schizophrenia is 2.5/1000 and this seems to be the only disorder whose prevalence is consistent across cultures and over time. Rates for depression, anxiety neurosis, hysteria and mental retardation are provided. Urban morbidity in India is 3.5 percent higher than the rural rate, but rural-urban differences are not consistent for different disease categories. In Hindi speaking north India, mental morbidity amongst factory workers is two and half times that of the non-industrial urban inhabitants and five times the rural morbidity. The present data are expected to serve as baseline rates for mental health planners and for psychiatrists interested in epidemiological studies. PMID:21407903

  4. Detecting Mental Disorder in Juvenile Detainees: Who Receives Services

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Pikus, Ann K.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether or not juvenile detainees with major mental disorders received treatment, and the variables that predicted who received services. Methods. Our sample was 1829 randomly selected juvenile detainees taking part in the Northwestern Juvenile Project. To determine need for mental health services, independent interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and rated functional impairment using the Child Global Assessment Scale. Records on service provision were obtained from the juvenile justice and public health systems. Results. Among detainees who had major mental disorders and associated functional impairments, 15.4% received treatment in the detention center and 8.1% received treatment in the community by the time of case disposition or 6 months, whichever came first. Significantly more girls than boys were detected and treated. Receiving treatment was predicted by clinical variables (having a major mental disorder or reported treatment history or suicidal behavior) and demographic variables. Conclusions. The challenge to public health is to provide accessible, innovative, and effective treatments to juvenile detainees, a population that is often beyond the reach of traditional services. PMID:16186454

  5. Family Burden Related to Clinical and Functional Variables of People with Intellectual Disability with and without a Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irazabal, M.; Marsa, F.; Garcia, M.; Gutierrez-Recacha, P.; Martorell, A.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Ochoa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have been found that to assess the factors that explain higher levels of family burden in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and intellectual disability and mental disorders (ID-MD). The aims of this study were to assess family burden in people with ID and ID-MD and to determine which sociodemographic, clinical and functional…

  6. Motivation, vocational interests and job satisfaction of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Friedman, L; Molcho, M

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults in a residential facility in Israel, their actual work and the factors which they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Two questionnaires were used: the Illustrated Vocational Inventory (Whelan & Reiter, 1980) and a specially designed questionnaire on motivation to work based on Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959). The results demonstrate the importance of taking into consideration mentally retarded persons' vocational interests when assignig them to different jobs. It further demonstrates the importance of the environment in influencing mentally retarded individuals to seek instrinsic or extrinsic rewards and satisfaction from work.

  7. [What does the Public Know and Think About Mental Disorders?].

    PubMed

    Mnich, Eva E; Makowski, Anna C; Kofahl, Christopher; Lambert, Martin; Bock, Thomas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2015-07-01

    Public knowledge about and attitudes towards mental illness were analyzed. Furthermore, changes in knowledge and attitudes after an information and awareness campaign were examined. The basis were two telephone surveys in 2011 (t0) and 2014 (t1) in Hamburg (intervention) and Munich (control). In 2011, the public was relatively well informed about mental disorders. Regarding the level of information of the public before the campaign and inconsistent results of previous evaluation studies the anticipated impact of the awareness campaign at t1 are moderate.

  8. A Global Workspace perspective on mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent developments in Global Workspace theory suggest that human consciousness can suffer interpenetrating dysfunctions of mutual and reciprocal interaction with embedding environments which will have early onset and often insidious staged developmental progression, possibly according to a cancer model, in which a set of long-evolved control strategies progressively fails. Methods and results A rate distortion argument implies that, if an external information source carries a damaging 'message', then sufficient exposure to it, particularly during critical developmental periods, is sure to write a sufficiently accurate image of it on mind and body in a punctuated manner so as to initiate or promote similarly progressively punctuated developmental disorder, in essence either a staged failure affecting large-scale brain connectivity, which is the sine qua non of human consciousness, or else damaging the ability of embedding goal contexts to contain conscious dynamics. Conclusion The key intervention, at the population level, is clearly to limit exposure to factors triggering developmental disorders, a question of proper environmental sanitation, in a large sense, primarily a matter of social justice which has long been known to be determined almost entirely by the interactions of cultural trajectory, group power relations, and economic structure, with public policy. Intervention at the individual level appears limited to triggering or extending periods of remission, representing reestablishment of an extensive, but largely unexplored, spectrum of evolved control strategies, in contrast with the far better-understood case of cancer. PMID:16371149

  9. Mental health disorders and solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Parker, Richard; Webb, Kerry; Neuberger, James M

    2013-10-15

    Depression affects up to 60% of solid-organ recipients and is independently associated with both mortality (hazard ratio for death of ~2) and de novo malignancy after transplantation, although the mechanism is not clear. Both pretransplantation psychosis and depression occurring more than 2 years after transplantation are associated with increased noncompliance and graft loss. It remains to be shown that effective treatment of depression is associated with improved outcomes and quality of life. Immunosuppressive drugs (especially corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors) and physiologic challenges can precipitate deterioration in mental health. All potential transplant candidates should be assessed for mental health problems and preexisting medical conditions that can mimic mental health problems, such as uremic, hepatic, or hypoxic encephalopathy, should be identified and treated appropriately. Expert mental health review of those with identified risk factors (such as previous suicide attempts, history of mental illness or noncompliance with medications) is advisable early in the transplant assessment process to mitigate risk and support the patient. Patients with mental health disorders, when adequately controlled and socially supported, have outcomes similar to the general transplant population. Therefore, exclusion from transplantation based on the diagnosis alone is neither ethically nor medically justified. However, it is ethically and clinically justifiable to deny access to transplantation to those who, despite full support, would have a quality of life that is unacceptable to the candidate or are likely to be noncompliant with treatment or follow-up, which would lead to graft loss.

  10. An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; Molina, J D; Rubio, G; Alamo, C

    2011-08-01

    Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the ventricular system, a hypothesis that took on more vigour during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The framework for this theory was "the three cells of the brain", in which the pineal gland was even called the "appendix of thought". The pineal gland could also be associated with the boom, during this period, of certain legends about the "stone of folly". But the most relevant psychopathological role of this organ arrived with Descartes, who proposed that it was the seat of the human soul and controlled communications between the physical body and its surroundings, including emotions. After a period of decline during which it was considered as a mere vestigial remnant of evolution, the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, first with the use of glandular extracts in patients with mental deficiency, and finally with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The physiological properties of melatonin reawakened interest in the relationship between the pineal gland and mental disorders, fundamentally the affective and sleep disorders, which culminated in the development of new pharmacological agents acting through melatonergic receptors (ramelteon and agomelatine).

  11. Yoruba traditional healers in psychiatry. I. Healers' concepts of the nature and aetiology of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, R O

    1987-06-01

    Twenty Yoruba traditional healers specializing in mental disorders were studied. Two main groups of mental disorders were identified, asinwin (psychotic disorders) and ode ori (a less severe disorder with prominent somatic symptoms). The further sub-categorization of mental disorders was largely on an aetiological basis. The most important aetiological factors identified were: the actions of enemies with major emphasis on the deployment of supernatural forces; self-induced disorders, of which cannabis abuse was the most frequently quoted example; soponna (small-pox) and 'hereditary' factors. The healers' beliefs regarding mode of hereditary transmission of mental disorders were very different from those of modern medicine.

  12. Paraventricular meningioma revealed by mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hilmani, Said; Houass, Yassine; El Azhari, Abdessamad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ventricular meningioma constitutes 2% of intracranial meningioma, representing a challenging disease for neurosurgeons. Although cognitive impairment is one of the major symptoms of ventricular tumors, few studies have reported the details of cognitive impairment before and after their surgical removal. The expected effects on cognitive function should also be considered when choosing a surgical approach. Case Descriptions: We report the case of a large lateral ventricle meningioma revealed by cognitive dysfunction and moderate intellectual disability. The patient underwent subtotal resection of the tumor which had partial improvement in cognitive disorders. It is important to precisely assess neuropsychological function in patients with large brain tumors, and judicious preoperative plan, adequate knowledge of anatomy, and use of correct microsurgical techniques are fundamental in achieving complete resection of paraventricular meningioma with low morbidity. Conclusion: Pre and postoperative precise neuropsychological examinations may identify the potential cognitive impairment and beneficial effects of surgery in patients with large lateral ventricle meningiomas. PMID:28144473

  13. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... good work. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD), is a national nonprofit organization that ... 2017 by Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). All Rights Reserved. Press Privacy Attention ...

  14. Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder Display More Impairments in Mentalizing.

    PubMed

    Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.

  15. Childhood Determinants of Adult Psychiatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fryers, Tom; Brugha, Traolach

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the current evidence from longitudinal studies for childhood determinants of adult mental illness. Because of the variable and often prolonged period between factors in childhood and the identification of mental illness in adults, prospective studies, particularly birth cohorts, offer the best chance of demonstrating associations in individuals. A review was undertaken in 2006 of the published literature from longitudinal studies, together with some large-scale retrospective studies and relevant reviews which provided supplementary evidence. The main focus was upon potentially ameliorable characteristics, experiences or situations of childhood; however, other factors, not determinants but pre-cursors, associated with later mental illness could not be left out. Seven major electronic data-bases of published research were interrogated with a range of key-words and the results supplemented from personal searches, enquiries and reference trails. In excess of 1,500 abstracts were read to select 250 papers for full review. The material was assessed in relation to ten factors: Psychological disturbance; Genetic Influences; Neurological Deviance; Neuroticism; Behaviour; School Performance; Adversity; Child Abuse or Neglect; Parenting and parent-child relationships; Disrupted and Disfunctional Families. In 2011 the search was repeated for the period 2006 to mid-2011, using the same search terms and supplemented in the same manner. Over 1,800 abstracts emerged and almost 200 papers selected for more detailed review. These were then integrated into the original text with modifications where necessary. The whole text was then revised and edited in January / February 2012. There is continuing evidence for the association with later mental ill-health for each of these ten factors, but with different degrees of conviction. The evidence for each is discussed in detail and weighed both separately and in relation to others. These are then

  16. Cognitive interviewing methods for questionnaire pre-testing in homeless persons with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Adair, Carol E; Holland, Anna C; Patterson, Michelle L; Mason, Kate S; Goering, Paula N; Hwang, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    In this study, cognitive interviewing methods were used to test targeted questionnaire items from a battery of quantitative instruments selected for a large multisite trial of supported housing interventions for homeless individuals with mental disorders. Most of the instruments had no published psychometrics in this population. Participants were 30 homeless adults with mental disorders (including substance use disorders) recruited from service agencies in Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Toronto, Canada. Six interviewers, trained in cognitive interviewing methods and using standard interview schedules, conducted the interviews. Questions and, in some cases, instructions, for testing were selected from existing instruments according to a priori criteria. Items on physical and mental health status, housing quality and living situation, substance use, health and justice system service use, and community integration were tested. The focus of testing was on relevance, comprehension, and recall, and on sensitivity/acceptability for this population. Findings were collated across items by site and conclusions validated by interviewers. There was both variation and similarity of responses for identified topics of interest. With respect to relevance, many items on the questionnaires were not applicable to homeless people. Comprehension varied considerably; thus, both checks on understanding and methods to assist comprehension and recall are recommended, particularly for participants with acute symptoms of mental illness and those with cognitive impairment. The acceptability of items ranged widely across the sample, but findings were consistent with previous literature, which indicates that "how you ask" is as important as "what you ask." Cognitive interviewing methods worked well and elicited information crucial to effective measurement in this unique population. Pretesting study instruments, including standard instruments, for use in special populations such as homeless

  17. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-05-01

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment.

  18. Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: a study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Parmelee, Patricia; Allen, Rebecca S

    2011-01-01

    Language barriers pose problems in mental health care for foreign-born individuals in the United States. Immigrants with psychiatric disorders may be at particular risk but are currently understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on mental health service use among immigrant adults with psychiatric disorders. Drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), Latino and Asian immigrant adults aged 18-86 with any instrument-determined mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder (n = 372) were included in the present analysis. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that having health insurance, poor self-rated mental health, and more psychiatric disorders were independently associated with higher probability of mental health service use in the Latino group. After controlling for all background characteristics and mental health need factors, LEP significantly decreased odds of mental health service use among Latino immigrants. None of the factors including LEP predicted mental health service use among Asian immigrants, who were also the least likely to access such services. LEP was a barrier to mental health service use among Latino immigrants with psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that future approaches to interventions might be well advised to include not only enhancing the availability of bilingual service providers and interpretation services but also increasing awareness of such options for at least Latino immigrants. In addition, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can enhance access to mental health care services among Asians.

  19. Mental disorder that afflicted King David the Great.

    PubMed

    Ben-Noun, Liubov

    2004-12-01

    This research uses the tools of modern medical science to study ancient descriptions of the symptoms suffered by King David. Biblical texts were examined, with a close study of verses relating to the mental disorder that afflicted King David, the second and greatest King of Israel, who ruled more than 3525 years ago. We include no commentaries, but refer only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. Evaluation of the passages referring to King David indicated that he was afflicted by some mental disorder, and among the many possibilities major depression, dysthymia and minor depression are the most likely. Of these diagnoses, major depression seems the most acceptable. This report suggests that the roots of contemporary psychiatry can be traced back to Biblical times.

  20. Coexistence and independence between a mental disorder and female stalking.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; La Tegola, Donatella; Alfarano, Egle

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies of female stalkers in literature addressing different study populations. There appears to be a high incidence of mental disease among female stalkers, having an important role in inducing the harassment. We present a woman affected by a bipolar disorder who had a long affair with her victim, broken off in 2007. Stalking began in January 2009 and continued for 6 months, during which time she was not taking drugs and was in a decompensated clinical phase. In July 2009, she was denounced for harassment; the authorities demanded a psychiatric examination. The woman then resumed taking the medication regularly. In December 2009, although she was in complete remission, she began stalking once more. This case shows that even when there seems to be an evident relation between psychopathology and crime, it is always necessary to evaluate to what extent the mental disorder is responsible for the criminal behavior.

  1. Mentally disordered offenders and the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Prior, Pauline M

    2007-01-01

    Mentally disordered offenders find themselves at the intersection of the healthcare system and the criminal justice system in most European countries. Decisions on their care often involve lengthy discussions in relation to care versus control in society. In this article, the focus is on one aspect of this debate - that of human rights. An analysis of cases, taken to the European Court of Human Rights by mentally disordered offenders, demonstrates the difficulties inherent in ensuring appropriate care to individuals and safeguards to the public at the same time. The issues raised include the problems raised by indeterminate sentences, the use of detention for preventive purposes, and debates about treatment. The countries represented in this selection of cases are Belgium, Norway, Poland, the Netherlands, Russia and the United Kingdom.

  2. Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Stier, Marco

    2013-09-09

    The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is-due to scientific progress-currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions.

  3. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders. PMID:27051536

  4. Clozapine's Effect on Recidivism Among Offenders with Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Depiang, Gu

    2016-03-01

    Mental disorder is associated with criminal reoffending, especially violent acts of offending. Features of mental disorder, psychosocial stresses, substance use disorder, and personality disorder combine to increase the risk of criminal recidivism. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is indicated in the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. This article is the report of a community follow-up study of a matched control of those treated with clozapine (n = 41) and those treated with other antipsychotics (n = 21). Rates of reoffending behavior in the general, nonviolent, violent, and sexual categories were calculated after two years of follow-up. Although not statistically significant, the two-year criminal conviction rates of those treated with other antipsychotics in all offense categories except sexual reoffending were two-fold higher than in those treated with clozapine. The time from release to the first offense and crime-free time in the community were significantly longer in the clozapine group. By prolonging the time it takes from release to first offense, clozapine confers additional crime-reduction advantages.

  5. [Professional stressors and common mental health disorders: Causal links?

    PubMed

    Nicolas, C; Chawky, N; Jourdan-Ionescu, C; Drouin, M-S; Page, C; Houlfort, N; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M

    2017-03-22

    According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link.

  6. Dimensional psychiatry: mental disorders as dysfunctions of basic learning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Beck, Anne; Wackerhagen, Carolin

    2016-08-01

    It has been questioned that the more than 300 mental disorders currently listed in international disease classification systems all have a distinct neurobiological correlate. Here, we support the idea that basic dimensions of mental dysfunctions, such as alterations in reinforcement learning, can be identified, which interact with individual vulnerability and psychosocial stress factors and, thus, contribute to syndromes of distress across traditional nosological boundaries. We further suggest that computational modeling of learning behavior can help to identify specific alterations in reinforcement-based decision-making and their associated neurobiological correlates. For example, attribution of salience to drug-related cues associated with dopamine dysfunction in addiction can increase habitual decision-making via promotion of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer as indicated by computational modeling of the effect of Pavlovian-conditioned stimuli (here affectively positive or alcohol-related cues) on instrumental approach and avoidance behavior. In schizophrenia, reward prediction errors can be modeled computationally and associated with functional brain activation, thus revealing reduced encoding of such learning signals in the ventral striatum and compensatory activation in the frontal cortex. With respect to negative mood states, it has been shown that both reduced functional activation of the ventral striatum elicited by reward-predicting stimuli and stress-associated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in interaction with reduced serotonin transporter availability and increased amygdala activation by aversive cues contribute to clinical depression; altogether these observations support the notion that basic learning mechanisms, such as Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer, represent a basic dimension of mental disorders that can be mechanistically characterized using computational modeling and

  7. Role of common mental and physical disorders in partial disability around the world

    PubMed Central

    Bruffaerts, Ronny; Vilagut, Gemma; Demyttenaere, Koen; Alonso, Jordi; AlHamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Varghese, Matthew; Williams, David R.; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental and physical disorders are associated with total disability, but their effects on days with partial disability (i.e. the ability to perform some, but not full-role, functioning in daily life) are not well understood. Aims To estimate individual (i.e. the consequences for an individual with a disorder) and societal effects (i.e. the avoidable partial disability in the society due to disorders) of mental and physical disorders on days with partial disability around the world. Method Respondents from 26 nationally representative samples (n = 61 259, age 18+) were interviewed regarding mental and physical disorders, and day-to-day functioning. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess mental disorders; partial disability (expressed in full day equivalents) was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule in the CIDI 3.0. Results Respondents with disorders reported about 1.58 additional disability days per month compared with respondents without disorders. At the individual level, mental disorders (especially post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and bipolar disorder) yielded a higher number of days with disability than physical disorders. At the societal level, the population attributable risk proportion due to physical and mental disorders was 49% and 15% respectively. Conclusions Mental and physical disorders have a considerable impact on partial disability, at both the individual and at the societal level. Physical disorders yielded higher effects on partial disability than mental disorders. PMID:22539779

  8. [DRD4 polymorphism and the association with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Samudio, Ana Julia; Nicolini, Humberto

    2005-01-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is the most important gene in psychiatric genetics since its involvement in the physiology of behavior, pharmacology response and psychopathology. DRD4's sequence gene present some polymorphism such as in the exon 3 constituted from 2 to 10 copies of repetitive sequences of 48 base pair (bp), from class variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). An additional genetic variant in the exon 1 presents polymorphisms to 12 bp VNTR, and the variation -521 C by T of the promoter region. The -521 T allele can reduce the efficiency of the gene expression in comparison with the C allele. The DRD4 gene codes a protein transmembranal of 7 domains, distributed in front cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus. This review discusses the biological significance of DRD4 gene and its perspective with emphasis on the impact of association studies in some illness mental and behavioral traits. The DRD4 polymorphism has been studied in association with illnesses like schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive with tics, bipolar manic-depressive disorder, in addition behavioral traits such as novelty seeking. The DRD4 gene is a genetic marker that could play a role in etiology of different mental illness, and behavioral traits, and its polymorphism can be used in association studies, epigenetic and pharmacogenomic analysis for help to understand the genetics basis of both mental disorders and traits.

  9. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    Mental health professionals seldom recognize psychopathy in their daily practice. Usually forensic psychiatrists and psychologists are involved because individuals with psychopathic personality are involved in serious criminal behavior and implicated with the law. Most of the times the profiles of children who evolve in adult psychopaths have components from other disorders, especially conduct disorder. The term psychopathy originates from the Greek words "psyche" (soul) and "pathos" (passion) and was used to identify initially every mental illness. Although in the bibliography the terms Antisocial Personality Disorder, Psychopathic Personality, Psychopathy and Sociopathy are used as synonyms, it has not been clarified if the Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality constitute two different entities or if the latter constitutes the more serious and hard core subtype of the first. The prevalence of Psychopathic Personality in the general population is estimated as 1%, with the proportion of men: women to be 3:1. The adult male psychopaths are responsible for almost 50% of the serious criminal behavior. Diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality is completed with the use of specific psychometric tools: Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV). The most recognizable elements of psychopathy are the non-existence of conscience and their shallow emotional relations. They are individuals with persuasion, that use the suitable phraseology in order to approach, impress and charm their prey. Nuclear characteristic is the inability to feel guilt, remorse and the nonexistence of moral rules. They lose their temper easily and present aggressiveness without obvious or insignificant reason. They develop various antisocial behaviors that are repeated with success, the gravity of violent behavior tends to increase and they have problems with the law. Nevertheless, people with Psychopathic Personality at one point

  10. Attachment and mentalization in female patients with comorbid narcissistic and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Diana; Levy, Kenneth N; Clarkin, John F; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Cain, Nicole M; Doering, Stephan; Hörz, Susanne; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-10-01

    We investigated attachment representations and the capacity for mentalization in a sample of adult female borderline patients with and without comorbid narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Participants were 22 borderline patients diagnosed with comorbid NPD (NPD/BPD) and 129 BPD patients without NPD (BPD) from 2 randomized clinical trials. Attachment and mentalization were assessed on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996). Results showed that as expected, compared with the BPD group, the NPD/BPD group was significantly more likely to be categorized as either dismissing or cannot classify on the AAI, whereas the BPD group was more likely to be classified as either preoccupied or unresolved for loss and abuse than was the NPD/BPD group. Both groups of patients scored low on mentalizing, and there were no significant differences between the groups, indicating that both NPD/BPD and BPD individuals showed deficits in this capacity. The clinical implications of the group differences in AAI classification are discussed with a focus on how understanding the attachment representations of NPD/BPD patients helps to illuminate their complex, contradictory mental states.

  11. Experiences of Domestic Violence and Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trevillion, Kylee; Oram, Siân; Feder, Gene; Howard, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the extent to which being a victim of domestic violence is associated with different mental disorders in men and women. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of being a victim of domestic violence by diagnostic category and sex. Methods Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources: Eighteen biomedical and social sciences databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO); journal hand searches; scrutiny of references and citation tracking of included articles; expert recommendations, and an update of a systematic review on victimisation and mental disorder. Inclusion criteria: observational and intervention studies reporting prevalence or odds of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women (aged ≥16 years), using validated diagnostic measures of mental disorder. Procedure: Data were extracted and study quality independently appraised by two reviewers. Analysis: Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool estimates of prevalence and odds. Results Forty-one studies were included. There is a higher risk of experiencing adult lifetime partner violence among women with depressive disorders (OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.96–3.92), anxiety disorders (OR 4.08 (95% CI 2.39–6.97), and PTSD (OR 7.34 95% CI 4.50–11.98), compared to women without mental disorders. Insufficient data were available to calculate pooled odds for other mental disorders, family violence (i.e. violence perpetrated by a non-partner), or violence experienced by men. Individual studies reported increased odds for women and men for all diagnostic categories, including psychoses, with a higher prevalence reported for women. Few longitudinal studies were found so the direction of causality could not be investigated. Conclusions There is a high prevalence and increased likelihood of being a victim of domestic violence in men and women across all diagnostic categories, compared to people without disorders. Longitudinal studies are needed to

  12. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent COPD diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Rapsey, Charlene M.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, J.M.; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Elena Medina-Mora, María; Murphy, Sam; Ono, Yutaka; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose; ten Have, Margreet; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Scott, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives COPD and mental disorder comorbidity is commonly reported, although findings are limited by substantive weaknesses. Moreover, few studies investigate mental disorder as a risk for COPD onset. This research aims to investigate associations between current (12-month) DSM-IV mental disorders and COPD, associations between temporally prior mental disorders and subsequent COPD diagnosis, and cumulative effect of multiple mental disorders. Methods Data were collected using population surveys of 19 countries (n = 52,095). COPD diagnosis was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis. The World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to retrospectively assess lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV disorders. Adjusting for age, gender, smoking, education, and country, survival analysis estimated associations between first onset of mental disorder and subsequent COPD diagnosis. Results COPD and several mental disorders were concurrently associated across the 12-month period (ORs 1.5–3.8). When examining associations between temporally prior disorders and COPD, all but two mental disorders were associated with COPD diagnosis (ORs 1.7–3.5). After comorbidity adjustment, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with COPD (ORs 1.6–1.8). There was a substantive cumulative risk of COPD diagnosis following multiple mental disorders experienced over the lifetime. Conclusions: Mental disorder prevalence is higher in those with COPD than those without COPD. Over time, mental disorders are associated with subsequent diagnosis of COPD; further, the risk is cumulative for multiple diagnoses. Attention should be given to the role of mental disorders in the pathogenesis of COPD using prospective study designs. PMID:26526305

  13. Modeling Mental Health Information Preferences During the Early Adult Years: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Walker, John R.; Eastwood, John D.; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P.; Bracken, Keyna

    2013-01-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtual segment (28.7%) preferred working independently on the Internet to obtain information recommended by young adults who had experienced anxiety or depression. Self-assessment options and links to service providers were more important to this segment. Conventional participants (30.1%) preferred books or pamphlets recommended by a doctor, endorsed by mental health professionals, and used with a doctor's support. They would devote more time to information acquisition but were less likely to use Internet social networking options. Brief sources of information were more important to the low interest segment (41.2%). All segments preferred information about alternative ways to reduce anxiety or depression rather than psychological approaches or medication. Maximizing the use of information requires active and passive approaches delivered through old-media (e.g. books) and new-media (e.g., Internet) channels. PMID:24266450

  14. Child Sexual Assault as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders among Women: A Community Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Benjamin E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Screened 391 women for a history of sexual assault during childhood and then assessed subjects for mental disorders. Results indicate that rape and molestation, but not noncontact sexual assault, increased incidents of mental disorders, suggesting that physical sexual contact leads to severe mental health effects. Other findings are discussed.…

  15. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  16. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  17. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  18. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  19. 32 CFR 147.11 - Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guideline I-Emotional, mental, and personality... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.11 Guideline I—Emotional, mental, and personality disorders. (a) The concern: Emotional, mental, and personality disorders can cause a significant deficit in...

  20. Socio-economic deprivation and duration of hospital stay in severe mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Abas, Melanie Amna; Vanderpyl, Jane; Robinson, Elizabeth; Le Prou, Trix; Crampton, Peter

    2006-06-01

    Adults from South Auckland, New Zealand who required acute admission to hospital were followed from admission to discharge. After adjusting for demographic factors, diagnosis, chronicity, severity, consultant psychiatrist and involuntary admission, the length of stay for those from more deprived areas was significantly longer by 7 days than for those from less deprived areas. Information on socio-economic deprivation should be used in discharge planning and in optimising access to community care. Research is needed on group-level factors that may affect recovery from mental disorders.

  1. Professionally responsible intrapartum management of patients with major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Kriste E; Bailey, Kala J; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with major mental disorders present obstetricians with a range of clinical challenges, which are magnified when a psychotic or agitated patient presents in labor and there is limited time for decision making. This article provides the obstetrician with an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making with these patients. We searched for articles related to the intrapartum management of pregnant patients with major mental disorders, using 3 main search components: pregnancy, chronic mental illness, and ethics. No articles were found that addressed the clinical ethical challenges of decision making during the intrapartum period with these patients. We therefore developed an ethical framework with 4 components: the concept of the fetus as a patient; the presumption of decision-making capacity; the concept of assent; and beneficence-based clinical judgment. On the basis of this framework we propose an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making that asks 5 questions: (1) Does the patient have the capacity to consent to treatment?; (2) Is there time to attempt restoration of capacity?; (3) Is there an opportunity for substituted judgment?; (4) Is the patient accepting treatment?; (5) Is there an opportunity for active assent?; and (6) coerced clinical management as the least worst alternative. The algorithm is designed to support a deliberative, clinically comprehensive, preventive-ethics approach to guide obstetricians in decision making with this challenging population of patients.

  2. Type 2 diabetes and mental disorders; a plausible link with inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hajebrahimi, B; Kiamanesh, A; Asgharnejad Farid, A A; Asadikaram, G

    2016-11-30

    Mental disorders including depression and anxiety are the prevalent human diseases which are associated with several metabolic and non-metabolic diseases. Recent investigations demonstrated that the mental disorders can be considered as the potential inducers/stimulators of chronic inflammation. Based on the fact that chronic inflammation is a main cause of human diseases, hence, a hypothesis has been raised to explore the interaction between mental disorders and inflammation related metabolic diseases. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), as a complicated metabolic disorder, is associated with inflammation and also mental disorders. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that depression and anxiety, as mental disorders may be the inducers/stimulators of inflammation in the patients suffering from T2D. This review article collected recent information regarding the roles of mental disorders on the chronic inflammation in the T2D patients.

  3. Carers' representations of affective mental disorders in British Chinese communities.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Infrequent use of and delayed presentation to professional services have increased the burden of mental illness in minority ethnic communities. Within the growing literature on informal carers, the Chinese remain relatively unstudied. This article reports a qualitative study of 14 carers to explore illness representations of affective disorders in British Chinese communities. Firstly, it places the study within a theoretical framework that permits an understanding of mental health and illness in different sociocultural belief systems. Next, it presents carers' narrative accounts in conceptualising mental illness, including its causes, manifestations and impact on patients and carers, and contextualises the findings within the existing literature. Finally, the article examines how the caring role may be constructed from the broader social experience of carers and their relationships within a community structure that values the group over the individual. Coping mechanisms are discussed in the context of the practice of caring as a moral obligation and of policy implications for more culturally appropriate support services for both Chinese carers and mental health patients.

  4. Myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Jugal; Gupta, Avni; Jiloha, Ram Chander; Bantman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in general population and medical professionals of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 436 subjects (360 subjects from urban and rural communities of Delhi and 76 medical professionals working in different organizations in Delhi). A pre-tested questionnaire consisting items on perceptions, myths, and beliefs about causes, treatment, and health-seeking behavior for mental disorders was used. The collected data were statistically analyzed using computer software package Epi-info. Appropriate tests of significance were applied to detect any significant association. Results: The mental disorders were thought to be because of loss of semen or vaginal secretion (33.9% rural, 8.6% urban, 1.3% professionals), less sexual desire (23.7% rural, 18% urban), excessive masturbation (15.3% rural, 9.8% urban), God's punishment for their past sins (39.6% rural, 20.7% urban, 5.2% professionals), and polluted air (51.5% rural, 11.5% urban, 5.2% professionals). More people (37.7%) living in joint families than in nuclear families (26.5%) believed that sadness and unhappiness cause mental disorders. 34.8% of the rural subjects and 18% of the urban subjects believed that children do not get mental disorders, which means they have conception of adult-oriented mental disorders. 40.2% in rural areas, 33.3% in urban areas, and 7.9% professionals believed that mental illnesses are untreatable. Many believed that psychiatrists are eccentric (46.1% rural, 8.4% urban, 7.9% professionals), tend to know nothing, and do nothing (21.5% rural, 13.7% urban, 3.9% professionals), while 74.4% of rural subjects, 37.1% of urban subjects, and 17.6% professionals did not know that psychiatry is a branch of medicine. More people in rural areas than in urban area thought that keeping fasting or a faith healer can cure them from mental illnesses, whereas

  5. Revising the personality disorder diagnostic criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-V): consider the later life context.

    PubMed

    Balsis, Steve; Segal, Daniel L; Donahue, Cailin

    2009-10-01

    The categorical measurement approach implemented by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) personality disorder (PD) diagnostic system is theoretically and pragmatically limited. As a result, many prominent psychologists now advocate for a shift away from this approach in favor of more conceptually sound dimensional measurement. This shift is expected to improve the psychometric properties of the personality disorder (PD) diagnostic system and make it more useful for clinicians and researchers. The current article suggests that despite the probable benefits of such a change, several limitations will remain if the new diagnostic system does not closely consider the context of later life. A failure to address the unique challenges associated with the assessment of personality in older adults likely will result in the continued limited validity, reliability, and utility of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) system for this growing population. This article discusses these limitations and their possible implications.

  6. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  7. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p < 0.001) and all personality traits (range, p = 0.03 to p = 0.001) improved, but there was almost no correlation between changes on these 2 measures. Conversely, of 11 Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  8. Listening to Older Adult Parents of Adult Children with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…

  9. Pubertal testosterone predicts mental rotation performance of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J

    2012-11-01

    Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability.

  10. Nightmare frequency in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Bumb, J Malte; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther

    2017-02-01

    Nightmare frequency in adult ADHD patients has not yet been studied systematically. In a sample of 65 patients, it could be shown that nightmare frequency was elevated in ADHD patients compared to a sample representative for Germany. Frequent nightmares (once a week or more often) were reported by 4.62 % of the patients and 1.77 % of the controls. This increase was neither explained by the increased dream recall in general nor by the presence of a comorbid mental disorder. Questions about nightmares should be included in the diagnostic procedures for ADHD patients, and it should be tested whether well-established nightmare treatment strategies like imagery rehearsal treatment might be beneficial to those patients with nightmares.

  11. Substance use, mental illness and violence: the co-occurrence of problem behaviors among young adults.

    PubMed

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Williams, James Herbert; Del-Colle, Melissa; Hawkins, J David

    2009-10-01

    A paucity of research exists in which the co-occurrence of substance use, mental illness, and violence in young adults is examined. Concurrently, there is also a lack of research explicating the contribution of theoretically based risk factors for these problematic outcomes in this population. This lack of both outcome and explanatory research equally affects the utility of theories and interventions for this population. This article utilizes a sample of N = 633 21-year-olds to examine the prevalence of (1) violence and substance use, (2) mental illness (i.e., mood and anxiety disorders) and substance use, and (3) the use of multiple substances and investigates the relationship between various social determinants and said outcomes. Overall, the prevalence rates for the comorbid conditions were low; although on average males had higher rates than did females. Individual attitudes, perceived opportunities, and recent stressful life events were associated with the co-occurrence of outcomes. Implications for behavioral health are explored.

  12. Learning Journeys: A Resource Handbook on Adult Learning and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue

    This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…

  13. The ABE/AMH Manual. An Instructional Guide for ABE Programs Serving Mentally Handicapped Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Scott C.; Edgar, S. Keith

    This handbook provides adult basic education teachers with instructional materials for working with adult mentally handicapped students. Section 1 examines planning programs for adult mentally retarded students (getting started, specific considerations, various kinds of program sites) and implementing instruction (staff selection and training).…

  14. The Empirical Evidence for Telemedicine Interventions in Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Gary W.; Bashshur, Noura; Yellowlees, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem and Objective: This research derives from the confluence of several factors, namely, the prevalence of a complex array of mental health issues across age, social, ethnic, and economic groups, an increasingly critical shortage of mental health professionals and the associated disability and productivity loss in the population, and the potential of telemental health (TMH) to ameliorate these problems. Definitive information regarding the true merit of telemedicine applications and intervention is now of paramount importance among policymakers, providers of care, researchers, payers, program developers, and the public at large. This is necessary for rational policymaking, prudent resource allocation decisions, and informed strategic planning. This article is aimed at assessing the state of scientific knowledge regarding the merit of telemedicine interventions in the treatment of mental disorders (TMH) in terms of feasibility/acceptance, effects on medication compliance, health outcomes, and cost. Materials and Methods: We started by casting a wide net to identify the relevant studies and to examine in detail the content of studies that met the eligibility criteria for inclusion. Only studies that met rigorous methodological criteria were included. Necessary details include the specific nature and content of the intervention, the research methodology, clinical focus, technological configuration, and the modality of the intervention. Results: The published scientific literature on TMH reveals strong and consistent evidence of the feasibility of this modality of care and its acceptance by its intended users, as well as uniform indication of improvement in symptomology and quality of life among patients across a broad range of demographic and diagnostic groups. Similarly, positive trends are shown in terms of cost savings. Conclusion: There is substantial empirical evidence for supporting the use of telemedicine interventions in patients with mental

  15. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  16. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  17. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  18. 78 FR 72571 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...)) and respiratory system disorders (78 FR 7968 (2013)), and provide criteria for evaluating growth... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH49 Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System... expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in...

  19. Evidenced-Based Practice for Anxiety Disorders in College Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health concerns in the United States and they tend to be among the most frequently reported in college mental health. While efficacious research for the psychotherapy treatment of specific anxiety disorders (e.g., social phobia, panic disorder, etc.) exists, the picture is more complex in clinical…

  20. Acculturation stress, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence in a select population of young adult Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gilder, David A.; Criado, Jose R.; Caetano, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the U.S. and within this population the process of acculturation has been suggested to be associated with some mental health problems. This study sought to ascertain quantitative information indexing acculturation stress and its association with mental health disorders in a select community sample of Mexican Americans. Methods Demographic information, DSM-III-R diagnoses, and information on cultural identity and acculturation stress were obtained from 240 Mexican American young adults that were recruited by fliers and were residing in selected areas of San Diego. Results No associations were found between measures of cultural identification and lifetime diagnoses of drug or alcohol dependence, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders or antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder in this sample of Mexican American young adults. However, lifetime diagnoses of alcohol dependence, substance dependence, and anxiety disorders were associated with elevations in acculturation stress. Conclusion Quantitative measures of acculturation stress, but not cultural identity per se, were found to be significantly associated with substance dependence and anxiety disorders in this select population of Mexican American young adults. These data may be helpful in designing prevention and intervention programs for this high risk population. PMID:20161543

  1. Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Childhood Disorder Grows Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    Asperger syndrome is a chronic developmental disorder characterized by problems in social relatedness, empathic communication and understanding, and circumscribed interests. The inclusion of Asperger's Disorder (Asperger syndrome) in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), has…

  2. Cognitive Training in Mental Disorders: Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Rumsey, Judith; Sherrill, Joel; Wagner, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we review the conceptual basis, definitions, and evolution of cognitive training (CT) approaches for the treatment of mental disorders. Method We review the current state of the knowledge on CT in psychiatric illnesses, and its neural and behavioral targets, and summarize the factors that appear to relate to a successful response to CT, including learner characteristics that influence clinical outcome. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to the development and testing of CT approaches, with the goal of creating maximally efficient and effective approaches to training. Finally, we identify gaps in existing knowledge, and outline key research directions for the future. Results While much of the early work has been conducted in schizophrenia, CT has more recently been applied to a widening range of neuropsychiatric illnesses, including attention deficit disorder, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. CT harnesses the inherent neuroplastic capacities of the brain, targeting neural system function across psychiatric disorders, and thus improving cognitive processes that play a role in emotion regulation, clinical symptoms, and adaptive community functioning. Conclusions CT offers considerable promise, especially given the limited efficacy of pharmacological interventions in ameliorating cognitive deficits. However, more work is needed to understand mechanisms underlying CT, predictors of response, generalization and real-world applicability, and approaches to dissemination in practice settings. PMID:24700194

  3. [Mental disorders in children after the sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Proselkova, M E; Kozlovskaia, G V; Platonova, N V

    2006-01-01

    Consequences of intrafamily noncontact abuse (40 children aged from 3 to 13 years) and out-of-family contact abuse (15 children aged from 7 to 15 years) have been studied. The intrafamily abuse was long-term and demanded from a child the immersion into situation of "secrecy". The out-of-family abuse had a character of the extreme influence upon a victim. Independently of the abuse character, border-line mental disorders were found in all children. A character of these disorders was determined by the specifics of psychogenic factor, its duration and child's age. A decreased mood, different levels of autism and disturbances of cognitive function were common features of border-line disorders. In cases of intrafamily abuse, uncontrolled drives, sexual character of games and fantasies, elements of depersonalization and age-specific transformation of affective disorders from depressiveness to dysphoric aggressive reactions were observed. In the out-of-family contact abuse, especially in teenagers, the main appearances approached to posttraumatic stress syndrome. In all cases, there was a trend to stronger differentiation of affective disorders, intensification of drives and formation of characteristic pathologic changes as children get older.

  4. Hyperserotonemia in adults with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Vragovic, Renata; Vuk, Tomislav; Hock, Karlo; Jernej, Branimir

    2007-11-01

    Hyperserotonemia is the most consistent serotonin-related finding in autism. The basis of this phenomenon, and its relationship to the central serotonergic dysfunction remains unclear. Platelet serotonin level (PSL) in 53 autistic adults and 45 healthy controls was measured. Mean PSL in autistic group (75.7 +/- 37.4 ng/microL) was significantly higher than the control sample (59.2 +/- 16.2 ng/microL) due to a presence of hyperserotonemic subjects which comprised 32% of the patients. PSL of autistic subjects did not correlate with the severity of symptoms, as measured by total CARS score, or the degree of mental retardation. However, significant negative relationship was observed between PSL and speech development, indicating the relationship between the peripheral 5HT concentrations and verbal abilities in autistic subjects.

  5. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Foster Youth Transitioning to Adulthood: Past Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Havlicek, Judy; Garcia, Antonio; Smith, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    At a time when there is increasing attention being given to systematically integrating the well-being of children with the goals of safety and permanence in child welfare, little is known about the psychosocial functioning of foster youth transitioning to adulthood from substitute care. This article systematically reviews 17 peer-reviewed articles and/or research reports to identify lifetime and past year prevalence rates of mental health disorders and service utilization. At ages 17 or 18, foster youth are 2 to 4 times more likely to suffer from lifetime and/or past year mental health disorders compared to transition aged youth in the general population. Findings show that mental health service use declines at ages when the prevalence rate of mental health disorders is peaking. The findings of this review suggest the need to focus future efforts in three main areas: 1) Setting a common research agenda for the study of mental health and service use; 2) Routine screening and empirically supported treatments; and 3) Integration and planning between child and adult mental health service systems. PMID:23766549

  6. Public beliefs about treatment and outcome of mental disorders: a comparison of Australia and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Christensen, Helen; Yoshioka, Kumiko; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Wata, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Background Surveys of the public in a number of countries have shown poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment that often diverge from those of health professionals. This lack of mental health literacy can limit the optimal use of treatment services. Australia and Japan are countries with very different mental health care systems, with Japan emphasising hospital care and Australia more oriented to community care. Japan is also more collectivist and Australia more individualist in values. These differences might influence recognition of disorders and beliefs about treatment in the two countries. Methods Surveys of the public were carried out in each country using as similar a methodology as feasible. In both countries, household interviews were carried out concerning beliefs in relation to one of four case vignettes, describing either depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia or chronic schizophrenia. In Australia, the survey involved a national sample of 3998 adults aged 18 years or over. In Japan, the survey involved 2000 adults aged between 20 and 69 from 25 regional sites spread across the country. Results The Japanese public were found to be more reluctant to use psychiatric labels, particularly for the depression cases. The Japanese were also more reluctant to discuss mental disorders with others outside the family. They had a strong belief in counsellors, but not in GPs. They generally believe in the benefits of treatment, but are not optimistic about full recovery. By contrast, Australians used psychiatric labels more often, particularly "depression". They were also more positive about the benefits of seeking professional help, but had a strong preference for lifestyle interventions and tended to be negative about some psychiatric medications. Australians were positive about both counsellors and GPs. Psychiatric hospitalization and ECT were seen negatively in both countries. Conclusion There are some major

  7. Integrating mental health parity for homebound older adults under the medicare home health care benefit.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Joan K; Gellis, Zvi D

    2011-04-01

    Despite high rates of mental illness, very few homebound older adults receive treatment. Comorbid mental illness exacerbates physical health conditions, reduces treatment adherence, and increases dependency and medical costs. Although effective treatments exist, many home health agencies lack capacity to effectively detect and treat mental illness. This article critically analyzes barriers within the Medicare home health benefit that impede access to mental health treatment. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are made to integrate mental health parity in home health care. In particular, creative use of medical social work can improve detection and treatment of mental illness for homebound older adults.

  8. A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants. Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative studies that reported resilience and mental health outcomes among forcibly displaced persons (aged 18+) by way of exploring associations, links, pathways and causative mechanisms were included. Fourteen bibliographic databases and seven humanitarian study databases/websites were searched and a four stage screening process was followed. Results Twenty three studies were included in the final review. Ten qualitative studies identified highlighted family and community cohesion, family and community support, individual personal qualities, collective identity, supportive primary relationships and religion. Thirteen quantitative studies were identified, but only two attempted to link resilience with mental disorders, and three used a specific resilience measure. Over-reliance on cross-sectional designs was noted. Resilience was generally shown to be associated with better mental health in displaced populations, but the evidence on this and underlying mechanisms was limited. Discussion The review highlights the need for more epidemiological and qualitative evidence on resilience in forcibly displaced persons as a potential avenue for intervention development, particularly in resource-poor settings. PMID:25177360

  9. Personality Pathology and Mental Health Treatment Seeking in a Community Sample of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Sampling issues are extremely important in studies of psychopathology, especially with regard to the investigation of personality disorders (PDs). Many studies rely on clinical samples while others have focused on representative samples of community residents. Do people who qualify for a PD diagnosis seek and receive mental health services with greater (or possibly reduced) frequency compared to others in the community? Do community-based studies of PDs include people who have been treated? Analyses presented here examine connections between personality pathology and various aspects of treatment seeking in a representative sample of 1,630 middle-aged adults who completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview (SIDP-IV). Results demonstrate a disorder specific effect. Antisocial, borderline, avoidant, and dependent PDs are associated with increased levels of seeking treatment. Four PDs are associated with greater length of treatment. After accounting for lifetime presence of major depression and alcohol dependence, borderline, avoidant, and dependent pathology remained associated with increased treatment seeking. These findings point to several conclusions, including: 1) community samples do include a substantial proportion of people who have received various kinds of mental health services, 2) the association between personality pathology and mental health treatment seeking is not fully explained by comorbid depression and alcohol dependence. PMID:24343963

  10. Interior landscapes of mental disorder: visual representations of the experience of madness.

    PubMed

    Schoeneman, Thomas J; Henderson, Carly M; Weathers, Vaunne M

    2005-04-01

    The authors surveyed 38 textbooks of abnormal psychology and found 673 pictures of the inner experience of mental disorder. Textbook authors use these pictures to demonstrate diagnostic features of individuals and groups, to make a connection between mental disorder and artistic talent, and to suggest what it is like to experience mental disorder. To fulfill these functions, many of the pictures in the sample use the incongruities and distortions of expressionist, surrealist, and naive techniques.

  11. [Facts visualized through job support activities for mentally disordered persons--what is the objective of medical treatment for mental disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent investigation by the Public Employment Security Office, the rate of employing mentally disordered persons is increasing. In the report, it was predicted that the number of employed mentally disordered persons will exceed the number of physically disordered persons within a few years, and will become the highest of the main three disabled types. Despite the strong desire of mentally disordered persons to work, supporting systems have been inadequate. In 2007, mental clinic doctors in Osaka took the lead and established the NPO Osaka Job Support Network for Mentally Disordered Persons (JSN) to support their employment persons. We aimed to establish a support system for mentally disordered persons who have a strong will to work, stating "I would like to work" to their family doctors, who introduce JSN to the patients, and then the family doctors and JSN cooperate to support the patients to realize the desire to "work". Since April 2013, 49 persons have found a job and "graduated" from JSN. Over 6 years until the end of March, 2013, a total of 154 persons found jobs and "graduated" from JSN. From now on, it is expected that around 50 persons will find jobs and "graduate" from JSN every year. It is definitely insufficient just to repeat "temporary" medical treatment for mental disorders with a long course like schizophrenia. A care management view that values the hopes and dreams of patients is required in psychiatric treatment.

  12. Geographic variation in the prevalence of common mental disorders in Britain: a multilevel investigation.

    PubMed

    Weich, Scott; Holt, Gemma; Twigg, Liz; Jones, Kelvyn; Lewis, Glyn

    2003-04-15

    It is still not known whether the places that people live affect their mental health. The principal aim of this 1991 study was to quantify simultaneously variance in the prevalence of the most common mental disorders, anxiety and depression, in Britain at the individual, household, and electoral ward levels. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of 8,979 adults aged 16-74 years living in private households nested within 642 electoral wards in England, Wales, and Scotland were analyzed by using multilevel logistic and linear regression. Common mental disorders were assessed by using the General Health Questionnaire. Less than 1% of the total variance in General Health Questionnaire scores occurred at the ward level. This variance was further reduced and was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for characteristics of persons. By contrast, the proportion of total variance at the household level (14.4%, 95% confidence interval: 11.4, 17.5 in the null model) (p < 0.001) was statistically significant and remained so after adjustment for individual- and household-level exposures. While these findings suggest that future interventions should target persons and households rather than places, further research is first required to establish whether other (particularly smaller) areas lead to similar results.

  13. [Interethnic analyses of distributions in children and adolescents mental disorders in a health care utilization].

    PubMed

    Kouider, Esmahan Belhadj; Koglin, Ute; Lorenz, Alfred L; Dupont, Marc; Petermann, Franz

    2014-01-01

    The study examines ethnic differences in mental disorders in a child and adolescent psychiatry population in a major German city from 2007 to 2011 (N = 5,680). Risks of developing specific mental disorders were calculated. African migrant children and adolescents showed higher risk in traumatic stress and adjustment disorders (F 43 in ICD-10), the Asiatic group in dissociative disorders (F 44-45). Compared to other European migrants the German children and adolescents without migration background had a higher risk of affective disorders (F 3). Adolescents (N = 3,556) with Russian and Polish background had a higher risk of disorders induced by psychotropic substances (F 1). Turkish and Arabic adolescents had a 4- to 5-times increasing risk in schizophrenia as well as schizotypal or delusional disorders (F 2). In addition, mental disorders were influenced by gender and nationality. These study results suggest that a different vulnerability to specific mental disorders is associated to ethnicity.

  14. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  15. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; symptoms controlled by continuous medication 10 A mental condition has been formally diagnosed, but... continuous medication 0 Eating Disorders 9520Anorexia nervosa 9521Bulimia nervosa Rating Formula for...

  16. Oral health of adults with serious mental illnesses: a review.

    PubMed

    Matevosyan, Naira Roland

    2010-12-01

    (A) To assess the prevalence of suboptimal oral health in adults with SMI in studies published in 1971-2009; (B) To describe approaches that promote oral health among adults with SMI. A total of 57 randomized, quasi-randomized, cross-section, and cohort studies from samples of 38-4,769 mental health consumers are identified through database, journal, and Internet searches (Cochrane, FASTSTATS, PUBMED, WHO.int). Selected studies are inclusive for the sample, reported statistical power, and external validity. Oral health adverse outcomes (xerostomia, sialorrhoea, dental caries, extracted teeth, malocclusion, periodontal disease, edentulous, oral cancer) are considered as measurable outcomes. This review suggests a substantial prevalence of suboptimal oral health (61%) among individuals with serious mental illnesses. The following outcomes are mostly met: xerostomia, gross caries, decayed teeth, and periodontal disease. Poor oral hygiene, higher intake of carbonates, poor perception of oral health self-needs, length of psychotropic treatment, and less access to dental care determine suboptimal oral health among this population. Further replication of this research should generate gender-wise ethnic cohorts, including detailed observations of environmental factors, and medical problems that contribute to suboptimal oral health. This review highlights the importance of bridging dental health education to psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

  17. A diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders history of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-04-01

    The proposals to include a menstruation-related mood disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R), and DSM-IV led to intense public and behind-the-scenes controversy. Although the controversies surrounding the DSM-5 revision were greater in number than the controversies of the earlier revisions, the DSM-5 proposal to include a menstruation-related mood disorder was not among them. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was made an official disorder in the DSM-5 with no significant protest. To understand the factors that led to this change, we interviewed those psychiatrists and psychologists who were most involved in the DSM-IV revision. On the basis of these interviews, we offer a list of empirical and nonempirical considerations that led to the DSM-IV compromise and explore how key alterations in these considerations led to a different outcome for the DSM-5.

  18. Ras and Rap signaling in synaptic plasticity and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Stornetta, Ruth L; Zhu, J Julius

    2011-02-01

    The Ras family GTPases (Ras, Rap1, and Rap2) and their downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK) and PI3K signaling cascades control various physiological processes. In neuronal cells, recent studies have shown that these parallel cascades signal distinct forms of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptor trafficking during experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and adaptive behavior. Interestingly, both hypo- and hyperactivation of Ras/ Rap signaling impair the capacity of synaptic plasticity, underscoring the importance of a "happy-medium" dynamic regulation of the signaling. Moreover, accumulating reports have linked various genetic defects that either up- or down-regulate Ras/Rap signaling with several mental disorders associated with learning disability (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Angelman syndrome, autism, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Coffin-Lowry syndrome, Costello syndrome, Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes, fragile X syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, schizophrenia, tuberous sclerosis, and X-linked mental retardation), highlighting the necessity of happy-medium dynamic regulation of Ras/Rap signaling in learning behavior. Thus, the recent advances in understanding of neuronal Ras/Rap signaling provide a useful guide for developing novel treatments for mental diseases.

  19. New legislation for offenders with mental disorders in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji; Kojimoto, Miwa; Matsubara, Saburo; Takayanagi, Isao

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the recent law reform on forensic mental health and its background in Japan, focusing on the enactment of the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act in 2005. The new system-under which a person who commits a serious criminal offence in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the District Court-aims to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. The court panel, which consists of a judge and a specially qualified psychiatrist, plays a key role in the treatment procedure. Upon the agreement of the two panel members, the panel delivers a verdict that takes into account the outcome of psychiatric evaluation; possible verdicts are inpatient treatment order, outpatient treatment order (mental health supervision), and no treatment order. Designated facilities are currently being established for inpatient and outpatient treatment. Referring to the published data on outcomes of enforcement, this article discusses particularities, current problems, and future prospects of the system, drawing comparisons between the German and Japanese systems.

  20. Physical and Mental Health of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Caçola, Priscila

    2016-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with an individual’s activities of daily living. These problems in motor coordination are prevalent despite children’s intelligence levels. Common symptoms include marked delays in achieving motor milestones and clumsiness, typically associated with poor balance, coordination, and especially handwriting skills. Currently, DCD is said to impact about 2–7% of school-age children. More importantly, DCD is considered to be one of the major health problems among school-aged children worldwide, with unique consequences to physical and mental health. Because these children and adolescents often experience difficulties participating in typical childhood activities (e.g., riding a bike), they tend to be more sedentary, more overweight/obese, at a higher risk for coronary vascular disease, and have lower cardiorespiratory and physical fitness than their typically developing peers. From another perspective, the motor difficulties have also been linked to an increased risk for mental health issues, such as higher anxiety and depression. The understanding of the health consequences associated with DCD offers practical applications for the understanding of the mechanisms and intervention protocols that can improve the consequences of this condition. In this review, I will explore such consequences and provide evidence for the implementation of interventions that focus on improving physical and mental health in this population. PMID:27822464

  1. [A Measure of Participation and Social Inclusion for Use in People with a Chronic Mental Disorder (F-INK)].

    PubMed

    Schützwohl, Matthias; Souza, Paula M L; Rackel, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    Objective To develop and test the psychometric properties of a measure of participation and social inclusion for individuals with a chronic mental disorder - the F-INK. Methods Within a cross-sectional design, mental health patients from different institutional settings (n = 106) and adults from the general population (n = 19) completed the questionnaire in an individual interview with a researcher. To estimate the reliability of two sum-scores on social inclusion and participation, Cronbach's α was computed. To appraise the validity, mean scale scores were compared across different study groups. Results For both scales, reliability was qualified as substantial (α > 0.70). Study groups showed expected differences in mean scores. Conclusion Preliminary findings suggest that the F-INK may be a useful tool for the assessment of social inclusion and social participation in individuals with a chronic mental disorder. However, further testing of the psychometric properties on a larger population is needed.

  2. Social functioning as a predictor of the use of mental health resources in patients with severe mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Bellido-Zanin, Gloria; Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Vázquez-Morejón, Antonio J

    2015-12-15

    Previous studies have tried to determine the factors causing greater use of health resources by patients with mental disorders. These studies have essentially focused on socio-economic variables. Nevertheless, many other variables, such as social functioning, have not yet been explored. This study aims to assess the effect of social functioning on mental health service use in a sample of patients with severe mental disorder (schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders or bipolar affective disorder) in an area of Spain. The Social Functioning Scale (SFS) was administered to 172 family members of patients with a severe mental disorder who were receiving care at a community mental health unit. Analysis of bivariate logistic regression identified specific areas as predictors of the use of mental health resources over a 12-month follow-up period. The overall social functioning score predicted need for hospital admissions. In addition, interpersonal behaviour had a major role in the number of outpatient visits, while social isolation significantly predicted the need for hospitalization. These results point out the necessity for including psychosocial variables, such as social functioning in current mental health resource use models.

  3. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  4. Group cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with Asperger syndrome and anxiety or mood disorder: a case series.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Lunsky, Yona

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome are at increased risk for mental health problems compared with the general population, especially with regard to mood and anxiety disorders. Generic mental health services are often ill-equipped to offer psychotherapeutic treatments to this population, and specialized supports are difficult to find. This case series used a manualized cognitive behaviour therapy group programme (Mind Over Mood) with three adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, who were each unable to access psychotherapy through mainstream mental health services. This review highlights the benefits of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) group approach for adults with Asperger syndrome and suggests some potential modifications to traditional CBT provision. 

  5. Modeling indoor TV/screen viewing and adult physical and mental health: Health Survey for England, 2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to model indoor TV/screen viewing and a series of adult health conditions and cognitive performance in a country-wide, population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from Health Survey for England, 2012. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, and TV and/or screen watching hours in adults was collected by household interviews. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal modeling were performed. Of 8114 English adults aged 18-98, 4138 people (51.1 %) watched TV and/or screen daily for 2 h or more on average. Two thousand five-hundred people (30.9 %) watched for 3 h or more. TV and/or screening watching for 2+ hours was associated with endocrine or metabolic disorders, diabetes, mental disorders (including poor scores in General Health Questionnaire and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), nervous system disorders, eye complaints, circulatory system disorders, respiratory system disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders, and self-rated health. TV and/or screen watching for 3+ hours was associated with digestive disorders and clotting disorder. TV and/or screen watching for 5+ hours was associated with cancer. TV and/or screen watching for 6+, 8+, or 11+ hours was associated with bladder disease, genito-urinary system disorders or bowel disease, respectively. There were no risk associations (within 20 h) found with ear complaints, infectious disease, and blood system disorders. Future educational and public health programs minimizing TV and/or screen viewing in order to protect from physical inactivity and X-radiation might be needed while research on the combined effect of physical inactivity and X-radiation should be explored.

  6. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youth: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youth involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. This study used a stratified random sample of 1112 detained youth to examine the development of APD at a three-year follow-up interview. Nearly one fifth of male juvenile detainees later developed APD; approximately one quarter of male juvenile detainees with CD at baseline later developed APD. Significantly more males than females developed APD; no differences were found by race/ethnicity. Having five or more symptoms of CD, dysthymia, alcohol use disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder was significantly associated with developing modified APD (M-APD; APD without the CD requirement). Some disorders were strong predictors of APD; however, none were adequate screeners for identifying which detainees would later develop M-APD. The findings of this study have implications for interventions and further research in developmental psychopathology. PMID:17469880

  7. Underutilization of Mental Health Services Among Bereaved Caregivers With Prolonged Grief Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Nilsson, Matthew; Kissane, David W.; Breitbart, William; Kacel, Elizabeth; Jones, Eric C.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined grief and mental health service use among 86 bereaved caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Methods Caregivers were assessed before (median=3.1 months) and after (median=6.6 months) patients’ deaths for prolonged grief disorder, axis I psychiatric disorders, mental health service use, suicidality, and health-related quality of life. Results Sixteen percent of the bereaved sample met criteria for prolonged grief disorder, which was significantly associated with suicidality and poorer health-related quality of life, but not with mental health service use. The majority of bereaved caregivers with prolonged grief disorder did not access mental health services. In multivariable analyses, having discussed psychological concerns with a health care professional when the patient was ill was the only significant predictor of mental health service use during bereavement. Conclusions Because bereaved caregivers with prolonged grief disorder underutilize mental health services, connecting them with services while the patient is still alive may be beneficial. PMID:21969652

  8. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition: contributions from Asia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Mehta, S

    2014-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been included as a separate diagnostic entity in the chapter of 'Depressive Disorders' of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). The antecedent, concurrent, and predictive diagnostic validators of premenstrual dysphoric disorder have been reviewed by a sub-workgroup of the DSM-5 Mood Disorders Work Group, which includes a panel of experts on women's mental health. Contributions from the Asian continent have been mainly in the form of prevalence studies. Genetic and neurobiological domains of premenstrual dysphoric disorder largely remain untouched in Asia and offer a potential area for investigation.

  9. A possible new approach to understanding mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Sharples, P J

    2012-09-01

    The aetiology of mental disorders is not fully understood. This paper presents an analysis of the conceptual control process exploring the tools of conceptual application and the phases and the mechanism of the control process and seeks to show how the illness states of mental disorder naturally come to occur. Living occurs in a world of change. For living to occur some control is required and to exert control, to provide direction for the conceptual process, some interpretation of significance, some definition of need is also required. Such interpretation, monitoring significance in relation to the many aspects of change, forms the base on which living occurs. Change in human terms is intrinsically insecure and interpretation of significance is an interpretation of security, an interpretation of control in living. Conceptual control is a process applied to maintain security, to maintain a secure base for the interpretation of significance, it is a process applied to produce and hold a sense of control. Powering a process, producing and holding a sense of control, is an active process and so requires some form of energy. Human beings have a sense of that energy, something exhibited in terms such as full of energy, tired, exhausted. As energy is required to power the control process, accompanying the sense of energy is a sense of the ability to provide power, is a sense of the ability to hold and maintain control, is a sense of security. As available energy reduces there is difficulty holding the same sense of control, a person in the same setting comes to feel more insecure. This can result in a person experiencing mental disorder from mild to severe degree. Mild where conceptual process is applied to manage just one or a very few particular needs, severe and more general where the insecurity affects the base of interpretation. In this later case seeking to protect security can lead to mania, mood-incongruent delusions, schizophrenia. Failing ability to protect can

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2015-10-20

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  11. The structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, text revision) personality disorder symptoms in a large national sample.

    PubMed

    Trull, Timothy J; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J

    2012-10-01

    We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders.

  12. Food Insecurity among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Parpouchi, Milad; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Russolillo, Angela; Somers, Julian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity and food insufficiency is high among homeless people. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among a cohort of homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Data collected from baseline questionnaires in the Vancouver At Home study were analysed to calculate the prevalence of food insecurity within the sample (n = 421). A modified version of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Adult Food Security Survey Module was used to ascertain food insecurity. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential correlates of food insecurity. Results The prevalence of food insecurity was 64%. In the multivariable model, food insecurity was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), less than high school completion (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35–0.93), needing health care but not receiving it (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.00–2.72), subjective mental health (aOR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96–0.99), having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.16–4.36), HIV/AIDS (aOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 1.36–12.96), heart disease (aOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16–0.97) and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01–2.68). Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity was extremely high in a cohort with longstanding homelessness and serious mental illness. Younger age, needing health care but not receiving it, poorer subjective mental health, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month, HIV/AIDS and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank each increased odds of food insecurity, while less than high school completion and heart disease each decreased odds of food insecurity. Interventions to reduce food insecurity in this population are urgently needed. PMID:27437937

  13. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M.

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability. PMID:28174552

  14. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of mental disorders in intentionally and unintentionally injured emergency centre patients

    PubMed Central

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K.; Stein, Dan J.; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders amongst injured emergency centre (EC) patients in low- and middle-income countries. Patients presenting with either an intentional or unintentional injury were recruited (n=200). Mental health, injury and psychological trauma histories were assessed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were conducted and predictors for current mental disorder were identified. Diagnostic criteria for a current mental disorder, including substance use disorders, were met by 59.5% of participants. Compared to those with an unintentional injury, intentionally injured participants were more likely to be diagnosed with a current mental disorder (66.9% vs 48.8%; p=0.01). High frequencies of previous intentional injuries predicted for current mental disorder (OR = 1.460, 95% CI 1.08-1.98), while male gender and witnessed community violence predicted substance use disorder diagnoses. Findings indicate that injured EC patients, particularly those with intentional injuries, are at risk for mental disorders. Psychosocial interventions in the EC context can potentially make an important contribution in reducing the burden of mental disorders and injuries in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25126754

  16. WPA guidance on the protection and promotion of mental health in children of persons with severe mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    BROCKINGTON, IAN; CHANDRA, PRABHA; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD; JONES, DAVID; MOUSSA, SUAAD; NAKKU, JULIET; QUADROS FERRE, ISABEL

    2011-01-01

    This guidance details the needs of children, and the qualities of parenting that meet those needs. Parental mental disorders can damage the foetus during pregnancy through the action of drugs, prescribed or abused. Pregnancy and the puerperium can exacerbate or initiate mental illness in susceptible women. After their birth, the children may suffer from the social disadvantage associated with severe mental illness. The parents (depending on the disorder, its severity and its persistence) may have intermittent or prolonged difficulties with parenting, which may sometimes result in childhood psychological disturbance or child maltreatment. This guidance considers ways of preventing, minimizing and remedying these effects. Our recommendations include: education of psychiatrists and related professions about the effect of parental mental illness on children; revision of psychiatric training to increase awareness of patients as caregivers, and to incorporate relevant assessment and intervention into their treatment and rehabilitation; the optimum use of pharmacological treatment during pregnancy; pre-birth planning when women with severe mental illness become pregnant; development of specialist services for pregnant and puerperal women, with assessment of their efficacy; community support for parenting by mothers and fathers with severe mental disorders; standards of good practice for the management of child maltreatment when parents suffer from mental illness; the importance of multi-disciplinary teamwork when helping these families, supporting their children and ensuring child protection; the development of child and adolescent mental health services worldwide. PMID:21633678

  17. WPA guidance on the protection and promotion of mental health in children of persons with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Brockington, Ian; Chandra, Prabha; Dubowitz, Howard; Jones, David; Moussa, Suaad; Nakku, Juliet; Quadros Ferre, Isabel

    2011-06-01

    This guidance details the needs of children, and the qualities of parenting that meet those needs. Parental mental disorders can damage the foetus during pregnancy through the action of drugs, prescribed or abused. Pregnancy and the puerperium can exacerbate or initiate mental illness in susceptible women. After their birth, the children may suffer from the social disadvantage associated with severe mental illness. The parents (depending on the disorder, its severity and its persistence) may have intermittent or prolonged difficulties with parenting, which may sometimes result in childhood psychological disturbance or child maltreatment. This guidance considers ways of preventing, minimizing and remedying these effects. Our recommendations include: education of psychiatrists and related professions about the effect of parental mental illness on children; revision of psychiatric training to increase awareness of patients as caregivers, and to incorporate relevant assessment and intervention into their treatment and rehabilitation; the optimum use of pharmacological treatment during pregnancy; pre-birth planning when women with severe mental illness become pregnant; development of specialist services for pregnant and puerperal women, with assessment of their efficacy; community support for parenting by mothers and fathers with severe mental disorders; standards of good practice for the management of child maltreatment when parents suffer from mental illness; the importance of multi-disciplinary teamwork when helping these families, supporting their children and ensuring child protection; the development of child and adolescent mental health services worldwide.

  18. Adjudicating mentally disordered offenders in Ghana: The criminal and mental health legislations.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mensah Agboli, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) in the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently a major public health concern. This has culminated in several empirical researches over the years, with a particular focus on addressing the problem. The present study examines the criminal and the mental health legislations available to offenders raising fitness to stand trial issues, as well as those pleading insanity at the time of the offense (insanity defense) in Ghana. The legislations are examined within a framework of reducing the overrepresentation of MDOs in the CJS. In doing so, comparisons are made to similar legislations in other commonwealth jurisdictions, when necessary. Regarding fitness to stand trial, it is evident that the Ghanaian legislation does not contain discrete fitness indicators, relative to, for instance, Canada. Yet, it is interesting that the terminologies 'unsound mind' and 'incapable of making a defence' used in the proviso convey similar meaning and requirements to those used in other jurisdictions. The insanity defense standard, on the other hand, is also heavily influenced by the M'Naughton Rules in England. The defense consists of two separate cognitive tests, each of which can result in an acquittal. One of the tests strictly emphasizes knowledge of the nature and consequences of the act while knowledge of the wrongness of the criminal act is implied in the other. However, none of the tests takes into consideration uncontrollable impulse arising from mental disorder. The study proposes some revisions and amendments to the insanity legislation in its current formulation. Recommendations are also offered for critical areas that warrant research attention in relation to MDOs in Ghana, and in Africa as a whole.

  19. Pilot Investigation of the Effectiveness of Respite Care for Carers of an Adult with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardim, Claudia; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Informal carers of an adult with mental illness have asked that respite care be an integral component of mental health service provision. The present study involved a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of accessing respite care for carers of individuals with a mental illness. It was hypothesised that compared to carers who have not accessed…

  20. Simulation of Mental Disorders: II. Computer Models, Purposes and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Gold, Azgad; Dudai, Yadin

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the human brain and the difficulties in identifying and dissecting the biological, social and contextual underpinnings of mental functions confound the study of the etiology and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Simulating mental disorders in animal models or in computer programs may contribute to the understanding of such disorders. In the companion paper (30), we discussed selected concepts and pragmatics pertaining to mental illness simulation in general, and then focused on issues pertaining to animal models of mental disease. In this paper, we focus on selected aspects of the merits and limitations of the use of large scale computer simulation in investigating mental disorders. We argue that at the current state of knowledge, the biological-phenomenological gap in understanding mental disorders markedly limits the ability to generate high-fidelity computational models of mental illness. We conclude that similarly to the animal model approach, brain simulation focusing on limited realistic objectives, such as mimicking the emergence of selected distinct attributes of specific mental symptoms in a virtual brain or parts thereof, may serve as a useful tool in exploring mental disorders.

  1. Perceived social support in adults with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Fernandez, Sonia; Brown, Hallie R; Zhao, Yihong; Raithel, Jessica A; Bishop, Somer L; Kern, Sarah B; Lord, Catherine; Petkova, Eva; Di Martino, Adriana

    2017-03-03

    Perceived social support (PSS) has been related to physical and mental well-being in typically developing individuals, but systematic characterizations of PSS in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are limited. We compared self-report ratings of the multidimensional scale of PSS (MSPSS) among age- and IQ-matched groups of adults (18-58 years) with cognitively high-functioning ASD (N = 41), or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 69), and neurotypical controls (NC; N = 69). Accompanying group comparisons, we used machine learning random forest (RF) analyses to explore predictors among a range of psychopathological and socio-emotional variables. Relative to both ADHD and NC, adults with ASD showed lower MSPSS ratings, specifically for the friends subscale (MSPSS-f). Across ASD and ADHD, interindividual differences in autism severity, affective empathy, symptoms of anxiety related to social interactions, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and somatization best predicted MSPSS-f. These relationships did not differ between clinical groups. While group comparisons demonstrated greater impairment in individuals with ASD, analyzing individuals' characteristics revealed cross-diagnoses similarities in regard to their MSPSS-f relationships. This is consistent with the Research Domain Criteria framework, supporting a trans-diagnostic approach as on the path toward "precision medicine." Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Perceptions of Biopsychosocial Services Needs among Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Met and Unmet Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cassie, Kimberly McClure

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to identify the psychiatric, physical, and social services needs experienced by older adults with severe mental illness (SMI) and to examine factors influencing their experience of need and service provision adequacy. Seventy-five older adults with SMI were recruited from a community mental health center to participate in the…

  3. Variability of Stereotypic Body-Rocking in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Karl M.; Incledon, Thomas; Bodfish, James W.; Sprague, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The variability of stereotypic body-rocking motions of eight adults with severe/profound mental retardation was examined through kinematic analysis and compared to a matched nonretarded group of adults. Inter- and intra-individual variability was, on average, higher for the individuals with mental retardation. Results suggest that low variability…

  4. The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

  5. Clinical assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip

    2005-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, with significant levels of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Impairments associated with adult ADHD include distress from the symptoms, impaired ability to function in work and academic settings, and problems sustaining stable relationships. The disorder is commonly associated with volatile moods, antisocial behavior, and drug and alcohol misuse. There is an increased risk of developing comorbid anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and drug and alcohol dependence. Despite the proven effectiveness of drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and atomoxetine, few cases of ADHD are recognized and treated in the UK. The reasons for this are unclear, since most psychiatrists working with children and adolescents are aware that ADHD commonly persists into adult life and they also see the disorder affecting parents of children with ADHD. Issues of transition from the care of child to adult psychiatry and the need to refer adult relatives of children with ADHD to suitable psychiatric services are a major concern. Furthermore, many cases of adult ADHD go unrecognized or are seen by mental health teams that are not familiar with the subtleties of the adult presentation. As a result, misdiagnosis and treatment for conditions such as atypical depression, mixed affective disorder, cyclothymia, and borderline and unstable emotional personality disorders is not uncommon. There is therefore a requirement for further training in this area. This review will describe the common clinical presentation and provide guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adults. Any psychiatrically trained physician using standard psychiatric assessment procedures can perform clinical evaluations for adult ADHD. As with other psychiatric disorders in adulthood, ADHD has its own characteristic onset, course and psychopathology. Symptoms of ADHD are

  6. Triple jeopardy for HIV: substance using Severely Mentally Ill Adults.

    PubMed

    Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G; Dyer, Janyce G; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexual self-efficacy; and condom attitudes toward explaining the variance in a composite of HIV high-risk behavior among 188 SMI women and 158 SMI men. History of sexual abuse, engaging in sexual activities while high on substances, and lower cannabis use were the most significant predictors of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Given the triple jeopardy for HIV risk in this population, a triple barreled approach that simultaneously addresses multiple health risks within an integrated treatment setting is warranted.

  7. Should Social Workers Use "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle

    2014-01-01

    Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…

  8. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  9. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  10. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  11. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  12. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  13. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  14. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder... Benefits § 146.136 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  15. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder... Benefits § 146.136 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  16. 45 CFR 147.160 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. 147.160 Section 147.160 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS... INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.160 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) In general....

  17. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  18. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder... Benefits § 146.136 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  19. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  20. Selecting Effective Treatments: A Comprehensive, Systematic Guide to Treating Mental Disorders. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    This book presents an overview of the major types of mental disorders, accompanied by treatment models that are structured, comprehensive, grounded in research, and likely to be effective. Chapter topics are: (1) "Introduction to Effective Treatment Planning"; (2) "Mental Disorders in Infants, Children, and Adolescents"; (3) "Situationally…

  1. Wittgenstein's philosophy and a dimensional approach to the classification of mental disorders -- a preliminary scheme.

    PubMed

    Mackinejad, Kioumars; Sharifi, Vandad

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the importance of Wittgenstein's philosophical ideas for the justification of a dimensional approach to the classification of mental disorders is discussed. Some of his basic concepts in his Philosophical Investigations, such as 'family resemblances', 'grammar' and 'language-game' and their relations to the concept of mental disorder are explored.

  2. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Young Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L

    2016-08-01

    During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.

  3. Self-reported utilization of mental health services in the adult German population--evidence for unmet needs? Results of the DEGS1-Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH).

    PubMed

    Mack, Simon; Jacobi, Frank; Gerschler, Anja; Strehle, Jens; Höfler, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Maske, Ulrike E; Hapke, Ulfert; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides up-to-date data on service use for mental health problems and disorders among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany derived from the Mental Health Module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH; N=4483). Data are based exclusively on self-report. Respondents were examined by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview DIA-X/M-CIDI to assess diagnoses according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Service use, i.e. contact to mental health care services, due to mental health problems was assessed for the past 12 months and lifetime, by type of sector and type of institution. Among respondents with a 12-month diagnosis of a mental disorder, 23.5% of the women and 11.6% of the men reported any service use in the past 12 months. Service use depends on type of diagnosis, comorbidity and socio-demographic characteristics. Lowest 12-month utilization rates were found for substance use disorders (15.6%; lifetime use 37.3%), highest for psychotic disorders (40.5%; lifetime 72.1%). Further, a considerable time lap was found between disorder onset and subsequent service use among the majority of cases with anxiety and mood disorders. This paper provides self-reported epidemiological data on mental health service use in Germany, complementing administrative statistics and the predecessor mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS-MHS) from 1998. Despite considerable changes in the mental health field in Germany and the existence of a comprehensive mental health care system without major financial barriers, we find no indications of substantially higher utilization rates for mental disorders as compared to other comparable European countries. Further, no indications of major overall changes in utilization rates are apparent. To pinpoint areas with unmet needs, more detailed analyses of the data are needed taking into account type

  4. Prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug use in an Australian older adult mental health service.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder, known as dual diagnosis, is a significant challenge to mental health services. Few older adult specific alcohol and other drug treatment services exist, meaning older adult mental health services may become the default treatment option for many. Evidence suggests that dual diagnosis leads to substandard treatment outcomes, including higher rates of psychiatric relapse, higher costs of care and poorer treatment engagement. This paper explores the prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in an older adult community mental health service in inner Melbourne, Australia. This aim was accomplished by using a retrospective file audit of clinical intake assessments (n = 593) performed on consumers presenting to the service over a two-year period, June 2012-2014. Of consumers presenting to the service, 15.5% (n = 92) were assessed by clinicians as having co-occurring AOD use. Depression predominated in the dual diagnosis group as the primary mental health disorder. Dual diagnosis consumers in this sample were statistically more likely to be male and younger than their non-dual diagnosis counterparts. A limitation of this audit was the lack of implementation of screening tools, leaving assessment to clinical judgement or the interest of the clinician. This may also explain the discrepancy between the results of this study and previous work. Although appearing to be a relatively small percentage of assessments, the results accounted for 92 individuals with complex mental health, AOD and medical issues. Poor screening procedures in a population that is traditionally difficult to assess need to be rectified to meet the future challenges inherent in the ageing baby boomer generation, changing drug use trends and extended lifespans through harm reduction initiatives and medical advancements.

  5. Simulated job interview improves skills for adults with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Be, Morris; Fleming, Michael; Smith, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Adults with serious mental illnesses (e.g., Autism Spectrum Disorder [ASD], schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) often have difficulties obtaining employment. The Job Interview Training System with Molly Porter, developed in collaboration with Yale and Northwestern Universities and vocational rehabilitation specialists with funding from The National Institutes of Health (R43/44MH080496), allows learners to practice job interviews on computers in a stress free environment. The system includes user-driven educational materials, an interactive job application, a practice simulation with a fictional interviewer (Molly Porter), and extensive feedback. SIMmersion's PeopleSIM™ technology allows each conversation with Molly to provide a unique interview experience, enabling users to gain confidence while building skills. The on-screen coach provides insight during the conversation, and a comprehensive after-action review provides learners with feedback on the entire interview. In a randomized control trial, the system was proven effective at improving participants' interview skills and confidence. Ninety-six (96) unemployed adults with ASD (n=26), schizophrenia/other (n=37) or PTSD (n=33) were recruited. Participants were randomized into control (n=32) and experimental (n=64) conditions. The control group was "wait-listed" to receive training, and the experimental group used the training system with Molly Porter. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention role-play interviews and self-assessment questionnaires. Analyses of covariance showed that the simulation provided a highly significant training effect, with experimental group participants scoring better in the role-play interviews and self-assessing higher than control group participants. By increasing skills and confidence, this system may ultimately reduce the length of unemployment for adults with mental illnesses.

  6. Mental disorders in new parents before and after birth: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elizabeth; Binns, Colin; Homer, Caroline S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders of women during the postnatal period are a major public health problem. Compared with women’s mental disorders, much less attention has been paid to men’s mental disorders in the perinatal period. To date, there have been no reports in the literature describing secular changes of both maternal and paternal hospital admissions for mental disorders over the period covering the year before pregnancy (non-parents), during pregnancy (expectant parents) and up to the first year after birth (parents) based on linked parental data. The co-occurrences of couples’ hospital admissions for mental disorders have not previously been investigated. Aims To describe maternal and paternal hospital admissions for mental disorders before and after birth. To compare the co-occurrences of parents’ hospital admissions for mental disorder in the perinatal period. Method This is a cohort study using paired parents’ population data from the New South Wales (NSW) Perinatal Data Collection (PDC), Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages (RBDM) and Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC). The study included all parents (n=196 669 couples) who gave birth to their first child in NSW between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2009. Results The hospital admission rate for women with a principal mental disorder diagnosis in the period between the year before pregnancy and the first year after birth was significantly higher than that for men. Parents’ mental disorders influenced each other. If a man was admitted to hospital with a principal mental disorder diagnosis, his wife or partner was more likely to be admitted to hospital with a principal mental disorder diagnosis compared with women whose partner had not had a hospital admission, and vice versa. Conclusions Mothers’ mental disorders after birth increased more significantly than fathers. However, fathers’ mental disorders significantly impacted the co-occurrence of mothers’ mental disorders

  7. [Art therapy in psychosocial rehabilitation of patients with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Apotsos, P

    2012-01-01

    Despite the use of art therapy in various psychiatric structures and articles supporting its application, in recent years very few data grounded on primary research have been published. Given the complexity of psychiatric disorders the number of people who suffer from them, and the fact that the primary treatment in psychiatric disorders remains pharmacotherapy, questions about the effectiveness of art therapy (as a complimentary treatment) remain open. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of art therapy in psychosocial rehabilitation of people with psychiatric disorders. A search of the literature and electronic databases using indexing words was conducted. The criteria for inclusion of articles were: a. studies had to be "outcome-intervention" studies, b. studies should concern only intervention in adults, and c. studies had to include patients with diagnoses according to the DSM of the American Psychiatric Association. Finally, only five articles were included in this systematic review. There is evidence for the effectiveness of art therapy in areas related to the psychosocial rehabilitation of persons suffering from psychiatric disorders, usually in combination with pharmacotherapy. The findings of the surveys reviewed are encouraging and justify the conduct of additional primary research.

  8. Towards a functional model of mental disorders incorporating the laws of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Murray, George C; McKenzie, Karen

    2013-05-01

    The current paper presents the hypothesis that the understanding of mental disorders can be advanced by incorporating the laws of thermodynamics, specifically relating to energy conservation and energy transfer. These ideas, along with the introduction of the notion that entropic activities are symptomatic of inefficient energy transfer or disorder, were used to propose a model of understanding mental ill health as resulting from the interaction of entropy, capacity and work (environmental demands). The model was applied to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and was shown to be compatible with current thinking about this condition, as well as emerging models of mental disorders as complex networks. A key implication of the proposed model is that it argues that all mental disorders require a systemic functional approach, with the advantage that it offers a number of routes into the assessment, formulation and treatment for mental health problems.

  9. [PsyCoLaus: mental disorders and cardiovascular diseases: spurious association?].

    PubMed

    Preisig, M; Waeber, G; Mooser, V; Vollenweider, P

    2011-11-02

    Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD), their well established risk factors (CVRF) and mental disorders are common and co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are still poorly understood. The main study questions of PsyCoLaus, the psychiatric arm of CoLaus, are: 1) Do mental disorders increase vulnerability to CVRF and CVD? 2) Do CVRF and CVD promote the development of mental disorders? 3) Do CVRF/ CVD and mental disorders share common pathogenetic processes? The longitudinal project adds a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation to the CoLaus investigation. A better understanding of the psychological, physiological and behavioral links underlying CVD/ CVRF and mental disorders will result in the development of more specific and efficient strategies of prevention and treatment for both psychiatric and CVD/CVRF, two major elements of burden of disease.

  10. Incidence and recurrence of common mental disorders after abortion: Results from a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Ditzhuijzen, Jenneke; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Lugtig, Peter; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2017-01-01

    Research in the field of mental health consequences of abortion is characterized by methodological limitations. We used exact matching on carefully selected confounders in a prospective cohort study of 325 women who had an abortion of an unwanted pregnancy and compared them 1-to-1 to controls who did not have this experience. Outcome measures were incidence and recurrence of common DSM-IV mental disorders (mood, anxiety, substance use disorders, and the aggregate measure 'any mental disorder') as measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) version 3.0, in the 2.5-3 years after the abortion. Although non-matched data suggested otherwise, women in the abortion group did not show significantly higher odds for incidence of 'any mental disorder', or mood, anxiety and substance use disorders, compared to matched controls who were similar in background variables but did not have an this experience. Having an abortion did not increase the odds for recurrence of the three disorder categories, but for any mental disorder the higher odds in the abortion group remained significant after matching. It is unlikely that termination of an unwanted pregnancy increases the risk on incidence of common mental disorders in women without a psychiatric history. However, it might increase the risk of recurrence among women with a history of mental disorders.

  11. Military Occupational Outcomes in Canadian Armed Forces Personnel with and without Deployment-Related Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zamorski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mental disorders are common in military organizations, and these frequently lead to functional impairments that can interfere with duties and lead to costly attrition. In Canada, the military mental health system has received heavy investment to improve occupational outcomes. We investigated military occupational outcomes of diagnosed mental disorders in a cohort of 30,513 personnel who deployed on the Afghanistan mission. Methods: Cohort members were military personnel who deployed on the Afghanistan mission from 2001 to 2008. Mental disorder diagnoses and their attribution to the Afghanistan mission were ascertained via medical records in a stratified random sample (n = 2014). Career-limiting medical conditions (that is, condition-associated restrictions that reliably lead to medically related attrition) were determined using administrative data. Outcomes were assessed from first Afghanistan-related deployment return. Results: At 5 years of follow-up, the Kaplan-Meier estimated cumulative fraction with career-limiting medical conditions was 40.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35.5 to 46.4) among individuals with Afghanistan service–related mental disorders (ARMD), 23.6% (CI 15.5 to 31.8) with other mental disorders, and 11.1% (CI 8.9 to 13.3) without mental disorders. The adjusted Cox regression hazard ratios for career-limiting medical condition risk were 4.89 (CI 3.85 to 6.23) among individuals with ARMD and 2.31 (CI 1.48 to 3.60) with other mental disorders, relative to those without mental disorders. Conclusions: Notwithstanding the Canadian military’s mental health system investments, mental disorders (particularly ARMD) still led to a high risk of adverse military occupational outcomes. Such investments have intrinsic value but may not translate into reduced medically related attrition without improvements in prevention and treatment effectiveness. PMID:27254844

  12. Should Mental Disorders Be a Basis for Physician-Assisted Death?

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2017-04-01

    Laws permitting physician-assisted death in the United States currently are limited to terminal conditions. Canada is considering whether to extend the practice to encompass intractable suffering caused by mental disorders, and the question inevitably will arise in the United States. Among the problems seen in countries that have legalized assisted death for mental disorders are difficulties in assessing the disorder's intractability and the patient's decisional competence, and the disproportionate involvement of patients with social isolation and personality disorders. Legitimate concern exists that assisted death could serve as a substitute for creating adequate systems of mental health treatment and social support.

  13. Not forgetting severe mental disorders in humanitarian emergencies: a descriptive study from the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes; Garcia, Mariana Gaspar; Birri, Elisa; Severy, Nathalie; Ferir, Marie-Christine; Ali, Engy; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Nadera, Dinah Palmera; Van Ommeren, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe mental disorders are often neglected following a disaster. Based on Médecins Sans Frontières’ (MSF) experience of providing mental health (MH) care after the 2013 typhoon in the Philippines, we describe the monthly volume of MH activities and beneficiaries; characteristics of people seeking MH care; profile and outcomes of people with severe mental disorders; prescription of psychotropic medication; and factors facilitating the identification and management of individuals with severe mental disorders. Methods A retrospective review of programme data was carried out. Results In total, 172 persons sought MH care. Numbers peaked three months into MSF's intervention and decreased thereafter. Of 134 (78%) people with complete data, 37 (28%) had a severe mental disorder, often characterised by psychotic symptoms (n=24, 64%) and usually unrelated to the typhoon (n=32, 86%). Four people (11%) were discharged after successful treatment, two (5%) moved out of the area, 20 (54%) were referred for follow-up on cessation of MSF activities and 10 (27%) were lost-to-follow-up. Psychotropic treatment was prescribed for 33 (75%) people with mental disorders and for 11 with non-severe mental disorders. Conclusions This study illustrates how actors can play an important role in providing MH care for people with severe mental disorders in the aftermath of a disaster. PMID:27620925

  14. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Stephen J; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA.

  15. Relationship between mental disorders/suicidality and three sexual behaviors: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natalie P; Cox, Brian J; Katz, Laurence Y; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between sexual behaviors and mental disorders and suicidality in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a representative sample of adults ages 18 years and older (N = 5,692). The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to make DSM-IV based disorder diagnoses. Participants were also asked about suicidality and sexual behaviors. Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic variables were used to examine the relationships of three sexual behaviors (age of first intercourse, number of past year partners, and past year condom use) with 15 mental disorders (clustered into any mood, anxiety, substance use, and disruptive behavior groups) and suicidality (ideation and attempts). Compared to ages 15-17, those with age of first intercourse between 12 and 14 had increased rates of lifetime disruptive behavior, substance use, and any mental disorder, and suicidal ideation and attempts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range, 1.46-2.01). Those with age of first intercourse between ages 18-25 and 26-35 were at decreased likelihood of several lifetime disorder groups (AOR range, 0.19-0.81). Individuals who had two or more sexual partners in the past year had increased rates of all past year disorder groups examined (AOR range, 1.44-5.01). Never married participants who rarely/never used condoms were more likely than those who always used condoms to experience any mood, substance use, and any mental disorder, and suicide attempts (AOR range, 1.77-8.13). Future research should longitudinally examine these associations and account better for possible familial and personality confounders.

  16. Pragmatics and adult language disorders: past achievements and future directions.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Louise

    2007-05-01

    In this article, the current state of our knowledge of pragmatic disorders in adults with language impairment is assessed. A brief historical background of clinical pragmatics is presented, and the place of adult language pathology within the development of this field is discussed. A comprehensive review is undertaken of pragmatic deficits in adults with language impairments of diverse etiologies. Specifically, pragmatic deficits are examined in adults with left-hemisphere damage, often resulting in aphasia, and in adults with right-hemisphere damage, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders (principally, Alzheimer's disease). Although many pragmatic phenomena have been examined in these clinical populations, studies have also tended to neglect important areas of pragmatic functioning in adults with these disorders. Several such areas are identified within a wider discussion of how researchers and clinicians can best pursue future investigations of pragmatics in adults with language impairment.

  17. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  18. Prevalence and screening of mental disorders in short-term correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Lafortune, Denis

    2010-01-01

    A majority of people incarcerated in correctional facilities have been affected by mental problems at least once in their lifetime. Among them, 12 to 25% suffer from severe and persistent mental disorders at the time of admission. Certain "profiles" are more likely to be detected than others. This is why the main objectives of this research are to establish, in both male and female offenders admitted in short-term detention facilities, the rate of those who have received medical diagnoses of mental disorders, the rate of screening for "mental health problems" at admission and the psychiatric diagnoses (last five years) most strongly associated with a positive screening. Using computerized medical and prison files, it can be established that 61% of the 671 offenders sent to a short-term correctional facility received, during 2002-2007, at least one diagnosis for mental disorder. A total of 227 subjects (33.8%) obtained a positive score to the indicator of mental health problem." In the case of men, correctional services workers identified as mental health problems: psychotic disorders, adjustment reactions, "neurotic"/anxiety disorders, being coupled to drug dependence. Positively detected women tend to exhibit problems of anxiety, personality disorder and substance related disorders. This study highlights, the difficulties faced by correctional services workers in detecting recent depressive disorders both in men and women offenders and also difficulties to detect recent affective psychoses.

  19. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    PubMed

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences.

  20. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

  1. Elucidating the Role of Neurotensin in the Pathophysiology and Management of Major Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boules, Mona M; Fredrickson, Paul; Muehlmann, Amber M; Richelson, Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide that is closely associated with, and is thought to modulate, dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in the pathophysiology of various mental disorders. This review outlines data implicating NT in the pathophysiology and management of major mental disorders such as schizophrenia, drug addiction, and autism. The data suggest that NT receptor analogs have the potential to be used as novel therapeutic agents acting through modulation of neurotransmitter systems dys-regulated in these disorders. PMID:25379273

  2. Shifts in case mix and locus of mental health care for Washington State adults with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Semke, J

    1999-01-01

    The author describes outcomes of interventions that were aimed at decreasing high use of state hospitals. Research focused on changes in state hospital case mix and dynamics of use by individuals identified as "high utilizers" before and after the Washington State Mental Health Division (MHD) implemented a series of interventions designed to reduce use. A set of recommendations are offered for policymakers who plan interventions that shift the locus of care for severely and persistently mentally ill adults.

  3. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Makuch, Renee A.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and…

  4. Losing a loved one to homicide: prevalence and mental health correlates in a national sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Hawkins, Alesia O; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, demographic distribution, and mental health correlates of losing a loved one to homicide. A national sample of 1,753 young adults completed structured telephone interviews measuring violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, and loss of a family member or close friend to a drunk driving accident (vehicular homicide) or murder (criminal homicide). The prevalence of homicide survivorship was 15%. African Americans were more highly represented among criminal homicide survivors. Logistic regression analyses found that homicide survivors were at risk for past year posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 1.88), major depressive episode (OR = 1.64), and drug abuse/dependence (OR = 1.77). These findings highlight the significant mental health needs of homicide survivors.

  5. Preexisting mental illness and risk for developing a new disorder after hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Han, Xiaotong; Tharp, Andra Teten; Davis, Teri; Deitch, Elizabeth A; Constans, Joseph I

    2013-02-01

    To investigate predisaster mental illness as a risk factor of poor postdisaster mental health outcomes, veterans with (n = 249) and without (n = 250) preexisting mental illness residing in the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina were surveyed after Katrina and screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic. Logistic regression examined the association between preexisting mental disorders and positive screens after the hurricane, adjusting for demographics and exposure to hurricane-related stressors. The odds of screening positive for any new mental disorder were 6.8 times greater for those with preexisting mental illness compared with those without preexisting mental illness. Among those with preexisting PTSD, the odds of screening positive for any new mental illness were 11.9 times greater; among those with schizophrenia, 9.1 times greater; and among those with affective disorders, 4.4 times greater. Persons with preexisting mental illnesses, particularly PTSD, should be considered a high-risk group for poor outcomes after a disaster.

  6. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent self-reported diagnosis of cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Piazza, Marina; Tachimori, Hisateru; Hu, Chiyi; Lim, Carmen; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; Kiejna, Andrzej; Levinson, Daphna; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The associations between mental disorders and cancer remain unclear. It is also unknown whether any associations vary according to life stage or gender. This paper examines these research questions using data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed the lifetime prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders in face-to-face household population surveys in nineteen countries (n = 52,095). Cancer was indicated by self-report of diagnosis. Smoking was assessed in questions about current and past tobacco use. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequently reported cancer. Results After adjustment for comorbidity, panic disorder, specific phobia and alcohol abuse were associated with a subsequently self-reported diagnosis of cancer. There was an association between number of mental disorders and the likelihood of reporting a cancer diagnosis following the onset of the mental disorder. This suggests that the associations between mental disorders and cancer risk may be generalised, rather than specific to a particular disorder. Depression is more strongly associated with self-reported cancers diagnosed early in life and in women. PTSD is also associated with cancers diagnosed early in life. Conclusion This study reports the magnitude of the associations between mental disorders and a self-reported diagnosis of cancer and provides information about the relevance of comorbidity, gender and the impact at different stages of life. The findings point to a link between the two conditions and lend support to arguments for early identification and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24529039

  7. Homicide and mental disorder in a region with a high homicide rate.

    PubMed

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla

    2016-10-01

    There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder. The six most common individual diagnoses were alcohol dependence (15.9%), acquired organic mental disorder (7.3%), personality disorder (7.1%), schizophrenia (4.4%) and intellectual disability (3.6%). More than one disorder was found in 7.4% of offenders and alcohol dependence was the most frequently diagnosed co-morbid disorder. One in ten offenders were found to be not criminally responsible for their actions. Few homicides involved the use of substances other than alcohol, and firearms were used in 1.6% of homicides. The finding that people with mental disorders other than psychosis committed a high proportion of homicides in a region with a high rate of homicide, suggests that people with mental disorders are vulnerable to similar sociological factors to those that contribute to homicide offences by people who do not have mental disorder.

  8. Kant on mental disorder. Part 2: philosophical implications of Kant's account.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This paper considers various philosophical problems arising from Kant's account of mental disorder. Starting with the reasons why Kant considered his theory of mental disorder important, I then turn to the implications of this theory of Kant's metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. Given Kant's account of insanity as 'a totally different standpoint... from which one sees all objects differently' (7: 216), the Critique of Pure Reason should be read as offering a more social epistemology than typically recognized. Also, mental disorders that seem to undermine human freedom and rationality raise problems for Kant's moral philosophy that his pragmatic anthropology helps to mitigate. Finally, I propose some implications of Kant's account of mental disorder for contemporary work on mental illness.

  9. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-10-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.

  10. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  11. What Do Patients Think about the Cause of Their Mental Disorder? A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Causal Beliefs of Mental Disorder in Inpatients in Psychosomatic Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Magaard, Julia Luise; Schulz, Holger; Brütt, Anna Levke

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients’ causal beliefs about their mental disorders are important for treatment because they affect illness-related behaviours. However, there are few studies exploring patients’ causal beliefs about their mental disorder. Objectives (a) To qualitatively explore patients’ causal beliefs of their mental disorder, (b) to explore frequencies of patients stating causal beliefs, and (c) to investigate differences of causal beliefs according to patients’ primary diagnoses. Method Inpatients in psychosomatic rehabilitation were asked an open-ended question about their three most important causal beliefs about their mental illness. Answers were obtained from 678 patients, with primary diagnoses of depression (N = 341), adjustment disorder (N = 75), reaction to severe stress (N = 57) and anxiety disorders (N = 40). Two researchers developed a category system inductively and categorised the reported causal beliefs. Qualitative analysis has been supplemented by logistic regression analyses. Results The causal beliefs were organized into twelve content-related categories. Causal beliefs referring to “problems at work” (47%) and “problems in social environment” (46%) were most frequently mentioned by patients with mental disorders. 35% of patients indicate causal beliefs related to “self/internal states”. Patients with depression and patients with anxiety disorders stated similar causal beliefs, whereas patients with reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders stated different causal beliefs in comparison to patients with depression. Limitations There was no opportunity for further exploration, because we analysed written documents. Conclusions These results add a detailed insight to mentally ill patients’ causal beliefs to illness perception literature. Additionally, evidence about differences in frequencies of causal beliefs between different illness groups complement previous findings. For future research it is important to clarify

  12. Structured group psychotherapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of an open multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Richter, Harald; Peters, Julia; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther; Colla, Michael; Münzebrock, Mirka; Scheel, Corinna; Jacob, Christian; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Hesslinger, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder that often persists in adulthood. In a pilot study, a structured skills training group program for adult ADHD led to significant symptomatic improvements. The present study evaluated the program's effectiveness, feasibility, and patient acceptability in a multicenter setting. Seventy-two adult ADHD patients were assigned to 13 two-hour weekly sessions at 4 different therapy sites. The therapy was well tolerated and led to significant improvements of ADHD, depressive symptoms, and personal health status (p < 0.001). The factors treatment site and medication did not contribute to the overall improvement. Patients regarded the program topics "behavioral analyses," "mindfulness," and "emotion regulation" as the most helpful. In this multicenter study, the therapy program showed therapist-independent effects and seemed to be disorder-specific. This warrants the effort of organizing further controlled studies.

  13. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model

    PubMed Central

    Martins Carvalho, Fernando; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms. PMID:27630999

  14. The influence of expertise on essence beliefs for mental and medical disorder categories.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jessica A; Marsh, Jessecae K

    2015-11-01

    Research suggests that expertise in a specific category domain influences categorization. Work related to beliefs about mental disorders finds that laypeople treat mental disorders as if they do have causal essences, while clinicians do not-differences that may be attributable to expertise (Ahn, Flanagan, Marsh, & Sanislow, 2006). To test whether reduced beliefs in essences are indicative of an overall influence of expertise or a demonstration of a phenomenon specific to expertise in the mental health domain we compared beliefs about mental and medical disorders held by practicing physicians (n = 43; 19 primary care and 24 non-psychiatry specialists) and laypeople (n = 40). We found differences between these groups in beliefs held concerning the necessity of removing shared category features to effectively cure disorders. While laypeople endorsed the idea that the cause needed to be removed to cure both mental and medical disorders, this endorsement decreased with expertise. Primary care providers were less willing to endorse this for mental disorders than for medical disorders. Our results support the notion that the reduction of beliefs concerning the existence of essences is a unique effect of expertise in the mental health domain, and does not extend to other areas of expertise. In physicians, this reduction of essentialist beliefs was most evident in questions regarding treatment. Similarities and differences to the results from Ahn et al. (2006) are discussed.

  15. Comparing the predictive utility of two screening tools for mental disorder among probationers.

    PubMed

    Eno Louden, Jennifer; Skeem, Jennifer L; Blevins, Alishia

    2013-06-01

    To increase the likelihood that probationers with serious mental disorder can be identified by probation agencies, we tested the utility of two promising mental health screening tools, the K6 and the Brief Jail Mental Health Screen (BJMHS), in identifying probationers with DSM-IV Axis I mental disorders. In this study, 4,670 probationers completed the screening tools as part of routine intake procedures at a probation agency. We interviewed a subset of 149 probationers using a structured clinical interview to determine whether they met criteria for an Axis I anxiety, mood, or psychotic disorder at any point during their lifetimes. The BJMHS correctly identified 77% of probationers with mental disorder overall, and contrary to our hypotheses, the measure was as sensitive with women as it was with men. Adding items assessing posttraumatic stress disorder provided some incremental utility to the measure. The K6 demonstrated similar levels of sensitivity to the BJMHS when using a lower cutoff score informed by prior research with offenders. Contrary to prior research, we found that the BJMHS was sensitive to mental disorder among female probationers. We suggest that probation agencies implement either the BJMHS or the K6 as part of their intake procedures to identify probationers with serious mental disorder so the complex needs of this group can be better addressed.

  16. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Santos, Kionna Oliveira; Martins Carvalho, Fernando; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms.

  17. Beyond clergy: congregations' sponsorship of social services for people with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Steven M

    2014-03-01

    This study examines U.S. congregations' sponsorship of social services for people with mental disorders using data from a nationally representative sample of congregations. The analysis finds that 8.0 % of congregations sponsor social services for people with mental disorders, and that congregations' religious tradition influences the likelihood that they sponsor them. Most of the services assist people with substance use disorders. Coupled with findings from previous studies, we conclude that most of the support and care people with mental disorders receive from congregations comes from clergy rather than formal social services. Organizations interested in partnering with congregations to provide social services for people with mental disorders should take note of the findings about the programs already underway and their patterning in order to accurately pinpoint nexuses of congregational receptivity.

  18. Descriptive Assessment of Sleep Patterns among Community-Living Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…

  19. Stopping the revolving door: a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of interventions for criminally involved individuals with major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael S; Dorken, Shannon K; Wamboldt, Ashley D; Wootten, Sarah E

    2012-02-01

    Faced with high and increasing rates of mental disorder within the criminal justice system (CJS), a range of interventions have been implemented in an effort to prevent continued involvement in criminal activities among this population. A meta-analytic review was undertaken to consider the effectiveness of interventions for criminally involved adults with a mental disorder targeting either improved criminal justice or mental health outcomes. Furthermore, characteristics that were hypothesized to predict better outcomes were examined. Studies that considered sex offender interventions, or focused solely on antisocial personality, intellectual and cognitive, or substance use disorders were excluded. Results assuming a fixed-effects model combining 37 effect sizes from 25 studies (N = 15,678) support the effectiveness of these interventions in terms of reductions in any CJS involvement (d = 0.19 excluding one outlier). Interventions had no significant effect on an aggregate mental health outcome (d = 0.00). However, when considering distinct mental health outcomes, intervention participants had significantly better functioning (d = 0.20) and fewer symptoms (d = 0.12). There were no significant effects of the interventions on mental health service or medication use. Moderator analyses identified seven sample, intervention, and design characteristics that were related to the magnitude of the effect sizes for criminal justice outcomes, and suggest implications for service provision, policy, and research. Results suggested some relationship between intervention effects on mental health and criminal justice reinvolvement, although future research is needed in this area, especially given the absence of mental health outcome data in many studies.

  20. Barriers and Facilitation Measures Related to People With Mental Disorders When Using the Web: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sabariego, Carla; Cieza, Alarcos

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders (MDs) affect almost 1 in 4 adults at some point during their lifetime, and coupled with substance use disorders are the fifth leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. People with these disorders often use the Web as an informational resource, platform for convenient self-directed treatment, and a means for many other kinds of support. However, some features of the Web can potentially erect barriers for this group that limit their access to these benefits, and there is a lack of research looking into this eventuality. Therefore, it is important to identify gaps in knowledge about “what” barriers exist and “how” they could be addressed so that this knowledge can inform Web professionals who aim to ensure the Web is inclusive to this population. Objective The objective of this study was to provide an overview of existing evidence regarding the barriers people with mental disorders experience when using the Web and the facilitation measures used to address such barriers. Methods This study involved a systematic review of studies that have considered the difficulties people with mental disorders experience when using digital technologies. Digital technologies were included because knowledge about any barriers here would likely be also applicable to the Web. A synthesis was performed by categorizing data according to the 4 foundational principles of Web accessibility as proposed by the World Wide Web Consortium, which forms the necessary basis for anyone to gain adequate access to the Web. Facilitation measures recommended by studies were later summarized into a set of minimal recommendations. Results A total of 16 publications were included in this review, comprising 13 studies and 3 international guidelines. Findings suggest that people with mental disorders experience barriers that limit how they perceive, understand, and operate websites. Identified facilitation measures target these barriers in addition to

  1. Important Questions Remain to Be Addressed before Adopting a Dimensional Classification of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull (2007). Widiger and Trull raised important nosological issues that warrant serious consideration not only for the personality disorders but for all mental disorders as the Diagnostic…

  2. Improving eating disorders mental health literacy: a preliminary evaluation of the "Should I say something?" workshop.

    PubMed

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Bentley, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A repeated measures, uncontrolled, preliminary evaluation of a single 3-hour workshop-"Should I Say Something?"-aimed at improving eating disorders mental health literacy, was conducted in a sample of 177 university undergraduates. Following participation in the workshop, significant increases in eating disorder recognition and knowledge, and significant decreases in stigmatizing attitudes, were reported by participants. Moreover, 85% of participants reported that they provided assistance to someone whom they suspected had a mental health condition, including an eating disorder, during the 3-month follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that "Should I Say Something?" may be effective in improving the mental health literacy of young people.

  3. Hospital Admissions Related to Mental Disorders in U.S. Army Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    disorder), somatoform/ dissociative/ factitious , and other mental disorders. ICD-9-CM codes E950-E959 were used to identify attempted suicide-related/self...dissociative/ factitious Other Mental ICD-9 Codes 290-319 291, 303, 305.0, 292 (except 292.2), 304, 305.2-305.7, 305.9 309.0, 309.24, 309.28, 309.3... factitious disorders. Risk Analysis of Mental Disorders—OIF One thousand, five hundred sixty-five soldiers had 1,633 hos- pitalizations in OIF, with a

  4. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  5. Quantification of free-living activity patterns using accelerometry in adults with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Justin J.; Roberts, James A.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is disrupted in many psychiatric disorders. Advances in everyday technologies – such as accelerometers in smart phones – opens exciting possibilities for non-intrusive acquisition of activity data. Successful exploitation of this opportunity requires the validation of analytical methods that can capture the full movement spectrum. The study aim was to demonstrate an analytical approach to characterise accelerometer-derived activity patterns. Here, we use statistical methods to characterize accelerometer-derived activity patterns from a heterogeneous sample of 99 community-based adults with mental illnesses. Diagnoses were screened using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and participants wore accelerometers for one week. We studied the relative ability of simple (exponential), complex (heavy-tailed), and composite models to explain patterns of activity and inactivity. Activity during wakefulness was a composite of brief random (exponential) movements and complex (heavy-tailed) processes, whereas movement during sleep lacked the heavy-tailed component. In contrast, inactivity followed a heavy-tailed process, lacking the random component. Activity patterns differed in nature between those with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a primary psychotic disorder. These results show the potential of complex models to quantify the rich nature of human movement captured by accelerometry during wake and sleep, and the interaction with diagnosis and health. PMID:28266563

  6. Psychiatric comorbidity in autism spectrum disorder: Correspondence between mental health clinician report and structured parent interview.

    PubMed

    Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Dyson, Margaret; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2016-07-11

    Publicly funded mental health services are critical in caring for children with autism spectrum disorder. Accurate identification of psychiatric comorbidity is necessary for effective mental health treatment. Little is known about psychiatric diagnosis for this population in routine mental health care. This study (1) examined correspondence between psychiatric diagnoses reported by mental health clinicians and those derived from a structured diagnostic interview and (2) identified predictors of agreement between clinician-reported and diagnostic interview-derived diagnoses in a sample of 197 children aged 4-14 years with autism spectrum disorder receiving mental health services. Data were drawn from a randomized effectiveness trial conducted in publicly funded mental health services. Non-autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were assessed using an adapted version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version. Cohen's kappa was calculated to examine agreement between Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version and clinician-reported diagnoses of comorbid conditions. Children met criteria for an average of 2.83 (standard deviation = 1.92) Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version diagnoses. Agreement was poor across all diagnostic categories (κ values: 0.06-0.18). Logistic regression identified child gender and clinical characteristics as significant predictors of agreement for specific diagnoses. Results underscore the need for training mental health clinicians in targeted assessment of specific psychiatric disorders and prioritizing treatment development and testing for specific diagnoses to improve care for children with autism spectrum disorder served in publicly funded mental health settings.

  7. The mental representations of fractions: adults' same-different judgments.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Florence; Szucs, Denes; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether the processing of the magnitude of fractions is global or componential. Previously, some authors concluded that adults process the numerators and denominators of fractions separately and do not access the global magnitude of fractions. Conversely, others reported evidence suggesting that the global magnitude of fractions is accessed. We hypothesized that in a fraction matching task, participants automatically extract the magnitude of the components but that the activation of the global magnitude of the whole fraction is only optional or strategic. Participants carried out same/different judgment tasks. Two different tasks were used: a physical matching task and a numerical matching task. Pairs of fractions were presented either simultaneously or sequentially. Results showed that participants only accessed the representation of the global magnitude of fractions in the numerical matching task. The mode of stimulus presentation did not affect the processing of fractions. The present study allows a deeper understanding of the conditions in which the magnitude of fractions is mentally represented by using matching tasks and two different modes of presentation.

  8. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  9. What Are Young Adults Saying About Mental Health? An Analysis of Internet Blogs

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward

  10. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Mami

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS). Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of the human brain, leading to various neurological dysfunctions. In the adult brain, impairment of THs, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, can cause psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression. Although impact of hypothyroidism on synaptic transmission and plasticity is known, its effect on glial cells and related cellular mechanisms remain enigmatic. This mini-review article summarizes how THs are transported into the brain, metabolized in astrocytes and affect microglia and oligodendrocytes, demonstrating an example of glioendocrine system. Neuroglial effects may help to understand physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of THs in the CNS and how hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may cause mental disorders. PMID:26089777

  11. Responses of mental health clinicians to patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by a number of pathological interpersonal and behavioral symptoms. Because of these symptoms, individuals with borderline personality disorder tend to have difficulties in their relationships with others, including mental health clinicians. Through a literature review, we examined the perceptions and reactions of mental health clinicians toward patients with borderline personality disorder. Our findings indicate that psychiatric nurses are the most studied group of mental health clinicians in this regard, followed by samples of mixed mental health clinicians, and then psychologists. Interestingly, there is no study of psychiatrists only. While sample sizes have been generally small and methodologies have varied, the overwhelming majority of these studies indicate negative perceptions of and emotional responses toward patients with borderline personality disorder. Some researchers have interpreted such findings to suggest that mental health clinicians are more judgmental or prejudicial toward patients with borderline personality disorder, in contrast to other types of mental health patients. However, patients with borderline personality disorder have very complex interpersonal behaviors that tend to illicit negative responses from those around them. Perhaps these data simply reflect a very human reaction to the complex and pathological behaviors of these patients-a conclusion that is relevant to clinicians practicing in either mental health or primary care settings.

  12. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed.

  13. Cultural aspects of major mental disorders: a critical review from an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Biju; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2012-10-01

    Major mental disorders such as schizophrenia and affective disorders are highly disabling illnesses. The cultural factors that influence the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are of paramount clinical significance. We attempted to critically review the cultural factors in relation to the epidemiology, phenomenology, treatment, and outcome of major mental disorders from an Indian perspective, and tried to compare these with the cultural factors identified in major international studies. The clinical expression of major mental disorders was noted to vary across cultures in the review. In addition, the outcome of major mental disorders is reported to be better in developing nations than in the developed countries. Transcultural variations are also noted to exist in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, traditional healing practices, and psychotherapeutic approaches. The role of cultural factors in severe mental illnesses needs adequate attention from mental health professionals. Continued research on the cultural aspects is required to understand the interplay of all social, cultural, and biological factors. It is important to consider other cultural, traditional, and folk methods for understanding and management of mental illnesses.

  14. Impact of sleep disturbance on patients in treatment for mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In clinical practice, sleep disturbance is often regarded as an epiphenomenon of the primary mental disorder. The aim of this study was to test if sleep disturbance, independently of primary mental disorders, is associated with current clinical state and benefit from treatment in a sample representative of public mental health care clinics. Method 2246 patients receiving treatment for mental disorders in eight public mental health care centers in Norway were evaluated in a cross-sectional study using patient and clinician reported measures. Patients reported quality of life, symptom severity, and benefit from treatment. Clinicians reported disorder severity, level of functioning, symptom severity and benefit from treatment. The hypothesis was tested using multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Results Sleep disturbance was, adjusted for age, gender, time in treatment, type of care, and the presence of any primary mental disorder, associated with lower quality of life, higher symptom severity, higher disorder severity, lower levels of functioning, and less benefit from treatment. Conclusion Sleep disturbance ought to be considered a stand-alone therapeutic entity rather than an epiphenomenon of existing diagnoses for patients receiving treatment in mental health care. PMID:23107000

  15. Safety Needs Mediate Stressful Events Induced Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Simeng; Lei, Yu; Lu, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    “Safety first,” we say these words almost every day, but we all take this for granted for what Maslow proposed in his famous theory of Hierarchy of Needs: safety needs come second to physiological needs. Here we propose that safety needs come before physiological needs. Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being, which are more fundamental than physiological needs. Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD. The neural basis for safety is amygdala, LC/NE system, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone system, which can be regarded as a “safety circuitry,” whose major behavior function is “fight or flight” and “fear and anger” emotions. This is similar to the Appraisal theory for emotions: fear is due to the primary appraisal, which is related to safety of individual, while anger is due to secondary appraisal, which is related to coping with the unsafe situations. If coping is good, the individual will be happy; if coping failed, the individual will be sad or depressed. PMID:27738527

  16. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders in Japan: results from the final dataset of World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, H.; Kawakami, N.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006. Methods Face-to-face household interviews of 4,130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Results Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%), and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%), and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate, and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second

  17. Delays before Diagnosis and Initiation of Treatment in Patients Presenting to Mental Health Services with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Shetty, Hitesh; Jackson, Richard; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although existing treatments are effective, there is often a substantial delay before diagnosis and treatment initiation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the delay before diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the onset of treatment in secondary mental healthcare. Method Retrospective cohort study using anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) Case Register on 1364 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder between 2007 and 2012. The following predictor variables were analysed in a multivariable Cox regression analysis: age, gender, ethnicity, compulsory admission to hospital under the UK Mental Health Act, marital status and other diagnoses prior to bipolar disorder. The outcomes were time to recorded diagnosis from first presentation to specialist mental health services (the diagnostic delay), and time to the start of appropriate therapy (treatment delay). Results The median diagnostic delay was 62 days (interquartile range: 17–243) and median treatment delay was 31 days (4–122). Compulsory hospital admission was associated with a significant reduction in both diagnostic delay (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 2.18–3.06) and treatment delay (4.40, 3.63–5.62). Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with increased diagnostic delay, particularly alcohol (0.48, 0.33–0.41) and substance misuse disorders (0.44, 0.31–0.61). Prior diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic depression were associated with reduced treatment delay. Conclusions Some individuals experience a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder after initiation of specialist mental healthcare, particularly those who have prior diagnoses of alcohol and substance misuse disorders. These findings highlight a need for further study on strategies to better identify

  18. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status.

  19. The education and training needs of qualified mental health nurses working in acute adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julia; Lowe, Trevor

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents findings from a research study that investigated the education and training needs of qualified mental health nurses who work in acute adult mental health services in the UK. The study aimed to address a key knowledge 'gap' highlighted by recent Department of Health reports () that suggest that little is known regarding the education and training expectations, priorities and needs of mental health nurses who work in acute adult mental health services. This study aimed to identify (i) what type of post-registration education and training mental health nurses working in acute settings need; (ii) how the nurses want education and training to be delivered; and (iii) what qualifications and accreditation the nurses want to receive? The research consisted of two methods: focus groups and a questionnaire survey. This paper reports on the findings from the questionnaire survey. The results of the survey demonstrate that there is a real need for post-registration education and training for this group of nurses; to equip them with the relevant knowledge and skills to nurse people in the acute phase of their mental illness in acute inpatient settings.

  20. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-12-08

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater

  1. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women’s lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women’s health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant’s intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child’s health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother’s lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother’s mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with

  2. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  3. Barriers to Serving Clients With Co-occurring Disorders in a Transformed Mental Health System

    PubMed Central

    Padwa, Howard; Guerrero, Erick G.; Braslow, Joel T.; Fenwick, Karissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The publication of the President’s New Freedom Commission Report in 2003 led to hope and anticipation that system transformation would address barriers that have impeded the delivery of integrated services for clients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. Have problems been resolved? This study analyzed providers’ perspectives on serving clients with co-occurring disorders in a large mental health system that has undergone transformation. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with providers at specialty mental health treatment organizations that received funding to transform services. Using content analysis, the authors identified major themes of the focus group discussions. Results Participants reported several barriers within the mental health system and challenges associated with collaborating with specialty substance abuse treatment providers that impede the delivery of integrated care. Conclusions In spite of efforts to improve co-occurring disorder service delivery in a transformed mental health system, barriers that have historically impeded integrated treatment persist. PMID:25686812

  4. How do probation officers assess and manage recidivism and violence risk for probationers with mental disorder? An experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Louden, Jennifer Eno; Skeem, Jennifer L

    2013-02-01

    Persons with mental disorder are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. Once involved in the criminal justice system, offenders with mental disorder are more likely to return to custody while on probation than their nondisordered counterparts, often for breaking the rules of community supervision. Risk assessments and risk management strategies employed by probation officers can lead to higher rates of returns to custody for probationers with mental disorder, and the current study is the first to examine these experimentally. Here, 234 probation officers provided risk assessments and risk management decisions based on a vignette portraying a probationer with mental disorder, substance abuse disorder, both, or neither. Although substance abuse is a relatively stronger risk factor than mental disorder, mental disorder had a stronger effect on officers' risk assessments. In terms of risk management, mental disorder had the strongest effect on officers' desire to manage risk with forced mental health treatment. These findings suggest that training for probation officers in the relative utility of mental disorder in predicting risk, in addition to evidence-based risk management strategies that take the focus off mental disorder, may improve outcomes for probationers with mental disorder.

  5. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD symptoms may not be as clear as ADHD symptoms in children. In adults, hyperactivity may decrease, but struggles with ... similar to treatment for childhood ADHD, though some ADHD medications approved for children are not approved for adult use. Adult ADHD ...

  6. [The association between common mental disorders and subjective health conditions among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Nascimento, Jairo Evangelista; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Sá, Maria Aparecida Barbosa de; Feres, Sara de Barros Lima; Soares, Bruno Porto; Ferreira, Efigenia Ferreira E

    2016-11-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of common mental disorders and the impairment of subjective health conditions among the elderly. It involved a cross-sectional analytical survey conducted among all the elderly residents in the urban area of a Brazilian municipality with low population density. Mental disorders were evaluated using the short version of the Goldberg General Health questionnaire. Subjective and normative health conditions were evaluated and logistic regression was applied (OR/CI95%) with a 5% significance level. The survey included 419 elderly residents and the prevalence of mental disorders was 44.6%. The presence of mental disorders was greater among seniors who reported dissatisfaction with life, impairment in the mental and physical control of quality of life and with self-perception of the appearance of teeth and gums as negative. The prevalence of disorders was less identified between men and among those for whom oral health did not affect their relationships with other people The common mental disorder was identified in a significant number of the elderly investigated and the presence of this disorder has been mainly associated with oral health conditions.

  7. The Bivariate Plotting Procedure for Hearing Assessment of Adults Who Are Severely to Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattey, Tommy J.

    1985-01-01

    Puretone auditory assessment of 21 adults with severe to profound mental retardation indicated that a bivariate plotting procedure of predicting hearing sensitivity from the acoustic reflexes should be included in an audiological test battery for this population. (CL)

  8. Excess Mortality in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders in 1996-2010 in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lumme, Sonja; Pirkola, Sami; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Keskimäki, Ilmo

    2016-01-01

    Unselected population-based nationwide studies on the excess mortality of individuals with severe mental disorders are scarce with regard to several important causes of death. Using comprehensive register data, we set out to examine excess mortality and its trends among patients with severe mental disorders compared to the total population. Patients aged 25-74 and hospitalised with severe mental disorders in 1990-2010 in Finland were identified using the national hospital discharge register and linked individually to population register data on mortality and demographics. We studied mortality in the period 1996-2010 among patients with psychotic disorders, psychoactive substance use disorders, and mood disorders by several causes of death. In addition to all-cause mortality, we examined mortality amenable to health care interventions, ischaemic heart disease mortality, disease mortality, and alcohol-related mortality. Patients with severe mental disorders had a clearly higher mortality rate than the total population throughout the study period regardless of cause of death, with the exception of alcohol-related mortality among male patients with psychotic disorders without comorbidity with substance use disorders. The all-cause mortality rate ratio of patients with psychotic disorders compared to the total population was 3.48 (95% confidence interval 2.98-4.06) among men and 3.75 (95% CI 3.08-4.55) among women in the period 2008-10. The corresponding rate ratio of patients with psychoactive substance use disorders was 5.33 (95% CI 4.87-5.82) among men and 7.54 (95% CI 6.30-9.03) among women. Overall, the mortality of the total population and patients with severe mental disorders decreased between 1996 and 2010. However, the mortality rate ratio of patients with psychotic disorders and patients with psychoactive substance use disorders compared to the total population increased in general during the study period. Exceptions were alcohol-related mortality among

  9. Excess Mortality in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders in 1996-2010 in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lumme, Sonja; Pirkola, Sami; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Keskimäki, Ilmo

    2016-01-01

    Unselected population-based nationwide studies on the excess mortality of individuals with severe mental disorders are scarce with regard to several important causes of death. Using comprehensive register data, we set out to examine excess mortality and its trends among patients with severe mental disorders compared to the total population. Patients aged 25–74 and hospitalised with severe mental disorders in 1990–2010 in Finland were identified using the national hospital discharge register and linked individually to population register data on mortality and demographics. We studied mortality in the period 1996–2010 among patients with psychotic disorders, psychoactive substance use disorders, and mood disorders by several causes of death. In addition to all-cause mortality, we examined mortality amenable to health care interventions, ischaemic heart disease mortality, disease mortality, and alcohol-related mortality. Patients with severe mental disorders had a clearly higher mortality rate than the total population throughout the study period regardless of cause of death, with the exception of alcohol-related mortality among male patients with psychotic disorders without comorbidity with substance use disorders. The all-cause mortality rate ratio of patients with psychotic disorders compared to the total population was 3.48 (95% confidence interval 2.98–4.06) among men and 3.75 (95% CI 3.08–4.55) among women in the period 2008–10. The corresponding rate ratio of patients with psychoactive substance use disorders was 5.33 (95% CI 4.87–5.82) among men and 7.54 (95% CI 6.30–9.03) among women. Overall, the mortality of the total population and patients with severe mental disorders decreased between 1996 and 2010. However, the mortality rate ratio of patients with psychotic disorders and patients with psychoactive substance use disorders compared to the total population increased in general during the study period. Exceptions were alcohol

  10. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-01-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…

  11. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions.

  12. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses. Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43–54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20–34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13–27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10–14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6–15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12–24) and 11% (95% CI 7–15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2–6). High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  13. The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013

    PubMed Central

    Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M.; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A.; AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H.; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S.; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmous, Imad A. D.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C.; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B.; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J.; Tabb, Karen M.; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost–YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability–YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25–49 age group, with a peak in the 35–39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of

  14. The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013.

    PubMed

    Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmous, Imad A D; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A; Mokdad, Ali A; Maalouf, Fadi T; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J; Tabb, Karen M; Whiteford, Harvey A; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost-YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability-YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25-49 age group, with a peak in the 35-39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of

  15. Older adults and substance-related disorders: trends and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Daniel; Heberlein, Emily; Engel, Rafael J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to examine the changing service profile of older adults receiving substance abuse services over the past decade and the increased costs of treating this population. Design and Methods. Medicaid claims for mental health and substance abuse services data from a medium sized county in an eastern state were analyzed for individuals aged 50 years and older in calendar year 2000 or 2009. Univariate statistics are presented to describe the substance abuse and mental health services used by older adults in these two years. Results. The number of low-income older adults who accessed services for treatment and who had a substance-related diagnosis grew from 545 individuals in 2000 to 1,653 individuals in 2009. Costs for services utilized by older adults with a substance-related diagnosis rose by 358% from $2.1 million in 2000 to $9.5 million in 2009. Implications. The increase in the number of low-income older adults with a substance-related disorder and the concomitant rise in total spending for Medicaid reimbursed services indicate that local and state social service providers need to prepare for an older adult population who will need appropriate substance abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  16. Mental Imagery of Concrete Proverbs: A Developmental Study of Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Jill K.; Nippold, Marilyn A.; Billow, Jesse L.; Mansfield, Tracy C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of mental imagery in relation to the comprehension of concrete proverbs (e.g., "one rotten apple spoils the barrel") was examined in children, adolescents, and adults who were ages 11 to 29 years old (n = 210). The findings indicated that age-related changes occurred in mental imagery and in proverb comprehension during the years…

  17. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  18. A Cross-Sectional Test of the Similar-Trajectory Hypothesis among Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facon, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The similar-sequence and the similar-structure hypotheses are the two mainstays of the developmental approach to mental retardation. In the present study, a third way, the similar-trajectory hypothesis, is described and illustrated using the WAIS-R results of adults with and without mental retardation aged from 20 to 54 years. The whole sample (N…

  19. A Psychosynthesis Approach to the Use of Mental Imagery with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    States that the techniques of mental imagery can help adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse access the inner wisdom necessary to identify, understand, and creatively address issues from the past and develop new and healthier patterns of thinking and behaving. Documents the innovative ways psychosynthesis uses mental imagery with this client…

  20. Shaping with Visual Feedback and Token Reinforcement: Effects on Voice Volume Changes in Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Carrie; Gurski, John C.

    In an attempt to confirm earlier results with a group of mentally retarded females, 12 mentally retarded institutionalized adults (8 male, 4 female) were trained to either reduce (Loud group) or increase (Soft group) their voice volumes with a combination of visual feedback and token reinforcement. The feedback unit provided a binary light on-off…

  1. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  2. Absenteeism due to mental disorders in health professionals at a hospital in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santana, Leni de Lima; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Brey, Christiane; Miranda, Fernanda Moura D'Almeida; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres

    2016-03-01

    Objective To describe the health profile of mental and behavioral disorders in health professionals at a teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Methods This was a quantitative, retrospective cross-sectional epidemiological study whose data were collected through institutional documents used to feed the Health Monitoring System for Nursing Professionals and involved all absenteeism occurred in 2011. Results We found 55 records of absenteeism due to mental and behavioral disorders, a total of 317 days absent. Nursing technicians were the most absentee, with 29.09% of the records. The intensive care unit represented the sector with the highest number of days absent, 81%, and depressive episodes were the most frequent, representing 52.72% of mental disorders. Conclusion The results showed that mental disorders in health professionals are a cause for concern and urgently need intervention.

  3. What is a mental/psychiatric disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Stein, D J; Phillips, K A; Bolton, D; Fulford, K W M; Sadler, J Z; Kendler, K S

    2010-11-01

    The distinction between normality and psychopathology has long been subject to debate. DSM-III and DSM-IV provided a definition of mental disorder to help clinicians address this distinction. As part of the process of developing DSM-V, researchers have reviewed the concept of mental disorder and emphasized the need for additional work in this area. Here we review the DSM-IV definition of mental disorder and propose some changes. The approach taken here arguably takes a middle course through some of the relevant conceptual debates. We agree with the view that no definition perfectly specifies precise boundaries for the concept of mental/psychiatric disorder, but in line with a view that the nomenclature can improve over time, we aim here for a more scientifically valid and more clinically useful definition.

  4. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  5. Population Mean Scores Predict Child Mental Disorder Rates: Validating SDQ Prevalence Estimators in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: For adult physical and mental health, the population mean predicts the proportion of individuals with "high" scores. This has not previously been investigated for child mental health. It is also unclear how far symptom scores on brief questionnaires provide an unbiased method of comparing children with different individual,…

  6. How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur with Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publishing. 2. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. 2006. Definitions and Terms Relating to Co-Occurring Disorders. COCE Overview Paper 1. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 06-4163 Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and Center for Mental Health Services. 3. ...

  7. Do prior histories of violence and mental disorders impact on violent behaviour during encounters with police?

    PubMed

    Kesic, Dragana; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2014-01-01

    Despite sustained large-scale educational campaigns, public attitudes towards mental illness have remained persistently negative. Associated with this, recent research from Victoria, Australia, reported that police commonly associated violent behaviour with mental illness. The present study examined 4267 cases of police use of force and considered what differentiated and characterised violent from non-violent behaviours reported by police in the context of a use of force incident. The specific focus was to examine the effects that historical variables such as age, gender, prior violent offending and having a prior diagnosis of mental disorder, as well as incident specific factors such as exhibiting signs of mental disorder and substance intoxication have on violent behaviour during the use of force incident. The proximal factors of apparent mental disorder and alcohol intoxication were significantly associated with violent behaviour towards police, whilst having a history of prior violence and prior mental disorder diagnoses was not associated with violence. The results challenge traditional stereotyped views about the violence risk posed by people with prior contact with mental health services and those with prior violent offending histories. A service model that allows for psychiatric triage would be able to assist with streamlining police involvement and facilitating timely access to mental health services.

  8. Characteristics of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Served in Comprehensive Community-Based Mental Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Walrath, Christine M.; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Sgro, Gina; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) receiving treatment in community mental health settings. Data from a national community mental health initiative was used to identify children who had received a primary diagnosis of ASD. These children were compared with children with other diagnoses on…

  9. Modified Therapeutic Community Treatment for Offenders with Co-Occurring Disorders: Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Joann Y.; Stommel, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes 12 months post-prison release for offenders with co-occurring disorders (n = 185) randomly assigned to either a mental health control treatment (C) or a modified therapeutic community (E). Significant between-group differences were not found for mental health measures, although improvements were observed for each…

  10. Severity of Victimization and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders among Substance Using Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabri, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Co-occurring mental health disorders are widespread among substance using adolescents. Severity of victimization may be an important factor in explaining co-occurrence of mental health problems among adolescents with substance misuse problems. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether severe victimization experiences…

  11. Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Received Services through Community Mental Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Stephanie A.; Corrigan, Susan K.; McDonald, Thomas P.; Holmes, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mental health services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of…

  12. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

  13. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT) and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiologically. Methods We conducted a qualitative interview study with 16 women and 16 men (21-28 years), recruited from a cohort of university students on the basis of reporting high computer (n = 28) or mobile phone (n = 20) use at baseline and reporting mental symptoms at the one-year follow-up. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with open-ended questions about possible connections between the use of computers and mobile phones, and stress, depression, and sleep disturbances. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and summarized in a model. Results Central factors appearing to explain high quantitative ICT use were personal dependency, and demands for achievement and availability originating from the domains of work, study, social life, and individual aspirations. Consequences included mental overload, neglect of other activities and personal needs, time pressure, role conflicts, guilt feelings, social isolation, physical symptoms, worry about electromagnetic radiation, and economic problems. Qualitative aspects (destructive communication and information) were also reported, with consequences including vulnerability, misunderstandings, altered values, and feelings of inadequacy. User problems were a source of frustration. Altered ICT use as an effect of mental symptoms was reported, as well as possible positive effects of ICT on mental health. Conclusions The concepts and ideas of the young adults with high ICT use and mental symptoms generated a model of

  14. Lipid peroxidation markers in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new findings for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Mahmut; Selek, Salih; Bez, Yasin; Cemal Kaya, Mehmet; Gunes, Mehmet; Karababa, Fatih; Celik, Hakim; Savas, Haluk Asuman

    2013-10-30

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a reliable marker of lipid peroxidation where paraoxonase and arylesterase are two enzymes against it. Although increased MDA has been previously shown in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A-ADHD), levels of paraoxonase and arylesterase enzymes have not been studied yet. We aimed to determine the status of both MDA level and paraoxonase and arylesterase enzyme activities in A-ADHD patients. A total of 35 adults with ADHD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria and 29 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum MDA, paraoxonase and arylesterase levels of the participants were measured. The disease severity of the patients was determined by using Turgay's Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) DSM IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale. The serum MDA level of patients was significantly higher than that of healthy control subjects, whereas their paraoxonase and arylesterase levels were significantly lower. There was no correlation between the levels of biochemical parameters (MDA, paraoxonase and arylesterase) and the disease severity. Sub-types of A-ADHD were similar in terms of these biochemical parameters. Increased lipid peroxidation, a part of oxidative stress, in adults with ADHD appears to be unbuffered by antioxidant enzymes, namely paraoxonase and arylesterase.

  15. Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for the comorbidity between metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nousen, Elizabeth K.; Franco, Juliana G.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence and high comorbidity of metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders have prompted investigation into the potential contributing mechanisms. There is a bidirectional association between metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Medication side effects and social repercussions are contributing environmental factors, but there are a number of shared underlying neurological and physiological mechanisms that explain the high comorbidity between these two disorders. Inflammation is a state shared by both disorders, and it contributes to disruptions of neuroregulatory systems, including the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and neuropeptide Y systems, as well as dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Metabolic syndrome in pregnant women also exposes the developing fetal brain to inflammatory factors that predispose the offspring to metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders. Due to the shared nature of these conditions, treatment should address aspects of both mental health and metabolic disorders. Additionally, interventions need to be developed that can interrupt the transfer of increased risk of the disorders to the next generation. PMID:24080959

  16. Guns, Impulsive Angry Behavior, and Mental Disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Sampson, Nancy A; Petukhova, Maria V; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Swartz, Marvin S; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-06-01

    Analyses from the National Comorbidity Study Replication provide the first nationally representative estimates of the co-occurrence of impulsive angry behavior and possessing or carrying a gun among adults with and without certain mental disorders and demographic characteristics. The study found that a large number of individuals in the United States self-report patterns of impulsive angry behavior and also possess firearms at home (8.9%) or carry guns outside the home (1.5%). These data document associations of numerous common mental disorders and combinations of angry behavior with gun access. Because only a small proportion of persons with this risky combination have ever been involuntarily hospitalized for a mental health problem, most will not be subject to existing mental health-related legal restrictions on firearms resulting from a history of involuntary commitment. Excluding a large proportion of the general population from gun possession is also not likely to be feasible. Behavioral risk-based approaches to firearms restriction, such as expanding the definition of gun-prohibited persons to include those with violent misdemeanor convictions and multiple DUI convictions, could be a more effective public health policy to prevent gun violence in the population.

  17. Polypharmacy Profiles and Predictors among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Johanna K.; Balogh, Robert; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions are frequently used to treat commonly associated mental health and behavioural issues in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite high rates of psychotropic drug use documented in children with ASD, very few studies have examined medication profiles, side effects, and rates of polypharmacy in…

  18. Diagnosing High Incidence Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), particularly the high incidence conditions of autism, PDD NOS, and Asperger's Syndrome, have become increasingly popular topics of study in the mental health field. Traditionally, the focus has been on young children and early recognition and diagnosis. However, given that these conditions are life long in nature,…

  19. Plasticity imbalance in mental disorders the neuroscience of psychiatry: implications for diagnosis and research