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Sample records for adult mental health

  1. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  2. MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2012-01-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

  3. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    PubMed

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  4. Mental health literacy as a mediator in use of mental health services among older korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhee, T Greg; Lee, Hee Yun; Park, Byung Hyun; Sharratt, Monica L

    2017-02-01

    Existing literature suggests that mental health literacy is positively associated with mental health services utilization. Despite an aging population that faces significant mental health concerns in Korea, the role of mental health literacy on mental health services utilization is not known among older adults in Korea. This study aimed to (1) identify whether mental health literacy mediates the association between population characteristics and mental health services utilization and (2) identify an optimal path model for mental health services utilization among Korean older adults. Using a cross-sectional survey with a quota sampling strategy, we collected and analyzed responses from 596 community-dwelling individuals ages 65 years and older. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to estimate the effect of mental health literacy as a mediator. When controlling for other relevant covariates in the optimal path model, mental health literacy mediated the relationships between three socio-demographic factors (education, general literacy, and health status) and mental health services utilization. The model fit index shows that the SEM fits very well (CFI = 0.92, NFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.07). Efforts to improve mental health literacy through community-based education programs may need to particularly target Korean older adults with the relevant socio-demographic characteristics to enhance their utilization of appropriate mental health services.

  5. Mental Health Problems and Cancer Risk Factors Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; King, Jessica; Ragan, Kathleen; Buchanan Lunsford, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. Mental health problems were associated with white race; less than a high school education; lower income; being out of work or unable to work; being uninsured (for men only); poor health; previous diagnosis of asthma, skin cancer, or diabetes; and not having a recent checkup. After controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status, mental health problems among young adults were associated with smoking, binge drinking, inadequate sleep, having no leisure time physical activity, and being overweight or obese (among women only). Cervical cancer screening was not associated with mental health problems after controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status. Mental health problems in young adulthood were associated with potentially modifiable factors and behaviors that increase risk for cancer. Efforts to prevent cancer and promote health must attend to mental health disparities to meet the needs of young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  7. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  8. Public mental health care utilization by older adults.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Bradley E; Norris, Margaret P

    2006-11-01

    The present study examined the extent to which older adults began public mental health treatment throughout Texas in 1999, the types of services they used, and how they compared on demographic and clinical variables to younger consumers. Notwithstanding recent policy and related developments, older adults were found to use public mental health services at substantially low rates, as in past decades. Significantly, older consumers tended to be relatively healthy and independent. Among younger and, even more so, older consumers, there were relatively high proportions of rural residents and minorities, groups previously found to be unlikely to utilize private mental health services. Overall, the findings urge that greater attention be devoted to public mental health outreach and service delivery with the elderly, and raise the question of what role the public mental health system should have in nursing homes and other long-term care settings.

  9. Use of technology to enhance mental health for older adults.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Pamela R; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2014-09-01

    Recent research suggests that older adults may gain significant mental health benefits from health resources made available through emerging modern technologies, especially because this population is becoming more Internet savvy. Technology-enhanced interventions for older adults have been shown to be helpful not only for general wellness activities (i.e., exercise), but also to specifically enhance mental health. This article focuses on two types of interventions for mental health: (a) cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and anxiety and (b) assistive technology for individuals with dementia. Nurses should reevaluate their assumptions that older adults fear technology and explore whether different types of modern technology might be effective in enhancing mental health for these clients. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  11. A Mental Health Training Format for Adult Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Fiona; Specht, Jacqueline; Rodger, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the needs of adult education staff pertaining to adult students' mental health issues within a local school board. The study utilized mixed-methods design and was divided into progression of three separate studies. An initial focus group was conducted to identify the 12 participants' concerns and provide a direction…

  12. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  13. Integrating mental health parity for homebound older adults under the medicare home health care benefit.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Joan K; Gellis, Zvi D

    2011-04-01

    Despite high rates of mental illness, very few homebound older adults receive treatment. Comorbid mental illness exacerbates physical health conditions, reduces treatment adherence, and increases dependency and medical costs. Although effective treatments exist, many home health agencies lack capacity to effectively detect and treat mental illness. This article critically analyzes barriers within the Medicare home health benefit that impede access to mental health treatment. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are made to integrate mental health parity in home health care. In particular, creative use of medical social work can improve detection and treatment of mental illness for homebound older adults.

  14. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO): monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-06-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the "Mental health care Monitor Older adults" (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to describe MEMO and the older adults who attend outpatient mental health care regarding their predisposing and enabling characteristics and need for care. In MEMO all patients referred to the division of old age psychiatry of the participating mental health care organisations are assessed at baseline and monitored at 4, 8 and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are mental and social functioning, consumer satisfaction, and type of treatment provided (MEMO Basic). Over the years, MEMO Basic is repeated. In each cycle, additional information on specific patient groups is added (e.g. mood disorders). Data collection is supported by a web-based system for clinicians, including direct feedback to monitor patients throughout treatment. First results at baseline showed that the majority of patients that entered the division of old age psychiatry was female (69%), had low education (83%), lived alone (53%), was depressed (42%) and had a comorbid condition (82%). It seemed that older immigrants were not sufficiently reached. The current study is the first in the Netherlands to evaluate patient characteristics and outcome in mental health care provided for older adults in day-to-day practice. If MEMO works out successfully, the method should be extended to other target groups.

  15. Access to Public Mental Health Services Among Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Gilmer, Todd P.; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Fuentes, Dahlia; Criado, Viviana; Garcia, Piedad

    2008-01-01

    Objective Limited data are available on how older adults access public mental health systems. This study examines how uninsured or publicly insured older adults with severe mental illness in San Diego County initially accessed the public mental health system, as well as their subsequent use of public mental health services, as compared to younger adults. Methods Data from San Diego County, 2002–2006, was used to examine how older adults initially accessed the public mental health system, and their utilization over the subsequent 90 days. Multivariate regression models were used to control for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Older adults (age 60+) were more likely to access the public mental health system through the Psychiatric Emergency Response Team (PERT), a combined law-enforcement and psychiatric service that responds to psychiatric related 911 calls. Older adults were also less likely to receive follow-up care. This lower rate of follow-up was due to both the initial site of service – and an associated lower rate of follow-up among PERT clients – as well as a lower rate of follow-up among older adult clients initiating services in other sectors. Conclusions This paper suggests two areas for intervention that would improve access to care for older adults: improving linkages and referrals between PERT and outpatient providers; and additional efforts to retain older adults at outpatient programs. PMID:18759380

  16. Domestic violence and mental health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.

  17. Examining Reports of Mental Health in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…

  18. Examining Reports of Mental Health in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…

  19. Social Network Types and Mental Health Among LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Bryan, Amanda E B; Muraco, Anna

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to identify social network types among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults and examine the relationship between social network type and mental health. We analyzed the 2014 survey data of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,450) from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify clusters of social network ties based on 11 indicators. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between social network types and mental health. We found five social network types. Ordered from greatest to least access to family, friend, and other non-family network ties, they were diverse, diverse/no children, immediate family-focused, friend-centered/restricted, and fully restricted. The friend-centered/restricted (33%) and diverse/no children network types (31%) were the most prevalent. Among individuals with the friend-centered/restricted type, access to social networks was limited to friends, and across both types children were not present. The least prevalent type was the fully restricted network type (6%). Social network type was significantly associated with mental health, after controlling for background characteristics and total social network size; those with the fully restricted type showed the poorest mental health. Unique social network types (diverse/no children and friend-centered/restricted) emerge among LGBT older adults. Moreover, individuals with fully restricted social networks are at particular risk due to heightened health needs and limited social resources. This study highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneous social relations and developing tailored interventions to promote social connectedness and mental health in LGBT older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Barriers and facilitators of Hispanic older adult mental health service utilization in the USA.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Erin De; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl L; Beeber, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Mental health providers in the USA encounter the challenge and opportunity to engage the rapidly growing population of Hispanic older adults in evidence-based mental health treatments. This population underutilizes mental health services, despite comparable or slightly higher rates of mental illness compared with non-Hispanic White older adults. This review identified barriers and facilitators of mental health service use by Hispanic older adults in the USA to identify practice, policy, and research implications. Hispanic older adults face multiple compounding barriers to mental health service use. Issues related to identification of needs, availability of services, accessibility of services, and acceptability of mental healthcare treatment are discussed.

  1. Health Promotion for Young Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21-30) compared with participants over age 30. Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a nonsignificant difference between age groups). Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group.

  2. Health Promotion for Young Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Scherer, Emily A.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21–30) compared with participants over age 30. Methods Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Results Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a non-significant difference between age groups). Conclusions Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group. PMID:27799016

  3. Oral health of adults with serious mental illnesses: a review.

    PubMed

    Matevosyan, Naira Roland

    2010-12-01

    (A) To assess the prevalence of suboptimal oral health in adults with SMI in studies published in 1971-2009; (B) To describe approaches that promote oral health among adults with SMI. A total of 57 randomized, quasi-randomized, cross-section, and cohort studies from samples of 38-4,769 mental health consumers are identified through database, journal, and Internet searches (Cochrane, FASTSTATS, PUBMED, WHO.int). Selected studies are inclusive for the sample, reported statistical power, and external validity. Oral health adverse outcomes (xerostomia, sialorrhoea, dental caries, extracted teeth, malocclusion, periodontal disease, edentulous, oral cancer) are considered as measurable outcomes. This review suggests a substantial prevalence of suboptimal oral health (61%) among individuals with serious mental illnesses. The following outcomes are mostly met: xerostomia, gross caries, decayed teeth, and periodontal disease. Poor oral hygiene, higher intake of carbonates, poor perception of oral health self-needs, length of psychotropic treatment, and less access to dental care determine suboptimal oral health among this population. Further replication of this research should generate gender-wise ethnic cohorts, including detailed observations of environmental factors, and medical problems that contribute to suboptimal oral health. This review highlights the importance of bridging dental health education to psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

  4. Mental Health Care Delivered to Younger Adults and Older Adults by Office-Based Physicians Nationally

    PubMed Central

    Maust, Donovan T.; Kales, Helen C.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives While older adults comprise the most rapidly growing population segment, little is known about the provision of mental health care to older adults relative to younger adults. Design Analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Setting Visits to office-based physicians, 2007-2010 (N=100,661). Participants Patient encounters with a mental health diagnosis or treatment, defined as visits: 1) resulting in mental disorder diagnosis; 2) including prescription or continuation of psychotropic medication; 3) to a psychiatrist; or 4) including psychotherapy. Measurements Visits were stratified by patient age (21-64y, ≥65y) and the percentage of each mental health care visit type among all office-based care was estimated by age group and converted to an annual rate per 100 population. Within each visit type, age groups were compared by clinical and demographic characteristics such as gender, diagnosed mental illness, and use of psychotropic agents. Results Relative to younger adults, older adults had a smaller proportion of visits with a mental disorder diagnosis (4.76% v. 9.53%, X2=228.21, p<.001), to a psychiatrist (0.94% v. 4.01%; X2=233.76, p<.001), and including psychotherapy (0.65% v. 2.30%; X2=57.65, p<.001). The percentage of older adult psychotropic visits was slightly smaller than among younger adults (18.06% v. 19.23%; X2=5.33, p=.02). Older adults had a higher rate of psychotropic visits (121.40 per 100 population) than adults (56.77). Conclusions Less care of older adults is from psychiatrists or incorporates psychotherapy. On a per-population basis, older adults have a far higher rate of psychotropic use compared to younger adults. Addressing the mental health care needs of older adults will require care in non-specialty settings. PMID:26140422

  5. Launching the Tidal Model in an adult mental health programme.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Stevenson, C

    To implement a new model of psychiatric nursing that uses person-centred care to empower people with acute mental health problems. A pilot study involved the introduction of the model into two wards in the acute mental health services in Newcastle City Health Trust. This was followed by introduction of the model into all nine adult acute wards in the service. One ward was evaluated for six months before and six months after introducing the model and nurses' perceptions of the model have been assessed using questionnaires. Preliminary findings of the ward evaluation show that since the model has been implemented, more people have been admitted on an informal basis and fewer have been subject to sections of the Mental Health Act (MHA); the number of admissions has doubled while the length of stay has decreased; violent incidents and episodes of self-harm have decreased; the use of restraint has decreased; and the interval between admission and assessment has decreased. Preliminary analysis of the nursing questionnaires shows positive perceptions of the model. The introduction of this model appears to have had a positive impact on the care being given to patients and the nurses using the model appear to be satisfied with the use of patient-centred care.

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  7. Gardening is beneficial for adult mental health: Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-07-01

    Gardening has been reported as being beneficial for mental well-being for vulnerable populations since 2000. However, little is known concerning its role in the general population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of gardening and mental health in adults in a countrywide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from and analysed in the Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, gardening engagement, and adult mental health by General Health Questionnaire was obtained by household interview. Statistical analyses including chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression modelling were performed. Of 9709 Scottish adults aged 16-99, 5 531 (57.0%) people did not do any gardening or building work in the last four weeks. A total of 888 (9.2%) people reported poor self-rated health. Gardening was associated with adult mental health in people both with or without heart conditions including ability to concentrate, feeling playing a useful part in things, feeling capable of making decisions, thinking of self as worthless, feeling reasonably happy, etc. General adults with or without heart conditions could benefit from engaging with gardening or building work. Future public health programmes promoting such activity should be encouraged in order to optimise adult mental health.

  8. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  9. "Love" and the mental health professions: toward understanding adult love.

    PubMed

    Levine, S B

    1996-01-01

    This essay explores three aspects of the normal processes of adult-adult love: falling in love, being in love, and staying in love. It describes the emotions, defenses, and challenges inherent in each phase. Love is an ordinary but immensely powerful adult aspiration. As a term it is impossible to define in any singular sense. The attainment of its lofty purposes requires profound intrapsychic adjustments involving creative acts of imagination, the integration of ideals with reality, evolving adaptations to the partner, the maintenance of a positive internal image of the partner, and ongoing struggles to overcome self-interest. These adjustments have not been well characterized by the mental health professions. This is ironic since a large portion of our work involves caring for love's casualties--that is, people whose miseries relate to their inability to successfully negotiate the phases of love or whose happiness is limited by their partners who cannot. Six arguments for ending professional avoidance of the topic are offered, the most compelling of which are love's relevance to both the pathogenesis of mental suffering and to the art of psychotherapeutic healing.

  10. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  11. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  12. Learning Journeys: A Resource Handbook on Adult Learning and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue

    This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…

  13. Learning Journeys: A Resource Handbook on Adult Learning and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue

    This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…

  14. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Young Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-05-01

    During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.

  15. Helping older adults to help themselves: the role of mental health literacy in family members.

    PubMed

    White, Margaret; Casey, Leanne

    2017-11-01

    Family members may play an important role in the health and well-being of older adults. However, little is known about the factors that influence the likelihood of family members supporting older relatives to seek help from mental health professionals for mental health concerns. Mental health literacy is associated with people's help-seeking intentions regarding their own mental health concerns, and some studies have suggested it may play a role in help-seeking on behalf of others. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mental health literacy is associated with adults' likelihood of supporting an older relative to seek professional help for mental health concerns. Two hundred and sixty-three participants completed a measure of mental health literacy and responded to a hypothetical scenario by indicating their likelihood of supporting an older relative experiencing mental health problems to seek help from various sources. Mental health literacy was positively associated with intentions to support older relative's help-seeking. Interventions to increase the mental health literacy of the relatives of older adults may lead to additional support for older adults' help-seeking for mental health concerns.

  16. The education and training needs of qualified mental health nurses working in acute adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julia; Lowe, Trevor

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents findings from a research study that investigated the education and training needs of qualified mental health nurses who work in acute adult mental health services in the UK. The study aimed to address a key knowledge 'gap' highlighted by recent Department of Health reports () that suggest that little is known regarding the education and training expectations, priorities and needs of mental health nurses who work in acute adult mental health services. This study aimed to identify (i) what type of post-registration education and training mental health nurses working in acute settings need; (ii) how the nurses want education and training to be delivered; and (iii) what qualifications and accreditation the nurses want to receive? The research consisted of two methods: focus groups and a questionnaire survey. This paper reports on the findings from the questionnaire survey. The results of the survey demonstrate that there is a real need for post-registration education and training for this group of nurses; to equip them with the relevant knowledge and skills to nurse people in the acute phase of their mental illness in acute inpatient settings.

  17. The Obama health care plan: what it means for mental health care of older adults.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2009-01-01

    Health care was an important issue for both the Obama and McCain election campaigns. Now that Barack Obama is poised to serve as the 44th President of the United States, many health care providers are focused on what Obama's administration will mean for new health care initiatives. This article focuses specifically on aspects of the Obama and Biden health care plan that affects mental health care for older adults.

  18. Referral Trends in Mental Health Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Sturmey, Peter; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have paid increasing attention to mental health issues in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the last decades. However, little is known about how rates of clinical referrals, types of mental health diagnoses and treatment in adults with ASDs and intellectual disability have changed. We examined patterns of change in…

  19. Referral Trends in Mental Health Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Sturmey, Peter; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have paid increasing attention to mental health issues in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the last decades. However, little is known about how rates of clinical referrals, types of mental health diagnoses and treatment in adults with ASDs and intellectual disability have changed. We examined patterns of change in…

  20. The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

  1. The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

  2. Multigenerational Perceptions of Mental Health Services of Deaf Adults in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David M.; Gum, Amber

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to better understand the perceptions and needs of multigenerational Deaf adults related to mental health services. A survey sampled participants who were between 20 and 85 years old and Deaf. Questions were developed to identify the perspectives of Deaf adults related to the availability of mental health services,…

  3. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D; Leblanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C

    2012-08-01

    Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection and treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys in 11 high-income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents aged 18 to 64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16% to 33% of median within-country household income, and population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0% to 1.4% of gross household income. Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy makers should take these associations into consideration in making health care research and treatment resource allocation decisions. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental Health Nursing of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Illness: A Review of Empirical Studies 1994-2013.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Trine Lise; Sageng, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities and mental illness is underresearched. The aim of this review is to summarize empirical mental health nursing studies including adults with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness. Out of 137 hits, 16 articles were reviewed in full text. Thirteen of the articles presented modified nursing interventions. Three articles discussed training and education. The main finding is that mental health nursing interventions in patients with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness are in line with mental health nursing for the general population. There are still not many publications on empirical studies concerning mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities. Clinical implications are primarily related to the need for facilitated nurse-patient communication adjusted to the patients' cognitive levels. Insights drawn from this review illuminate the importance of mental health nursing interventions adjusting to the particular patients' symptoms, instead of targeting behavior change. The findings underpin factors found to have a positive impact on patients with mental illness in the general population as relevant topics for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Health Risk Behaviors and Mental Health Problems as Mediators of the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between childhood abuse and adult health risk behaviors, and we explored whether adult health risk behaviors or mental health problems mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and adult health problems and health care utilization. Methods. We used logistic regression to analyze data from the Mental Health Supplement of the Ontario Health Survey, a representative population sample (N = 8116) of respondents aged 15 to 64 years. Results. We found relationships between childhood sexual abuse and smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 1.99), alcohol problems (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.44), obesity (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.14, 2.27), having more than 1 sexual partner in the previous year (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.44, 3.80), and mental health problems (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.78. 2.87). We also found relationships between these factors (with the exception of obesity) and childhood physical abuse. Mediation analysis suggested that health risk behaviors and particularly mental health problems are partial mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and adult health. Conclusions. Public health approaches that aim to decrease child abuse by supporting positive parent–child relationships, reducing the development of health risk behaviors, and addressing children's mental health are likely to improve long-term population health. PMID:18703446

  6. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  7. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  8. Health-Promoting Physical Activity of Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.; Frey, Georgia C.

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be…

  9. Mental health inpatient experiences of adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Taua, Chris; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a study exploring the mental health inpatient care of people with a dual disability of intellectual disability and mental health issues from the perspective of those people with the dual disability. A mixture of semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews were carried out with nine participants who had been admitted to an inpatient unit for mental health care exploring their experience of care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using open coding and Leximancer (an online data mining tool) analysis to identify dominant themes in the discourse. Analysis revealed themes around 'Therapeutic and Meaningful Activity', 'Emotion Focussed Care', and 'Feeling Safe?' Participants were able to identify the aspects of inpatient care that worked for them in terms of coping with time in hospital. This research suggests that there are several factors that should be considered in providing effective mental health inpatient care for people with dual disability. A number of strategies and recommendations for responding to their needs are identified and discussed. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Adolescent exposure to violence and adult physical and mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  12. Physical exercise in adults and mental health status findings from the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study (NEMESIS).

    PubMed

    Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Monshouwer, Karin

    2011-11-01

    To establish associations between physical exercise during leisure time and prevalence, incidence and course of mental disorders. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a 3-wave cohort study in a representative sample (N=7,076) of Dutch adults. Mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical activity was established by the number of hours per week people spent on taking physical exercise. Physical exercise was negatively associated with presence and first-onset of mood and anxiety disorders after adjustment for confounders. Evidence for a dose-response relationship between exercise levels and mental health was not found. Among those with mental disorder at baseline, exercise participants were more likely to recover from their illness (OR=1.47) compared to their counterparts who did not take exercise. Physical exercise is beneficial to mental health, but it remains uncertain whether this association truly reflects a causal effect of exercise. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  14. What Are Young Adults Saying About Mental Health? An Analysis of Internet Blogs

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward

  15. Mental Health Literacy in Emerging Adults in a University Setting: Distinctions between Symptom Awareness and Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michelle M.; Gelinas, Bethany L.; Friesen, Lindsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns in university populations, students are unlikely to seek formal help. The current study examined help-seeking behaviors among emerging adults in a university setting using a mental health literacy framework. Responses from 122 university undergraduates were examined. Students ranged in age from…

  16. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  17. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  18. Suicide ideation in older adults: relationship to mental health problems and service use.

    PubMed

    Corna, Laurie M; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L

    2010-12-01

    to assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. we use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of suicide ideation and the prevalence of major psychiatric disorder and service use among ideators versus nonideators. In multivariate models, we consider the sociodemographic, social, and mental health correlates of suicide ideation and mental health care use. in our sample, more than 2% of older adults reported suicide ideation in the past year and more than two thirds of these respondents did not meet the criteria for any of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition disorders assessed in the CCHS 1.2. In multivariate models, being male, younger, or widowed, reporting lower social support and higher psychological distress increased the likelihood of suicide ideation. More than 50% of the respondents who reported suicidal thoughts did not access any type of mental health care use. although suicide ideation is associated with depression and anxiety disorders, many older adults with suicidal thoughts do not meet the criteria for these clinical disorders. The low prevalence of service use among older adults with suicide ideation suggests the need for further inquiry into the factors associated with discussing mental health concerns with health care providers, particularly among older adults who do not meet the criteria for clinical disorder.

  19. The Effects of the Affordable Care Act Adult Dependent Coverage Expansion on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Background In September 2010, the Affordable Care Act increased the availability of private health insurance for young adult dependents in the United States and prohibited coverage exclusions for their pre-existing conditions. The coverage expansion improved young adults’ financial protection from medical expenses and increased their mental health care use. These short-term effects signal the possibility of accompanying changes in mental health through one or more mechanisms: treatment-induced symptom relief or improved function; improved well-being and/or reduced anxiety as financial security increases; or declines in self-reported mental health if treatment results in the discovery of illnesses. Aims In this study, we estimate the effects of this insurance coverage expansion on young adults’ mental health outcomes one year after its implementation. Methods We use a difference-in-differences (DD) framework to estimate the effects of the ACA young adult dependent coverage on mental health outcomes for adults ages 23–25 relative to adults ages 27–29 from 2007–2011. Outcome measures include a global measure of self-rated mental health, the SF-12 mental component summary (MCS), the PHQ-2 screen for depression, and the Kessler index for non-specific psychological distress. Results The overall pattern of findings suggests that both age groups experienced modest improvements in a range of outcomes that captured both positive and negative mental health following the 2010 implementation of the coverage expansion. The notable exception to this pattern is a 1.4 point relative increase in the SF-12 MCS score among young adults alone, a measure that captures emotional well-being, mental health symptoms (positive and negative), and social role functioning. Discussion This study provides the first estimates of a broad range of mental health outcomes that may be responsive to changes in mental health care use and/or the increased financial security that insurance

  20. Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Older Adults with Depression: The Impact of Stigma and Race

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy K.; Koeske, Gary; Rosen, Daniel; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brown, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Objective Stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a significant barrier to help seeking, leading to negative attitudes about mental health treatment and deterring individuals who need services from seeking care. This study examined the impact of public stigma (negative attitudes held by the public) and internalized stigma (negative attitudes held by stigmatized individuals about themselves) on racial differences in treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors among older adults with depression. Method Random digit dialing was utilized to identify a representative sample of 248 African American and White adults older adults (over the age of 60) with depression (symptoms assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Telephone based surveys were conducted to assess their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors, and the factors that impacted these behaviors. Results Depressed older adult participants endorsed a high level of public stigma and were not likely to be currently engaged in, nor did they intend to seek mental health treatment. Results also suggested that African American older adults were more likely to internalize stigma and endorsed less positive attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment than their White counterparts. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma partially mediated the relationship between race and attitudes toward treatment. Conclusion Stigma associated with having a mental illness has a negative influence on attitudes and intentions toward seeking mental health services among older adults with depression, particularly African American elders. Interventions to target internalized stigma are needed to help engage this population in psychosocial mental health treatments. PMID:20220602

  1. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults.

  2. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  3. [Determining Factors in the Access to Mental Health Services by the Adult Colombian Population].

    PubMed

    González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega

    2016-12-01

    Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-Reported Reasons for Not Receiving Mental Health Treatment in Adults With Serious Suicidal Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto-Crawford, S Janet; Han, Beth; McKeon, Richard T

    2017-06-01

    This study examined self-reported reasons for not receiving mental health treatment among adults with past-year serious suicidal thoughts and their sociodemographic characteristics associated with these reasons. Using the 2008-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we examined 8,400 respondents aged 18 years or older who had past-year serious thoughts of suicide and did not receive mental health treatment that year. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported reasons for not receiving mental health treatment among these suicidal adults. Among adults with serious suicidal thoughts who did not receive mental health treatment in the past year, three-fourths did not feel the need for treatment. Of the one-fourth of those who felt the need for treatment, the main reason for not receiving treatment was financial (58.4%), followed by logistical reasons such as not knowing where to go (36.1%). A greater proportion of suicidal adults than nonsuicidal adults perceived more than 1 barrier to treatment (43.8% vs 34.3%). Among suicidal adults who did not receive mental health treatment that year, the odds of not feeling the need for mental health treatment were higher in men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42-1.99), adults aged 50 years or older (AOR = 3.02; 95% CI, 2.02-4.51), racial and ethnic minorities (AORs = 1.59-2.13), publicly insured (AOR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.14-2.07), and nonmetropolitan residents (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88). Most suicidal adults did not feel the need for mental health treatment. Of those who felt the need, multiple barriers were identified. A multifaceted approach to address these barriers is needed to promote receipt of mental health treatment among this vulnerable population.

  5. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Beliefs about Mental Health Services and Care: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, John; Savage, Eileen; Horgan, Aine

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents and young people are known to hold negative views about mental illness. There is less known about their beliefs about mental health services and care. The aim of this study was to systematically examine literature on the beliefs of adolescents and young people from the general population about mental health services and care. Factors that positively and negatively influence these beliefs are also explored. Relevant electronic databases were searched for papers published in the English language between January 2004 and October 2015. Culture seemed to influence how adolescents and young adults perceived mental health interventions. This was particularly evident in countries such as Palestine and South Africa where prayer was highly valued. Adolescents and young people were uninformed about psychiatric medication. They believed that accessing mental health care was a sign of weakness. Furthermore, they viewed psychiatric hospitals and various mental health professionals negatively. Film was found to have a negative impact on how adolescents and young people perceived mental health services, whereas open communication with family members was found to have a positive impact. Adolescents and young adults hold uninformed and stigmatizing beliefs about mental health treatments, mental health professionals, and access to care. The sources of these beliefs remain unclear although some at least seem influenced by culture. Further research, (particularly qualitative research) in this area is recommended in order to address current gaps in knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites.

  7. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  8. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  9. A collaborative approach to improve the assessment of physical health in adult consumers with schizophrenia in Queensland mental health services.

    PubMed

    Plever, Sally; McCarthy, Irene; Anzolin, Melissa; Emmerson, Brett; Khatun, Mohsina

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a quality improvement collaborative to increase the number of physical health assessments conducted with consumers diagnosed with schizophrenia in adult community mental health services across Queensland. Sixteen adult mental health service organisations voluntarily took part in the statewide collaborative initiative to increase the number of physical health assessments completed on persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders managed through the community mental health service. Improvement in the physical health assessment clinical indicator was demonstrated across the state over a 3-year period with an increase in the number of physical health assessments recorded from 12% to 58%. Significant improvements were made over a 3-year period by all mental health services involved in the collaborative, supporting the application of a quality improvement methodology to drive change across mental health services. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  10. Family of older adults with mental disorder: perception of mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Saidel, Maria Giovana Borges; Campos, Claudinei José Gomes

    2017-01-01

    to understand the perceptions of healthcare professionals of the Psychosocial Care Centers regarding the family of older adults with mental disorders. study of a Qualitative Case conducted with 12 healthcare professionals from a Psychosocial Care Center, with a convenient and exhaustive sample. Conducting semi-structured interviews to collect data, which were analyzed with the Content Analysis technique. the following categories stood out: "Family exhaustion and deterioration in the perception of the healthcare professional" and "The abandonment of older adults by family members and their distancing in the perception of the healthcare professional." culpability of older adults and penalization of the family were verified by healthcare professionals. To bring awareness about the difficulties faced in the attempt to bring the family closer to the healthcare service, it is necessary to analyze the care given to the older adult and to overcome challenges in the effective construction of the bond between family, healthcare user and mental health service. compreender as percepções dos profissionais do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial acerca da família do idoso em sofrimento psíquico. estudo de Caso Qualitativo conduzido com 12 profissionais de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial com amostra composta por intencionalidade e fechada por exaustão. Realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas para coleta de dados, analisados por meio da técnica de Análise de Conteúdo. destacaram-se as categorias "O cansaço e o desgaste familiar na percepção do profissional" e "O abandono e o afastamento do idoso pela família na percepção do profissional". verificou-se a culpabilização do idoso e a penalização da família pelos profissionais. Visando à conscientização das dificuldades em aproximar a família, é necessária a criação de espaços reflexivos sobre o cuidado a essa população, bem como a superação dos desafios na construção efetiva do vínculo entre

  11. Discharge of adolescents with mental health problems against medical advice: findings from adult mental health inpatient facilities across Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; den Dunnen, Wendy; Stewart, Shannon L

    2013-12-30

    Little is known about discharge against medical advice (DAMA) among adolescents with mental health problems. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of DAMA and provide some insight into the factors that influence DAMA among adolescents with mental health problems using a large dataset from Ontario, Canada. Data on 1811 adolescents aged 14-18 years who were discharged from adult mental health beds between October 2005 and March 2010 were analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 1811 discharges in the sample, 78(4.3%) were against medical advice. In the multivariate model, older age, having limited insight or no insight into mental illness, provisional DSM-IV diagnoses of substance-related disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders increased the odds of DAMA. Length of stay was negatively associated with DAMA. The findings of this study highlight the importance of completing comprehensive assessments at the time of admission to identify adolescents who are at risk of treatment refusal and provide timely intervention to prevent DAMA. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in Smoking Among Adults With Mental Illness and Association Between Mental Health Treatment and Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; Wayne, Geoff Ferris; Kafali, E. Nilay; Liu, Zimin; Shu, Chang; Flores, Michael

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Significant progress has been made in reducing the prevalence of tobacco use in the United States. However, tobacco cessation efforts have focused on the general population rather than individuals with mental illness, who demonstrate greater rates of tobacco use and nicotine dependence. OBJECTIVES To assess whether declines in tobacco use have been realized among individuals with mental illness and examine the association between mental health treatment and smoking cessation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Use of nationally representative surveys of noninstitutionalized US residents to compare trends in smoking rates between adults with and without mental illness and across multiple disorders (2004–2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey [MEPS]) and to compare rates of smoking cessation among adults with mental illness who did and did not receive mental health treatment (2009–2011 National Survey of Drug Use and Health [NSDUH]).The MEPS sample included 32 156 respondents with mental illness (operationalized as reporting severe psychological distress, probable depression, or receiving treatment for mental illness) and 133 113 without mental illness. The NSDUH sample included 14 057 lifetime smokers with mental illness. MAIN OUTCOME SAND MEASURES Current smoking status (primary analysis; MEPS sample) and smoking cessation, operationalized as a lifetime smoker who did not smoke in the last 30 days (secondary analysis; NSDUH sample). RESULTS Adjusted smoking rates declined significantly among individuals without mental illness (19.2% [95% CI, 18.7–19.7%] to 16.5% [95% CI, 16.0%–17.0%]; P < .001) but changed only slightly among those with mental illness (25.3% [95% CI, 24.2%–26.3%] to 24.9% [95% CI, 23.8%–26.0%]; P = .50), a significant difference in difference of 2.3% (95% CI, 0.7%–3.9%) (P = .005). Individuals with mental illness who received mental health treatment within the previous year were more likely to have quit smoking (37.2% [95% CI

  13. Trends in smoking among adults with mental illness and association between mental health treatment and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Wayne, Geoff Ferris; Kafali, E Nilay; Liu, Zimin; Shu, Chang; Flores, Michael

    2014-01-08

    Significant progress has been made in reducing the prevalence of tobacco use in the United States. However, tobacco cessation efforts have focused on the general population rather than individuals with mental illness, who demonstrate greater rates of tobacco use and nicotine dependence. To assess whether declines in tobacco use have been realized among individuals with mental illness and examine the association between mental health treatment and smoking cessation. Use of nationally representative surveys of noninstitutionalized US residents to compare trends in smoking rates between adults with and without mental illness and across multiple disorders (2004-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey [MEPS]) and to compare rates of smoking cessation among adults with mental illness who did and did not receive mental health treatment (2009-2011 National Survey of Drug Use and Health [NSDUH]).The MEPS sample included 32,156 respondents with mental illness (operationalized as reporting severe psychological distress, probable depression, or receiving treatment for mental illness) and 133,113 without mental illness. The NSDUH sample included 14,057 lifetime smokers with mental illness. Current smoking status (primary analysis; MEPS sample) and smoking cessation, operationalized as a lifetime smoker who did not smoke in the last 30 days (secondary analysis; NSDUH sample). Adjusted smoking rates declined significantly among individuals without mental illness (19.2% [95% CI, 18.7-19.7%] to 16.5% [95% CI, 16.0%-17.0%]; P < .001) but changed only slightly among those with mental illness (25.3% [95% CI, 24.2%-26.3%] to 24.9% [95% CI, 23.8%- 26.0%]; P = .50), a significant difference in difference of 2.3% (95% CI, 0.7%-3.9%) (P = .005). Individuals with mental illness who received mental health treatment within the previous year were more likely to have quit smoking (37.2% [95% CI, 35.1%-39.4%]) than those not receiving treatment (33.1% [95% CI, 31.5%-34.7%]) (P

  14. Older adults' help-seeking attitudes and treatment beliefs concerning mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Corey S; Scott, Tiffany; Mather, Amber; Sareen, Jitender

    2008-12-01

    Older adults with mental health problems are especially unlikely to seek professional mental health services. It is not clear, however, whether their help-seeking attitudes and treatment beliefs contribute to this problem. The objectives of this study were to compare older adults' attitudes and beliefs to younger adults' and to examine the influence of age on these variables after controlling for other demographic variables, prior help-seeking, and mental disorders. The authors analyzed cross-sectional data from Part 2 of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. This dataset includes 5,692 community-dwelling adults, including 1,341 adults who were 55 years of age and older. Participants responded to three questions assessing attitudes toward seeking professional mental health services and one question examining beliefs about the percentage of people with serious mental health concerns who benefit from professional help. The authors used logistic regression to predict positive versus negative attitudes and beliefs from age, gender, education, and race/ethnicity, as well as prior help seeking and mood and/or anxiety disorder diagnosis. Overall, more than 80% of participants exhibited positive help-seeking attitudes and more than 70% reported positive treatment beliefs. In contrast to the modest effect of age on beliefs, adults 55-74 years of age were approximately two to three times more likely to report positive help-seeking attitudes than younger adults. Older adults' positive attitudes and treatment beliefs are unlikely barriers to their use of mental health services. This finding, which is consistent with recent positive views of aging, suggests that enabling resources and need factors are more likely explanations for older adults' low rates of mental health service use.

  15. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  16. Recollections of parental behaviour, adult attachment and mental health: mediating and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Gittleman, M G; Klein, M H; Smider, N A; Essex, M J

    1998-11-01

    Attachment theory posits links between early experiences with parents, adult relationships and adult mental health, but does not specify whether these are independent, mediating, or moderating effects. Associations of parent's behaviour on the Parental Bonding Instrument, adult attachment styles and three dimensions of mental health were investigated in a large sample of women and men. Men and women with secure styles recalled higher levels of care from both parents than those with fearful styles. Maternal and paternal control were more consistent predictors of increased distress for men than for women. Fearful and preoccupied adult styles were associated with higher levels of distress in both men and women. While adult styles had few mediating effects on the association of parental behaviour and mental health, interactions between the fearful style and parental variables suggested that this form of insecurity sometimes accentuated the impact of high parental care or low paternal control on mental health in both men and women; among women, however, the secure style seemed to buffer somewhat the negative effect of high parental control. Although the amount of variance explained by either parental behaviour or adult styles was modest, patterns of moderating effects of adult styles on associations between parental behaviour and mental health suggested that both continuity and discontinuity principles can be applied to understanding these links.

  17. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status.

  18. The influence of prison climate on the mental health of adult prisoners: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Goomany, A; Dickinson, T

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how the prison environment may impact upon the mental health of adult prisoners. This paper highlights that prisoners perceive that the prison environment has a negative influence upon their mental health. However, a small number regarded prison as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is a need for more research in this area specifically relating to the impact the prison climate may have upon those from black and minority ethic groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Little is known regarding how the prison environment may affect the mental health of adult prisoners. Consequently, there is a need to investigate how this setting may exacerbate mental distress among this community. This literature review explores how the prison climate influences the mental health of adult prisoners. A thematic synthesis approach was used to elicit data relating to the aspects of the prison climate, which influence the mental health of prisoners. Four primary themes emerged from the synthesis: social, emotional, organizational and physical aspects. Prisoners perceive the prison climate to have a negative influence upon their mental health. However, perceived positively, prison was regarded as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is limited research available specifically exploring the potential impact of the prison climate upon those from black and ethnic minorities groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Additionally nurses need to take an active role in influencing and structuring the political agenda, which governs the

  19. Shifts in case mix and locus of mental health care for Washington State adults with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Semke, J

    1999-01-01

    The author describes outcomes of interventions that were aimed at decreasing high use of state hospitals. Research focused on changes in state hospital case mix and dynamics of use by individuals identified as "high utilizers" before and after the Washington State Mental Health Division (MHD) implemented a series of interventions designed to reduce use. A set of recommendations are offered for policymakers who plan interventions that shift the locus of care for severely and persistently mentally ill adults.

  20. The Relationship between Outpatient Mental Health Treatment and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms and Disorders in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Kosterman, Rick; Williams, James Herbert; Chandler, Kristen; Young, M. Scott; Catalano, Richard F.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate community-based outpatient mental health services for young adults. Methods Participants were interviewed at ages 21, 24, 27, and 30. Outcomes included: (1) symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety, social phobia, dysthymia and post traumatic stress individually and as a global scale; and (2) a dichotomous diagnosis variable inclusive of all above disorders. Treatment was indicated by an outpatient visit to a psychiatrist or other professional. Results Treatment did not reduce mental disorder or symptoms. Substance use, violence, poverty, community disorganization, and family history of antisocial behavior increased risks for negative outcomes, while social support was protective. Conclusions The absence of positive findings associated with outpatient treatment is troubling given the empirically supported interventions for the conditions examined. Practitioners, agencies, and managed care organizations share a responsibility to implement effective and comprehensive interventions. PMID:20186567

  1. School Belonging, School Victimization, and the Mental Health of LGBT Young Adults: Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…

  2. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  3. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  4. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  5. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jill; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Jackson, Alison; Finlayson, Janet; Mantry, Dipali

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level, and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem…

  6. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  7. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  8. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  9. Childhood trauma and health outcomes in adults with comorbid substance abuse and mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nancy S; Schairer, Laura C; Dellor, Elinam; Grella, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of childhood traumatic events (CTEs) among adults with comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health problems (MHPs) and assesses the relation between cumulative CTEs and adult health outcomes. Adults with SUDs/MHPs (N=402) were recruited from residential treatment programs and interviewed at treatment admission. Exposures to 9 types of adverse childhood experiences were summed and categorized into 6 ordinal levels of exposure. Descriptive analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence and range of exposure to CTEs in comparison with a sample from primary health care. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between the cumulative exposure to CTEs and adverse health outcomes. Most of the sample reported exposure to CTEs, with higher exposure rates among the study sample compared with the primary health care sample. Greater exposure to CTEs significantly increased the odds of several adverse adult outcomes, including PTSD, alcohol dependence, injection drug use, tobacco use, sex work, medical problems, and poor quality of life. Study findings support the importance of early prevention and intervention and provision of trauma treatment for individuals with SUDs/MHPs.

  10. Mental Health Help-Seeking Intentions and Preferences of Rural Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P.; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate mental health help-seeking intentions and preferences of rural Chinese adults and determine predictors of the intentions. Methods A total of 2052 representative rural residents aged 18–60 completed a cross-sectional survey by face-to-face interviews. The survey included seven questions asking about respondents’ help-seeking intentions and preferences, and a series of internationally validated instruments to assess self-perceived health status, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, mental health literacy, and attitudes towards mental illness. Results Nearly 80% of respondents were willing to seek psychological help if needed, and 72.4% preferred to get help from medical organizations, yet only 12% knew of any hospitals or clinics providing such help. A multivariate analysis of help-seeking intention revealed that being female, having lower education, higher social health, higher mental health knowledge, and physical causal attribution for depression were positive predictors of help-seeking intention. Conclusion A huge gap exists between the relatively higher intention for help-seeking and significantly lower knowledge of helpful resources. Predictors of help-seeking intention for mental problems in the current study are consistent with previous studies. Interventions to increase help-seeking for mental problems by Chinese rural adults may be best served by focusing on increasing public awareness of help sources, as well as improving residents’ mental health literacy and social health, with special focus on males and those more educated. PMID:26545095

  11. Mental- and physical-health indicators and sexually explicit media use behavior by adults.

    PubMed

    Weaver, James B; Weaver, Stephanie Sargent; Mays, Darren; Hopkins, Gary L; Kannenberg, Wendi; McBride, Duane

    2011-03-01

    Converging evidence from culturally diverse contexts indicates that sexually explicit media use behavior (SEMB; i.e., pornography consumption) is associated with risky sexual health perceptions and behaviors, many that involve high risks of HIV/STD transmission. Essentially unexplored, and the focus here, are potential relationships between SEMB and nonsexual mental- and physical-health indicators. Variability in six continuously measured health indicators (depressive symptoms, mental- and physical-health diminished days, health status, quality of life, and body mass index) was examined across two levels (users, nonusers) of SEMB. A sample of 559 Seattle-Tacoma Internet-using adults was surveyed in 2006. Multivariate general linear models parameterized in a SEMB by respondent gender (2 × 2) factorial design were computed incorporating adjustments for several demographics. SEMB was reported by 36.7% (n = 205) of the sample. Most SEMB users (78%) were men. After adjusting for demographics, SEMB users, compared to nonusers, reported greater depressive symptoms, poorer quality of life, more mental- and physical-health diminished days, and lower health status. The findings show that mental- and physical-health indicators vary significantly across SEMB, suggesting the value of incorporating these factors in future research and programmatic endeavors. In particular, the findings suggest that evidence-based sexual health promotion strategies simultaneously addressing individuals' SEMB and their mental health needs might be a useful approach to improve mental health and address preventable sexual health outcomes associated with SEMB. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Does adult attachment style mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health outcomes?

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Kozakowski, Sandra Sepulveda; Chauhan, Preeti

    2017-05-15

    Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes. Children with documented cases of physical abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) were matched with children without these histories and followed up in adulthood. Adult attachment style was assessed at mean age 39.5 and outcomes at 41.1. Separate path models examined mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals with histories of childhood neglect and physical abuse had higher levels of anxious attachment style in adulthood, whereas neglect predicted avoidant attachment as well. Both adult attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted mental health outcomes (higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of self-esteem), whereas only anxious adult attachment style predicted higher levels of allostatic load. Path analyses revealed that anxious attachment style in adulthood in part explained the relationship between childhood neglect and physical abuse to depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, but not the relationship to allostatic load. Childhood neglect and physical abuse have lasting effects on adult attachment styles and anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles contribute to understanding the negative mental health consequences of childhood neglect and physical abuse 30 years later in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Poverty and mental health: how do low-income adults and children fare in psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kaltman, Stacey; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-02-01

    Poverty is associated with an increased risk for psychological problems. Even with this increased risk for mental health problems and need for care, many low-income adults and families do not receive treatment because of logistical, attitudinal, and systemic barriers. Despite significant barriers to obtaining care, research suggests that low-income individuals show significant benefit from evidence-based mental healthcare. In this article, we review the link between poverty and mental health, common barriers to obtaining mental health services, and treatment studies that have been conducted with low-income groups. Finally, we discuss the implications of the research reviewed and offer recommendations for clinicians working with low-income children or adults, highlighting the importance of evidence-based care, extensive outreach, and empathic respect.

  14. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  15. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  16. Profession differences in family focused practice in the adult mental health system.

    PubMed

    Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Cuff, Rose; Reupert, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    There is a large gulf between what psychiatric services should (or could) provide and what they do in practice. This article sought to determine practice differences between the differing professions working in adult mental health services in terms of their family focused work. Three hundred and seven adult mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey of family focused practices in adult mental health services. Findings highlight that social workers engaged in more family focused practice compared to psychiatric nurses, who performed consistently the lowest on direct family care, compared to both social workers and psychologists. Clear skill, knowledge, and confidence differences are indicated between the professions. The article concludes by offering direction for future profession education and training in family focused practices.

  17. Young adults with mental health conditions and social networking websites: seeking tools to build community.

    PubMed

    Gowen, Kris; Deschaine, Matthew; Gruttadara, Darcy; Markey, Dana

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ways that young adults with mental illnesses (1) currently use social networking; and (2) how they would like to use a social networking site tailored for them. The authors examined differences between those with mental health conditions and those without. An online survey was administered by the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) to 274 participants; of those, 207 reported being between 18 and 24 years old. The survey included questions about current social networking use, the key resources respondents believed young adults living with mental illness need, and the essential components that should be included in a social networking site specifically tailored to young adults living with mental illness. Pearson Chi-square analyses examined the differences between those who reported having a mental illness and those who did not. Results indicate that almost all (94%) participants with mental illnesses currently use social networking sites. Individuals living with a mental illness are more likely than those not living with a mental illness to report engaging in various social networking activities that promote connectivity and making online friends. Individuals living with mental illnesses are also more likely to report wanting resources on independent living skills and overcoming social isolation available on a social networking site. Young adults living with mental illnesses are currently using social networking sites and express high interest in a social networking site specifically tailored to their population with specific tools designed to decrease social isolation and help them live more independently. These results indicate that practitioners should themselves be aware of the different social networking sites frequented by their young adult clients, ask clients about their use of social networking, and encourage safe and responsible online behaviors.

  18. Mental Health Treatment Patterns Among Adults With Recent Suicide Attempts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Wilson M.; Gfroerer, Joseph; McKeon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined mental health treatment patterns among adults with suicide attempts in the past 12 months in the United States. Methods. We examined data from 2000 persons, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the 2008 to 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and who reported attempting suicide in the past 12 months. We applied descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models. Results. In adults who attempted suicide in the past year, 56.3% received mental health treatment, but half of those who received treatment perceived unmet treatment needs, and of the 43.0% who did not receive mental health treatment, one fourth perceived unmet treatment needs. From 2008 to 2012, the mental health treatment rate among suicide attempters remained unchanged. Factors associated with receipt of mental health treatment varied by perceived unmet treatment need and receipt of medical attention that resulted from a suicide attempt. Conclusions. Suicide prevention strategies that focus on suicide attempters are needed to increase their access to mental health treatments that meet their needs. To be effective, these strategies need to account for language and cultural differences and barriers to financial and treatment delivery. PMID:25322299

  19. Conceptions of mental health care--from the perspective of parents' of adult children suffering from mental illness.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anita; Andershed, Birgitta; Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe parents' conceptions of the mental health care provided to adult children suffering from mental illness. Data were collected using qualitative research interviews with a purposive sample of sixteen mothers and ten fathers. Phenomenographic analysis was used to identify conceptions and formulate descriptive categories. The first category, questioning the availability of care, describes mental health care as being unequal in terms of accessibility and lacking in continuity. The second category, disapproval of parental exclusion, illustrates conceptions that mental healthcare professionals disregard parents and do not provide them with adequate information. The third category, questioning the quality of care, encompasses conceptions of lack of trust in the professionals' competence, an unsatisfactory environment as well as inadequate cooperation with other healthcare providers and authorities. Positive aspects, such as being seen and confirmed, were mentioned as valuable by the parents. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Improving Depression Care for Disadvantaged Adults by Partnering With Non—Mental Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Dobransky-Fasiska, Deborah; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Pincus, Harold Alan; Castillo, Enrico; Lee, Brenda E.; Walnoha, Adrienne L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brown, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Reaching disadvantaged adults who need mental health care is challenging, partly because of mistrust of institutions, cultural insensitivity, and stigma. Researchers from Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic and leaders of 11 non–mental health community organizations formed a partnership to improve depression care, especially for elders and individuals from difficult-to-reach racial and ethnic minority groups. The overarching goal is to reduce disparities by providing and improving care. This column describes challenges overcome in working with a heterogeneous group of agencies to address issues of mental illness, stigma, inadequate staff training, and privacy—challenges that influenced the direction of research and ensuing projects. PMID:20123813

  1. An Adult Protective Services' view of collaboration with Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Teaster, Pamela B; Stansbury, Kim L; Nerenberg, Lisa; Stanis, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Mental Health Services (MHS) meet mental health needs of older adults through active, outpatient, community-based care. Adult Protective Services (APS) are involved with needs of older adults who have mental disability and mental illness. Adult Protective Services and MHS staff may to work together when they respond to the needs of victims and adults at risk for abuse, neglect, self-neglect, and exploitation. The purpose of this study was to understand effective APS-MHS collaborations (e.g., leadership, organizational culture, administration, and resources in predicting success). A survey that was sent to members of the National Adult Protective Services Association (NAPSA) revealed that both APS and MHS have strong commitments to protecting clients' rights and autonomy, but there appear to be differences between the two with regard to implementation, apparent in cases involving clients with diminished mental capacity who are at imminent risk, but who refuse help. Strengths of APS-MHS collaborations included improved communication and better service for at-risk clients.

  2. Factors affecting the mental health of older adults in rural and urban communities: an exploration.

    PubMed

    McGee, Phyllis; Tuokko, Holly; Maccourt, Penny; Donnelly, Martha

    2004-01-01

    Stakeholders in rural and mid-size urban communities were asked to share their views concerning factors that affect the mental health of older adults, and indicate how, and how well, these factors were addressed in their community. The identified factors clustered into six categories: clinical, physical, organizational, educational, psychosocial, and spiritual. Additional factors impacting care providers and caregivers and their ability to support the mental health of older adults also emerged. Similarities and distinct differences between rural and urban communities were reported and call for innovative strategies to meet the needs of seniors, particularly those living in rural areas.

  3. Differences in mental health among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Ray C; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-05-13

    This study examined the differences in mental health and behavioral problems among young adults with borderline personality symptoms of various severities. 500 college students participated in this study. Borderline personality symptoms were evaluated using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23). Mental health problems were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale. Suicidality and other behavioral problems were assessed using questions from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and BSL-23 Supplement. According to the distribution of BSL-23 scores at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, the participants were divided into 4 groups: No/Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Profound. Analysis of variance and the chi-square test were used to compare mental health and behavioral problems among the 4 groups. All mental health problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The severity of nearly all mental health problems increased with that of borderline personality symptoms. The proportions of most behavioral problems differed significantly among the 4 groups. The Profound group was more likely to have behavioral problems than the other 3 groups. Young adults who had more severe borderline personality symptoms had more severe mental health and behavioral problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cultural Beliefs and Mental Health Treatment Preferences of Ethnically Diverse Older Adult Consumers in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Daniel E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Cardenas, Veronica; Daliwal, Sanam S.; Alegría, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This study applies the Cultural Influences on Mental Health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in: (1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness; (2) preferences for type of treatment; and (3) provider characteristics. Method Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the Cultural Attitudes toward Healthcare and Mental Illness Questionnaire, developed for the PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) study, a multi-site randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1257 non-Latino Whites, 536 African-Americans, 112 Asian-Americans, and 303 Latinos. Results African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared to Non-Latino Whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Conclusions This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services. PMID:21992942

  5. Impact of Health Literacy on Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health-related: Quality of Life Among Adults with Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Caruso, Christine; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health literacy has been linked to health status in a variety of chronic diseases. However, evidence for a relationship between health literacy and mental health outcomes is sparse. OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that low literacy would be associated with higher addiction severity, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and worse mental health functioning compared with those with higher literacy in adults with alcohol and drug dependence. METHODS The association of literacy with multiple mental health outcomes was assessed using multivariable analyses. Measurement instruments included the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, the Mental Component Summary scale of the Short Form Health Survey, and the Addiction Severity Index for drug and alcohol addiction. Subjects included 380 adults recruited during detoxification treatment and followed prospectively at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Based on the REALM, subjects were classified as having either low (≤8th grade) or higher (≥9th grade) literacy levels. RESULTS In longitudinal analyses, low literacy was associated with more depressive symptoms. The adjusted mean difference in CES-D scores between low and high literacy levels was 4 (P<.01). Literacy was not significantly associated with mental health-related quality of life or addiction severity. CONCLUSIONS In people with alcohol and drug dependence, low literacy is associated with worse depressive symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between literacy and mental health outcomes should be explored to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:16881940

  6. Absconding: reducing failure to return in adult mental health wards

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jill; Page, Bethan; Ndimande, Nokuthula; Connell, Julie; Vincent, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Failing to return from leave from acute psychiatric wards can have a range of negative consequences for patients, relatives and staff. This study used quality improvement methodology to improve the processes around patient leave and time away from the ward. The aim of this study was to improve rates of on-time return from leave by detained and informal patients by 50%. Following a baseline period, four interventions were implemented and refined using PDSA cycles. The main outcome measure was the proportion of periods of leave where the patient returned on time. Late return was defined as failure to return to the ward within 10 minutes of the agreed time. At baseline, the rate for on-time return was 56.0%; this increased to 87.1% post-intervention, a statistically significant increase of 55.5%. SPC charts show that the interventions were associated with improvements. The improvements have been sustained and the interventions are fully embedded into daily practice. The project was refined to local context and trialled on six additional wards: four of the six wards have successfully implemented the interventions and have on-time return rates of over 90%. This project produced a marked and sustained improvement in patients returning on-time from leave, facilitating a more open discussion between staff and patients about the purpose and value of periods away from the ward. Quality improvement approaches can be effectively applied in mental health settings. PMID:27933157

  7. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  8. The Impact of Resistance Exercise Training on the Mental Health of Older Puerto Rican Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K.; Shepherd, Amy; Johnson, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of a 16 week high-intensity progressive resistance exercise training (PRT) program on the mental health of older Puerto Rican adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Fifty-eight Puerto Rican adults were randomly assigned to supervised PRT (n = 29) or a control group (n = 29). A secondary analyses were conducted, and 2 mental health outcomes, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the SF-36 mental component summary score, were used to assess the impact of PRT on mental health status. At baseline, no differences were found on measures of self-reported mental health status. Results. PRT participants had significantly improved mental health status at follow-up (16 weeks). Discussion. The incorporation of exercise into treatment planning for older adults may have important benefits on their mental health status. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which this occurred as well as the applicability of these findings to sustainable community programs. PMID:21571703

  9. Binge drinking, poor mental health, and adherence to treatment among California adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    Haskard, Kelly B; Banta, Jim E; Williams, Summer L; Haviland, Mark G; DiMatteo, M Robin; Przekop, Peter; Werner, Leonard S; Anderson, Donald L

    2008-06-01

    Binge drinking and poor mental health may affect adherence to treatment for individuals with asthma. The purposes were to (a) examine the relationship of self-reported binge drinking and mental health to adherence to daily asthma control medications and (b) identify other demographic and health-related factors associated with asthma control medication adherence. Secondary analyses of 2003 adult California Health Interview Survey data were undertaken, and these analyses identified 3.2 million California adults who had been told by a physician they had asthma. Of these, approximately 1.7 million were symptomatic. Binge drinking significantly predicted medication nonadherence among California adults with symptomatic asthma (OR = .63, 95% CI = .45-.89), whereas poor mental health did not. Other predictors of nonadherence (odds ratios < 1, p < .05) included being overweight, younger age, having some college education, being a current smoker, and having no usual source of medical care. Predictors of adherence (odds ratios > 1, p < .05) were older age, more frequent asthma symptoms, more ER visits, more missed work days, being African American, and being a non-citizen. Intervention efforts could be directed toward improving medication adherence among adult asthma patients who engage in risky health behaviors such as binge drinking. Also at risk for medication nonadherence and therefore good targets for asthma control medication management interventions are adults who are overweight, younger (18-44 age range), have some college education, and no usual source of medical care.

  10. Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A.; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20–45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen’s (1968; A behavioral model of families’ use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  11. Reclaiming Joy: Pilot Evaluation of a Mental Health Peer Support Program for Older Adults Who Receive Medicaid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Rosemary K.; Sergeant, Julie F.; Landry, Sarah; Leedahl, Skye N.; Rachlin, Roxanne; Koenig, Terry; Graham, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stigma and lack of access to providers create barriers to mental health treatment for older adults living in the community. In order to address these barriers, we developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for older adults receiving Medicaid services. Design and Methods: Reclaiming Joy is a mental health intervention that pairs…

  12. Reclaiming Joy: Pilot Evaluation of a Mental Health Peer Support Program for Older Adults Who Receive Medicaid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Rosemary K.; Sergeant, Julie F.; Landry, Sarah; Leedahl, Skye N.; Rachlin, Roxanne; Koenig, Terry; Graham, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stigma and lack of access to providers create barriers to mental health treatment for older adults living in the community. In order to address these barriers, we developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for older adults receiving Medicaid services. Design and Methods: Reclaiming Joy is a mental health intervention that pairs…

  13. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Latino and Asian American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report…

  14. Healthy Behavior Change of Adults with Mental Retardation: Attendance in a Health Promotion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua; Zhou, Huafeng; McDermott, Suzanne; Poston, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    Participation in a health promotion program for 192 overweight and obese adults with mental retardation was associated with behavior change resulting in reduction of body mass index--BMI (weight in kg, divided by height in meters, squared) by the end of the program. We analyzed the mediating and intermediate factors contributing to weight…

  15. Responding to the Mental Health and Well-Being Agenda in Adult Community Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, changes in the policy, funding and commissioning landscape for mental health and well-being are posing opportunities and challenges for adult community learning (ACL). Opportunities include increased recognition of, and funding for, the "wider benefits" of learning, whereas challenges include the risks of ACL…

  16. Healthy Behavior Change of Adults with Mental Retardation: Attendance in a Health Promotion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua; Zhou, Huafeng; McDermott, Suzanne; Poston, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    Participation in a health promotion program for 192 overweight and obese adults with mental retardation was associated with behavior change resulting in reduction of body mass index--BMI (weight in kg, divided by height in meters, squared) by the end of the program. We analyzed the mediating and intermediate factors contributing to weight…

  17. Responding to the Mental Health and Well-Being Agenda in Adult Community Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, changes in the policy, funding and commissioning landscape for mental health and well-being are posing opportunities and challenges for adult community learning (ACL). Opportunities include increased recognition of, and funding for, the "wider benefits" of learning, whereas challenges include the risks of ACL…

  18. Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to address the gap in knowledge about the extent to which perinatal mental health and risk behaviors are associated with childhood and adult experiences of abuse that arises because of barriers to screening and disclosure about past and current abuse. Survey data from an ongoing study of the effects of posttraumatic stress on childbearing were used to describe four groups of nulliparous women: those with no abuse history, adult abuse only, childhood abuse only, and abuse that occurred during both periods. The rates of abuse history disclosure were higher in the research context than in the clinical settings. Mental health morbidity and risk behaviors occurred in a dose-response pattern with cumulative abuse exposure. Rates of current posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 4.1% among those never abused to 11.4% (adult only), 16.0% (childhood only), and 39.2% (both periods). Women abused during both periods also were more likely to be using tobacco (21.5%) and drugs (16.5%) during pregnancy. We conclude that mental health and behavioral risk sequelae affect a significant portion of both childhood and adult abuse survivors in prenatal care. The integration into the maternity setting of existing evidence-based interventions for the mental health and behavioral sequelae of abuse is needed.

  19. Mental Health and Pain in Older Adults: Findings from Urban HEART-2.

    PubMed

    Rashedi, Vahid; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Foroughan, Mahshid; Delbari, Ahmad; Fadayevatan, Reza

    2017-08-01

    Pain is an important component of disability problems, and plays a key role in mental health of older adults. This study aims to investigate the relationship between mental health and pain in older adults of Tehran, Iran. This was a cross-sectional study using data on 5326 older adults aged ≥60 years old from a large population-based survey (Urban HEART-2). A multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select the participants in Tehran, Iran, in 2011. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), pain questionnaire, and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to collect the data. A total of 5326 older adults, 3811 (71.6%) married and 2797 (52.5%) female, were included into the study. The mean age of the participants was 68.92 ± 7.02 years. Mean of GHQ-28 scores in the sample was 51.08 ± 10.94, which indicates of a good level of mental health. The majority of the older adults had knee and back pain (more than 50%). Regardless of the chronicity, time, and the mode of reaction to it, knee and back pain were the highly reported pains among the participants. There was a statistically significant difference between two groups of older adults, with and without pain, in terms of GHQ-28 scores. Multiple regression analysis revealed that there was a relationship between mental health and the following factors: pain in head, shoulder, teeth, upper and lower limbs, education, gender, age, and marital status. Whatever the explanation, the relation of lowered health status to pain in all body parts among older people is considerable. This renders this matter as a top priority in health policy making.

  20. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  1. Risky Driving, Mental Health, and Health-Compromising Behaviors: Risk Clustering in Late Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults co-occur. Because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for these age groups, understanding the association between risky driving and other health compromising behaviors is critical. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for participants who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking. Using baseline data, we examined relationships among conduct behavior problems before and after age 15, depressive symptoms, sleep, problem drinking, and risky driving (hostile, reckless and drinking and driving) in late adolescents ages 18–24 (n= 110) and adults ages 25–44 (n= 202). We developed a measurement model for the entire sample using confirmatory factor analysis, which was then specified as a multi-group structural equation model. Results Late adolescents and adults had some similar associations for pathways through problem drinking to drinking and driving; depression to reckless driving; and conduct behavior problems after 15 to hostile driving. Late adolescents, however, had more complex relationships: depressive symptoms and conduct behavior problems before 15 were associated with more risky driving behaviors through multiple pathways and males reported more risky driving. Conclusions Risky driving is associated with other health-compromising behaviors and mental health factors. It is a multidimensional phenomenon more pronounced in late adolescence than adulthood. In order to promote safe driving, the findings support the need to consider behaviors that are a health threat in the late adolescent population during driving training and licensure. PMID:24814717

  2. Risky driving, mental health, and health-compromising behaviours: risk clustering in late adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S; Fargo, Jamison D

    2014-12-01

    Health-compromising behaviours in adolescents and adults co-occur. Because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for these age groups, understanding the association between risky driving and other health-compromising behaviours is critical. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial of an intervention for participants who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking. Using baseline data, we examined relationships among conduct behaviour problems before and after age 15 years, depressive symptoms, sleep, problem drinking, and risky driving (hostile, reckless and drinking and driving) in late adolescents ages 18-24 (n=110) years, and adults ages 25-44 (n=202) years. We developed a measurement model for the entire sample using confirmatory factor analysis, which was then specified as a multigroup structural equation model. Late adolescents and adults had some similar associations for pathways through problem drinking to drinking and driving; depression to reckless driving; and conduct behaviour problems after 15 years of age to hostile driving. Late adolescents, however, had more complex relationships: depressive symptoms and conduct behaviour problems before 15 years of age were associated with more risky driving behaviours through multiple pathways, and males reported more risky driving. Risky driving is associated with other health-compromising behaviours and mental health factors. It is a multidimensional phenomenon more pronounced in late adolescence than adulthood. In order to promote safe driving, the findings support the need to consider behaviours that are a health threat in the late adolescent population during driving training and licensure. NCT00164294. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  4. Service user engagement: A co-created interview schedule exploring mental health recovery in young adults.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Claire-Odile; McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; McLaughlin, Derek

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to co-create of an interview schedule exploring mental health recovery in collaboration with young adult service users. Service user involvement in research has been increasingly recognized as providing a vital authentic insight into mental health recovery. Engagement and collaboration with service users have facilitated the exploration of inaccessible or under-investigated aspects of the lived experience of mental health recovery, not only directing the trajectory of research, but making it relevant to their own contextual experience. A qualitative content analysis framework was employed in the co-creation of a semi-structured interview schedule through an engagement process with service users. Two separate engagement groups took place at the premises of the service user organizations, between January - February 2014. Miles and Huberman's analysis framework was chosen for this phase as it enabled the visual presentation of factors, concepts or variables and the established relationship between them. The lived experience of mental ill health in young adulthood and how this was understood by others was a particularly relevant theme for participants. Further themes were identified between the impact of painful experiences at this developmental life stage leading to a deeper understanding of others through finding meaning in their own mental health recovery journey. Our findings identified that suffering painful experiences is an integral aspect in the process of mental health recovery. This understanding has particular relevance to mental health nursing practice, ensuring the care delivered is cognizant of the suffering or painful experiences that young adults are encountering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Placement of older adults from hospital mental health units into nursing homes: exploration of the process, system issues, and implications.

    PubMed

    Lane, Annette M

    2011-02-01

    Decision making about placing older adults with mental illness and the process of placement from mental health units into nursing homes is challenging for older adults, family members, and health care professionals. In this article, I present an individual example drawn from an institutional ethnography examining the process of placement from mental health units into nursing homes in western Canada. I offer an analysis of the institutional processes and system issues that factor into the difficulties of placing this older adult with mental illness and suggest implications for nurses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Physical and mental health of transgender older adults: an at-risk and underserved population.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Cook-Daniels, Loree; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Erosheva, Elena A; Emlet, Charles A; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Goldsen, Jayn; Muraco, Anna

    2014-06-01

    This study is one of the first to examine the physical and mental health of transgender older adults and to identify modifiable factors that account for health risks in this underserved population. Utilizing data from a cross-sectional survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560), we assessed direct and indirect effects of gender identity on 4 health outcomes (physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress) based on a resilience conceptual framework. Transgender older adults were at significantly higher risk of poor physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress compared with nontransgender participants. We found significant indirect effects of gender identity on the health outcomes via fear of accessing health services, lack of physical activity, internalized stigma, victimization, and lack of social support; other mediators included obesity for physical health and disability, identity concealment for perceived stress, and community belonging for depressive symptomatology and perceived stress. Further analyses revealed that risk factors (victimization and stigma) explained the highest proportion of the total effect of gender identity on health outcomes. The study identifies important modifiable factors (stigma, victimization, health-related behaviors, and social support) associated with health among transgender older adults. Reducing stigma and victimization and including gender identity in nondiscrimination and hate crime statutes are important steps to reduce health risks. Attention to bolstering individual and community-level social support must be considered when developing tailored interventions to address transgender older adults' distinct health and aging needs.

  7. Mental health outcomes of burn: A longitudinal population-based study of adults hospitalized for burns.

    PubMed

    Logsetty, Sarvesh; Shamlou, Amir; Gawaziuk, Justin P; March, Justin; Doupe, Malcolm; Chateau, Dan; Hoppensack, Mike; Khan, Sazzadul; Medved, Maria; Leslie, William D; Enns, Murray W; Stein, Murray B; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the increased risk of mental health outcomes and health care utilization associated with burn with two year of follow-up using a longitudinal population-based matched cohort design. Adult burn survivors (n=157) were identified from a provincial burn registry and matched 1:5 with non-burn control subjects from the general population (matching variables age and gender). The prevalence of mental health outcomes and the rates of health care utilization between the groups were compared for the 2years pre and post index date using anonymously linked population-based administrative health care data. Rates were adjusted for age, gender and sociodemographic characteristics. While the burn cohort had an increased prevalence of mental health problems after burn compared to the control cohort, the burn group also had an increased prevalence of pre-burn depression (16.6% vs 7.8%; p=0.0005) and substance use disorders (8.9% vs 3.2%; p=0.001) when compared to controls. Once the pre-existing prevalence of mental illness was taken into account there was no significant change in the prevalence of mental health problems when comparing the burn group to controls over time. Although burns may not increase rates of mental health issues and health care utilization, burn survivors are a vulnerable group who already demonstrate increased rates of psychopathology and need for care. The present study highlights the importance of assessment and treatment of mental health outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving Mental Health Care for Young Adults in Badakshan Province of Afghanistan Using eHealth.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Shariq; Khan, Maria Arif; Husyin, Nida; Scott, Richard; Yousafzai, Abdul Wahab; Durrani, Hammad; Mohbatali, Fatima; Khan, Dodo

    2015-01-01

    Decades of war, social problems and poverty, have led large number of Afghan youth aged between 18-25 years suffering from mental health problems. Other important contributing factors include extreme poverty, insecurity, and violence and gender disparities, contributing to worsening mental and emotional health conditions in the country. The reported project is designed to strengthen the health system for improving mental health services in the province of Badakshan by improving awareness in the community and empowering frontline health workers. The project uses technological innovations, in combination with traditional approaches, to reduce stigma, enhance capacity of health providers and improve access to the specialist. The project also focuses on skills development of health providers, and empowering them to provide quality mental health services through access to interactive protocols, Management Information system and telemedicine.

  9. Gender nonconformity and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia as mediators.

    PubMed

    Van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny Mw; Kuyper, Lisette; Overbeek, Geertjan; Sandfort, Theo Gm

    2016-04-25

    We assessed among a sample of 724 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual-identified adults (Mage = 31.42) whether experiences with homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia simultaneously mediated the relation of gender nonconformity with mental health. Results indicated that homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia partially mediated the relation between gender nonconformity and mental health. Gender nonconformity was related to more mental health problems via increased experiences with homophobic stigmatization and to less mental health problems because of reduced levels of internalized homophobia. However, the mediated relation of gender nonconformity with mental health via homophobic stigmatization was only significant for men.

  10. Prevalence of Mental Health Illness Among Patients with Adult-onset Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Basil; Hodge, David O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children diagnosed with some forms of strabismus were recently found to have an increased risk of developing mental illness by early adulthood. The purpose of this case-controlled study was to determine if adults with non-paralytic forms of strabismus are similarly at an elevated risk for developing mental illness. Methods The medical records of all patients diagnosed as adults (≥ 19 years of age) with convergence insufficiency (CI, n=118), divergence insufficiency (DI, n=80), and small angle hypertropia (HT, n=99) from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2004, were retrospectively reviewed. Each case was compared with a sex- and birthdate-matched non-strabismic control. The medical records were reviewed for mental health diagnoses, including inpatient and outpatient encounters, psychiatric ER visits, and medication use. Results Mental health disorders were diagnosed in 65 (55.1%) patients with CI compared to 54 (45.8%) controls (p=0.15), in 51 (63.8%) patients with DI compared to 42 (52.5%) controls (p=0.15), and in 63 (63.6%) patients with HT compared to 57 (57.6%) controls (p=0.38). CI patients were not more likely to have mental health disorders than their controls (p=0.15). Mental health hospitalizations (p=0.02), psychiatric medication use (p=0.04), and unspecified anxiety disorders (p=0.03) were higher in DI patients compared to controls. HT patients were found to have more generalized anxiety disorders (p=0.003) than controls. Conclusions Adults with some forms of strabismus (DI and HT) appear to have an increased risk of mental illness and its comorbidities, compared to age- and gender-matched non-strabismic controls. PMID:26559866

  11. Choir singing and creative writing enhance emotion regulation in adults with chronic mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Williams, Elyse; Jetten, Jolanda; Welch, Jonathon

    2017-07-18

    Adults with mental health conditions commonly experience difficulties with emotion regulation which affect their social functioning. Arts-based groups provide opportunities for shared emotional experiences and emotion regulation. This study explores emotion regulation strategies and the emotional effects of arts-based group participation in adults with mental health problems and in controls. The 62 participants included 39 adults with chronic mental health problems who were members of arts-based groups (ABG) and 23 comparison choir (CC) members who were not specifically experiencing mental health problems. The repeated measures design included self-reports of emotion upon waking (T1), the hour before group (T2), end of the group (T3), and evening (T4), as well as participant notes to explain their emotion ratings at each time. They also completed measures of individual and interpersonal emotion regulation. The ABG participants engaged marginally more in affect worsening strategies than CC (p = .057 and .08), but there were no other group differences. All participants reported a significant increase in positive emotions, F (3, 180) = 28.044, p < .001, np2 = .319; and a decrease in negative emotions during the arts-based activity: F (2.637, 155.597) = 21.09, p < .001, np2 = .263. The influence on positive emotions was short-lived, while the effect on negative emotions lasted until evening. Findings show that participation in arts-based groups benefits the emotions of both healthy adults and those experiencing mental health conditions through individual and interpersonal processes. Individuals with chronic mental health conditions often experience difficulties in emotion processing Participation in arts-based groups was associated with significant increases in positive emotions although these were short-lived Negative emotion was significantly decreased during arts-based group activities, and sustained to the evening assessment Adults with chronic mental

  12. Transitions and Loss: Illuminating Parameters of Young Adults' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita; Scanlon, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Different disciplinary groups are increasingly questioning current conceptualisations of young adults' educational, social and personal lives after compulsory schooling. New perspectives are being advanced on the life trajectories of choice and complexity now experienced by school leavers. A consistent theme is the changed nature of young adults'…

  13. Transitions and Loss: Illuminating Parameters of Young Adults' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita; Scanlon, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Different disciplinary groups are increasingly questioning current conceptualisations of young adults' educational, social and personal lives after compulsory schooling. New perspectives are being advanced on the life trajectories of choice and complexity now experienced by school leavers. A consistent theme is the changed nature of young adults'…

  14. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA) Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hammersen, Friederike; Niemann, Hildegard; Hoebel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional “German Health Update” study 2012 (GEDA 2012), a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 19,294). Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support), both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality. PMID:27681736

  15. Help-Seeking Stigma and Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Young Adult Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Corrigan, Patrick; Marshall, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Veterans underutilize mental health services. We investigated the association between treatment seeking stigma and utilization of mental health services in a sample of 812 young adult veterans. Higher perceived public stigma of treatment seeking was significantly related to lower treatment utilization. Although many veterans were concerned about negative perceptions if they were to seek treatment, a much smaller number of them endorsed that they would judge a fellow veteran negatively in similar situation. Targeting perceived public stigma of treatment seeking, through perceived norms interventions, might help in narrowing the gap between the need and receipt of help among veterans. PMID:26664795

  16. Prevalence of parents within an adult mental health service: census results 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Howe, Deb; Batchelor, Samantha; Bochynska, Kataryzna

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this article is to determine the prevalence of parents of children (aged 0-17 years) within a mental health service system and gather contextual data regarding this population. The study uses a census approach. The Census is conducted annually across Central Coast Adult Mental Health Services, NSW, Australia. All five community mental health teams and four acute inpatient units within the service participate, with each team completing Census forms for active clients identified as parents on Census day. The Census form collects data on parents and children including demographic data, parental diagnosis, parental contact and risk factors. Consecutive data shows 25-28% of active clients are parents. Annually, at least 400 children are identified; approximately 60% reside permanently with their parent with a mental illness. The Census is a valuable tool to determine the prevalence of parenthood. Moreover, it collects contextual data on this population. Data show an emerging relationship between parental diagnosis and parental contact. A picture of level of risk across the system has also been highlighted. Results add to the evidence regarding parental mental illness and circumstances of these families. The data clearly articulate a large need for interventions for children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) within this population, given the high proportion of children who permanently reside with their parent with a mental illness.

  17. What Is Mental Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  18. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile) and 74 control subjects completed the Adult Self-Report (ASR) of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, the Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Revised, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale III assessment. Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term. PMID:23216805

  19. Services for young people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder transitioning from child to adult mental health services: a national survey of mental health trusts in England.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Transition from child to adult mental health services is considered to be a difficult process, particularly for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article presents results from a national survey of 36 mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts across England, the findings indicate a lack of accurate data on the number of young people with ADHD transitioning to, and being seen by, adult services. Less than half of the trusts had a specialist adult ADHD service and in only a third of the trusts were there specific commissioning arrangements for adult ADHD. Half of the trusts reported that young people with ADHD were prematurely discharged from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) because there were no suitable adult services. There was also a lack of written transition protocols, care pathways, commissioned services for adults with ADHD and inadequate information sharing between services. The findings advocate the need to provide a better transition service underpinned by clear, structured guidelines and protocols, routine data collection and information sharing across child and adult services. An increase in the commission of specialist adult ADHD clinics is needed to ensure individuals have access to appropriate support and care.

  20. Prior Military Service, Identity Stigma, and Mental Health Among Transgender Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Shiu, Chengshi; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Sturges, Allison M; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Converging evidence from large community-based samples, Internet studies, and Veterans Health Administration data suggest that transgender adults have high rates of U.S. military service. However, little is known about the role of prior military service in their mental health later in life, particularly in relation to identity stigma. In this article, we examine relationships between prior military service, identity stigma, and mental health among transgender older adults. We used a subsample of transgender older adults (n = 183) from the 2014 survey of Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS). We employed weighted multivariate linear models to evaluate the relationships between psychological health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depressive symptomatology (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] scores), identity stigma, and prior military service, controlling for background characteristics. Identity stigma was significantly related with higher depressive symptomatology and lower psychological HRQOL. Having a history of prior military service significantly predicted lower depressive symptomatology and higher psychological HRQOL. The relationships between psychological HRQOL, identity stigma, and prior military service were largely explained by depressive symptomatology. Prior military service significantly attenuated the relationship between identity stigma and depressive symptomatology. By identifying the role of military service in the mental health of transgender older adults, this study provides insights into how prior military service may contribute to resilience and positive mental health outcomes. Directions for future research are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Work and Health of Parents of Adult Children with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effects of work schedule flexibility and the spillover of work stress to family life on the health of parents of adult children with serious mental illness (SMI). We compared 100 parents of adult children with SMI to 500 parents with nondisabled adult children using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The detrimental impact on health of a lack of work flexibility and of higher levels of negative work-to-family spillover were more pronounced among parents of adult children with SMI than parents with non-disabled adult children. The results have significant implications for developing interventions to help midlife families of persons with SMI cope with work-related stress and for policies that provide for greater work schedule flexibility.

  2. Complete mental health in adult siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Madeleine; Taylor, Amanda; Roberts, Rachel

    2016-11-16

    Sibling relationships have lifelong significance and childhood chronic illness and disability can have considerable impacts on healthy siblings, influencing development into adulthood. Research has not yet assessed well-being in this population using measures of both mental health and mental illness. Thus, this study assessed well-being in a comprehensive manner using the complete mental health (CMH) model. Participants (N = 144) included both adult siblings of those with chronic illness or disability and adults with healthy siblings. Measures of positive social, psychological and emotional well-being were used to assess mental health and a measure of depression, anxiety, and stress was used to assess mental illness. A high proportion of participants, both with and without siblings with a chronic illness or disability, were experiencing symptoms of mental illness, accompanied by high wellbeing. This indicates that many participants fit into the struggling category of the CMH model. The present research highlights the need for early intervention services to ensure that siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability are well supported in developing strengths, as well as managing difficulties. Results also indicate that targeting students in mental health promotion is important to encourage participation in services. Implications for rehabilitation Siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability need to be included in assessments in order to understand the experience of the family unit. It is important for families and clinicians to be aware of the needs of healthy siblings and encourage them to interact with support services in order to maximise and maintain well-being. Skills-based support could be beneficial, particularly for providing caregivers with strategies to meet the needs of both their child with a chronic illness or disability and their healthy children.

  3. Mental Health Outcomes Among Adults in Galveston and Chambers Counties After Hurricane Ike

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Gros, Kirstin; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Morgan, Mark; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Muzzy, Wendy; Acierno, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the mental health effects of Hurricane Ike, the third costliest hurricane in US history, which devastated the upper Texas coast in September 2008. Method Structured telephone interviews assessing immediate effects of Hurricane Ike (damage, loss, displacement) and mental health diagnoses were administered via random digit-dial methods to a household probability sample of 255 Hurricane Ike–affected adults in Galveston and Chambers counties. Results Three-fourths of respondents evacuated the area because of Hurricane Ike and nearly 40% were displaced for at least one week. Postdisaster mental health prevalence estimates were 5.9% for posttraumatic stress disorder, 4.5% for major depressive episode, and 9.3% for generalized anxiety disorder. Bivariate analyses suggested that peritraumatic indicators of hurricane exposure severity—such as lack of adequate clean clothing, electricity, food, money, transportation, or water for at least one week—were most consistently associated with mental health problems. Conclusions The significant contribution of factors such as loss of housing, financial means, clothing, food, and water to the development and/or maintenance of negative mental health consequences highlights the importance of systemic postdisaster intervention resources targeted to meet basic needs in the postdisaster period. PMID:22490934

  4. Transitions between child and adult mental health services: service design, philosophy and meaning at uncertain times.

    PubMed

    Murcott, W J

    2014-09-01

    A young person's transition of care from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services can be an uncertain and distressing event that can have serious ramifications for their recovery. Recognition of this across many countries and recent UK media interest in the dangers of mental health services failing young people has led practitioners to question the existing processes. This paper reviews the current theories and research into potential failings of services and encourages exploration for a deeper understanding of when and how care should be managed in the transition process for young people. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in this process and, by adopting the assumptions of this paradigm, look at transition from this unique perspective. By reviewing the current ideas related to age boundaries, service thresholds, service philosophy and service design, it is argued that the importance of the therapeutic relationship, the understanding of the cultural context of the young person and the placing of the young person in a position of autonomy and control should be central to any decision and process of transfer between two mental health services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mental health outcomes among adults in Galveston and Chambers counties after Hurricane Ike.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Gros, Kirstin; McCauley, Jenna L; Resnick, Heidi S; Morgan, Mark; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Muzzy, Wendy; Acierno, Ron

    2012-03-01

      To examine the mental health effects of Hurricane Ike, the third costliest hurricane in US history, which devastated the upper Texas coast in September 2008.   Structured telephone interviews assessing immediate effects of Hurricane Ike (damage, loss, displacement) and mental health diagnoses were administered via random digit-dial methods to a household probability sample of 255 Hurricane Ike-affected adults in Galveston and Chambers counties.   Three-fourths of respondents evacuated the area because of Hurricane Ike and nearly 40% were displaced for at least one week. Postdisaster mental health prevalence estimates were 5.9% for posttraumatic stress disorder, 4.5% for major depressive episode, and 9.3% for generalized anxiety disorder. Bivariate analyses suggested that peritraumatic indicators of hurricane exposure severity-such as lack of adequate clean clothing, electricity, food, money, transportation, or water for at least one week-were most consistently associated with mental health problems.   The significant contribution of factors such as loss of housing, financial means, clothing, food, and water to the development and/or maintenance of negative mental health consequences highlights the importance of systemic postdisaster intervention resources targeted to meet basic needs in the postdisaster period.

  6. Mental health and dual sensory loss in older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Heine, Chyrisse; Browning, Colette J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health is a core component of quality of life in old age. Dual Sensory Loss (DSL; combined vision and hearing loss) is prevalent in older adults and has been correlated with decreased levels of well-being. This systematic review aimed to critically review and summarize the evidence from studies that examined the mental health of older adults with DSL. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) statement, specific databases were searched and eight articles were selected for final review. Seven studies investigated the association between DSL and depression or depressive symptoms, whilst one study explored the relationship between DSL and quality of life. No studies investigated the impact of DSL on anxiety. Overall, results of this review suggested that there is a significant relationship between DSL and decreased mental health with those with DSL either displaying depressive symptoms or being at risk for developing depression. Future research should focus on comparative studies of older people with and without sensory loss, as well as targeted studies of older people with dual sensory loss, that incorporate well-defined and valid measures of sensory loss and mental health. PMID:24860496

  7. Mental health and dual sensory loss in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heine, Chyrisse; Browning, Colette J

    2014-01-01

    Mental health is a core component of quality of life in old age. Dual Sensory Loss (DSL; combined vision and hearing loss) is prevalent in older adults and has been correlated with decreased levels of well-being. This systematic review aimed to critically review and summarize the evidence from studies that examined the mental health of older adults with DSL. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) statement, specific databases were searched and eight articles were selected for final review. Seven studies investigated the association between DSL and depression or depressive symptoms, whilst one study explored the relationship between DSL and quality of life. No studies investigated the impact of DSL on anxiety. Overall, results of this review suggested that there is a significant relationship between DSL and decreased mental health with those with DSL either displaying depressive symptoms or being at risk for developing depression. Future research should focus on comparative studies of older people with and without sensory loss, as well as targeted studies of older people with dual sensory loss, that incorporate well-defined and valid measures of sensory loss and mental health.

  8. Attitudes and beliefs about mental health among African American older adults suffering from depression

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kyaien O.; Lee, Brenda; Mayers, Vanessa; Robinson, Deborah; Reynolds, Charles F.; Albert, Steve; Brown, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Depression among older adults is a major public health concern leading to increased disability and mortality. Less than 3% of older adults utilize professional mental health services for the treatment of depression, less than any other adult age group. And despite similar rates of depression, African Americans are significantly less likely to seek, engage and be retained in professional mental health services than their white counterparts. Cultural differences in the way depression symptoms are manifested, defined, interpreted and labeled may in part explain some of these racial differences in help-seeking behaviors. Focus group methodology was utilized to identify and explore attitudes and beliefs about depression and mental health treatment utilization among 42 older African Americans who had recently suffered a major depressive episode. Thematic analysis of identified six overarching themes: (a) perceptions of depression, (b) the African American experience, (c) seeking treatment as a last resort, (d) myths about treatment, (e) stigma associated with seeking treatment and (f) culturally appropriate coping strategies. We discuss implications for practice, education and research. PMID:21423819

  9. Childhood family wealth and mental health in a national cohort of young adults.

    PubMed

    Lê-Scherban, Félice; Brenner, Allison B; Schoeni, Robert F

    2016-12-01

    Mental health is critical to young adult health, as the onset of 75% of psychiatric disorders occurs by age 24 and psychiatric disorders early in life predict later behavioral health problems. Wealth may serve as a buffer against economic stressors. Family wealth may be particularly relevant for young adults by providing them with economic resources as they make educational decisions and move towards financial and social independence. We used prospectively collected data from 2060 young adults aged 18-27 in 2005-2011 from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a national cohort of US families. We examined associations between nonspecific psychological distress (measured with the K-6 scale) and childhood average household wealth during ages 0-18 years (net worth in 2010 dollars). In demographics-adjusted generalized estimating equation models, higher childhood wealth percentile was related to a lower prevalence of serious psychological distress: compared to below-median wealth, prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.56 (0.36-0.87) for 3(rd) quartile and PR = 0.46 (0.29-0.73) for 4(th) quartile. The associations were attenuated slightly by adjustment for parent education and more so by adjustment for childhood household income percentile. Understanding the lifelong processes through which distinct aspects of socioeconomic status affect mental health can help us identify high-risk populations and take steps to minimize future disparities in mental illness.

  10. [Effects of social mobility on adult mental health:a systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Lenice de Castro Muniz; Laura, Helen Castillo; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2016-02-01

    The scope of this study was to identify longitudinal studies evaluating the relationship between social mobility and mental disorders in adults. An electronic review of the literature was conducted in the PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO databases. The bibliographic references of the articles selected for analysis were also examined for eligibility. Cohort studies were selected taking social mobility as exposure category and mental health-related disorders as the outcome. Seven studies were reviewed and their definition and categorization of exposure and outcome were found to be heterogeneous, thus rendering analysis and comparison of the results found in the various studies difficult. Mental health-related disorders were more common in individuals belonging to lower socio-economic classes, regardless of having upward, stable or downward social mobility. Moreover, the influence of individual socio-economic conditions, assessed in adulthood, appears to be greater than the effect of parental economic status on the mental health of individuals. This review indicates that it is possible to find a relationship between socio-economic status during the course of life and mental health in adulthood. However, the direction taken by this relationship remains unclear.

  11. Physical health and wellbeing of emerging and young adults with mental illness: an integrative review of international literature.

    PubMed

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Huws-Thomas, Michelle; Delgado, Cynthia

    2012-06-01

    Physical health in people with mental illness is often compromised. Chronic physical conditions and disease risk factors occur at higher rates than in the general population. Although substantial research exists regarding mental-physical comorbidities in middle to older-aged adults and mental illness consequential to childhood physical illness, research addressing physical health in young people/emerging adults of 16-24 years with primary mental illnesses is minimal. Health problems often track from youth to adulthood, indicating a need to better recognize and understand the overall health of young people with mental illness. This paper reports findings from an integrative review of published research investigating physical health of emerging/young adults with mental illness. A total of 18 research papers were systematically analysed. The review found that comorbid mental-physical illness/conditions were evident across a wide age span. Specific physical health problems, including pain, gastrointestinal, and respiratory disorders, were apparent in those 16 years to those in their mid-late 20s, and/or with first episode psychosis. Lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders occurred with some frequency and originated prior to adulthood. These findings highlight the need for targeted health screening and illness prevention strategies for emerging/young adults with mental health problems and draws attention to the need for young people to be supported in their health-care behaviours.

  12. The Role of Physical Activity in the Association between Resilience and Mental Health in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wermelinger Ávila, Maria Priscila; Corrêa, Jimilly Caputo; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2017-07-17

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between resilience and mental health in older adults and how physical activity influences that relationship. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 312 older adults (179 active and 133 sedentary classified by IPAQ). Considering the whole sample, an inverse relationship was found for resilience (Wagnild-Young's Resilience Scale) with depression and stress (DASS-21). Among the sedentary, in spite of there not being an association between total resilience and mental health, there was an inverse relationship for the "meaning of life" component of the resilience and depression scale. For the active group, there was a relationship between total resilience and its components with depression and stress, but not for the "meaning of life" component of the resilience scale. Physical activity played an important role in the relationship between resilience and depression, showing that active and sedentary people use different components of resilience.

  13. The role of religious identity in the mental health of older working and retired adults.

    PubMed

    Keyes, C L M; Reitzes, D C

    2007-07-01

    This study investigates whether religious identity explains unique variance of the self esteem and depressive symptoms of older working and retired adults. Data were collected from a larger, five-year project begun in 1992 that compared the well-being of older workers and with that of new retirees living in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina metropolitan area. Data are from the third and final wave, collected between March and June, 1997, during which 242 of the eligible 255 people participated. Net of religious attendance, religiosity, and various control variables, religious identity predicted both mental health outcomes. As predicted, self esteem increased and depressive symptoms decreased as religious identity increased (i.e., viewing oneself as more competent, confident, and sociable as a religious person). Though there was a trend towards religious identity being more strongly predictive of mental health among retirees than among the working adults, these interactions did not reach statistical significance.

  14. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    PubMed

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Family Empowerment Scale for caregivers of adults with mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, M; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, S; Yokoyama, K

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Empowerment of family caregivers of adults with mental health issues has received increasing attention among mental health nurses in Japan and has been recognized as a new goal of family interventions. The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was originally developed to measure the empowerment status of parents of children with emotional disorders. However, it was later applied to broader health issues. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a Japanese version of the FES for family caregivers of adults with mental health issues (FES-AMJ) and examined the validity and reliability among parents. Results showed that the FES-AMJ had acceptable concurrent validity and reliability; however, insufficient construct validity was found, especially for the subscale regarding the service system. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Further studies need to modify the scale. Clarification of ideal family empowerment status in the service system through discussion with mental health nurses and family caregivers may be important. Introduction The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was originally developed for parents of children with emotional disorders. In Japan, family empowerment is gaining increasing attention and may be one goal of nursing interventions. Aim To develop a Japanese version of the FES for family caregivers of adults with mental health issues and to study the validity and reliability of this scale among parents. Method We translated the FES into Japanese and administered this self-report questionnaire to 275 parents. Results The multitrait scaling analysis revealed acceptable convergent validity and insufficient discriminant validity among all subscales. In particular, all items of the Service system subscale had insufficient discriminant and/or convergent validity. Each subscale significantly correlated with the indicator of empowerment. The intraclass correlation coefficients of each subscale were .855-.917. Cronbach

  16. Self-Reported Changes in Attractions and Social Determinants of Mental Health in Transgender Adults.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Budge, Stephanie L

    2017-07-01

    This study examined associations between changes in self-reported attractions and mental health in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender adults. Participants were purposively recruited in 2013 using bimodal sampling methods and completed a one-time survey. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals to examine associations between changes in attractions and mental health outcomes (lifetime self-harm, suicide attempts, depression diagnosis; past-week clinically significant depressive distress assessed via CES-D 10) among the entire sample (N = 452; 285 female-to-male spectrum, 167 male-to-female spectrum) and after gender transition among those who had socially transitioned (n = 205; 156 female-to-male spectrum, 49 male-to-female spectrum). Models were adjusted for known population social determinants (age, race/ethnicity, gender identity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation identity), transgender-specific determinants (age of transgender realization, social transition, medical transition, visual gender nonconformity, non-binary gender identification), and survey mode (online vs. in-person sampling). Lifetime changes in attractions were significantly associated with increased probability of all mental health outcomes; individuals reporting any change in attractions were more likely than individuals not reporting changes to indicate lifetime self-harm, suicide attempts, depression diagnosis, and current depressive distress (all ps < .05). Changes in attractions post-social transition were not significantly associated with mental health outcomes. Many, but not all, population and transgender-specific social determinants were significantly associated with mental health in the full sample and among those who had socially transitioned. Clinical implications of findings about changes in attractions and mental health are discussed for transgender individuals.

  17. Modeling mental health information preferences during the early adult years: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; Walker, John R; Eastwood, John D; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P; Bracken, Keyna; The Mobilizing Minds Research Group

    2014-04-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtual segment (28.7%) preferred working independently on the Internet to obtain information recommended by young adults who had experienced anxiety or depression. Self-assessment options and links to service providers were more important to this segment. Conventional participants (30.1%) preferred books or pamphlets recommended by a doctor, endorsed by mental health professionals, and used with a doctor's support. They would devote more time to information acquisition but were less likely to use Internet social networking options. Brief sources of information were more important to the low interest segment (41.2%). All segments preferred information about alternative ways to reduce anxiety or depression rather than psychological approaches or medication. Maximizing the use of information requires active and passive approaches delivered through old-media (e.g., books) and new-media (e.g., Internet) channels.

  18. Perpetration patterns and environmental contexts of IPV in Sweden: relationships with adult mental health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura E; Cater, Asa Källström; Howell, Kathryn H; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    Although excellent data exist on the overall prevalence of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), there is less information available on the specific patterns of IPV exposure in childhood and how they influence adult mental health. The current study examines 703 Swedish adults who reported exposure to IPV in childhood. Participants were part of a large national study on violence exposure. They provided an extensive history of their exposure to IPV and maltreatment experiences during childhood via electronically administered questionnaires. Mean comparison and multivariate regression methods were employed to assess differences in violence severity by reported perpetration pattern (mother-only, father-only, bidirectional or other), the association between violence severity and environmental context, and the contribution of these characteristics to adult mental health outcomes. Overall, violence perpetrated in public and by fathers was more severe and was related to poorer mental health outcomes in adulthood for child witnesses. These findings provide important insight into possible clinical "flags" for identifying children at high risk for exposure to IPV and abuse in the home.

  19. Mental health among young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings including posttraumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Honda, Misato; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the mental health status of young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and their siblings (SIBs). This paper focuses on depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Japanese CCSs and their SIBs. Adolescent and young adult CCSs (n=185), in remission for more than 1 year, their SIBs (n=72), and general controls (CONTs) (n=1,000) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, PTSS, and PTG. The physicians in charge also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. CCSs were approximately 8 years old at diagnosis and approximately 23 years old at the time of the survey. Their diagnoses included leukemia (57%), lymphoma (12%), and solid tumors (30%). Thirty-eight percent underwent surgery and 25% received stem cell transplantation. No significant differences were found between CCSs and CONTs in terms of depression and anxiety. CCSs had significantly more PTSS and had remarkably greater PTG compared to CONTs. Although no significant differences were found between SIBs and CONTs regarding depression, anxiety, or PTSS, female SIBs exhibited greater PTG compared to female CONTs. To empower CCSs, they should be evaluated periodically regarding PTSS and PTG and should be provided appropriate care and feedback. The fact that the mental health status of young adult SIBs was similar to CONTs at 15 years after their siblings' diagnoses may help reassure parents who worry about mental health among the siblings of an affected child during and after his/her treatment.

  20. Modeling Mental Health Information Preferences During the Early Adult Years: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Walker, John R.; Eastwood, John D.; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P.; Bracken, Keyna

    2013-01-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtual segment (28.7%) preferred working independently on the Internet to obtain information recommended by young adults who had experienced anxiety or depression. Self-assessment options and links to service providers were more important to this segment. Conventional participants (30.1%) preferred books or pamphlets recommended by a doctor, endorsed by mental health professionals, and used with a doctor's support. They would devote more time to information acquisition but were less likely to use Internet social networking options. Brief sources of information were more important to the low interest segment (41.2%). All segments preferred information about alternative ways to reduce anxiety or depression rather than psychological approaches or medication. Maximizing the use of information requires active and passive approaches delivered through old-media (e.g. books) and new-media (e.g., Internet) channels. PMID:24266450

  1. Maslow and Mental Health Recovery: A Comparative Study of Homeless Programs for Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study uses Maslow’s hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one’s basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs, goal setting, and the meaning of self-actualization. Transforming mental health care into a recovery-oriented system will require further consideration of person-centered care planning as well as the impact of limited resources especially for those living in poverty. PMID:24518968

  2. Maslow and mental health recovery: a comparative study of homeless programs for adults with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K

    2015-03-01

    This mixed-methods study uses Maslow's hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one's basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs, goal setting, and the meaning of self-actualization. Transforming mental health care into a recovery-oriented system will require further consideration of person-centered care planning as well as the impact of limited resources especially for those living in poverty.

  3. Financial Strain and Mental Health Among Older Adults During the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R

    2016-07-01

    The economic recession has garnered the interest of many scholars, with much attention being drawn to how the recession has affected labor force participation, household wealth, and even retirement decisions. Certainly, the Great Recession has influenced the financial well-being of older adults, but has it had discernible effects on mental health? This study draws on 5,366 respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2010) to examine objective and subjective measures of financial well-being in the period surrounding the Great Recession. Guided by cumulative inequality theory, this research investigates whether the economic downturn contributed to worsening anxiety and depressive symptoms over a 4-year period. Results from linear fixed effects models reveal that decreases in objective financial resources were associated with increased financial strain during the Great Recession. Unlike the objective indicators, however, financial strain was a strong and robust predictor of worsening mental health between 2006 and 2010. Building on prior research, this study elucidates the factors that shape financial strain and provides evidence that the Great Recession not only affected the financial well-being of older adults but also had adverse effects on mental health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The association between perceived social support, socio-economic status and mental health in young Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Tam, C L; Foo, Y C; Lee, T H

    2011-06-01

    To examine gender differences in mental health and perceived social support, relationship between parents' income and mental health, and differences in mental health across education levels. A total of 303 students aged 16 to 26 years were recruited from Selangor, Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure the level of perceived social support and the mental health status. Demographic data, including education level and parents' income, were also obtained. Females perceived significantly higher levels of overall social support than males (t = -2.7; p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in mental health status between males and females (t = -1.8; p > 0.05), as well as mental health status among different parental income groups (chi2 = 5.0; p > 0.05) and the education levels of the subjects (chi2 = 0.7; p > 0.05). A more favourable mental health status of the subjects was associated with higher parental incomes (r = -0.1; p < 0.05). There were gender differences for perceived social support, but not for mental health status in older adolescents and young adults. There was also a relationship between parental income and an individual's mental health status, but mental health was not related to their education level.

  5. State Clean Indoor Air Laws and smoking among adults with poor mental health.

    PubMed

    Larson, Anne; Bovbjerg, Victor; Luck, Jeff

    2016-05-05

    Persons with mental illness smoke at twice the rate of the general United States (US) population and die an average of 25-years younger, often from preventable diseases. This study seeks to determine whether disparities in smoking have increased over the past decade and whether Clean Indoor Air Laws (CIALs) are associated with changes in smoking among those with poor mental health. We used a fixed-effects model for estimation. CIALs were associated with 15 per cent decreased odds of smoking among adults in the US. Among those with poor mental health, these same laws had no effect. Between 2000 and 2010, the disparity in smoking rates between these two populations has steadily increased from 1.8 to 2.2 times greater. Given the lack of association between tobacco laws and smoking among those with poor mental health, alternative and more targeted tobacco reduction efforts may be necessary.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 5 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.17.

  6. Smoking Characteristics of Adults With Selected Lifetime Mental Illnesses: Results From the 2007 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Davis, Shane P.; Dube, Shanta R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts among US adults with selected diagnosed lifetime mental illnesses. Methods. We used data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey on 23 393 noninstitutionalized US adults to obtain age-adjusted estimates of smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts for adults screened as having serious psychological distress and persons self-reporting bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity, dementia, or phobias or fears. Results. The age-adjusted smoking prevalence of adults with mental illness or serious psychological distress ranged from 34.3% (phobias or fears) to 59.1% (schizophrenia) compared with 18.3% of adults with no such illness. Smoking prevalence increased with the number of comorbid mental illnesses. Cessation attempts among persons with diagnosed mental illness or serious psychological distress were comparable to attempts among adults without mental illnesses or distress; however, lower quit ratios were observed among adults with these diagnoses, indicating lower success in quitting. Conclusions. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among persons with mental illnesses than among adults without mental illnesses. Our findings stress the need for prevention and cessation efforts targeting adults with mental illnesses. PMID:20966369

  7. Hope and Mental Health in Young Adult College Students: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    One in five young adults are diagnosed with a mental illness and many experience psychological distress during their first year of college due to new pressures in academia. The purpose of the current integrative review was to describe and synthesize hope and mental health in young adults in college. PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched for articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 2011-2016. Twenty empirical works were selected for inclusion and five themes emerged: (a) Hope is Associated With Improved Coping, (b) Hope is Associated With Improved Well-Being, (c) Hope is a Moderator Between Depression and Negative Life Events, (d) Hope is a Protective Factor in Suicide, and (e) Hope is a Factor in Healthy Behavior Engagement. Hope may be a protective factor in suicide and negative, self-deprecatory thinking. Further research is needed to determine if increasing hope in young adult college students will decrease the risk of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury, increase healthy behavior engagement, and improve coping and well-being. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(2), 28-35.].

  8. How Do Attitudes toward Mental Health Treatment Vary by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity/Race in Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Alegria, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment in a national epidemiological sample. Young adults reported the most negative attitudes, as compared to older adults. Males reported more negative attitudes, as compared to females, a consistent finding in young adults. The gender difference was not consistent in Latinos…

  9. Disclosure during private prayer as a mediator between prayer type and mental health in an adult christian sample.

    PubMed

    Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn; Pössel, Patrick; Jeppsen, Benjamin D; Bjerg, Annie C; Wooldridge, Don T

    2015-04-01

    According to Poloma and Pendleton's (J Psychol Theol 19:71-83, 1991) prayer model, there are four prayer types (colloquial, meditative, petitionary, and ritual), all of which have varying associations with mental health. However, few studies have examined what mechanisms explain these associations. The literature demonstrates that disclosing distressing information can improve mental health. Thus, the current study examined self-disclosure as a mediating variable between Poloma and Pendleton's (J Psychol Theol 19:71-83, 1991) prayer types and mental health. It was hypothesized that self-disclosure would mediate the association between prayer types involving meaningful communication with God (colloquial and meditative prayer types) and mental health and would not mediate associations between petitionary and ritual prayer types and mental health. This cross-sectional, online study analyzed data from praying Christian adults (N = 296) to test the hypotheses. As predicted, self-disclosure mediated the positive associations between colloquial and meditative prayer types and mental health. Self-disclosure was not associated with petitionary or ritual prayer and therefore did not mediate the relationships of these prayer types with mental health, as expected. Petitionary prayer had a negative relationship to mental health, while ritual prayer had a positive relationship to mental health. The results indicate that self-disclosure is an important mediator to consider when investigating the associations between private prayer and mental health.

  10. Physical and Mental Health of Transgender Older Adults: An At-Risk and Underserved Population

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is one of the first to examine the physical and mental health of transgender older adults and to identify modifiable factors that account for health risks in this underserved population. Design and Methods: Utilizing data from a cross-sectional survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560), we assessed direct and indirect effects of gender identity on 4 health outcomes (physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress) based on a resilience conceptual framework. Results: Transgender older adults were at significantly higher risk of poor physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress compared with nontransgender participants. We found significant indirect effects of gender identity on the health outcomes via fear of accessing health services, lack of physical activity, internalized stigma, victimization, and lack of social support; other mediators included obesity for physical health and disability, identity concealment for perceived stress, and community belonging for depressive symptomatology and perceived stress. Further analyses revealed that risk factors (victimization and stigma) explained the highest proportion of the total effect of gender identity on health outcomes. Implications: The study identifies important modifiable factors (stigma, victimization, health-related behaviors, and social support) associated with health among transgender older adults. Reducing stigma and victimization and including gender identity in nondiscrimination and hate crime statutes are important steps to reduce health risks. Attention to bolstering individual and community-level social support must be considered when developing tailored interventions to address transgender older adults’ distinct health and aging needs. PMID:23535500

  11. The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rosalyn D.; Luo, Feijun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between parental incarceration history and young adult physical and mental health outcomes using Wave 1 and Wave 4 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. METHODS: Dependent variables included self-reported fair/poor health and health diagnoses. The independent variable was parental incarceration history. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were run. RESULTS: Positive, significant associations were found between parental incarceration and 8 of 16 health problems (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, cholesterol, asthma, migraines, HIV/AIDS, and fair/poor health) in adjusted logistic regression models. Those who reported paternal incarceration had increased odds of 8 mental and physical health problems, whereas those who reported maternal incarceration had increased odds of depression. For paternal incarceration, with the exception of HIV/AIDS, larger associations were found for mental health (odds ratios range 1.43–1.72) as compared with physical health (odds ratios range 1.26–1.31) problems. The association between paternal incarceration and HIV/AIDs should be interpreted with caution because of the low sample prevalence of HIV/AIDs. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests exposure to parental incarceration in childhood is associated with health problems in young adulthood. Extant literature suggests underlying mechanisms that link parental incarceration history to poor outcomes in offspring may include the lack of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and exposure to violence. To prevent poor health in offspring of the incarcerated, additional studies are needed to (1) confirm the aforementioned associations and (2) assess whether adverse experiences and violence exposure in childhood mediate the relationship between parental incarceration history and offspring health problems. PMID:23509174

  12. Mental and behavioral health conditions among older adults: implications for the home care workforce

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Hayley P.; Coyle, Caitlin E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The shift towards home and community-based care, coupled with the growing prevalence of mental and behavioral health conditions, increases the demand for skilled home care workers. However, little is known about the experiences of home care aides who provide care to clients with mental and behavioral health diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to identify challenges aides face in providing care to this particular group of clients, as well as the strategies and support they utilize to complete their job responsibilities. Methods Data from five focus groups with home care workers (N = 49) throughout Massachusetts were used to examine the experiences of home care workers providing services to adults with mental or behavioral health needs. A constant comparative method was used during analysis of the focus group transcripts. Results Aides described a lack of prior-knowledge of challenging client behaviors, leaving them unprepared to deal with disruptions to care delivery. Aides feel unsafe or unsure providing care to someone with complex needs, made worse by a perceived lack of training and support from the broader care team. Aides develop unique strategies for accomplishing their work. Conclusion This analysis of the aide’s perspective contributes valuable, and often unheard, insight to inform what we know about providing reliable, quality and safe home care to this growing group of vulnerable adults. Implications of this convergence are discussed relative to aides. PMID:25965114

  13. Mechanisms of the Effect of Involuntary Retirement on Older Adults' Self-Rated Health and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Mor Barak, Michàlle E; Gallo, William T

    2016-01-01

    This study examined mechanisms of the effect of involuntary retirement on self-rated health and mental health among adults aged 50 or older. Using two waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2006 and 2010), we selected a sample of 1,195 individuals working for pay at baseline who responded to a lifestyle questionnaire in both waves. Regression-based path analyses were conducted to test the mediating effects of financial control, positive and negative family relationships, and social integration on the relationship between involuntary retirement and self-rated health and mental health. Results of mediation analyses indicated that transition to involuntary retirement was directly negatively associated with subsequent self-rated health and indirectly negatively associated with mental health via perception of less financial control. Voluntary retirement was indirectly positively associated with both self-rated and mental health via perception of more financial control. No significant direct or indirect effects of retirement were found when retirement was measured with an aggregate measure without specifying its voluntariness. Findings emphasize the importance of specifying the voluntariness of retirement and recognizing the heterogeneity in the mechanisms of involuntary and voluntary retirement.

  14. [Mental disorders in the general population : Study on the health of adults in Germany and the additional module mental health (DEGS1-MH)].

    PubMed

    Jacobi, F; Höfler, M; Strehle, J; Mack, S; Gerschler, A; Scholl, L; Busch, M A; Maske, U; Hapke, U; Gaebel, W; Maier, W; Wagner, M; Zielasek, J; Wittchen, H-U

    2014-01-01

    The German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS1) with the mental health module (DEGS1-MH) is the successor to the last survey of mental disorders in the general German population 15 years ago (GHS-MHS). This paper reports the basic findings on the 12-month prevalence of mental disorders, associated disabilities and self-reported healthcare utilization. A representative national cohort (age range 18-79 years, n = 5,317) was selected and individuals were personally examined (87.5 % face to face and 12.5 % via telephone) by a comprehensive clinical interview using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) questionnaire. The overall 12-month prevalence of mental disorders was 27.7 % with substantial differences between subgroups (e.g. sex, age, socioeconomic status). Mental disorders were found to be particularly impairing (elevated number of disability days). Less than 50 % of those affected reported to be in contact with health services due to mental health problems within the last 12 months (range 10-40 % depending on the number of diagnoses). Mental disorders were found to be commonplace with a prevalence level comparable to that found in the 1998 predecessor study but several further adjustments will have to be made for a sound methodological comparison between the studies. Apart from individual distress, elevated self-reported disability indicated a high societal disease burden of mental disorders (also in comparison with many somatic diseases). Despite a relatively comprehensive and well developed mental healthcare system in Germany there are still optimisation needs for treatment rates.

  15. Relocating care: negotiating nursing skillmix in a mental health unit for older adults.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Curren, David; Walter, Bonnie; Toffoli, Luisa; O'Kane, Debra

    2011-03-01

    Mental health care in Australia in the last 20 years has moved from stand-alone psychiatric hospitals to general hospitals and the community. This paper reports an action research project exploring the experiences of nurses on an acute mental health unit for older adults staffed with a skillmix of mental health and general nurses, which recently transitioned from a psychiatric to a general hospital. The new service provides comprehensive health care, including the management of physical co-morbidity and a recovery orientation. Recovery acknowledges the role and rights of consumers and carers in planning and management of care, choice and individual strengths (Shepherd). The new ward received additional resources to establish the model of care, including a broader skillmix. The paper explores the dynamics of development of a new model of care and of bringing together staff with different professional orientations, cultures and priorities. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 18 staff. Analysis resulted in three themes relating to the impact of competing goals and foci of care upon professional boundaries; competing organisational cultures and the impact of service change upon work practices. The findings are explored in relation to ideas about health care delivery associated with neoliberalism.

  16. Malnutrition in early life and adult mental health: evidence from a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Phillips, Michael R; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Jingxuan; Shi, Qichang; Song, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhijie; Pang, Shutao; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-11-01

    As natural experiments, famines provide a unique opportunity to test the health consequences of nutritional deprivation during the critical period of early life. Using data on 4972 Chinese born between 1956 and 1963 who participated in a large mental health epidemiology survey conducted between 2001 and 2005, we investigated the potential impact of exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese Famine in utero and during the early postnatal life on adult mental illness. The risk of mental illness was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and eight other risk factors, and the famine impact on adult mental illness was estimated by difference-in-difference models. Results show that compared with unexposed women born in 1963, women born during the famine years (1959-1961) had higher GHQ scores (increased by 0.95 points; CI: 0.26, 1.65) and increased risk of mental illness (OR = 2.80; CI: 1.23, 6.39); those born in 1959 were the most affected and had GHQ scores 1.52 points higher (CI: 0.42, 2.63) and an OR for mental illness of 4.99 (CI: 1.68, 14.84). Compared to men in the 1963 birth cohort, men born during the famine had lower GHQ scores (decreased by 0.89 points; CI: -1.59, -0.20) and a nonsignificant decrease in the risk of mental illness (OR = 0.60; CI: 0.26, 1.40). We speculate that the long-term consequences of early-life famine exposure include both the selection of the hardiest and the enduring deleterious effects of famine on those who survive. The greater biological vulnerability and stronger natural selection in utero of male versus female fetuses during severe famine may result in a stronger selection effect among men than women, obscuring the deleterious impact of famine exposure on the risk of mental illness in men later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dental pain related to quality of life and mental health in South Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung-Ah; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-12-01

    High levels of stress, anxiety and depression have been reported in patients with orofacial pain. Dental pain has the potential to reduce quality of life (QOL), and pain relief is important aspect of QOL. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships of dental pain with QOL and mental health using a nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 5469). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was evaluated using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS, and mental health was evaluated by questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 5469 adults, 1992 (36.42%) presented self-reported dental pain. Participants with anxiety/depression or pain/discomfort, and participants with stress, melancholy, suicidal thought or depression showed significantly higher prevalence of dental pain. After adjusting for covariates, five aspects of QOL and five aspects of mental health were related with dental pain. The AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.39 (1.06-1.81) for mobility, 1.77 (1.19-2.63) for self-care, 1.38 (1.02-1.85) for usual activities, 1.73 (1.43-2.09) for pain/discomfort and 1.50 (1.13-1.98) for anxiety/depression. For mental health status factors, the AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.29 (1.11-1.51) for stress, 1.37 (1.09-1.74) for melancholy, 1.26 (1.01-1.58) for suicidal thoughts, 1.43 (.93-2.19) for consultation to psychiatrist and 1.53 (1.07-2.19) for depression. This study showed that dental pain has an association with lower HRQOL and worse mental health status in South Korean adults.

  18. 'Mind the gap'--mapping services for young people with ADHD transitioning from child to adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Swift, Katie D; Hollis, Chris

    2013-07-10

    Once considered to be a disorder restricted to childhood, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is now recognised to persist into adult life. However, service provision for adults with ADHD is limited. Additionally, there is little guidance or research on how best to transition young people with ADHD from child to adult services. We report the findings of a survey of 96 healthcare professionals working in children's (Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and Community Paediatrics) and adult services across five NHS Trusts within the East Midlands region of England to gain a better understanding of the current provision of services for young people with ADHD transitioning into adult mental health services. Our findings indicate a lack of structured guidelines on transitioning and little communication between child and adult services. Child and adult services had differing opinions on what they felt adult services should provide for ADHD cases. Adult services reported feeling ill-prepared to deal with ADHD patients, with clinicians in these services citing a lack of specific knowledge of ADHD and a paucity of resources to deal with such cases. We discuss suggestions for further research, including the need to map the national provision of services for adults with ADHD, and provide recommendations for commissioned adult ADHD services. We specifically advocate an increase in ADHD-specific training for clinicians in adult services, the development of specialist adult ADHD clinics and greater involvement of Primary Care to support the work of generic adult mental health services in adult ADHD management.

  19. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. Objective In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Methods Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. Results We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more

  20. Using facebook to recruit young adult veterans: online mental health research.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Helmuth, Eric D; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; PunKay, Marc; Kurz, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more than half screening positive for

  1. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries.

    PubMed

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. In ALSPAC, maltreatment was assessed as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or severe maladaptive parenting (or both) between ages 8 weeks and 8·6 years, as reported by the mother in questionnaires, and being bullied was assessed with child reports at 8, 10, and 13 years using the previously validated Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule. In GSMS, both maltreatment and bullying were repeatedly assessed with annual parent and child interviews between ages 9 and 16 years. To identify the association between maltreatment, being bullied, and mental health problems, binary logistic regression analyses were run. The primary outcome variable was overall mental health problem (any anxiety, depression, or self-harm or suicidality). 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort provided information about bullying victimisation, maltreatment, and overall mental health problems. The ALSPAC study started in 1991 and the GSMS cohort enrolled participants from 1993. Compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied, children who were only maltreated were at increased risk for depression in young adulthood in models adjusted for sex and family hardships according to the GSMS cohort (odds ratio [OR] 4·1, 95% CI 1·5-11·7). According to the ALSPAC cohort, those who were only being maltreated were not at increased risk for any mental health problem compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied. By contrast, those who were both maltreated and

  2. Standards of practice for the adult mental health workforce: meeting the needs of families where a parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Melinda; Hill, Terri-Lee; Allchin, Becca; McCormick, Francis; Hine, Rochelle; Cuff, Rose; O'Hanlon, Brendan

    2015-04-01

    This article outlines the development of practice standards for the adult mental health workforce for addressing the needs of families where a parent has a mental illness (FaPMI). The practice standards recommended here were formulated using a modified cooperative inquiry process with a group of senior clinical leaders in adult mental health services in Australia, following consultation with the available literature and policy documents. The aim of the project was to generate, align, and operationalize family-inclusive practice standards within the core activities of the adult mental health workforce and integrate into the continuum of care and recovery for service users who are parents of dependent children. As part of a modified Delphi method, the standards were also ranked by the senior clinical leaders to determine what they believe to be essential and recommended practices for the adult mental health workforce they manage. We argue that developing practice standards that provide practical and realistic expectations of the adult mental health service workforce enable services and workers to better adapt practice to respond to FaPMI.

  3. Evaluating health literacy in people with mental illness using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults.

    PubMed

    Galletly, Cherrie; Neaves, Aaron; Burton, Cassandra; Liu, Dennis; Denson, Linley A

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is understudied in the mentally ill population, yet it is clear that a high level of health literacy is essential for successful management of illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression. To investigate health literacy in people with mental illness living in urban Australia, and to evaluate the relationships between medication adherence and health literacy. Thirty people with schizophrenia and 30 with major depression were assessed with Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). The level of health literacy in our mentally ill participants was comparable with that of the general Australian public, and considerably higher than the rates of health literacy reported in US studies. There appear to be national differences in health literacy, which limit comparison between studies undertaken in different countries. There was no association between health literacy and medication compliance. Our results suggest that poor health literacy does not explain medication nonadherence in people with schizophrenia or depression living in Australia. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Is Health Literacy Associated With Depressive Symptoms Among Korean Adults? Implications for Mental Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Taeho Greg; Lee, Hee Yun; Kim, Nam Keol; Han, Gyounghae; Lee, Jeonghwa; Kim, Kyoungwoo

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated whether health literacy is associated with depressive symptoms among Korean adults, when adjusting for relevant risk factors for depression. Data were collected from a sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults living in Seoul and Kwangju, South Korea, using a quota sampling strategy. A cross-sectional, multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the association between health literacy and depressive symptoms. When controlled for covariates, a lower level of health literacy was significantly associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms. Health literacy may play an important role in preventing and treating depression. Future research is needed to determine if improving health literacy, through health promotion interventions, can enhance community-dwelling Korean adults' understanding of depressive symptoms and relevant treatment options. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An isolated involvement in mental health care - experiences of parents of young adults.

    PubMed

    Andershed, Birgitta; Ewertzon, Mats; Johansson, Anita

    2017-04-01

    To explore parents' involvement in the informal and professional care of their young adult child with mental illness. A further aim was to examine concepts in the caring theory of 'Involvement in the light-Involvement in the dark' in the context of mental health care. Mental illness has increased among young people in high-income countries, and suicide is now the leading cause of death for this group. Because of their disease, these young people may have difficulty in carrying out daily, taken-for-granted, tasks. Consequently, they often become dependent on their parents, and their parents shoulder a considerable responsibility. A secondary descriptive design with a deductive content analysis was used. Ten parents who have a son or daughter with long-term mental illness (aged 18-25 years) were interviewed. The deductive analysis was based on the caring theory of 'Involvement in the light-Involvement in the dark'. The results are described using the following concepts in the theory: 'Knowing', 'Doing', 'Being' and 'Attitude of the health professionals'. The result are to a great extent consistent with the 'Involvement in the dark' metaphor, which describes an isolated involvement in which the parents were not informed, seen or acknowledged by the health professionals. Continuous support by professionals with a positive attitude was described as being of decisive importance for meaningful involvement. The theory's transferability is strengthened to the mental health care context. Parents have a considerable need for knowledge that can enable them to choose how they should act (be) and what they should do, in order to help and support their child. Since the patient, the family members and the professionals are mutually dependent, it is important to make use of each other's knowledge in a partnership to achieve a common caring strategy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants. Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative studies that reported resilience and mental health outcomes among forcibly displaced persons (aged 18+) by way of exploring associations, links, pathways and causative mechanisms were included. Fourteen bibliographic databases and seven humanitarian study databases/websites were searched and a four stage screening process was followed. Results Twenty three studies were included in the final review. Ten qualitative studies identified highlighted family and community cohesion, family and community support, individual personal qualities, collective identity, supportive primary relationships and religion. Thirteen quantitative studies were identified, but only two attempted to link resilience with mental disorders, and three used a specific resilience measure. Over-reliance on cross-sectional designs was noted. Resilience was generally shown to be associated with better mental health in displaced populations, but the evidence on this and underlying mechanisms was limited. Discussion The review highlights the need for more epidemiological and qualitative evidence on resilience in forcibly displaced persons as a potential avenue for intervention development, particularly in resource-poor settings. PMID:25177360

  7. Factors Influencing Direct-Care Paraprofessionals' Decisions to Initiate Mental Health Referrals for Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Matthew N. I.; Miller, Trisha T.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2005-01-01

    Direct-care paraprofessionals' recognition of psychopathology of varying severity in persons with mental retardation was evaluated. Factors that may influence paraprofessionals' decisions to initiate referrals for mental health services on behalf of individuals with mental retardation were also evaluated. Results suggest that staff members…

  8. Transgender Noninclusive Healthcare and Delaying Care Because of Fear: Connections to General Health and Mental Health Among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seelman, Kristie L.; Colón-Diaz, Matthew J.P.; LeCroix, Rebecca H.; Xavier-Brier, Marik; Kattari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: There are many barriers to reliable healthcare for transgender people that often contribute to delaying or avoiding needed medical care. Yet, few studies have examined whether noninclusive healthcare and delaying needed medical care because of fear of discrimination are associated with poorer health among transgender adults. This study aims to address these gaps in the knowledge base. Methods: This study analyzed secondary data from a statewide survey of 417 transgender adults in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Independent variables included noninclusive healthcare from a primary care provider (PCP) and delay of needed medical care because of fear of discrimination. Dependent variables assessed general health and mental health. Results: Transgender individuals who delayed healthcare because of fear of discrimination had worse general health in the past month than those who did not delay or delayed care for other reasons (B=−0.26, p<0.05); they also had 3.08 greater odds of having current depression, 3.81 greater odds of a past year suicide attempt, and 2.93 greater odds of past year suicidal ideation (p<0.001). After controlling for delayed care because of fear of discrimination, having a noninclusive PCP was not significantly associated with either general health or mental health. Conclusion: This study suggests a significant association between delaying healthcare because of fear of discrimination and worse general and mental health among transgender adults. These relationships remain significant even when controlling for provider noninclusivity, suggesting that fear of discrimination and consequent delay of care are at the forefront of health challenges for transgender adults. The lack of statistical significance for noninclusive healthcare may be related to the measurement approach used; future research is needed to develop an improved tool for measuring transgender noninclusive healthcare. PMID:28861545

  9. Poverty indicators and mental health functioning among adults living with HIV in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; McNamara, Paul E; Cuffey, Joel; Cherian, Anil; Matthew, Saira

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health functioning among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) has gained considerable attention particularly in low-income countries that disproportionately carry the global HIV/AIDS burden. Fewer studies, however, have examined the relationship between poverty indicators and mental health among PHLIV in India. Based on this cross-sectional study of 196 HIV-seropositive adults who received medical services at Shalom AIDS Project in Delhi, India, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were employed to estimate the associations between poverty indices (household asset index, food security, unemployment, water treatment, sanitation), HIV-health factors (illness in the past 3 months, co-morbid medical conditions), and psychological distress. In the final model, ownership of fewer household assets was associated with higher levels of food insecurity, which in turn was associated with higher psychological distress. Also, the household asset index, food insecurity, and unemployment had a larger effect on psychological distress than new opportunistic infections. These findings build on increasing evidence that support concerted efforts to design, evaluate, and refine HIV mental health interventions that are mainstreamed with livelihood programming in high poverty regions in India.

  10. Health selection among migrants from Mexico to the U.S.: childhood predictors of adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Tancredi, Daniel J; Saito, Naomi; Anderson, Heather; Kravitz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Mora, Maria-Elena Medina

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether positive selection on childhood predictors of adult mental and physical health contributed to health advantages of Mexican-born immigrants to the United States relative to U.S.-born Mexican Americans. We combined data from surveys conducted during 2000-2003 in Mexico and the U.S. with the same structured interview. We examined retrospective reports of childhood (i.e., < 16 years of age) predictors of adult health--education, height, childhood physical illness, childhood mental health, early substance use, and childhood adversities--as predictors of migration from Mexico to the U.S. at > or = 16 years of age. We estimated overall selection by comparing migrants to all non-migrants. We also examined selection at the family (members of families of migrants vs. members of families without a migrant) and individual (migrants vs. non-migrants within families of migrants) levels. Distinguishing between family and individual selection revealed evidence of positive health selection that is obscured in the overall selection model. In particular, respondents in families with migrants were more likely to have > or = 12 years of education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60) and be in the tallest height quartile (OR = 1.72) than respondents in families without migrants. At both the family and individual levels, migrants are disadvantaged on mental health profiles, including a higher prevalence of conduct problems, phobic fears, and early substance use. Positive health selection may contribute to physical health advantages among Mexican immigrants in the U.S. relative to their U.S.-born descendants. Mental health advantages likely reflect a lower prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Mexico, rather than protective factors that distinguish migrants.

  11. Impact of Retinitis Pigmentosa on Quality of Life, Mental Health, and Employment Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Chaumet-Riffaud, Anne Elisabeth; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Cariou, Anaelle; Devisme, Céline; Audo, Isabelle; Sahel, José-Alain; Mohand-Said, Saddek

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between visual function and quality of life, education, mental health, and employment among young adults with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Cross-sectional study. Inclusion of 148 patients (mean age 38.2 ± 7.1 years) diagnosed with RP, living in France. Quality of life was assessed using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25), mental state with the Hospital and Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and employment with a specifically designed questionnaire. Limited visual impairment was noted in 22.3%, low vision in 29.7%, and legal blindness in 48.0%. There was a correlation between quality-of-life scores and residual visual field (P < .0001). Mental health scores were suggestive of anxiety in 36.5% and depression in 15.5%. The rates did not increase with disability level (P = .738, P = .134). The percentage of subjects with higher education did not significantly decrease with disability level (P = .113). The employment rate did not significantly decrease with disability level (P = .276). It was lower in subjects reporting depression (P = .0414). Self-rated impact of RP on employment increased with disability level (P = .02642). Our results differ from previous results showing lower education rates and employment rates in young adults with RP. Further research is warranted focusing on the impact of mental health, education, workplace conditions, and employment aids on employment rate vs age- and education-matched normally sighted controls to guide visual disability strategies in RP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating an Alternative to the Emergency Department for Adults in Mental Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Michelle; Johnson, Mary

    2017-04-07

    Adults with mental health issues lack clinically indicated options when in crisis. Historically, the emergency department (ED) has been the primary source of intervention largely due to funding cuts and decreased community resources in the USA. The literature highlights drastic mental health funding cuts alongside an increased prevalence of mental illness. A community-based alternative for adults in mental health crises was subsequently developed as a model of crisis care. The program has demonstrated impressive short-term outcomes, typically avoiding ED admissions in over 95% of the clients. This number benefits both the consumers who otherwise rely on the ED and the State of Illinois in terms of cost savings for avoidable ED visits. The current deflection rate only reflects ED admissions deflected on the day of the visit to the crisis respite program. To establish the long-term outcomes for this model, follow-up phone calls were conducted to determine whether or not the individual required an ED visit for a psychiatric reason within 30 days of utilization of the program. The follow-up phone calls began in May and continued for eight weeks. At this time, the data collected were analyzed and the outcomes of the program were further evaluated. Based on the follow-up survey results, the positive long-term outcomes validate this model as a cost-saving and clinically indicated alternative to the ED. Establishing such outcomes was necessary to ensure continued funding and to support establishment of similar models of crisis care.

  13. Health Selection Among Migrants from Mexico to the U.S.: Childhood Predictors of Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Saito, Naomi; Anderson, Heather; Kravitz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina Mora, Maria-Elena

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We tested whether positive selection on childhood predictors of adult mental and physical health contributed to health advantages of Mexican-born immigrants to the United States relative to U.S.-born Mexican Americans. Methods We combined data from surveys conducted during 2000–2003 in Mexico and the U.S. with the same structured interview. We examined retrospective reports of childhood (i.e., <16 years of age) predictors of adult health—education, height, childhood physical illness, childhood mental health, early substance use, and childhood adversities—as predictors of migration from Mexico to the U.S. at ≥16 years of age. We estimated overall selection by comparing migrants to all non-migrants. We also examined selection at the family (members of families of migrants vs. members of families without a migrant) and individual (migrants vs. non-migrants within families of migrants) levels. Results Distinguishing between family and individual selection revealed evidence of positive health selection that is obscured in the overall selection model. In particular, respondents in families with migrants were more likely to have ≥12 years of education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60) and be in the tallest height quartile (OR=1.72) than respondents in families without migrants. At both the family and individual levels, migrants are disadvantaged on mental health profiles, including a higher prevalence of conduct problems, phobic fears, and early substance use. Conclusions Positive health selection may contribute to physical health advantages among Mexican immigrants in the U.S. relative to their U.S.-born descendants. Mental health advantages likely reflect a lower prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Mexico, rather than protective factors that distinguish migrants. PMID:21553665

  14. The patient protection and affordable care act: what does it mean for mental health services for older adults?

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court recently upheld the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). It is important to think about how this act will affect mental health services for older adults. The act has the potential to improve health outcomes across all income and age groups. There are specific provisions that are expected to improve care for individuals with mental illness, but there is little information about how these provisions will affect older adults with mental illness. As we move toward implementation of the PPACA, psychiatric nurses need to be aware of myths surrounding the act and to think about changes in the health care system, such as collaborative models of care, that may help identify and overcome barriers to treatment of older adults with mental illness. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Personality Pathology and Mental Health Treatment Seeking in a Community Sample of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Sampling issues are extremely important in studies of psychopathology, especially with regard to the investigation of personality disorders (PDs). Many studies rely on clinical samples while others have focused on representative samples of community residents. Do people who qualify for a PD diagnosis seek and receive mental health services with greater (or possibly reduced) frequency compared to others in the community? Do community-based studies of PDs include people who have been treated? Analyses presented here examine connections between personality pathology and various aspects of treatment seeking in a representative sample of 1,630 middle-aged adults who completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview (SIDP-IV). Results demonstrate a disorder specific effect. Antisocial, borderline, avoidant, and dependent PDs are associated with increased levels of seeking treatment. Four PDs are associated with greater length of treatment. After accounting for lifetime presence of major depression and alcohol dependence, borderline, avoidant, and dependent pathology remained associated with increased treatment seeking. These findings point to several conclusions, including: 1) community samples do include a substantial proportion of people who have received various kinds of mental health services, 2) the association between personality pathology and mental health treatment seeking is not fully explained by comorbid depression and alcohol dependence. PMID:24343963

  16. The relation between social network site usage and loneliness and mental health in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Aarts, S; Peek, S T M; Wouters, E J M

    2015-09-01

    Loneliness is expected to become an even bigger social problem in the upcoming decades, because of the growing number of older adults. It has been argued that the use of social network sites can aid in decreasing loneliness and improving mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how social network sites usage is related to loneliness and mental health in community-dwelling older adults. The study population included community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over residing in the Netherlands (n = 626) collected through the LISS panel (www.lissdata.nl). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially important confounders, were conducted in order to investigate the relation between social network sites usage and (emotional and social) loneliness and mental health. More than half of the individuals (56.2%) reported to use social network sites at least several times per week. Social network sites usage appeared unrelated to loneliness in general, and to emotional and social loneliness in particular. Social network sites usage also appeared unrelated to mental health. Several significant associations between related factors and the outcomes at hand were detected. In this sample, which was representative for the Dutch population, social network sites usage was unrelated to loneliness and/or mental health. The results indicate that a simple association between social network site usage and loneliness and mental health as such, cannot automatically be assumed in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KITO, Aiko; UENO, Takeji

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants’ previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them. PMID:26320730

  18. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kito, Aiko; Ueno, Takeji

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants' previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them.

  19. The importance of full-time work for urban adults' mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Santilli, Alycia; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2012-11-01

    Unemployment and underemployment have adverse mental and physical health consequences, such as increased stress and depression. Health damaging behaviors like unhealthy eating, smoking, and alcohol use may be used to cope, contributing to chronic disease risk. In this adverse economic climate, it is vital to understand the health implications of unemployment and underemployment as well as underlying mechanisms. A randomized household survey of adults in six low resource communities was conducted in New Haven, Connecticut in 2009, yielding a sample of 1205 (73% participation) racially diverse adults (61% Black, 20% Latino, 12% White) ages 18-65 (61% women). We used ANOVA to test group differences and structural equation modeling to test mediation. 14.5% were unemployed and looking for work, 18.4% worked part-time, 38.2% worked full-time. Those employed full-time reported the least damaging psychological factors and health behaviors: lowest levels of stress and depression, most healthy and least unhealthy eating, most physical activity, and lowest levels of smoking and drinking. Those employed part-time fell in the middle, and those unemployed fell on the unhealthy end of all psychological and behavioral factors. Stress significantly mediated the associations of full-time employment with frequency of unhealthy eating and physical activity, and amount of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Depression significantly mediated the association of full-time employment with frequency of healthy eating. Compared to <10% nationwide, rates of unemployment in this sample were high. Both those unemployed and employed part-time reported adverse health behaviors as compared to those employed full-time, partially mediated by heightened stress and depression. It is vital for the health and well-being of the nation to increase not simply employment, but specifically full-time employment. Provision of mental health services to those unemployed and underemployed should be a

  20. Happiness, Mental Health, and Socio-Demographic Associations Among a National Cohort of Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Research on happiness has been of interest in many parts of the world. Here we provide evidence from developing countries; this is the first analysis of happiness among a cohort of Thai distance learning adults residing throughout the country (n = 60,569 in 2009). To measure happiness, we tested use of the short format Thai Mental Health Indicators (TMHI), correlating each domain with two direct measures of happiness and life satisfaction. Several TMHI domains correlated strongly with happiness. We found the mental state and the social support domains moderately or strongly correlated with happiness by either measure (correlation coefficients 0.24–0.56). The other two TMHI domains (mental capacity and mental quality) were not correlated with happiness. Analysis of socio-demographic attributes and happiness revealed little effect of age and sex but marital status (divorced or widowed), low household income, and no paid work all had strong adverse effects. Our findings provide Thai benchmarks for measuring happiness and associated socio-demographic attributes. We also provide evidence that the TMHI can measure happiness in the Thai population. Furthermore, the results among Thai cohort members can be monitored over time and could be useful for comparison with other Southeast Asian countries. PMID:23304071

  1. Happiness, Mental Health, and Socio-Demographic Associations Among a National Cohort of Thai Adults.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Somboonsook, Boonchai; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2012-12-01

    Research on happiness has been of interest in many parts of the world. Here we provide evidence from developing countries; this is the first analysis of happiness among a cohort of Thai distance learning adults residing throughout the country (n = 60,569 in 2009). To measure happiness, we tested use of the short format Thai Mental Health Indicators (TMHI), correlating each domain with two direct measures of happiness and life satisfaction. Several TMHI domains correlated strongly with happiness. We found the mental state and the social support domains moderately or strongly correlated with happiness by either measure (correlation coefficients 0.24-0.56). The other two TMHI domains (mental capacity and mental quality) were not correlated with happiness. Analysis of socio-demographic attributes and happiness revealed little effect of age and sex but marital status (divorced or widowed), low household income, and no paid work all had strong adverse effects. Our findings provide Thai benchmarks for measuring happiness and associated socio-demographic attributes. We also provide evidence that the TMHI can measure happiness in the Thai population. Furthermore, the results among Thai cohort members can be monitored over time and could be useful for comparison with other Southeast Asian countries.

  2. The Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on the Mental Health of Young Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects on young adults (23 years) of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence using data from Britain's longitudinal National Child Development study. Found that divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on young adults' mental health; the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of…

  3. Associations Between Gender and Obesity Among Adults with Mental Illnesses in a Community Health Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Jonikas, Jessica A; Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Steigman, Pamela J; Hamilton, Marie M; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Santos, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associations with gender, clinical factors, and medical co-morbidities were examined among 457 adults attending public mental health programs in 4 U.S. states. BMI was measured directly and other information was gathered by interview. Over half (59%, n = 270) were obese including 18% (n = 83) who were morbidly obese. In hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis controlling for demographic, psychiatric, medical, smoking, and health insurance statuses, women were significantly more likely to be obese than men. Obesity also was more likely among those who were younger and not high school graduates, those with diabetes or hypertension, and those who did not smoke tobacco. Interaction effects were found between gender and diabetes, hypertension, tobacco smoking, education, race, and age. The high prevalence of obesity among women, coupled with interactions between gender and other factors, suggest that targeted approaches are needed to promote optimal physical health in this population.

  4. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  5. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  6. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  7. Nurse-led liaison mental health service for older adults: service development using lean thinking methodology.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Paula; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta B

    2012-04-01

    Liaison Psychiatric Services for Older Adults in the UK have been established over the last decade, with rather divergent team composition and involvement. The latest documents (National Dementia Strategy, Who Cares Wins) set the gold standard for liaison services for older adults in England, requiring a proactive approach to services and integrating assessment and treatment of mental disorder into routine general hospital practice. This requires a physical presence of liaison services in the hospital, with collaboration with medical colleagues. We have adopted the above strategy in a nurse-led liaison service working in a General District Hospital, and used the Toyota Production System. In the current study we reflect on the 5 day rapid progress improvement workshops event for the liaison branch of the project, and describe the process of identifying real situation problems for the care of the medically ill, the involvement of the liaison team in their clinical care, and a feedback on the change in practice. The novel approach of identifying areas for change in an ongoing nurse-led Liaison service for Older Adults resulted in improving access to mental health services for elderly medically ill inpatients and improved quality of their overall care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... ol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... health Articles Scientific articles and key findings Children’s Mental Health: What's New Policy Brief: Access to Mental Health ...

  9. Resilience and mental health in adult survivors of child abuse associated with the institution of the Austrian Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Weindl, Dina; Kantor, Viktoria; Knefel, Matthias; Glück, Tobias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, reports of institutional abuse within the Catholic Church have emerged and research on the consequences on mental health is in its beginnings. In this study, we report findings on current mental health and resilience in a sample of adult survivors of institutional abuse (N = 185). We compared 3 groups of survivors that differed regarding their current mental health to investigate aspects of resilience, coping, and disclosure. The majority of the sample was male (76.2%), the mean age was 56.28 (SD = 9.46) years, and more than 50.0% of the sample was cohabiting/married. Most of the survivors reported severe mental health problems. Known protective factors (education, social support, age) were not associated with mental health in our sample. Our findings corroborate that institutional abuse has long-term effects on mental health. We found that fewer emotional reactions during disclosure, task-oriented coping, and optimism were associated with better mental health. The study was limited by a cross-sectional design, but we conclude that the kind of institutional abuse reported is especially adverse, and thus typical protective factors for mental health do not apply. Future research should focus on intrapersonal factors and institutional dynamics to improve treatment for persons affected by institutional abuse. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  10. Mental health among young adults in prison: the importance of childhood-onset conduct disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Wallinius, Märta; Billstedt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background The psychiatric health burden of prisoners is substantial. However, there is a lack of high-quality studies of psychiatric disorders among young adults with a high risk of reoffending. Aims To investigate the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders and use of mental health services among young male violent offenders and the impact of childhood-onset conduct disorder (COCD). Method A nationally representative cohort (n = 270, age 18–25) of male offenders was followed back in medical records and clinically assessed by gold standard methods. Lifetime prevalences are presented together with odds ratios (ORs) as risk estimates in relation to COCD. Results Previous use of psychiatric services among the participants was high but their lifetime psychiatric morbidity was even higher, with 93% meeting criteria for at least one Axis I disorder. The COCD group was overrepresented in most clinical categories and carried five times higher odds (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 2.0–12.8) of a psychotic disorder, three times higher odds (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.5) of a substance use disorder and two times higher odds of a mood disorder (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0) or anxiety disorder (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.5). Conclusions The mental health burden is substantial among young violent offenders, and COCD is an important indicator of future mental health problems which must be a priority for public health efforts. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28357134

  11. Childhood adversities and adult-onset chronic pain: Results from the World Mental Health Survey, Japan.

    PubMed

    Stickley, A; Koyanagi, A; Kawakami, N

    2015-11-01

    Childhood adversities (CAs) have been associated with adult-onset chronic pain. However, to date, most single country studies on this association have been undertaken in Western countries. This study examined the association in Japan where information is scarce. Data were drawn from the World Mental Health Survey Japan, a population-based cross-sectional survey undertaken in 11 areas of Japan in 2002-2006. We analyzed data from adults aged ≥20 years who provided information on CAs occurring before age 18 years and chronic pain (n = 1740). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk for different forms of adult-onset chronic pain (arthritis/rheumatism, neck/back pain, headache and any pain) as a function of the presence of 11 different types of CA and the number of CAs. In the adjusted models, significant associations were observed between: physical abuse and neck/back pain (HR 2.55) and any pain (HR 1.88); sexual abuse and any pain (HR 2.84). Significant dose-dependent relationships were also observed between a greater number of CAs and some adult-onset chronic pain conditions (neck/back and any pain). The results of this study suggest that in Japan, some forms of CA may be associated with certain types of adult-onset chronic pain, in particular neck/back pain. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  12. Urban and rural immigrant Latino youths' and adults' knowledge and beliefs about mental health resources.

    PubMed

    García, Carolyn Marie; Gilchrist, Lauren; Vazquez, Gabriela; Leite, Amy; Raymond, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Immigrant Latino youth experience mental health problems in the U.S. Cultural beliefs and knowledge may influence help-seeking behaviors. Two hundred thirty-four immigrant Latino respondents between 12 and 44 years of age completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and cultural beliefs regarding mental health resources for adolescents, symptoms, and help-seeking. Multivariate analyses showed that rural respondents were significantly less likely to know of mental health resources than urban-based immigrant Latinos. Knowledge and belief outcomes were also affected by age, gender, and length of time living in the community. Immigrant Latinos appear willing to seek professional help for mental health problems but may not know how to access this type of care, or may lack available services. Future research to inform interventions that increase awareness of accessible mental health services is suggested. Findings support systems-level changes including increased availability of culturally-specific mental health services, especially in rural areas.

  13. The relationships between major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial and ethnic groups of older adults.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat; Gum, Amber M

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the relationships between perceived exposure to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial/ethnic groups of older adults. The Health and Retirement Study is a nationally representative sample of individuals 50 years and older living in the United States. A total of 6455 Whites, 716 Latinos, and 1214 Blacks were eligible to complete a self-report psychosocial questionnaire in the year 2006. Whereas 30% of the general population reported at least one type of major lifetime discrimination, almost 45% of Black older adults reported such discrimination. Relative to the other two racial/ethnic groups (82% Whites, 82.6% Blacks), Latinos were significantly less likely to report any everyday discrimination (64.2%), whereas Blacks reported the greatest frequency of everyday discrimination. Whites reported the highest levels of life satisfaction and the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Relative to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination had a somewhat stronger correlation with mental health indicators. The relationships between discrimination and mental health outcomes were stronger for White compared to Black older adults, although everyday discrimination was still significantly associated with outcomes for Black older adults. Black older adults experience the greatest number of discriminative events, but weaker associated mental health outcomes. This could be because they have become accustomed to these experiences, benefit from social or cultural resources that serve as buffers, or selective survival, with the present sample capturing only the most resilient older adults who have learned to cope with the deleterious effects of discrimination.

  14. ASTHMA AND MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS AMONG ADULT ARAB AMERICANS IN THE DETROIT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burden of managing chronic health problems such as asthma is often compounded by psychological distress and debilitating mental health problems associated with these conditions. In this study we assessed the relationship between asthma and self-reported mental health symptom...

  15. ASTHMA AND MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS AMONG ADULT ARAB AMERICANS IN THE DETROIT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burden of managing chronic health problems such as asthma is often compounded by psychological distress and debilitating mental health problems associated with these conditions. In this study we assessed the relationship between asthma and self-reported mental health symptom...

  16. Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Walls, Melissa L; Sittner, Kelley J; Aronson, Benjamin D; Forsberg, Angie K; Whitbeck, Les B; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-16

    American Indian (AI) communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics. Data are from computer-assisted interviews and medical charts. We found consistent bivariate relationships between chronic to discrete stressors and mental and behavioral health outcomes; several remained even after accounting for participant age, gender, and income. Fewer stressors were linked to physical health. We also document a dose-response relationship between stress accumulation and worse health. Findings underscore the importance of considering a broad range of stressors for comprehensive assessment of stress burden and diabetes. Policies and practices aimed at reducing stress exposure and promoting tools for stress management may be mechanisms for optimal health for AI diabetes patients.

  17. Factors influencing direct-care paraprofessionals' decisions to initiate mental health referrals for adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Matthew N I; Miller, Trisha T; Skillman, Gemma D

    2005-04-01

    Direct-care paraprofessionals' recognition of psychopathology of varying severity in persons with mental retardation was evaluated. Factors that may influence paraprofessionals' decisions to initiate referrals for mental health services on behalf of individuals with mental retardation were also evaluated. Results suggest that staff members recognized and differentiated psychopathology of varying levels of clinical severity. Results also suggest that paraprofessionals are more likely to initiate making a referral when professionals are perceived as being competent in treating individuals with mental retardation, and when providers' interventions are consistent with the referring agency's philosophy.

  18. Leisure and religious activity participation and mental health: gender analysis of older adults in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Ramraj; Saito, Tami; Kai, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Background Involvement in activities has been found to be beneficial for improving quality of life and successful aging for older adults. Little is known, however, about the involvement in activities and depression of older adults in Asian developing countries. This study explores whether participation in leisure social and religious activities are related to depression and satisfaction with life in older adults of Nepal. Gender differences are also explored. Methods The study sample was derived from a survey which aimed to determine the intergenerational relationships between older adults and their married sons. A cross-sectional quantitative study of older adults sixty years and over in Nepal was conducted with face-to-face interviews using structured instruments. A convenience sample of 489 community dwelling older adults, 247 men and 242 women, were included in the study. The dependent variables, depression and satisfaction with life, were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) respectively. Age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health, financial satisfaction, social support received and provided by older adults, and social activity were independent variables in the study. Results Saying prayers (B = -2.75; p < 0.005), watching television and listening to the radio (B = -1.88; p < 0.05), and participating in physical activity (B = -1.05; p < 0.05) correlated to lower depression for older men, but only watching television and listening to the radio (B = -2.68; p < 0.005) related to lower rates of depression for women. Socializing with others (B = 1.22; p < 0.05) was related to higher satisfaction with life for men, but for women visiting friends (B = 1.29; p < 0.05), socializing with others (B = 1.45; p < 0.005), and watching television and listening to the radio (B = 0.92; p < 0.05) related to improved satisfaction with life. Activity engagement significantly improved mental health in older adults

  19. A Study to Examine the Uses of Personal Strength in Relation to Mental Health Recovery in Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Research Protocol.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiting; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Song Song; Yen, Melissa Sng Siok

    2015-09-30

    This study will explore the relationships among strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness, stigma experience and mental health recovery in community-dwelling adults with serious mental illnesses. Mental health practices have focued on psychopathphysiology. Stigma heavily plagued clients with mental illnesses and is one of the greatest barriers to mental health recovery. Personal strengths like strengths self-efficacy, people's confidence in using their personal strengths, and resourcefulness, the ability to carry out daily activities, have been linked to positive mental health. However, the linkage between strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and mental health recovery remains uncharted. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study will be conducted. A funded study by the Sigma Theta Tau, Upsilon Eta Chapter, August 2013, involving a convenience sample of 100 participants is planned. Included are community dwelling adults between 21 to 65 years old having been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses. Clients with current co-occurring substance abuse will be excluded. Participants complete questionnaires and undergo an interview. Correlations among the study variables will be examined. Regression analysis will determine if recovery can be predicted by strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and stigma experience. Interview data will be transcribed and analyzed by thematic analysis. This study will look beyond clients' disability to focus on their recovery and healing capacities such as strengths self-efficacy and resourcefulness. Findings will expand our knowledge about mental health recovery. Knowledge gained from this study may pave the way for future nursing strategies to aid recovery and inform the development of positive, strengths-based interventions.

  20. A Study to Examine the Uses of Personal Strength in Relation to Mental Health Recovery in Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiting; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Song Song; Yen, Melissa Sng Siok

    2015-01-01

    This study will explore the relationships among strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness, stigma experience and mental health recovery in community-dwelling adults with serious mental illnesses. Mental health practices have focued on psychopathphysiology. Stigma heavily plagued clients with mental illnesses and is one of the greatest barriers to mental health recovery. Personal strengths like strengths self-efficacy, people’s confidence in using their personal strengths, and resourcefulness, the ability to carry out daily activities, have been linked to positive mental health. However, the linkage between strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and mental health recovery remains uncharted. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study will be conducted. A funded study by the Sigma Theta Tau, Upsilon Eta Chapter, August 2013, involving a convenience sample of 100 participants is planned. Included are community dwelling adults between 21 to 65 years old having been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses. Clients with current co-occurring substance abuse will be excluded. Participants complete questionnaires and undergo an interview. Correlations among the study variables will be examined. Regression analysis will determine if recovery can be predicted by strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and stigma experience. Interview data will be transcribed and analyzed by thematic analysis. This study will look beyond clients’ disability to focus on their recovery and healing capacities such as strengths self-efficacy and resourcefulness. Findings will expand our knowledge about mental health recovery. Knowledge gained from this study may pave the way for future nursing strategies to aid recovery and inform the development of positive, strengths-based interventions. PMID:26973963

  1. Family influences related to adult substance use and mental health problems: a developmental analysis of child and adolescent predictors.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated measures of family conflict, family management, and family involvement at ages 10-12, 13-14, and 15-18 years as predictors of adult depression, anxiety, and substance use disorder symptoms classes at age 27. The objective was to assess the relative influence on adult outcomes of each family predictor measured similarly at different points in adolescent development. Data were obtained from the Seattle Social Development Project, a theory-driven longitudinal study that began in 1985, with 808 fifth-grade students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools. A latent class analysis of adult outcomes was followed by bivariate and multivariate models for each family predictor. Of the original 808 participants, 747 (92% of the original sample) had available data at age 27 on the mental health and substance use latent class indicators. Missing data were handled using full-information maximum likelihood estimation. Four latent classes were derived: a "low disorder symptoms" class, a "licit substance use disorder symptoms" class, a "mental health disorder symptoms" class, and a "comorbid" class. Multivariate results show that family conflict is the strongest and most consistent predictor of the adult mental health and substance use classes. Family management, but not family involvement, was also predictive of the adult outcome classes. It is important to lessen family conflict and improve family management to prevent later mental health and substance use problems in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unmet Needs for Mental Health Services for Latino Older Adults: Perspectives from Consumers, Family Members, Advocates, and Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Concepción; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Fuentes, Dahlia; Criado, Viviana; Garcia, Piedad; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2008-01-01

    This study qualitatively assessed the need for mental health services among Latino older adults in San Diego, California. The primary mental health issue was depression. Primary organizational barriers to accessing services were language and cultural barriers secondary to a lack of translators, dearth of information on available services, and scarcity of providers representative of the Latino community. Other challenges included a lack of transportation and housing, and the need for socialization and social support. Latino older adults experienced their unmet needs in ways associated with their cultural background and minority status. Age- and culturally-appropriate services are needed to overcome these barriers. PMID:18026876

  3. Mutual biases underlying the problematic relationship between older adults and mental health providers: any solution in sight?

    PubMed

    Laganà, Luciana; Shanks, Sheri

    2002-01-01

    As the size and diversity of the older population increases, mental health providers will be called upon to deliver high-quality services to the elderly. However, many of these professionals hold negative attitudes toward the elderly; psychotherapy conducted with older adults by clinicians with such biases could represent a waste of time and energy, as well as money, for these clients. This article reviews studies conducted within the past three decades on the biases held by mental health professionals (primarily psychiatrists and psychologists) toward older patients and vice versa. It also discusses possible solutions to the conflicts within the elderly-mental health provider relationship, based on the contributions made by professionals from various health care disciplines on this topic. Moreover, this article takes into account various ethnicity-related issues that are often at play in the relationship in question, and provides research and clinical recommendations for the enhancement of the quality of this relationship. It is time to find successful and interdisciplinary ways to improve how older adults and mental health professionals deal with one another. These efforts should creatively enhance the quality of the mental health services offered to older patients, in addition to dispelling age-related myths and corresponding obstacles to the utilization of these needed services by older adults.

  4. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  5. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  6. Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act: Potential Changes in Receipt of Mental Health Treatment Among Low-Income Nonelderly Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Gfroerer, Joe; Kuramoto, S. Janet; Ali, Mir; Woodward, Albert M.; Teich, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We designed this study to examine differences in receipt of mental health treatment between low-income uninsured nonelderly adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who were eligible for Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and their existing Medicaid counterparts. Assessing these differences might estimate the impact of the Medicaid expansion efforts under the ACA on receipt of mental health treatment among uninsured nonelderly adults with SMI. Methods. We examined data from 2000 persons aged 18 to 64 years who participated in the 2008 to 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, had income below 138% of the federal poverty level, met SMI criteria, and either were uninsured (n = 1000) or had Medicaid-only coverage (n = 1000). We defined SMI according to the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Reorganization Act. We used descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling. Results. In the 28 states currently expanding Medicaid, the model-adjusted prevalence (MAP) of receiving mental health treatment among Medicaid-only enrollees with SMI (MAP = 71.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 65.74%, 76.29%) was 30.1% greater than their uninsured counterparts (MAP = 54.8%; 95% CI = 48.16%, 61.33%). In the United States, the MAP of receiving mental health treatment among Medicaid-only enrollees with SMI (MAP = 70.4%; 95% CI = 65.67%, 74.70%) was 35.9% higher than their uninsured counterparts (MAP = 51.8%; 95% CI = 46.98%, 56.65%). Conclusions. Estimated increases in receipt of mental health treatment because of enrolling in Medicaid among low-income uninsured adults with SMI might help inform planning and implementation efforts for the Medicaid expansion under the ACA. PMID:25790424

  7. Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act: Potential Changes in Receipt of Mental Health Treatment Among Low-Income Nonelderly Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuramoto, S Janet; Ali, Mir; Woodward, Albert M; Teich, Judith

    2015-10-01

    We designed this study to examine differences in receipt of mental health treatment between low-income uninsured nonelderly adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who were eligible for Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and their existing Medicaid counterparts. Assessing these differences might estimate the impact of the Medicaid expansion efforts under the ACA on receipt of mental health treatment among uninsured nonelderly adults with SMI. We examined data from 2000 persons aged 18 to 64 years who participated in the 2008 to 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, had income below 138% of the federal poverty level, met SMI criteria, and either were uninsured (n = 1000) or had Medicaid-only coverage (n = 1000). We defined SMI according to the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Reorganization Act. We used descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling. In the 28 states currently expanding Medicaid, the model-adjusted prevalence (MAP) of receiving mental health treatment among Medicaid-only enrollees with SMI (MAP = 71.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 65.74%, 76.29%) was 30.1% greater than their uninsured counterparts (MAP = 54.8%; 95% CI = 48.16%, 61.33%). In the United States, the MAP of receiving mental health treatment among Medicaid-only enrollees with SMI (MAP = 70.4%; 95% CI = 65.67%, 74.70%) was 35.9% higher than their uninsured counterparts (MAP = 51.8%; 95% CI = 46.98%, 56.65%). Estimated increases in receipt of mental health treatment because of enrolling in Medicaid among low-income uninsured adults with SMI might help inform planning and implementation efforts for the Medicaid expansion under the ACA.

  8. ‘Mind the gap’ - mapping services for young people with ADHD transitioning from child to adult mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Once considered to be a disorder restricted to childhood, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is now recognised to persist into adult life. However, service provision for adults with ADHD is limited. Additionally, there is little guidance or research on how best to transition young people with ADHD from child to adult services. Method We report the findings of a survey of 96 healthcare professionals working in children’s (Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and Community Paediatrics) and adult services across five NHS Trusts within the East Midlands region of England to gain a better understanding of the current provision of services for young people with ADHD transitioning into adult mental health services. Results Our findings indicate a lack of structured guidelines on transitioning and little communication between child and adult services. Child and adult services had differing opinions on what they felt adult services should provide for ADHD cases. Adult services reported feeling ill-prepared to deal with ADHD patients, with clinicians in these services citing a lack of specific knowledge of ADHD and a paucity of resources to deal with such cases. Conclusions We discuss suggestions for further research, including the need to map the national provision of services for adults with ADHD, and provide recommendations for commissioned adult ADHD services. We specifically advocate an increase in ADHD-specific training for clinicians in adult services, the development of specialist adult ADHD clinics and greater involvement of Primary Care to support the work of generic adult mental health services in adult ADHD management. PMID:23842080

  9. E-Mental Health Care Among Young Adults and Help-Seeking Behaviors: A Transversal Study in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, Aude; Menard, Estelle; Melchior, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely used by young people and could serve to improve insufficient access to mental health care. Previous information on this topic comes from selected samples (students or self-selected individuals) and is incomplete. Objective In a community sample of young adults, we aimed to describe frequency of e-mental health care study-associated factors and to determine if e-mental health care was associated with the use of conventional services for mental health care. Methods Using data from the 2011 wave of the TEMPO cohort study of French young adults (N=1214, aged 18-37 years), we examined e-mental health care and associated factors following Andersen’s behavioral model: predisposing factors (age, sex, educational attainment, professional activity, living with a partner, children, childhood negative events, chronic somatic disease, parental history of depression), enabling factors (social support, financial difficulties, parents’ income), and needs-related factors (lifetime major depression or anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, ADHD, cannabis use). We compared traditional service use (seeking help from a general practitioner, a psychiatrist, a psychologist; antidepressant or anxiolytics/hypnotics use) between participants who used e-mental health care versus those who did not. Results Overall, 8.65% (105/1214) of participants reported seeking e-mental health care in case of psychological difficulties in the preceding 12 months and 15.7% (104/664) reported psychological difficulties. Controlling for all covariates, the likelihood of e-mental health care was positively associated with 2 needs-related factors, lifetime major depression or anxiety disorder (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.36-4.09) and lifetime suicidal ideation (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.40-2.60), and negatively associated with a predisposing factor: childhood life events (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.93). E-mental health care did not hinder traditional care, but was associated with face

  10. Older Adults with Mental Disorders: What Factors Distinguish Those Who Present to Emergency Departments for Mental Health Reasons from Those Who Do Not?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Patrick G; Currier, Glenn W; Shah, Manish N; Friedman, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    To identify among older adults with mental disorders factors associated with those who present to emergency departments (EDs) for mental health reasons versus those who do not. The authors conducted a secondary, cross-sectional analysis of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), which comprises a representative sample of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population. Of the MEPS participants ages 66 and older on December 31 of the survey years 2000-2005, the analysis sample (2,757) included the 177 persons with at least one mental health ED visit and the 2,580 persons with mental disorders without such a visit. The three categories of the Andersen behavioral model for healthcare services utilization-predisposing, enabling, and need factors-were used as the theoretical framework for the independent variables. Logistic regression analysis indicated that four need factors (adjustment disorder [OR: 3.42], psychosis [OR: 2.68], fair perceived physical health status [OR: 2.24], and anxiety disorder [OR: 1.85]) and two predisposing characteristics (widowed and living alone [OR: 1.68] and female [OR: 1.56]) were significantly associated with older adults with mental disorders who present to an ED for mental health reasons. Good perceived mental health status (OR: 0.55) was protective against presenting to an ED. EDs that serve populations with higher proportions of older persons that are women, widowed and living alone, with adjustment disorder, psychosis, anxiety disorders, or fair perceived physical health should expect to have a greater likelihood of older persons visiting the ED for mental health reasons. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling indoor TV/screen viewing and adult physical and mental health: Health Survey for England, 2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to model indoor TV/screen viewing and a series of adult health conditions and cognitive performance in a country-wide, population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from Health Survey for England, 2012. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, and TV and/or screen watching hours in adults was collected by household interviews. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal modeling were performed. Of 8114 English adults aged 18-98, 4138 people (51.1 %) watched TV and/or screen daily for 2 h or more on average. Two thousand five-hundred people (30.9 %) watched for 3 h or more. TV and/or screening watching for 2+ hours was associated with endocrine or metabolic disorders, diabetes, mental disorders (including poor scores in General Health Questionnaire and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), nervous system disorders, eye complaints, circulatory system disorders, respiratory system disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders, and self-rated health. TV and/or screen watching for 3+ hours was associated with digestive disorders and clotting disorder. TV and/or screen watching for 5+ hours was associated with cancer. TV and/or screen watching for 6+, 8+, or 11+ hours was associated with bladder disease, genito-urinary system disorders or bowel disease, respectively. There were no risk associations (within 20 h) found with ear complaints, infectious disease, and blood system disorders. Future educational and public health programs minimizing TV and/or screen viewing in order to protect from physical inactivity and X-radiation might be needed while research on the combined effect of physical inactivity and X-radiation should be explored.

  12. Evaluation of a primary care adult mental health service: Year 2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a primary care adult mental health service operating within a stepped care model of service delivery. Methods Supervised by a principal psychologist manager, psychology graduate practitioners provided one-to-one brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to service users. The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) was used to assess service user treatment outcomes. Satisfaction questionnaires were administered to service users and referring general practitioners (GPs). Results A total of 43 individuals attended for an initial appointment, of whom 19 (44.2%) completed brief CBT treatment. Of the 13 service users who were in the clinical range pre-treatment, 11 (84.6%) achieved clinical and reliably significant improvement. Of the six service users who were in the non-clinical range pre-treatment, three (50%) achieved reliably significant improvement. Both service users and GPs indicated high levels of satisfaction with the service, although service accessibility was highlighted as needing improvement. Conclusion The service was effective in treating mild to moderate mental health problems in primary care. Stricter adherence to a stepped care model through the provision of low-intensity, high-throughput interventions would be desirable for future service provision. PMID:24381655

  13. Evaluation of a primary care adult mental health service: Year 2.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Patrick; Brennan, John; Galligan, Niall; McGonagle, Claire; Byrne, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a primary care adult mental health service operating within a stepped care model of service delivery. Methods Supervised by a principal psychologist manager, psychology graduate practitioners provided one-to-one brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to service users. The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) was used to assess service user treatment outcomes. Satisfaction questionnaires were administered to service users and referring general practitioners (GPs). Results A total of 43 individuals attended for an initial appointment, of whom 19 (44.2%) completed brief CBT treatment. Of the 13 service users who were in the clinical range pre-treatment, 11 (84.6%) achieved clinical and reliably significant improvement. Of the six service users who were in the non-clinical range pre-treatment, three (50%) achieved reliably significant improvement. Both service users and GPs indicated high levels of satisfaction with the service, although service accessibility was highlighted as needing improvement. Conclusion The service was effective in treating mild to moderate mental health problems in primary care. Stricter adherence to a stepped care model through the provision of low-intensity, high-throughput interventions would be desirable for future service provision.

  14. Adult Materialism/Postmaterialism and Later Mental Health: The Role of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2005-01-01

    This study used data from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS) to examine the relationship between materialism/postmaterialism and later mental health. Materialism/postmaterialism was assessed (using Inglehart's 4-item index) at age 33 and mental health (measured by the GHQ-12) was assessed at age 42. It was found that after…

  15. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  16. Adult Materialism/Postmaterialism and Later Mental Health: The Role of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2005-01-01

    This study used data from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS) to examine the relationship between materialism/postmaterialism and later mental health. Materialism/postmaterialism was assessed (using Inglehart's 4-item index) at age 33 and mental health (measured by the GHQ-12) was assessed at age 42. It was found that after…

  17. Mental Health Care for Older Adults in the Year 2020: A Dangerous and Avoided Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Harold G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Notes that low Medicare reimbursement rates are already causing some mental health professionals to turn away elderly patients. Considers baby boomer cohort who, unlike elders today, have high rates of psychiatric illness and are more likely to seek mental health services. Projects increasing gap over next 25 years between need and availability of…

  18. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  19. Trajectories of mental health over 16 years amongst young adult women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we identified 4 distinct trajectory groups of mental health. The mental health of most participants (55%) was consistently high, with 12% improving, 24% varying, and 9% frequently low. The authors considered characteristics at the beginning and end of the trajectory period, taking a life-course perspective to understand vulnerabilities to, and outcomes of, low or variable poor mental health trajectories. Financial difficulties, poor general health, and weight or shape dissatisfaction were characteristics at Survey 1 that distinguished all other trajectory groups from those with consistently high mental health. Other differences were specific to 1 or 2 groups. By the end of the trajectory period, the improving mental health group showed few differences from those with consistently high mental health. However, those with varying and low mental health showed evidence of social disadvantage, poor physical and emotional health, and unhealthy behaviors, and were less likely to be mothers. The ability to identify distinct trajectories of mental health in early adulthood, and their correlates, provides evidence to underpin population health interventions targeting the prevention of mental health problems among this population group. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Insurance Coverage and Health Outcomes in Young Adults With Mental Illness Following the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Expansion.

    PubMed

    Kozloff, Nicole; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2017-07-01

    As a provision of the Affordable Care Act, young adults were able to remain on their parents' health insurance plans until age 26. We examined the impact of the 2010 dependent coverage expansion on insurance coverage and health outcomes among young adults with mental illness. Data are from the 2008-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual population-based survey of noninstitutionalized US individuals aged 12 and older. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare young adults with mental illness subject to the provision (aged 19-25 years, n = 19,051) with an older comparison group (aged 26-34 years, n = 7,958) before (2008-2009) and after (2011-2013) the dependent coverage expansion in their insurance coverage, use of health services, and self-reported health. In adjusted analyses, following the dependent coverage expansion, private insurance coverage increased by 11.7 percentage points (95% CI, 8.4-15.1, P < .001) and uninsurance decreased by 8.9 percentage points (95% CI, -12.1 to -5.7, P < .001) among 19- to 25-year-olds with mental illness, relative to 26- to 34-year-olds. The provision was associated with a modest increase in young adults with mental illness who received outpatient mental health treatment at least monthly on average (+2.0% [95% CI, 0.1% to 4.0%, P = .04]) and a modest decrease in those reporting their overall health as fair or poor (-2.3% [95% CI, -4.6% to -0.0%, P = .05]). Unmet mental health needs due to cost decreased significantly among those with moderate-to-serious mental illness (-12.3% [95% CI, -22.7% to -2.0%, P = .02]), but did not change among those with mild illness. The 2010 dependent coverage expansion was associated with an increase in insurance coverage, several indicators of mental health treatment, and improved self-reported health among young adults with mental illness.

  1. Self-Harm Among Adult Victims of Human Trafficking Who Accessed Secondary Mental Health Services in England.

    PubMed

    Borschmann, Rohan; Oram, Sian; Kinner, Stuart A; Dutta, Rina; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M

    2017-02-01

    This study estimated the prevalence and correlates of self-harm among adult victims of human trafficking who accessed secondary mental health services, and it estimated the responses of mental health services to these individuals. A clinical records database was searched for self-harm, sociodemographic, clinical, and service use characteristics among trafficked adults who accessed secondary mental health services in South London (2006-2012). Logistic regression models compared trafficked patients (N=84) and a matched cohort of nontrafficked patients (N=287). Among trafficked patients, 33% had engaged in self-harm prior to care and 25% in self-harm during care. After engaging in self-harm, trafficked patients were more likely than nontrafficked patients to be admitted as a psychiatric inpatient (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.81) but less likely to visit an emergency department (AOR=.47). Self-harm is prevalent among trafficked adults accessing secondary mental health services, and mental health professionals have a crucial role to play in supporting survivors.

  2. Appreciating the work of nurses caring for adults with intellectual disability and mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Taua, Chris; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa

    2016-12-29

    This paper presents findings from a study exploring the nurses' experience of caring for adults with intellectual disability and mental health issues in inpatient settings. Semi structured interviews were undertaken with 13 nurses from various regions of New Zealand. Methods suggested by an Appreciative Inquiry methodology were used to explore the nurses' positive experiences of their role. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using open coding and Leximancer (an online data mining tool) analysis to identify dominant themes in the discourse. Analysis revealed themes around 'Contextualising behaviour', 'Communication', 'Confidence to care' and 'Time'. Participants reflected upon their experiences offering personal interpretations in identifying the aspects of nursing that mattered and that worked. What is shown is that nurses were able to describe a range of creative and adaptive ways of nursing in responding to numerous complex factors they faced in their roles. This suggests a strong foundation on which to advance nursing care in this field.

  3. Service user experience of adapted dialectical behaviour therapy in a community adult mental health setting.

    PubMed

    McSherry, Pamela; O'Connor, Caroline; Hevey, David; Gibbons, Pat

    2012-12-01

    Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), a skill-based cognitive behavioural treatment, is increasingly used in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The study examined service users' perspective on the effectiveness of an adapted DBT programme, delivered within a community adult mental health setting. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight participants with a diagnosis of BPD about their experience of the programme. Thematic analysis focused on two key themes: evaluation of therapy and treatment impact. Therapy-specific factors and personal challenges emerged as important themes. Treatment impact raised issues relating to a renewed sense of identity and changes in daily life. The study describes the positive and negative experiences of service users with BPD attending an adapted DBT programme.

  4. Deferred empathy: a construct with implications for the mental health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Mary

    2008-09-01

    Deferred empathy occurs when an experience provokes a memory that after reflection allows people to say, "Now I understand." Heretofore, the concept was explored only in quantitative research; therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to elicit a more detailed description of the construct of deferred empathy. For most of the participants (n = 20) triggering events involved personal challenges such as loss, loss of control, or interpersonal conflict that reminded them of, and changed, their perception of earlier relationships. Development of empathy involved reflection on past and present events, making choices, changing expectations, and learning acceptance. The process resulted in appreciative understanding of others as well as personal benefits. Findings have implications for mental health promotion in older adults in which life review promotes gerotranscendence.

  5. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  6. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Tracy; Hides, Leanne; Brown, Robyn; Dayas, Christopher V; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18–91 years) and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as “mild” in 0.7% of cases, “moderate” in 2.6% and “severe” in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.65 95% CI 1.86–7.11) and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07–1.72), confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07–1.26). Overall people with “severe” (OR 13.2, 5.8–29.8) or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1–34.3) had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression. PMID:28294965

  7. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Tracy; Hides, Leanne; Brown, Robyn; Dayas, Christopher V; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-03-15

    Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18-91 years) and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as "mild" in 0.7% of cases, "moderate" in 2.6% and "severe" in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.65 95% CI 1.86-7.11) and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07-1.72), confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07-1.26). Overall people with "severe" (OR 13.2, 5.8-29.8) or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1-34.3) had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression.

  8. Age as a predictive factor of mental health service use among adults with depression and/or anxiety disorder receiving care through the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Cully, Jeffery A; Wayde, Ernest; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Yu, Hong Jen; Kunik, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    This study compared mental health service utilization by treatment modality and determined predictive factors of use among younger-adult (18-35 years), middle-aged adult (36-64 years), and older-adult veterans (65+ years) with a newly recognized diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety disorder. This retrospective study used data from the Veterans Health Administration National Patient Care Database outpatient and inpatient treatment files during the 2010 fiscal year (N = 583,692). Younger adults were the most likely to use mental health services, followed by middle-aged adults and then older adults. Age was found to be one of the greatest predictors of utilization of mental health services, with odds of use being threefold among younger adults compared with older adults. Continued efforts are needed to improve the awareness of, access to, and receipt of mental health services in veterans, particularly older adults, with depression and anxiety disorders. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Mediating and moderating effects of social support in the study of child abuse and adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  11. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers.

  12. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  13. Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems among Adults with Mental Health Conditions, 2015.

    PubMed

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M; Weaver, Scott R; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    2016-12-23

    Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) are especially likely to smoke and experience tobacco-related health disparities. Individuals with MHC may also use electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) at disproportionately high rates. However, there is a relative dearth of knowledge regarding ENDS use among individuals with MHC. In a large representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 6051), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and ENDS use and susceptibility were examined, stratified by smoking status. Participants with MHC were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have used ENDS in their lifetime and almost twice as likely to currently use ENDS as those without MHC. MHC status was most strongly linked to higher ENDS use among former smokers, and former smokers with MHC were more likely to report using ENDS during past smoking quit attempts than those without MHC. Among participants who had not tried ENDS, former smokers with MHC were especially susceptible to future ENDS use. The potential advantage of ENDS for cessation purposes should be balanced with the risk of attracting former smokers with MHC to ENDS.

  14. Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems among Adults with Mental Health Conditions, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) are especially likely to smoke and experience tobacco-related health disparities. Individuals with MHC may also use electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) at disproportionately high rates. However, there is a relative dearth of knowledge regarding ENDS use among individuals with MHC. In a large representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 6051), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and ENDS use and susceptibility were examined, stratified by smoking status. Participants with MHC were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have used ENDS in their lifetime and almost twice as likely to currently use ENDS as those without MHC. MHC status was most strongly linked to higher ENDS use among former smokers, and former smokers with MHC were more likely to report using ENDS during past smoking quit attempts than those without MHC. Among participants who had not tried ENDS, former smokers with MHC were especially susceptible to future ENDS use. The potential advantage of ENDS for cessation purposes should be balanced with the risk of attracting former smokers with MHC to ENDS. PMID:28025560

  15. Transitioning Youth into Adult Mental Health and Addiction Services: An Outcomes Evaluation of the Youth Transition Project.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, M; Davidson, S; Racek, J; Leon, S; Vloet, M; Tataryn, K; Gillis, K; Freeland, A; Carver, J; Thatte, S; Lowe, J

    2016-10-01

    The Youth Transition Project was designed to provide youth with mental health and addiction issues with individualized transitional care plans as they transition from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS). Over an 18-month period, a total of 127 (59.1%) youth were transitioned and seen by an AMHS provider, 41 (19.1%) remained on a waitlist for services and 47 (21.8%) canceled services. The average time to transition was 110 days (SD = 100). Youth exhibited a wide range of diagnoses; 100% of the population was identified as having serious psychiatric problems. Findings demonstrate that the Youth Transition Project has been successful in promoting continuity of care by transitioning youth seamlessly from youth to adult services. Inconsistencies in wait times and service delivery suggest that further model development is needed to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Youth Transition Project.

  16. Mental Health and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Mental Health and Heart Health Updated:Nov 10,2015 For years, doctors thought the connection between mental health and heart health was strictly behavioral – such as ...

  17. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  18. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  19. The role of Emotional Intelligence in mental health and Type D personality among young adults.

    PubMed

    Branscum, Paul; Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Sharma, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) was developed as a way to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health as it relates to overall quality of life. This study examines the predictive nature of EI with standardized measures of mental health to create a model that can be utilized to create more effective health promotion interventions. Step-wise multiple regression was used to predict mental health (Kessler K-6 scale) and Type D personality (Denollett's Scale of Negative Affectivity and Social Inhibition) with five dimensions of EI. The results revealed that while not all of the dimensions of EI regressed significantly in each model, mood management was highly predictive of all mental health measures under investigation. Cut-off points for each scale were also helpful in interpreting the relatedness of EI to mental health.

  20. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Stephen J; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA.

  1. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA. PMID:25811340

  2. Until Death Do Us Part: Adult Relatives' Experiences of Everyday Life Close to Persons with Mental Ill-Health.

    PubMed

    Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Åström, Sture

    2016-08-01

    This study illuminates adult relatives' experiences of everyday life close to a person with mental ill-health. The study was based on nine diaries and four narrative interviews with relatives of people with mental ill-health. Data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The participants experienced everyday life as a constant fight, for better and for worse, with psychiatric care. They were fighting for the mentally ill person's right to care; sometimes they felt resigned, but yet they had a confidence in the care. Their mission in life was to sacrifice themselves, meaning that they felt indispensable and became lonely and socially isolated. They considered their mission to last until death set them apart because they were keeping a family secret, and had great worries about the future. We conclude that relatives experience a two-folded stigma in living close to a person with mental ill-health and in becoming lonely and socially isolated.

  3. Mental health implications for older adults after natural disasters--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Georgina; Lie, David; Siskind, Dan J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Raphael, Beverly; Crompton, David; Kisely, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters affect the health and well-being of adults throughout the world. There is some debate in the literature as to whether older persons have increased risk of mental health outcomes after exposure to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. To date, no systematic review has evaluated this. We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health and psychological distress experienced by older adults. A meta-analysis was conducted on papers identified through a systematic review. The primary outcomes measured were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorder, and psychological distress. We identified six papers with sufficient data for a random effects meta-analysis. Older adults were 2.11 times more likely to experience PTSD symptoms and 1.73 more likely to develop adjustment disorder when exposed to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. Given the global rise in the number of older adults affected by natural disasters, mental health services need to be prepared to meet their needs following natural disasters, particularly around the early detection and management of PTSD.

  4. Mental Health in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Health Association, Kansas City, MO.

    Recent national data suggests that there is a similarity between the prevalence of clinically defined mental health problems, as well as comorbidity including substance abuse, among rural and urban adult populations. However, due to the lack of a mental health and substance abuse infrastructure in rural areas, many times these disorders go…

  5. Assessing the Relationship between Physical Illness and Mental Health Service Use and Expenditures among Older Adults from Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Cook, Benjamin; Kim, Giyeon; Reynolds, Charles F.; Alegria, Margarita; Coe-Odess, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association of physical illness and mental health service use in older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups is an important area of study given the mental and physical health disparities and the low use of mental health services in this population. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of comorbid physical illness on mental health service use and expenditures in older adults; and to evaluate disparities in mental health service use and expenditures among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of older adults with and without comorbid physical illness. Methods Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (years 2004–2011). The sample included 1563 whites, 519 African-Americans, and 642 Latinos and (N=2,724) aged 65+ with probable mental illness. Using two-part generalized linear models, we estimated and compared mental health service use among those with and without a comorbid physical illness. Results Mental health service use was greater for older adults with comorbid physical illness compared to those without a comorbid physical illness. Once mental health services were accessed, no differences in mental health expenditures were found. Comorbid physical illness increased the likelihood of mental health service use in older whites and Latinos. However, the presence of a comorbidity did not impact racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use. Conclusions This study highlighted the important role of comorbid physical illness as a potential contributor to using mental health services and suggests intervention strategies to enhance engagement in mental health services by older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups. PMID:25772763

  6. Family relations, social connections, and mental health among Latino and Asian older adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Li, Shijian; Liu, Jinyu; Sun, Fei

    2015-02-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, we compared Latino and Asian older adults in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, anxiety and mood disorders. Given the strong family norms and collectivist cultures shared by the two groups, we also examined whether 12-month prevalence rates were associated with various family relation and social connection variables. The findings showed that older Latinos were almost twice as likely as older Asians to have any anxiety or mood disorders in their lifetime (34.5% vs. 17.7%) and in the past year (14.3% vs. 7.4%). Logistic regressions revealed different predictors of anxiety and mood disorders in the two groups: Family cultural conflict was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders, whereas family cohesion was associated with a lower prevalence of mood disorders. We argue that more research is needed on negative family interactions and their implications for the mental health of older ethnic minorities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.54-3.00, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.68-3.19, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 3.68, 95% CI 3.41-3.97, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 2.64, 95% CI 2.45-2.85, P < 0.001). People who reported major problems on noise (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.96-2.45, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.87-2.37, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.14-2.68, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.88-2.41, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.77-2.11, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34-1.68, P < 0.001) were also classified as having depression. Perceived neighborhood conditions were associated with adult mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested.

  8. Treating young people with eating disorders: transition from child mental health to specialist adult eating disorder services.

    PubMed

    Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter P; Morgan, John F

    2008-01-01

    The transition from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) of young people with eating disorders may pose a number of difficulties, including an inconsistent referral process and age boundaries. We compared young adults referred to a specialist Adult Eating Disorders Service (AEDS) who had previous involvement with CAMHS for the treatment of their eating disorder with those who did not. Information regarding the socio-demographic characteristics and eating disorders symptomatology of patients assessed by an AEDS over a 4-year period was collected. Patients who had previous involvement with CAMHS (particularly the ones treated as in-patients) presented with a lower self-esteem and more maturity fears (MF) than those without previous involvement. This study discusses the implication of these results in transitional arrangements between CAMHS and Adult services. It also highlights the need for heightened awareness of particular issues of self-esteem and maturation in these patients moving between services.

  9. Mental Health Differences between Young Adults with and without Same-Sex Contact: A Simultaneous Examination of Underlying Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use…

  10. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  11. How Adult Children Influence Older Parents' Mental Health: Integrating Stress-Process and Life-Course Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Bierman, Alex; Schieman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we integrate insights from the life-course and stress-process perspectives to argue that adult children's negative treatment of parents, as well as negative events that children experience, detrimentally affect elderly parents' mental health over time. We argue that these strains may affect mothers more than fathers, and blacks more…

  12. Exploring Relationships among Strengths Use, Spirituality, Religion and Positive Mental Health of College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among strengths use, spirituality, religion, and positive mental health of 109 traditional undergraduate, college-attending emerging adults in a public university in the southern region of the United States, often referred to as the Bible-Belt. Constructs of the study were guided by a student…

  13. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  14. How Adult Children Influence Older Parents' Mental Health: Integrating Stress-Process and Life-Course Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Bierman, Alex; Schieman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we integrate insights from the life-course and stress-process perspectives to argue that adult children's negative treatment of parents, as well as negative events that children experience, detrimentally affect elderly parents' mental health over time. We argue that these strains may affect mothers more than fathers, and blacks more…

  15. Exploring Relationships among Strengths Use, Spirituality, Religion and Positive Mental Health of College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among strengths use, spirituality, religion, and positive mental health of 109 traditional undergraduate, college-attending emerging adults in a public university in the southern region of the United States, often referred to as the Bible-Belt. Constructs of the study were guided by a student…

  16. The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, John; Sampson, Nancy A; Hwang, Irving; Adamowski, Tomasz; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H S G; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.

  17. Preferences of Young Adults With First-Episode Psychosis for Receiving Specialized Mental Health Services Using Technology: A Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Tucci, Natasha; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Tamblyn, Robyn; Malla, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the potential and interest of using technology for delivering specialized psychiatric services to young adults, surprisingly limited attention has been paid to systematically assess their perspectives in this regard. For example, limited knowledge exists on the extent to which young people receiving specialized services for a first-episode psychosis (FEP) are receptive to using new technologies as part of mental health care, and to which types of technology-enabled mental health interventions they are amenable to. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the interest of young adults with FEP in using technology to receive mental health information, services, and supports. Methods This study uses a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A convenience sample of 67 participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were recruited from two specialized early intervention programs for psychosis. Interviewer-administered surveys were conducted between December 2013 and October 2014. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results Among the 67 respondents who completed the survey, the majority (85%, 57/67) agreed or strongly agreed with YouTube as a platform for mental health-related services and supports. The top five technology-enabled services that participants were amenable to were (1) information on medication (96%, 64/67); (2) information on education, career, and employment (93%, 62/67); (3) decision-making tools pertaining to treatment and recovery (93%, 62/67); (4) reminders for appointments via text messaging (93%, 62/67); and (5) information about mental health, psychosis, and recovery in general (91%, 61/67). The top self-reported barriers to seeking mental health information online were lack of knowledge on how to perform an Internet search (31%, 21/67) and the way information is presented online (27%, 18/67). Two thirds (67%; 45/67) reported being comfortable in online settings, and almost half (48%; 32/67) reported a preference for mixed

  18. Preferences of Young Adults With First-Episode Psychosis for Receiving Specialized Mental Health Services Using Technology: A Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shalini; Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Tucci, Natasha; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Tamblyn, Robyn; Malla, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential and interest of using technology for delivering specialized psychiatric services to young adults, surprisingly limited attention has been paid to systematically assess their perspectives in this regard. For example, limited knowledge exists on the extent to which young people receiving specialized services for a first-episode psychosis (FEP) are receptive to using new technologies as part of mental health care, and to which types of technology-enabled mental health interventions they are amenable to. The purpose of this study is to assess the interest of young adults with FEP in using technology to receive mental health information, services, and supports. This study uses a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A convenience sample of 67 participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were recruited from two specialized early intervention programs for psychosis. Interviewer-administered surveys were conducted between December 2013 and October 2014. Descriptive statistics are reported. Among the 67 respondents who completed the survey, the majority (85%, 57/67) agreed or strongly agreed with YouTube as a platform for mental health-related services and supports. The top five technology-enabled services that participants were amenable to were (1) information on medication (96%, 64/67); (2) information on education, career, and employment (93%, 62/67); (3) decision-making tools pertaining to treatment and recovery (93%, 62/67); (4) reminders for appointments via text messaging (93%, 62/67); and (5) information about mental health, psychosis, and recovery in general (91%, 61/67). The top self-reported barriers to seeking mental health information online were lack of knowledge on how to perform an Internet search (31%, 21/67) and the way information is presented online (27%, 18/67). Two thirds (67%; 45/67) reported being comfortable in online settings, and almost half (48%; 32/67) reported a preference for mixed formats when viewing mental health

  19. The impact of perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity on mental health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).

  20. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  1. Continuity of care from child and adolescent to adult mental health services: evidence from a regional survey in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Paolo; Galeotti, Simona; Mimmi, Stefano; Starace, Fabrizio; Castagnini, Augusto C

    2015-12-01

    To examine clinical and demographic factors associated with continuity of care from child-adolescent (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS), we undertook a record-linkage study to the Adult Mental Health Information System including all those 16 years old and over who were listed between 2010 and 2013 in the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Information System in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region of nearly 4.5 million residents. From a cohort of 8239 adolescents attending CAMHS (population at risk about 144,000), 821 (19.4 %) moved to AMHS, excluding cases with specific developmental disorders, whose conditions were not managed by adult psychiatrists, and those with mental retardation who attended usually social services. Young people referred for treatment to AMHS were more likely to receive a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.92; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.17-7.08), personality disorders (OR 2.69; 95 % CI 1.89-3.83), and pervasive developmental disorders (OR 2.13; 95 % CI 1.51-2.99). Further factors predicting transfer to AMHS were not living with parents, inpatient psychiatric admission, and being on medication in the previous 24 months. These findings suggest that a relatively small number of adolescents moved to AMHS and are likely to reflect the configuration of local mental health services and alternative care available, mainly for those with less-severe mental disorders.

  2. The restorative benefits of walking in urban and rural settings in adults with good and poor mental health.

    PubMed

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter

    2011-01-01

    People differ in their potential for psychological restoration but there is little evidence on the role of varying mental health state or settings in the process. This paper reports two quasi-experiments which compare the restorative benefits of walking in urban and rural settings in two groups of adults with good and poor mental health. Two aspects of restoration are examined, firstly mood, the other using personal project techniques (Little, 1983) to capture an under-explored aspect of cognitive restoration through reflection on everyday life tasks. Results are consistent with a restorative effect of landscape: the rural walk was advantageous to affective and cognitive restoration in both health groups when compared to an urban walk. However, beneficial change took place to a greater extent in the poor health group. Differential outcomes between health groups were found in the urban setting, which was most advantageous to restoration in the poor mental health group. This study extends restorative environments research by showing that the amount of change and context for restoration can differ amongst adults with variable mental health.

  3. FastStats: Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Adult Day Services Centers Home Health Care Hospice Care Nursing Home Care Residential Care Communities Screenings Mammography ... outpatient and emergency departments) with mental disorders as primary diagnosis: 63.3 million Sources: Selected patient and ...

  4. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-06-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own. We build on past work to advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the life course perspective. Whereas most prior research has been based on cross-sectional data, we utilize four waves of data from a nationally representative sample of American adults (Americans' Changing Lives Study) collected prospectively over a 15-year period and find that education, employment and marital status, as well as their consequences for income and health, effectively explain the increase in depressive symptoms after age 65. We also found significant cohort differences in age trajectories of mental health that were partly explained by historical increases in education. We demonstrate that a purely structural theory can take us far in explaining later life mental health.

  5. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own. We build on past work to advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the life course perspective. Whereas most prior research has been based on cross-sectional data, we utilize four waves of data from a nationally representative sample of American adults (Americans' Changing Lives Study) collected prospectively over a 15-year period and find that education, employment and marital status, as well as their consequences for income and health, effectively explain the increase in depressive symptoms after age 65. We also found significant cohort differences in age trajectories of mental health that were partly explained by historical increases in education. We demonstrate that a purely structural theory can take us far in explaining later life mental health. PMID:22081728

  6. Nutrition, lifestyle factors, and mental health in adolescents and young adults living in Austria.

    PubMed

    Walther, Julia; Aldrian, Ulrike; Stüger, Hans Peter; Kiefer, Ingrid; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Due to an alarming trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, along with the sparse data on dietary habits and lifestyle factors, the present study aims to analyze the current nutritional behavior as well as the lifestyle and mental health of adolescents and young adults living in Austria. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 respondents (aged between 14 and 24 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on nutrition behavior, mental health, and lifestyle factors by Internet survey. Only 50% of the participants ate breakfast daily and 10% did not eat breakfast at all. About 47% of the respondents consumed milk and milk products daily. Furthermore, only 31% ate fruit and 21% ate vegetables at least once a day, and 46% ate fish seldom or never. Nearly 28% of young people liked to eat fast food twice or thrice a week and more, with males more often replacing a meal with a fast food product (36%) than females (21%). About 46% of the respondents engaged in physical activity only once a week (or more rarely). A fifth of our respondents (23%) spent more than 2 h a day using various social networks, with Facebook being the most popular social network among the respondents. Around 27% claimed to be smokers, with more female (33%) than male (20%) smoker. In terms of sleeping habits, 19% slept <6 h a day. Regarding well-being, 44% were more likely to feel stressed, 35% stated that they were tense, and 43% felt tired and listless. Eating together, physical activity, and sleep patterns showed positive effects on well-being, whereas higher consumption of fast food/snacks/soft drinks and alcoholic drinks/energy drinks was associated with relatively lower well-being. Unhealthy eating habits, suboptimal physical activity, and smoking are still prominent in a sample of Austrian adolescents and young people. In addition, stress and tiredness are also relevant problems in this collective.

  7. Interactive television for an urban adult mental health service: the Guy's Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit Telepsychiatry Project.

    PubMed

    Haslam, R; McLaren, P

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a feasibility study of an interactive television (IATV) system to enhance the provision of psychiatric intensive care services to a remote adult acute psychiatric ward in the same National Health Service mental health trust. The system used videoconferencing equipment connected by ISDN at 128 kbit/s. The system was used for patient referral, assessment and monitoring by staff at the remote site 8 km away.

  8. Prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug use in an Australian older adult mental health service.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder, known as dual diagnosis, is a significant challenge to mental health services. Few older adult specific alcohol and other drug treatment services exist, meaning older adult mental health services may become the default treatment option for many. Evidence suggests that dual diagnosis leads to substandard treatment outcomes, including higher rates of psychiatric relapse, higher costs of care and poorer treatment engagement. This paper explores the prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in an older adult community mental health service in inner Melbourne, Australia. This aim was accomplished by using a retrospective file audit of clinical intake assessments (n = 593) performed on consumers presenting to the service over a two-year period, June 2012-2014. Of consumers presenting to the service, 15.5% (n = 92) were assessed by clinicians as having co-occurring AOD use. Depression predominated in the dual diagnosis group as the primary mental health disorder. Dual diagnosis consumers in this sample were statistically more likely to be male and younger than their non-dual diagnosis counterparts. A limitation of this audit was the lack of implementation of screening tools, leaving assessment to clinical judgement or the interest of the clinician. This may also explain the discrepancy between the results of this study and previous work. Although appearing to be a relatively small percentage of assessments, the results accounted for 92 individuals with complex mental health, AOD and medical issues. Poor screening procedures in a population that is traditionally difficult to assess need to be rectified to meet the future challenges inherent in the ageing baby boomer generation, changing drug use trends and extended lifespans through harm reduction initiatives and medical advancements.

  9. A prospective study of the impact of floods on the mental and physical health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Bei, Bei; Bryant, Christina; Gilson, Kim-Michelle; Koh, Juliana; Gibson, Penelope; Komiti, Angela; Jackson, Henry; Judd, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    With a longitudinal prospective design, we examined the impact of floods on the mental and physical health of older adults and explored risk and protective factors. Two hundred and seventy four older adults (age ≥60) completed surveys before and after a flood event. Both the surveys included measures of anxiety, depression, self-reported health, and satisfaction with life; the post-flood survey also included questionnaires on flood experience, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stoicism, and psychological coping with floods. Compared to those not personally affected (78.8%), personally affected individuals (21.2%) reported significantly higher PTSD symptoms, with about one in six reporting PTSD symptoms that might require clinical attention. Personally affected individuals also reported a greater increase in anxiety post-flood, but changes in their depressive symptoms and self-reported health were not significantly different from those not personally affected. Greater flood exposure and the lack of social support were the risk factors for poorer mental and physical health. Higher stoicism was associated with higher post-flood depression and poorer self-reported mental health. The use of maladaptive coping, such as venting and distraction, was associated with greater deterioration in mental health after floods, whilst emotion-focused coping such as acceptance, positive reframing, and humour, was protective against such deterioration. Floods had adverse psychological impacts on some older adults who were personally affected. Despite the evidence of resilience, a small proportion of older adults experienced significant difficulties after the floods. The findings in this study help understand older adults' psychological responses to disasters and have practical implications for service planning and delivery.

  10. The relationship between stigma and self-reported willingness to use mental health services among rural and urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Hannah; Jameson, John Paul; Curtin, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    The large number of rural older adults suffering from untreated psychiatric illnesses suggests that stigma may be a significant barrier to the utilization of mental health services in this population. The current study examines self-stigma, public stigma, and attitudes toward specialty mental health care in a community sample of older adults living in a geographically isolated rural area, a rural area adjacent to a metropolitan area, and an urban area. One hundred and 29 older adults age 60 and above from the 3 geographic areas completed self-report measures of these constructs, and differences on the measures were assessed among the groups. Results indicated that older adults living in isolated rural counties demonstrated higher levels of public and self-stigma and lower levels of psychological openness than older adults in urban areas even after accounting for education, employment, and income. However, no differences emerged in reported willingness to use specialized mental health care in the event of significant distress. Results are discussed in the context of rural values, beliefs, and community structural factors. We further suggest that conventional binary rural/urban distinctions are not sufficient to understand the relationship between rurality and stigma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indian Older Adults: Is Andersen's Behavioral Model a Good Fit?

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Martin, James I; Lawler, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen's Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults' help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Structural and functional social network attributes moderate the association of self-rated health with mental health in midlife and older adults.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Tim D; Rioseco, Pilar; Fiori, Katherine L; Curtis, Rachel G; Booth, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Social relationships are multifaceted, and different social network components can operate via different processes to influence well-being. This study examined associations of social network structure and relationship quality (positive and negative social exchanges) with mental health in midlife and older adults. The focus was on both direct associations of network structure and relationship quality with mental health, and whether these social network attributes moderated the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mental health. Analyses were based on survey data provided by 2001 (Mean age = 65, SD = 8.07) midlife and older adults. We used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to classify participants into network types based on network structure (partner status, network size, contact frequency, and activity engagement), and used continuous measures of positive and negative social exchanges to operationalize relationship quality. Regression analysis was used to test moderation. LCA revealed network types generally consistent with those reported in previous studies. Participants in more diverse networks reported better mental health than those categorized into a restricted network type after adjustment for age, sex, education, and employment status. Analysis of moderation indicated that those with poorer SRH were less likely to report poorer mental health if they were classified into more diverse networks. A similar moderation effect was also evident for positive exchanges. The findings suggest that both quantity and quality of social relationships can play a role in buffering against the negative implications of physical health decline for mental health.

  13. Losing a loved one to homicide: prevalence and mental health correlates in a national sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Hawkins, Alesia O; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, demographic distribution, and mental health correlates of losing a loved one to homicide. A national sample of 1,753 young adults completed structured telephone interviews measuring violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, and loss of a family member or close friend to a drunk driving accident (vehicular homicide) or murder (criminal homicide). The prevalence of homicide survivorship was 15%. African Americans were more highly represented among criminal homicide survivors. Logistic regression analyses found that homicide survivors were at risk for past year posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 1.88), major depressive episode (OR = 1.64), and drug abuse/dependence (OR = 1.77). These findings highlight the significant mental health needs of homicide survivors.

  14. Losing a Loved One to Homicide: Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates in a National Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Hawkins, Alesia; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, demographic distribution, and mental health correlates of losing a loved one to homicide. A national sample of 1753 young adults completed structured telephone interviews measuring violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, and loss of a family member or close friend to a drunk driving accident (vehicular homicide) or murder (criminal homicide). The prevalence of homicide survivorship was 15.2%. African Americans were more highly represented among criminal homicide survivors. Logistic regression analyses found that homicide survivors were at risk for past year posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 1.88), major depressive episode (OR = 1.64), and drug abuse/dependence (OR = 1.77). These findings highlight the significant mental health needs of homicide survivors. PMID:19230006

  15. Health Professionals' Attitudes and Emotions towards Working with Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) and Mental Ill Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, N.; Kent, S.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Mainstream mental health services are providing more care for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID); this has implications for staff and service users. Attitudes of staff towards people with ID in mental health services may be negative and negative staff attitudes may have a detrimental impact on service provision. Design: A…

  16. Health Professionals' Attitudes and Emotions towards Working with Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) and Mental Ill Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, N.; Kent, S.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Mainstream mental health services are providing more care for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID); this has implications for staff and service users. Attitudes of staff towards people with ID in mental health services may be negative and negative staff attitudes may have a detrimental impact on service provision. Design: A…

  17. Discrimination and Mental Health Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; West, Brady

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared to heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types of discrimination, based on race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, and past year mental health disorders in a national sample of self-identified lesbian, gay and bisexual women and men (n=577). Findings suggest that different types of discrimination may be differentially associated with past year mental health disorders. Notably, sexual orientation discrimination was associated with higher odds of a past year disorder only in combination with other types of discrimination. These findings point to the complexity of the relationship between discrimination experiences and mental health, and suggest that further work is needed to better explicate the interplay between multiple marginalized identities, discrimination and mental health. PMID:24826824

  18. Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Wendy B; Boyd, Carol J; Hughes, Tonda L; West, Brady T; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared with heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types of discrimination, based on race or ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, and past-year mental health disorders in a national sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men (n = 577). Findings suggest that different types of discrimination may be differentially associated with past-year mental health disorders. Notably, sexual orientation discrimination was associated with higher odds of a past-year disorder only in combination with other types of discrimination. These findings point to the complexity of the relationship between discrimination experiences and mental health, and suggest that further work is needed to better explicate the interplay among multiple marginalized identities, discrimination, and mental health.

  19. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meegan, Amy P.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15–2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14–3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being. PMID:28273871

  20. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Amy P; Perry, Ivan J; Phillips, Catherine M

    2017-03-05

    The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15-2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14-3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being.

  1. Twelve-months prevalence of mental disorders in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults - Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH): a methodological addendum and correction.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Frank; Höfler, Michael; Strehle, Jens; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Busch, Markus A; Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    We recently published findings in this journal on the prevalence of mental disorders from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH). The DEGS1-MH paper was also meant to be the major reference publication for this large-scale German study program, allowing future users of the data set to understand how the study was conducted and analyzed. Thus, towards this goal highest standards regarding transparency, consistency and reproducibility should be applied. After publication, unfortunately, the need for an addendum and corrigendum became apparent due to changes in the eligible reference sample, and corresponding corrections of the imputed data. As a consequence the sample description, sample size and some prevalence data needed amendments. Additionally we identified a coding error in the algorithm for major depression that had a significant effect on the prevalence estimates of depression and associated conditions. This addendum and corrigendum highlights all changes and presents the corrected prevalence tables. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A cross-sectional study of coping resources and mental health of Chinese older adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Steinberg, Nadia Sabbagh; Dong, Xinqi; Tiwari, Agnes

    2017-08-16

    This study examined the potential influence of coping resources at individual (sense of mastery), family (spousal and family support, children's filial piety), and community levels (community cohesion) on the mental health (depression, anxiety) of U.S. Chinese older adults. The data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (N= 3,159). Negative binomial regressions were performed to predict depression and anxiety, respectively, by entering the three sets of coping resources separately and jointly, controlling for socio-demographic and acculturation variables. Stronger sense of mastery and greater perception of children's filial piety were associated with better mental health outcomes. Spousal support was not associated with any mental health outomes, and family support was actually assciated with greater depression and anxiety. Stronger community cohesion was associated with fewer depressive symptoms but greater anxiety. Older immigrants' sense of control and perception that children adhere to traditional family norms are important mental health protective factors. Whereas depending on families for support may compromise their well-being, community cohesion could be a double-edged sword for their mental health. Future studies shall further disentangle the associations among sense of mastery, reliance on family and ethnic enclaves for support, and older immigrants' well-being.

  3. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. But it's not always easy to ... diagnose mental health problems, the doctor or mental health specialist ...

  4. Perceived barriers and facilitators of mental health service utilization in adult trauma survivors: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Viktoria; Knefel, Matthias; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2017-03-01

    Many trauma survivors seem to be reluctant to seek professional help. The aim of the current review was to synthesize relevant literature, and to systematically classify trauma survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators regarding mental health service utilization. The systematic search identified 19 studies addressing military personnel and 17 studies with trauma survivors of the general population. The data analysis revealed that the most prominent barriers included concerns related to stigma, shame and rejection, low mental health literacy, lack of knowledge and treatment-related doubts, fear of negative social consequences, limited resources, time, and expenses. Perceived facilitators lack attention in research, but can be influential in understanding mental health service use. Another prominent finding was that trauma survivors face specific trauma-related barriers to mental health service use, especially concerns about re-experiencing the traumatic events. Many trauma survivors avoid traumatic reminders and are therefore concerned about dealing with certain memories in treatment. These perceived barriers and facilitators were discussed regarding future research and practical implications in order to facilitate mental health service use among trauma survivors.

  5. Gender-sensitive mental health care.

    PubMed

    Judd, Fiona; Armstrong, Sue; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine aspects of mental health and mental health care through a gender lens. Gender differences have an impact on mental health and the experience and course of women's mental illness. Comprehensive gender-sensitive mental health care requires the planning, delivery, monitoring and quality improvement initiatives of mental health care to be informed by a knowledge and understanding of gender differences in women and men and their inter-relationship with respect to childhood and adult life experiences (e.g. violence and abuse); day-to-day social, cultural, and family realities; expression and experience of mental ill health and treatment needs and responses.

  6. A systematic review of the predictors of health service utilisation by adults with mental disorders in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Conal D; Baldwin, David S; Hopfe, Maren; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify variables that predict health service utilisation (HSU) by adults with mental disorders in the UK, and to determine the evidence level for these predictors. Design A narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed studies published after the year 2000. The search was conducted using four databases (ie, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus with full text, MEDLINE and EMBASE) and completed on 25 March 2014. Setting The majority of included studies were set in health services across primary, secondary, specialist and inpatient care. Some studies used data from household and postal surveys. Participants Included were UK-based studies that predicted HSU by adults with mental disorders. Participants had a range of mental disorders including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and dementia. Primary outcome A wide range of HSU outcomes were examined, including general practitioner (GP) contacts, medication usage, psychiatrist contacts, psychotherapy attendances, inpatient days, accident and emergency admissions and ‘total HSU’. Results Taking into account study quality, 28 studies identified a range of variables with good preliminary evidence supporting their ability to predict HSU. Of these variables, comorbidity, personality disorder, age (heterogeneous age ranges), neurotic symptoms, female gender, a marital status of divorced, separated or widowed, non-white ethnicity, high previous HSU and activities of daily living, were associated with increased HSU. Moreover, good preliminary evidence was found for associations of accessing a primary care psychological treatment service and medication use with decreased HSU. Conclusions The findings can inform decisions about which variables might be used to derive mental health clusters in ‘payment by results’ systems in the UK. The findings also support the need to investigate whether combining broad diagnoses with care pathways is an effective method for mental health

  7. My Body is a Temple: Eating Disturbances, Religious Involvement, and Mental Health Among Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Andrea K; Ellison, Christopher G

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of the literature outlines the undesirable mental health consequences of eating disturbances. However, little attention has been given to the possible mitigating effects of cultural institutions, such as religion, in the lives of women suffering from such pathologies. Our work contributes to the literature by (a) outlining a series of arguments linking eating disturbances, religion, and mental health; (b) specifying two conceptual models of these relationships; and (c) testing relevant hypotheses using data on a large nationwide sample of young women. Results indicate that religious involvement-organizational, non-organizational, and subjective religiousness-moderates the effects of eating disturbances on mental health, particularly for self-esteem. Study limitations are identified and several promising directions for future research are discussed.

  8. The Protective Effect of Adult Mental Health Upon the Utilization of Racial Socialization Parenting Practices.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, Mary A; Bannon, William M; Rodriguez, James; McKay, Mary M

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of parental mental health and types of racial socialization. The sample consisted of 169 African-American parents and their children (ages 9-11) who participated in a federally funded research project, "Knowledge about the African American Research Experience" (KAARE). Bivariate analyses revealed significant positive relationships between parent mental health status and two forms of racial socialization: spiritual/religious coping, and racial awareness teaching, while multivariate analyses supported the positive association between parental mental health and spiritual/religious coping. These results suggest that parental characteristics may influence the use of specific types of racial socialization to assist youth in coping with discriminatory societal messages.

  9. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50-64; 65-79; 80 and older). Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old-old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  11. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Felipe Q; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C; da S Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-02-28

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants-53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight-were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.

  12. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484

  13. The effect of organisational resources and eligibility issues on transition from child and adolescent to adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Belling, Ruth; McLaren, Susan; Paul, Moli; Ford, Tamsin; Kramer, Tami; Weaver, Tim; Hovish, Kimberly; Islam, Zoebia; White, Sarah; Singh, Swaran P

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the organisational factors that impede or facilitate transition of young people from child and adolescent (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS). Thirty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with health and social care professionals working in child and adult services in four English NHS Mental Health Trusts and voluntary organisations. Data were analysed thematically using a structured framework. Findings revealed a lack of clarity on service availability and the operation of different eligibility criteria between child and adult mental health services, with variable service provision for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders and learning disabilities. High workloads and staff shortages were perceived to influence service thresholds and eligibility criteria. A mutual lack of understanding of services and structures together with restrictive eligibility criteria exacerbated by perceived lack of resources can impact negatively on the transition between CAMHS and AMHS, disrupting continuity of care for young people. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental health services in rural America. According to Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration 2015 data , 18.3% ... into primary care, and suicide prevention. Information regarding substance abuse is found in RHIhub's Substance Abuse Topic Guide . ...

  15. Mental Health Screening Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help us make DBSAlliance.org better! Go! Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression This screening form was developed from ...

  16. International Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  17. International Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  18. Assessing the mental health of rural older adults in public housing facilities: a comparison of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Kathleen M; Copenhaver, Valerie

    2006-09-01

    This pilot study assessed the prevalence of mental health disorders and cognitive impairment among rural older adults living in a public housing facility and compared screening tools in this setting. Interviews were completed with 20 of the 38 residents older than 60 years. Survey instruments included the following: Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), Medical Outcomes 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and Global Assessment Scale (GAS). Depressive disorders were identified in 50% (n = 10) of participants and included major depression (25%), minor depression (20%), and dysthymia (5%). Cognitive impairment was identified in 15% (n = 3) of participants. Comparative analysis of instruments administered showed high correlations among the PRIME-MD, MADRS, GAS, and SF-36. The screening instruments identified for depression and cognitive impairment can be used reliably by nurses in this setting.

  19. Associations between adult attachment style and mental health care utilization: Findings from a large-scale national survey.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl; Adams, G Camelia

    2015-09-30

    This study investigated the association between attachment style and the use of a range of mental health services controlling socio-demographic, physical and psychological risk factors. Using a large nationally representative sample from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a total of 5645 participants (18+) were included. The majority of participants reported their attachment as secure (63.5%), followed by avoidant (22.2%), unclassified (8.8%), and anxious (5.5%). The percentages using different health services studied varied widely (1.1-31.1%). People with insecure (anxious and avoidant) attachment were more likely to report accessing a hotline, having had a session of psychological counselling or therapy, getting a prescription or medicine for mental and behavioural problems. Individuals with anxious attachment only were also more likely to report the use of internet support groups or chat rooms. This is a first analysis to explore relationships between self-reported adult attachment style and a wide range of health care services. Insecurely attached individuals were more likely to use a wide range of health care services even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, psychiatric disorders and chronic health conditions. These findings suggest that adult attachment plays an important role in the use of mental health care services.

  20. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    PubMed

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  1. Self and informant reports of mental health difficulties among adults with autism findings from a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Moss, Philippa; Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44 years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when diagnosed as children. Overall ratings of mental health problems were based on data from the Family History Schedule (Bolton et al., 1994). Informant reports indicated that many of the cohort (44%) had experienced no mental health problems in adulthood; 28% had experienced mild to moderate difficulties, 23% had severe and 5% very severe problems. Depression was the most commonly reported problem. Among those adults (n = 22) able to report on their own mental state, again many (45%) reported no mental health problems, although 27% reported very severe mental health problems related to anxiety, depression and/or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Informant ratings of poor mental health were not associated with gender, severity of autism in childhood, or child or adult intelligence quotient, but there were small correlations with overall social functioning (rho = 0.34) and current autism severity (rho = 0.37). The findings highlight the difficulties of assessing mental health problems in adults with autism and the need for appropriately validated measures.

  2. Staff perspectives: What is the function of adult mental health day hospital programs?

    PubMed

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Ruhig, Megan; Mehak, Adrienne; Deathe van Dyk, Melanie; Cassin, Stephanie E; Ungar, Thomas; Koczerginski, David; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric day hospital (DH) treatment has been offered since the 1930s and is appropriate for individuals experiencing intense psychiatric symptoms without requiring 24-hour inpatient care. No empirical research has examined the specific purpose of DH treatment from the perspectives of healthcare providers within these programs. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study was the first to address the question of the purpose and function of DH treatment from the outlook of frontline workers within this setting, and confirmed anecdotal observations that DH treatment provides an alternative to intensive psychiatric care, and also operates as "bridge" between these intensive services and purely outpatient treatment. Additional information emerged, such as the importance of the name of DH programs avoiding connotations of illness, the benefits and skills that draw patients to these programs, and challenges that staff and patients experience within DH programs (e.g. short length of treatment, barriers to treatment access). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This information can enhance curriculum development within these settings. For example, given the importance of skill building, it is essential to integrate the provision of skill building and coping strategies within these settings. In addition, given that the name of the setting can impact staff (and perhaps service users as well), ensuring that the name of such program highlight wellness and recovery may enable a different type of therapeutic community to develop within these settings. Introduction Despite the benefits of psychiatric day hospitals (DH), research has not addressed staff perspectives of these programs' effectiveness and barriers. Aim To elucidate staff perceptions of Adult Mental Health DH programs at two hospitals in Canada, allowing for improved programming, enhanced structure and increased understanding of DH settings within the continuum of care

  3. Inpatient Mental Health Recapture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-07

    Administration Graduate Management Project Proposal Inpatient Mental Health Recapture A Business Case Analysis at Evans Army Community Hospital Fort Carson...This report provides a basis for evaluating potential costs and savings associated with relocation of inpatient mental health services to Evans...Recommendations Evans Army Community Hospital is currently hemorrhaging money for inpatient mental health services within the Colorado Springs

  4. Gender, Race-Ethnicity, and Psychosocial Barriers to Mental Health Care: An Examination of Perceptions and Attitudes among Adults Reporting Unmet Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Bergstresser, Sara M.

    2008-01-01

    Though researchers have described psychosocial barriers to mental health care-seeking, limited research has examined ways in which gender and race-ethnicity are associated with individuals' perceptions and attitudes. This study investigates correlates of psychosocial barriers to mental health care in a population of adults reporting unmet need for…

  5. Geography of Service Delivery: On the Role of Mental Health Service Structure in Community Senior Services for Puerto Rican Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez Ortiz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the role of mental health services structure in community senior centers and how it interacts with Puerto Rican older adults' historical, social, and cultural experiences to relate to their perceptions, awareness, and utilization of mental health services. The study was carried out within a concurrent…

  6. Geography of Service Delivery: On the Role of Mental Health Service Structure in Community Senior Services for Puerto Rican Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez Ortiz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the role of mental health services structure in community senior centers and how it interacts with Puerto Rican older adults' historical, social, and cultural experiences to relate to their perceptions, awareness, and utilization of mental health services. The study was carried out within a concurrent…

  7. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  8. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  9. Factors associated with suicide among adolescents and young adults not in mental health treatment at time of death.

    PubMed

    McLone, Suzanne G; Kouvelis, Antigone; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among Illinois residents aged 15 to 24 years. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System (IVDRS) was developed to help prevent these deaths by providing timely, complete data. Understanding the circumstances surrounding suicide for those aged 15 to 24 years who are not receiving mental health treatment can help others: (1) recognize signs of potential crisis and (2) connect them to mental health treatment. The IVDRS data were collected from five Illinois counties-Cook, DuPage, Kane, McHenry, and Peoria-from 2005 to 2010. All cases with the manner suicide, aged 15 to 24 years, were extracted for analysis. Data were described using frequencies and percentages, and statistical differences between groups were determined using χ analysis. There were a total of 386 suicides in those aged 15 to 24 years in IVDRS from 2005 to 2010. Most 15- to 19-year-olds (67%) and 20- to 24-year-olds (78%) were not receiving mental health treatment at the time of death. Among those not receiving mental health treatment, 22% and 13% of those aged 15 to 19 and 20 to 24 years, respectively, had disclosed their intent to commit suicide to another. One third were identified as being depressed or in a depressed mood (not necessarily a clinical diagnosis) in both age groups. One quarter in both age groups experienced a crisis (current, acute precipitating, or forthcoming event) within 2 weeks of their suicides. The majority of adolescents and young adults were not in mental health treatment at the time death. Among those not in mental health treatment at the time of death, the 15- to 19-year-olds were more likely to share their suicidal intentions than the 20- to 24-year-olds. Epidemiological study, level IV.

  10. Maturing out, natural recovery, and dual diagnosis: What are the implications for older adult mental health services?

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2015-12-01

    In 1962, Charles Winick proposed that addiction was a self-limiting process, whereby individuals stopped using substances once the stresses of life transitions ceased. The notion of maturing out, as labelled by Winick, often forms the basis of the natural recovery movement in alcohol and other drug (AOD) research, aiding the notion that older individuals either cease their substance use or fall victim to the higher mortality rates prevalent in substance-using populations. As more consumers present to adult mental health treatment settings with co-occurring substance use disorders, the idea that individuals will simply cease using AOD is outdated. Given the future challenges of an ageing population, it is prudent to explore those who fail to mature out of substance use, as well as challenge the notion that older adult mental health services rarely encounter substance-using individuals. The present study explores Winick's research in the context of an ageing population and older adult mental health services. It also ponders the proposition put forth in subsequent research that older individuals with lifelong substance use switch to substances that are easier to obtain and better tolerated by their ageing bodies.

  11. Are natural disasters in early childhood associated with mental health and substance use disorders as an adult?

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence risk for mental health and substance use disorders is critical to improve population health and reduce social costs imposed by these disorders. We examine the impact of experiencing a natural disaster-a serious fire, tornado, flood, earthquake, or hurricane-by age five on adult mental health and substance use disorders. The analysis uses data from the 2004 to 2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. The analysis sample includes 27,129 individuals ages 21-64 years. We also exploit information on parenting strategies to study how parents respond to natural disasters encountered by their children. We find that experiencing one or more of these natural disasters by age five increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood, particularly anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Parents alter some, but not all, of their parenting strategies following a natural disaster experienced by their children. It is important to provide support, for example through counseling services and financial assistance, to families and children exposed to natural disasters to mitigate future mental health and substance use problems attributable to such exposure.

  12. Mental Health and Risk of Secondary Medical Complications in Adults With Pediatric-Onset Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zebracki, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate mental health problems in adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injury (SCI) and explore how these problems relate to the risk of negative outcomes over time. Method: The study included 466 adults who sustained an SCI prior to age 19 years and had been injured for at least 1 year. Participants were interviewed on an approximately annual basis using a study-specific questionnaire and standardized measures of depression, anxiety, substance use, and community involvement. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the risk of negative outcomes across time as a function of depression, anxiety, and substance misuse. Results: Of the participants who reported on each domain of mental health, 26% reported misuse of alcohol or drugs (122/466), 21% reported problems with depression (78/360), and 29% reported problems with anxiety (49/168). Depression was associated with increased odds of pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, hospitalizations, pain, and smoking and lower levels of economic independence and mobility. Anxiety was associated with increased odds of hospitalization, pain, and smoking. Substance misuse predicted an increased risk of pressure ulcers, pain, and smoking and decreased odds of occupational involvement. When examining the effect of mental health with time, results showed that depression accelerated the risk of urinary tract infections, respiratory complications, and hospitalizations and anxiety and depression accelerated risk for lower occupational independence. Conclusions: The added burden that mental health difficulties pose for medical and psychosocial outcomes highlight the importance of monitoring and treating mental health symptoms in pediatric-onset SCI. PMID:24574817

  13. Mental Health Services for Older Adults Living in a Rural Wisconsin Area: Program and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holseth-Broekema, Karen; Duffey, Martha Pat

    The report describes a 3-day, two-part (community education and in-home counseling) rural elderly mental health project conducted in Waushara County, Wisconsin, during 1980-81. The first section details activities of the two components and the second section reports the clinician's experiences in the project. As covered in the first section,…

  14. Provision of Mental Health Services for Care Leavers: Transition to Adult Services. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Emily; Harland, Jennie; Atkinson, Mary; White, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Children (Leaving Care) Act 2000 was designed to address the wide variation in local authority provision for care leavers and to promote a more multi-dimensional approach to the process of leaving care. Care leavers are likely to be at greater risk of mental health difficulties than other young people and the transitional period from leaving…

  15. Mental Health and Clinical Correlates in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Derbyshire, Katherine; Schreiber, Liana R. N.; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students. Participants: College students at a large public university. Methods: An anonymous, voluntary survey was distributed via random e-mail generation to university students…

  16. Mental Health and Clinical Correlates in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Derbyshire, Katherine; Schreiber, Liana R. N.; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students. Participants: College students at a large public university. Methods: An anonymous, voluntary survey was distributed via random e-mail generation to university students…

  17. Development and Validation of a Brief Mental Health Screening Instrument for Newly Incarcerated Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Trestman, Robert L.; Wiesbrock, Valerie; Zhang, Wanli

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the development and initial psychometric evaluation of gender-specific brief screening instruments to identify undetected psychiatric impairment on incarceration. Women and men completed the Correctional Mental Health Screen (CMHS), a 56-item screen derived from validated measures. Representative subsamples completed structured…

  18. Associations between comorbid health conditions and the use of mental health services among adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Matejkowski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined to what extent the number of comorbid health conditions was associated with various mental health service utilization among people with bipolar disorder. The results of logistic regression models indicate that a greater number of comorbid medical conditions were associated with higher odds of using specialty mental health service, while they were not associated with utilization of services provided by general health care providers. The type of bipolar disorder, functional impairment, and marital status were found to be associated with the use of a specialty service, while ethnicity was the only covariate significantly related to general health care use.

  19. Quick Guide: Mental Health-Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Technical Assistance Center in Transition, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…

  20. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  1. Hepatitis C Screening Rate Among Underserved Adults With Serious Mental Illness Receiving Care in California Community Mental Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Trager, Evan; Khalili, Mandana; Masson, Carmen L; Vittinghoff, Eric; Creasman, Jennifer; Mangurian, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Although HCV is more prevalent among people with severe mental illness (SMI; e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) than in the general population (17% vs 1%), no large previous studies have examined HCV screening in this population. In this cross-sectional study, we examined administrative data for 57 170 California Medicaid enrollees with SMI to identify prevalence and predictors of HCV screening from October 2010 through September 2011. Only 4.7% (2674 of 57 170) received HCV screening, with strongest predictors being nonpsychiatric health care utilization and comorbid substance abuse.

  2. Meditation for older adults: a new look at an ancient intervention for mental health.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    New research is providing health care professionals with evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation as an intervention for older adults. Recent studies have provided evidence that meditation results in observable changes in brain structure related to memory, sense of self, empathy, and stress. Health care professionals should consider mindfulness training as a helpful intervention for older adults with problems such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, loneliness, and caregiver burden.

  3. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Mothers' marital history and the physical and mental health of young adults: an investigation over the early life course.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2013-12-01

    Using survey data from 12,424 adolescents and their mothers over 13 years in the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the purpose of this study was to examine a life course model exploring the pathways linking mothers' marital history (identified as latent classes) and young adult health outcomes. During young adulthood (Wave 4), respondents ranged in age from 19 to 32. The results demonstrated unique long-term influences of stressful marital history typologies of mothers (prior to 1995) on the physical and mental health of young adults (2008) with reference to consistently married mothers after controlling for health status in 2001. These influences operated through family processes (economic pressure and parental rejection) and adolescent psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem, academic performance, and delinquent behavior). Our findings show that vulnerable groups of youth, in terms of mothers' marital history, can be identified early for appropriate intervention efforts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Paves, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment seeking can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma has received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care. PMID:24889842

  6. Besides Depression, Number of Physiological Diseases is More Important than Physical Function on Mental Health of Elderly Adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Ren-Hau; Wu, Yi-Ying; Tsang, Hin-Yeung

    2017-02-01

    This study contrasted the relative importance between the number of physiological diseases and activities of daily living (ADLs) to the mental health of elderly adults after controlling for mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores and depression. Participants were 1342 elderly people with a mean age of 73.22 years and living in three communities in southern Taiwan. Age, gender, years of education duration, marital status, and MMSE and hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) scores were control variables. The ability of the ADLs scale scores and number of physiological diseases to predict mental health, as measured by the 12-item Chinese health questionnaire, was compared using hierarchical regression analyses. The final hierarchical model indicated that only HAMD and the number of physiological diseases scores were significant and that the former was much more predictive than the latter. The results imply that the number of physiological diseases is more predictive of mental health than ADLs scores and that depression is a dangerous risk factor for elderly people.

  7. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Paves, Andrew P

    2014-09-30

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma have received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A lot of mental illness starts in adolescence. Therefore should we shift some of the spending from adult to adolescent mental health services?

    PubMed

    Neal, David

    2015-09-01

    In May 2015 the UK elected a new government. In election campaigns, health is one of the most important areas of debate and over the preceding 12 months, the state of child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) had held a particularly high profile in the media and in political debate. Many had suggested that the rate of mental illness starting in adolescence is increasing and that service provision is not of sufficient quality or scale to meet this need. A brief review of the sources for these statistics reveals that whilst this may be true, there is a dearth of accurate and up to date data on the scale of the need for CAMHS or the extent to which it is being met. Nonetheless, members of all parties claimed to support improvements in mental health service provision for children and adolescents through increases in funding. A key question for policy makers has therefore become, from where any additional funding might be derived. One suggestion has been that funding be transferred from spending on adult mental health services. The exact practical nature of such a policy is yet to be explored in detail by government or stakeholders. The primary purpose of the present discussion is therefore to consider the possible ethical implications of such a policy in principle. The discussion forms part of a wider and evolving political and professional discourse on society's and government's attitude towards mental illness, towards the balance of individual and societal needs and towards the balance between preventative and supportive interventions to improve health.

  9. Mental health parity legislation.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Arlene; Cullen-Drill, Mary

    2010-09-01

    Although recognition and treatment of mental health disorders have become integrated into routine medical care, inequities remain regarding limits on mental health outpatient visits and higher copayments and deductibles required for mental health services when accessed. Two federal laws were passed by Congress in 2008: The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. Both laws became effective on January 1, 2010. The purpose of this article is to discuss provisions of each act and provide clinical examples describing how patients are affected by lack of parity and may potentially benefit from implementation of these new laws. Using available evidence, we examine the potential strengths and limitations of mental health parity legislation from the health policy perspectives of health care access, cost, and quality and identify the important role of nurses as patient and mental health parity advocates.

  10. Nurse-patient interaction in acute adult inpatient mental health units: a review and synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen

    2012-02-01

    Mental health nurses work with acutely unwell patients, and the busy setting is characterised by unpredictable events. This paper is a report of a review conducted to identify, analyse and synthesize research in adult acute inpatient mental health units, which focused on nurse-patient interaction. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1999-present. Qualitative studies published in English were included if they specifically investigated nurse-patient interaction in acute inpatient care in adult settings. Eighteen studies were included (23 papers). Findings were grouped into the following six categories: 1) sophisticated communication; 2) subtle discriminations; 3) managing security parameters; 4) ordinary communication; 5) reliance on colleagues; and 6) personal characteristics. These studies of acute inpatient mental health units reveal that nurse communication involves interpersonal approaches and modalities that exemplify highly developed communication and personal skills designed specifically for this challenging setting. Further quality research should focus on the conditions that enable the development of therapeutic interactional skills and the relationship of these skills to the nuanced context in which they are practiced.

  11. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help.

  12. Development and validation of a brief mental health screening instrument for newly incarcerated adults.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Trestman, Robert L; Wiesbrock, Valerie; Wanli Zhang

    2007-09-01

    The authors report the development and initial psychometric evaluation of gender-specific brief screening instruments to identify undetected psychiatric impairment on incarceration. Women and men completed the Correctional Mental Health Screen (CMHS), a 56-item screen derived from validated measures. Representative subsamples completed structured diagnostic interviews within 5 days. An 8-item screen for women and a 12-item screen for men identified inmates with current Axis I psychiatric disorders with 83% to 100% accuracy on the basis of cut points chosen to maximize negative predictive power. The CMHS showed evidence of incremental predictive utility compared with two previously validated correctional mental health screening measures with White and Black men and White women. Incremental validity was not supported with Black women, for whom the CMHS performed well in identifying true cases but not in ruling out noncases. Analyses of internal consistency, interrater, and retest reliability and convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity supported the psychometric status of the CMHS.

  13. Association of methamphetamine use and restrictive interventions in an acute adult inpatient mental health unit: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; McEvedy, Samantha; Kelly, Kathleen; Long, Bec; Anderson, Jess; Dalzell, Elaine; Maguire, Tessa; Tacey, Mark; Furness, Trentham

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe incidences of restrictive interventions and the association of methamphetamine use at an acute adult inpatient mental health unit in metropolitan Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A total of 232 consecutive consumer admissions to the inpatient unit across a 3-month period were described for illicit substance use and the use of restrictive interventions (seclusion, mechanical restraint, and physical restraint) prior to and during admission. Of all admissions, 25 (10.8%) involved consumers subjected to a restrictive intervention. Methamphetamine use was either self-reported or detected by saliva test for 71 (30.6%) consumers. Following multivariate analyses, methamphetamine use (odds ratio (OR): 7.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.33-26.31) and restrictive intervention in the emergency department prior to admission (OR: 8.85, 95% CI: 2.83-27.70) were significant independent predictors of the use of restrictive interventions after inpatient admission. Anecdotal observations provided by clinical mental health staff that consumers intoxicated with methamphetamine appear to require restrictive intervention more frequently than other consumers was confirmed with the results of the current study. As the state of Victoria in Australia is on a pathway to the elimination of the use of restrictive interventions in mental health services, clinicians need to develop management strategies that provide specialist mental health care using the least-restrictive interventions. Although 26.8% of methamphetamine users were secluded after admission, restrictive interventions should not be the default management strategy for consumers who present with self-report or positive screen for methamphetamine use. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. Insomnia severity as a mediator of the association between mental health symptoms and alcohol use in young adult veterans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; DiBello, Angelo M; Carey, Kate B; Borsari, Brian; Pedersen, Eric R

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has documented associations between mental health and alcohol use, mental health and insomnia, and insomnia and alcohol use. This study examined insomnia severity as a mediator of the association between mental health and alcohol-related outcomes in young adult veterans. Veterans aged 18-34 years (N=622, 83% male) who reported drinking in the past year completed assessments at baseline and one-month follow-up as part of a larger intervention trial. Participants reported symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at baseline, insomnia severity at one month, and alcohol use and related consequences at baseline and one month. Mediation analyses using bootstrapped confidence intervals were used to examine the indirect effects of baseline mental health symptoms on alcohol-related outcomes at one month via insomnia severity. Insomnia severity was associated with both drinking quantity and alcohol-related consequences. Greater depressive (but not PTSD) symptoms were associated directly with more alcohol-related consequences. Neither depressive nor PTSD symptoms had direct effects on drinking quantity when controlling for the other mental health symptoms (e.g., depressive symptoms did not predict drinking quantity when controlling for symptoms of PTSD). However, symptoms of depression and PTSD predicted drinks per week and alcohol-related consequences indirectly through insomnia severity. Symptoms of depression and PTSD increase risk for alcohol use and related consequences in part by increasing symptoms of insomnia. Findings suggest that insomnia may be an appropriate target for prevention and intervention efforts among heavy-drinking Veterans reporting symptoms of depression or PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Vona, Pamela L.; Santostefano, Antonella M.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034

  16. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.

  17. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  18. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  19. Does a short-term intervention promote mental and general health among young adults? – An evaluation of counselling

    PubMed Central

    Winzer, Regina; Brucefors, Agneta Bergsten

    2007-01-01

    Background Since 1988, self-reported mental health problems in Sweden have increased more among young people than in any other age group. Young adults aged 18 – 29 with minor mental health problems were welcomed to four (at most) counselling sessions led by psychotherapists. The present study aimed to evaluate the method's appropriateness and usefulness. Methods The study population was recruited consecutively during six months (N = 74) and consisted of 59 women and 15 men. Fifty-one, 46 women and five men, met the criterion for a personal semi-structured interview three months post intervention. Self-assessed health data were collected on three occasions using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Pearlin's Personal Mastery Scale and two items from the Swedish Living Conditions Surveys. Thirteen women and six men were not statistically assessed due to incomplete data, but were interviewed by telephone. Four men refused to be interviewed and became dropouts. Results The largest group of the study population had long been troubled by their problem(s): 43 percent for over three years and 28 percent for over one year. Among those personally interviewed, 76 percent reported psychological distress (> 3 GHQ points) before the counselling. After the counselling, GHQ-12 distress decreased by 50 percent while mastery and perceived health status increased significantly. A majority experienced an improved life situation, found out something new about themselves and could make use of the sessions afterwards. Personal participant session contentment was about 70 percent and all counsellees would recommend the intervention to a friend. Those interviewed by telephone were not statistically assessed due to incomplete health data. Their personal contentment was just under 50 percent, though all except one would recommend the counselling to a friend. Their expectations of the intervention were more result-orientated compared to the more process-directed personally

  20. Aligning Mental Health Treatments with the Developmental Stage and Needs of Late Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Skehan, Brian; Davis, Maryann

    2017-04-01

    Transitional age youth (TAY) are in a discrete developmental stage, different from both adolescents and mature adults. Serious mental illness can result in their delayed psychosocial development and morbidity. Systemic, provider, and individual barriers result in poor access to care for these youth, potentially impeding their transition to mature adulthood. Current strategies for TAY treatment include patient centered care, vocational and educational support, and shared decision making. There is a paucity of evidence-based practices to effectively treat this population or provide practice guidelines. The research required to do so should be a priority.

  1. Alcohol use, Mental Health, and HIV-related Risk Behaviors Among Adult Men in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Benegal, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    This study critically examined associations among past year alcohol use, self-rated mental health and HIV risk-related behaviors for men and their partners, i.e., two or more partners and/or perpetration of partner violence. Data are reported from a population sample of 1137 men aged 16 to 49 in Karnataka. Overall, 9.5% of all men reported HIV risk-related behaviors, 38.1% consumed alcohol, and about half (54.5%) of all current drinkers met criteria for hazardous alcohol use. Hazardous alcohol use and poorer mental health remained significantly associated with HIV-risk related behaviors after controlling for socio-demographics and psychosocial risk factors. More severe alcohol misuse, specifically alcohol dependence, and co-morbid hazardous alcohol use and poorer mental health, was associated with over 2 and 5 fold increases respectively in men’s HIV risk-related behaviors. Implications of findings for HIV prevention and intervention programs for men and their partners and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20567896

  2. Gender differences in a randomized controlled trial treating tobacco use among adolescents and young adults with mental health concerns.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Fromont, Sebastien C; Ramo, Danielle E; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Delucchi, Kevin; Brown, Richard A; Hall, Sharon M

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of tobacco use in mental health settings is rare despite high rates of comorbidity. With a focus on early intervention, we evaluated a tobacco treatment intervention among adolescents and young adults recruited from outpatient, school-based, and residential mental health settings and tested for gender differences. Intervention participants received computerized motivational feedback at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months and were offered 12 weeks of cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Usual care participants received a self-help guide and brief cessation advice. We examined 7-day point prevalence abstinence with biochemical confirmation at 3, 6, and 12 months; smoking reduction; and 24-hr quit attempts. At baseline, the sample (N = 60, 52% female, mean age = 19.5±2.9 years, 40% non-Hispanic Caucasian) averaged 7±6 cigarettes/day, 62% smoked daily, 38% smoked ≤ 30 min of waking, 12% intended to quit in the next month, 47% had a parent who smoked, and 3 of 5 of participants' closest friends smoked on average. During the 12-month study, 47% of the sample reduced their smoking, 80% quit for 24 hr, and 11%, 13%, and 17% confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, respectively, with no differences by treatment condition (ps > .400). Over time, abstinence was greater among girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.9) than among boys, and abstinence was greater for lighter smokers than heavier smokers (AOR = 4.5) (p < .05). No mental health or other measured variables predicted abstinence. Adolescent and young adult smokers with mental health concerns are a challenging group to engage and to effectively treat for tobacco addiction, particularly heavier smokers and boys. Innovative approaches are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  4. No health without mental health.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin; Patel, Vikram; Saxena, Shekhar; Maj, Mario; Maselko, Joanna; Phillips, Michael R; Rahman, Atif

    2007-09-08

    About 14% of the global burden of disease has been attributed to neuropsychiatric disorders, mostly due to the chronically disabling nature of depression and other common mental disorders, alcohol-use and substance-use disorders, and psychoses. Such estimates have drawn attention to the importance of mental disorders for public health. However, because they stress the separate contributions of mental and physical disorders to disability and mortality, they might have entrenched the alienation of mental health from mainstream efforts to improve health and reduce poverty. The burden of mental disorders is likely to have been underestimated because of inadequate appreciation of the connectedness between mental illness and other health conditions. Because these interactions are protean, there can be no health without mental health. Mental disorders increase risk for communicable and non-communicable diseases, and contribute to unintentional and intentional injury. Conversely, many health conditions increase the risk for mental disorder, and comorbidity complicates help-seeking, diagnosis, and treatment, and influences prognosis. Health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, and the quality of care for both mental and physical health conditions for these people could be improved. We need to develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions that can be integrated into management of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria; gender-based violence; antenatal care; integrated management of childhood illnesses and child nutrition; and innovative management of chronic disease. An explicit mental health budget might need to be allocated for such activities. Mental health affects progress towards the achievement of several

  5. Reduction of referral to assessment time for an older adults community mental health team.

    PubMed

    Sin Fai Lam, Chun Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggested that waiting times within the older adults community mental health team (OA CMHT) had been increasing over time. An assessment and evaluation was indicated to ensure best quality care was provided for patients. A comparison was made between waiting times in January to December 2011 compared with August 2013 to July 2014. In 2011 the mean number of days until initial assessment from the point of referral was 12 days for routine cases, and 3.6 days for urgent cases. The re-audit showed the number of days increased to 15.89 days for routine cases, and 9.81 days for urgent cases. Contributory factors were reviewed, and it was felt that to address this problem, a duty worker role was necessary. The role of the duty worker was divided into triaging and allocating work. The triaging process was to ensure all urgent cases were highlighted early and acted upon. The duty worker's role was also to gather sufficient information from the referrer, to reduce the risks of inadequate knowledge delaying assessment. In addition, the allocating process required the duty worker to designate a clinician in charge of the case upon receipt of referral. This ensured that clinicians were able to offer the earliest possible appointment slot for the initial assessment, and thus reduce waiting times. Following implementation, findings from September 2014 to February 2015 showed an improvement in average waiting times, as well as an improvement in the percentage of assessments reviewed within previously set standards. For routine reviews, the mean time until assessment was 10.68 days. For urgent reviews, the mean time until initial assessment was 6.8 days. However, it was noted that majority of urgent reviews were still not being reviewed in time. The outcomes of this study demonstrated an improvement of both waiting times, and percentage of patients being seen within set standards following a single intervention. In the current climate of cost efficiency savings

  6. Predicting quality of life in adults with severe mental illness: Extending the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A; Tansey, Timothy N; Frain, Michael P; Bezyak, Jill L

    2016-02-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework was used to investigate person-environment contextual factors, mental functioning, activity limitations, and participation as predictors of quality of life (QoL) in adults with severe mental illness (SMI). A quantitative descriptive design using multiple regression and correlational analyses was used. One hundred ninety-four individuals with SMI from 4 community-based mental health agencies in 2 states from Southern and Midwestern regions of the United States participated in the study. The criterion variable was QoL. Predictor variables comprised the ICF constructs: (a) demographics, (b) personal factors, (c) environmental factors, (d) mental functioning, (e) activity limitations, and (f) participation. A majority of participants were White (60.3%) and not employed (59.8%). Half of them received Social Security Disability Income and/or Supplemental Security Income (50.0%). Correlations between QoL and the predictor variables ranged from small to large (r = .01 to .63, respectively). The final regression model accounted for 58% of the variance in QoL. After controlling for other factors, social competency, social support, societal stigma, psychological distress, cognitive dysfunction, activity limitations, and participation were found to be significant predictors of QoL in adults with SMI. The study supports the use of the ICF to predict QoL for adults with SMI. Evidence-based treatments focused on increasing social competence, social support, and participation should be developed to promote rehabilitation outcomes and overall QoL. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  8. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  9. Mental Health Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Strength and Quality of Evidence 2-4 Table 2-3 Targeted Skills 2-6 Table 3-1 Fundamental Principles of Mental Health Training and Implementation 3...well-being, readiness and performance. 3.3.9 User Acceptability Mental health training must be perceived to be useful by those being trained in order...the training from helpful. However, while user acceptability is necessary, it is not sufficient for establishing good mental health training [5], [6

  10. Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Roads Media Mental Health: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Salud mental: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Suicide (An Introduction) - English Suicide (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP3 ... MP3 Siloam Family Health ...

  11. Paving the Way to Change for Youth at the Gap between Child and Adolescent and Adult Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Sabina

    2017-06-01

    By 2020 mental illness will be one of the 5 most common illnesses causing morbidity, mortality and disability among youth. At least 20% of Canadian youth have a psychiatric disorder the impact of which can dramatically alter their life trajectory. Focus on the factors contributing to this problem is crucial. Lack of coordination between child and adolescent mental health systems (CAMHS) and adult mental health systems (AMHS) and consequent disruption of care during this vulnerable time of transition is one such factor. Reasons for and the impact of this divide are multilayered, many of which are embedded in outdated, poorly informed approaches to care for this population in transition. This paper considers the etiology behind these reasons as potential foci for change. The paper also briefly outlines recent initiatives ongoing in Canada and internationally that reflect appreciation of these factors in the attempt to minimize the gap in service provision for youth in transition. The need to continue with research and program development endeavours for youth with mental illness whereby access to services and readiness for transition is no longer determined by age is strongly supported.

  12. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    should be screened and, when necessary, assessed for mental health and substance abuse disorders. The screening should occur at the youth's earliest point of contact with the juvenile justice system and should be available at all stages of juvenile justice processing. Whenever possible, youth with serious mental health disorders should be diverted from the juvenile justice system [58]. If delinquent youths do not receive the necessary evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation, they face the real prospect of further incarceration in adult correctional facilities. Improved screening and treatment require better interagency collaboration, established standards of care, and continuing research on the mental health needs of youth in the juvenile justice system. Better mental health care for youth in the juvenile justice system supports the goal of rehabilitation. Mental health professionals should support these efforts as the appropriate response to meet the challenges of the new century.

  13. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  14. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  15. Who is the Treatment-Seeking Young Adult with Severe Obesity: A Comprehensive Characterization with Emphasis on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Dreber, Helena; Reynisdottir, Signy; Angelin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize treatment-seeking young adults (16–25 years) with severe obesity, particularly mental health problems. Study Design and Participants Cross-sectional study of 165 participants (132 women, 33 men) with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2 with comorbidities, enrolling in a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program. Method Data collection at admission of present and life-time health issues including symptomatology of anxiety, depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Adult ADHD Self-Report scale); self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), suicide attempts, health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 Health Survey), psychosocial functioning related to obesity (Obesity-related Problems Scale), cardiorespiratory fitness (Astrand´s bicycle ergometer test), somatic and psychiatric co-morbidities, cardiometabolic risk factors, and micronutritional status. We used multiple regression analysis to identify variables independently associated with present anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Results Mean body mass index was 39.2 kg/m2 (SD = 5.2). We found evidence of poor mental health, including present psychiatric diagnoses (29%), symptomatology of anxiety (47%), depression (27%) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (37%); low self-esteem (42%), attempted suicide (12%), and low quality of life (physical component score = 46, SD = 11.2; mental component score = 36, SD = 13.9, P<0.001 for difference). Variables independently associated with present anxiety symptomatology (R2 = 0.33, P<0.001) included low self-esteem (P<0.001) and pain (P = 0.003), whereas present depressive symptomatology (R2 = 0.38, P<0.001) was independently associated with low self-esteem (P<0.001), low cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.009) and obesity-related problems (P = 0.018). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 3%, and hypertension 2%. Insulin resistance was present in 82%, lipid abnormality in 62%, and poor

  16. Improving mental health through primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Dowrick, C

    1992-01-01

    The government white paper Health of the nation has highlighted mental health as a key issue for the next decade. Primary care is being encouraged to take a leading role in developing effective services for people with mental health problems. This paper reviews current research on key aspects of mental health in adults: the prevalence of mental health problems, improving detection and management of mental health problems, the role of counselling, and communication between primary and secondary care. Recommendations are made for initiatives in both research and service development. PMID:1457175

  17. Adolescent ADHD and adult physical and mental health, work performance, and financial stress.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Brook, David W; Zhang, Chenshu; Seltzer, Nathan; Finch, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    There is a scarcity of longitudinal studies of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed until adulthood. We studied the relationship between ADHD in adolescence and impaired general physical health, impaired general mental health, antisocial personality disorder, impaired work performance, and high financial stress in adulthood. A prospective design incorporated 6 assessments of participants spanning mean ages from 14 to 37 years. Two baseline assessments were taken between ages 14 and 16 years, and 5 outcome assessments were taken at mean age 37 years. Participants were assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires. The participants were from a community sample of individuals initially drawn in 1975 and followed to a mean age of 37 years in 2009. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ADHD in adolescence as related to internal stress in adulthood were 1.82 (95% CI = 1.01-3.25; P < .05) for impaired general physical health, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.23-4.51; P < .01) for impaired general mental health, and 3.28 (95% CI = 1.51-7.13; P < .01) for antisocial personality disorder. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for ADHD in adolescence as related to external stress were 2.46 (95% CI = 1.37-4.43; P < .01) for impaired work performance and 3.33 (95% CI = 1.70-6.55; P < .001) for high financial stress. Clinicians should focus on early diagnosis and treatment of adolescent ADHD because it is a major predictor of an array of physical, mental, work, and financial problems in adulthood.

  18. Mental distress and health care use among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer: A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sapna; Avila, Jaqueline C; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Russell, Heidi; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Schwartz, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    The current study was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental distress among survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer and a comparison group. A total of 875 AYA cancer survivors who were diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 years and who were at least 5 years from their initial diagnosis were identified from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys. A comparison group was created. The Kessler nonspecific mental/psychological distress scale was used to examine none/low, moderate, and severe distress. The issues of whether individuals talked to mental health professionals within the previous year and if they could afford mental health care also were examined. Variables (ie, demographics, behavioral [eg, smoking status], comorbidity, and mental health visits) associated with distress among the 2 groups were identified using multinomial logistic regressions. Survivors reported mental distress more often than the comparison group (moderate: 23.2% vs 16.9%; and severe: 8.4% vs 3.0% [P<.001]). Survivors cited not being able to afford mental health care more often (6.4% vs 2.3%; P = .002). Moreover, 74.7% and 52.2% of survivors, respectively, with moderate and severe distress had not talked to a mental health professional. Contrary to the comparison group, survivors who were current smokers reported severe distress more often compared with nonsmokers (relative risk, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-8.84 [P = .01]). Having public and no insurance versus private insurance and report of sleep-related trouble within the previous week were found to be associated with greater distress among survivors. AYA cancer survivors are more likely to demonstrate mental distress than individuals without cancer. Nevertheless, few survivors may be receiving professional mental health services. Survivors need greater access to mental health screening and counseling to address the current gaps in care delivery. Cancer 2017;123:869-78.

  19. Do Web-based Mental Health Literacy Interventions Improve the Mental Health Literacy of Adult Consumers? Results From a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of mental health literacy (MHL) have been identified as an important contributor to the mental health treatment gap. Interventions to improve MHL have used traditional media (eg, community talks, print media) and new platforms (eg, the Internet). Evaluations of interventions using conventional media show improvements in MHL improve community recognition of mental illness as well as knowledge, attitude, and intended behaviors toward people having mental illness. However, the potential of new media, such as the Internet, to enhance MHL has yet to be systematically evaluated. Objective Study aims were twofold: (1) To systematically appraise the efficacy of Web-based interventions in improving MHL. (2) To establish if increases in MHL translated into improvement in individual health seeking and health outcomes as well as reductions in stigma toward people with mental illness. Methods We conducted a systematic search and appraisal of all original research published between 2000 and 2015 that evaluated Web-based interventions to improve MHL. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used to report findings. Results Fourteen studies were included: 10 randomized controlled trials and 4 quasi-experimental studies. Seven studies were conducted in Australia. A variety of Web-based interventions were identified ranging from linear, static websites to highly interactive interventions such as social media games. Some Web-based interventions were specifically designed for people living with mental illness whereas others were applicable to the general population. Interventions were more likely to be successful if they included “active ingredients” such as a structured program, were tailored to specific populations, delivered evidenced-based content, and promoted interactivity and experiential learning. Conclusions Web-based interventions targeting MHL are more likely to be successful if they include

  20. Do Web-based Mental Health Literacy Interventions Improve the Mental Health Literacy of Adult Consumers? Results From a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca; Protheroe, Joanne; Mahtani, Kamal Ram; Antoniades, Josefine

    2016-06-20

    Low levels of mental health literacy (MHL) have been identified as an important contributor to the mental health treatment gap. Interventions to improve MHL have used traditional media (eg, community talks, print media) and new platforms (eg, the Internet). Evaluations of interventions using conventional media show improvements in MHL improve community recognition of mental illness as well as knowledge, attitude, and intended behaviors toward people having mental illness. However, the potential of new media, such as the Internet, to enhance MHL has yet to be systematically evaluated. Study aims were twofold: (1) To systematically appraise the efficacy of Web-based interventions in improving MHL. (2) To establish if increases in MHL translated into improvement in individual health seeking and health outcomes as well as reductions in stigma toward people with mental illness. We conducted a systematic search and appraisal of all original research published between 2000 and 2015 that evaluated Web-based interventions to improve MHL. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used to report findings. Fourteen studies were included: 10 randomized controlled trials and 4 quasi-experimental studies. Seven studies were conducted in Australia. A variety of Web-based interventions were identified ranging from linear, static websites to highly interactive interventions such as social media games. Some Web-based interventions were specifically designed for people living with mental illness whereas others were applicable to the general population. Interventions were more likely to be successful if they included "active ingredients" such as a structured program, were tailored to specific populations, delivered evidenced-based content, and promoted interactivity and experiential learning. Web-based interventions targeting MHL are more likely to be successful if they include active ingredients. Improvements in MHL see concomitant

  1. Self-reported utilization of mental health services in the adult German population--evidence for unmet needs? Results of the DEGS1-Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH).

    PubMed

    Mack, Simon; Jacobi, Frank; Gerschler, Anja; Strehle, Jens; Höfler, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Maske, Ulrike E; Hapke, Ulfert; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides up-to-date data on service use for mental health problems and disorders among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany derived from the Mental Health Module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH; N=4483). Data are based exclusively on self-report. Respondents were examined by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview DIA-X/M-CIDI to assess diagnoses according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Service use, i.e. contact to mental health care services, due to mental health problems was assessed for the past 12 months and lifetime, by type of sector and type of institution. Among respondents with a 12-month diagnosis of a mental disorder, 23.5% of the women and 11.6% of the men reported any service use in the past 12 months. Service use depends on type of diagnosis, comorbidity and socio-demographic characteristics. Lowest 12-month utilization rates were found for substance use disorders (15.6%; lifetime use 37.3%), highest for psychotic disorders (40.5%; lifetime 72.1%). Further, a considerable time lap was found between disorder onset and subsequent service use among the majority of cases with anxiety and mood disorders. This paper provides self-reported epidemiological data on mental health service use in Germany, complementing administrative statistics and the predecessor mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS-MHS) from 1998. Despite considerable changes in the mental health field in Germany and the existence of a comprehensive mental health care system without major financial barriers, we find no indications of substantially higher utilization rates for mental disorders as compared to other comparable European countries. Further, no indications of major overall changes in utilization rates are apparent. To pinpoint areas with unmet needs, more detailed analyses of the data are needed taking into account type

  2. Young adults' experiences of seeking online information about diabetes and mental health in the age of social media.

    PubMed

    Fergie, Gillian; Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate

    2016-12-01

    The Internet is a primary source of health information for many. Since the widespread adoption of social media, user-generated health-related content has proliferated, particularly around long-term health issues such as diabetes and common mental health disorders (CMHDs). To explore perceptions and experiences of engaging with health information online in a sample of young adults familiar with social media environments and variously engaged in consuming user-generated content. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged 18-30, with experience of diabetes or CMHDs. Data were analysed following a thematic networks approach to explore key themes around online information-seeking and content consumption practices. Although participants primarily discussed well-rehearsed approaches to health information-seeking online, particularly reliance on search engines, their accounts also reflected active engagement with health-related content on social media sites. Navigating between professionally produced websites and user-generated content, many of the young adults seemed to appreciate different forms of health knowledge emanating from varied sources. Participants described negotiating health content based on social media practices and features and assessing content heuristically. Some also discussed habitual consumption of content related to their condition as integrated into their everyday social media use. Technologies such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube offer opportunities to consume and assess content which users deem relevant and useful. As users and organizations continue to colonize social media platforms, opportunities are increasing for health communication and intervention. However, how such innovations are adopted is dependent on their alignment with users' expectations and consumption practices. ©2015 The Authors. Health Expectations. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Transition to adult mental health services for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Italy: Parents' and clinicians' experiences.

    PubMed

    Reale, Laura; Frassica, Simona; Gollner, Astrid; Bonati, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of parents and clinicians in relation to the transition from child and adolescent neuropsychiatric services (CANPS) to adult services for people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Italy. Parents of people with ADHD who reached the transition boundary for CANPS were sampled from the A.I.F.A. association (Italian Association of ADHD Families). We thematically analyzed informative and qualitative questionnaires completed by parents and clinicians. Parents' (n = 24) and clinicians' (n = 27) experiences differed slightly on challenges and unmet needs, whereas clinicians agreed on the variables required for an optimal transition process. Poor transition and multiple barriers to such care were identified. Specifically, far fewer people received services, especially public health services, after reaching the age of 18, and perceived barriers included problems with user access, limited transition protocols, poor service coordination, and possible lack of ADHD-related knowledge on the part of adult practitioners. Care continuity in mental healthcare remains a need to be prioritized and better defined also for ADHD patients (and their parents). Parents' and clinicians' experiences are more likely to be positive if transition management is characterized by a gradual preparation, a period of parallel care, and commonly acknowledged, clear information on available services and how to access them. Identifying the needs and barriers of the people representing the different roles (clinicians, parents, and users) involved in the transition to adult mental health services is of particular importance in designing effective, shared transfer planning procedures.

  4. Prospective associations between childhood low-level lead exposure and adult mental health problems: the Port Pirie cohort study.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Alexander C; Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Baghurst, Peter A; Sawyer, Michael G; Galletly, Cherrie; Sim, Malcolm R; Clark, Levina S

    2013-12-01

    Low-level environmental lead exposure during childhood is associated with poorer emotional/behavioural functioning in later childhood and adolescence. Scarce research has examined whether these apparent effects persist into adulthood. This study is the first to examine prospective associations between lead exposure across early childhood and several common adult mental health problems. Childhood data (including blood lead concentrations) and adult data (from mental health questionnaires and psychiatric interviews) were available for 210 participants (44% males, mean age=26.3 years) from the Port Pirie cohort study (1979-1982 birth cohort). Participants had a mean childhood (to 7 years) average blood lead concentration of 17.2μg/dL. Among females, childhood blood lead showed small significant positive associations with lifetime diagnoses of drug and alcohol abuse and social phobia, and with anxiety, somatic and antisocial personality problems. For example: for a 10μg/dL blood lead increase, females were 2.84 times (95% CI 1.10, 7.30) more likely to have an alcohol abuse diagnosis. However, adjustment for childhood covariates - particularly stimulation within the home environment - rendered these associations non-significant. No significant or sizeable unadjusted or adjusted associations were seen for males. The associations between early lead exposure and emotional/behavioural functioning in children might persist into adulthood, at least for females. However, it is unclear whether such results arise from residual confounding, or other mechanisms. Interventions that focus on improving the childhood home environment may have a long-term positive impact on adult mental health outcomes. However, more prospective research using large and representative samples is needed to substantiate these results.

  5. Protocol for a mixed studies systematic review on the implementation of the recovery approach in adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Piat, Myra; Sofouli, Eleni; Sabetti, Judith; Lambrou, Angella; Chodos, Howard; Briand, Catherine; Vachon, Brigitte; Curran, Janet

    2017-08-30

    Recovery is integral to mental health planning in G-8 countries including Canada. A recovery-oriented approach to care aims to promote personal empowerment, illness self-management and a life beyond services for people with serious mental illness (SMI), while reducing the financial burden associated with mental illness. Although there is a growing body of literature on recovery, no synthesis of research on the implementation of recovery into mental health services exists. The objective is to conduct a mixed studies systematic review on the operationalisation of recovery into mental health services for adults with SMI. It will inform the transformation of Canadian services to a recovery orientation, but may be applicable to other countries. Seven databases including PubMed, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Scopus will be searched for peer-reviewed empirical studies published from 1998 to December 2016. Systematic reviews and studies using quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodologies will be included. Secondary searches will be conducted in reference lists of all selected full text articles. Handsearches will also be performed in the tables of contents of three recovery-focused journals for the last 5 years. International experts in the field will be contacted for comments and advice. Data extraction will include identification and methodological synthesis of each study; definition of recovery; information on recovery implementation; facilitators and barriers and study outcomes. A quality assessment will be conducted on each study. The data will be synthesised and a stepwise thematic analysis performed. Ethics approval is not required for this knowledge synthesis. Findings will be disseminated through knowledge translation activities including: (1) a 1-day symposium; (2) presentations in national and international conferences and to local stakeholders; (3) publications in peer-reviewed journals; (4) posts on the

  6. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...

  7. Small individual loans and mental health: a randomized controlled trial among South African adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia CH; Hamad, Rita; Karlan, Dean; Ozer, Emily J; Zinman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Background In the developing world, access to small, individual loans has been variously hailed as a poverty-alleviation tool – in the context of "microcredit" – but has also been criticized as "usury" and harmful to vulnerable borrowers. Prior studies have assessed effects of access to credit on traditional economic outcomes for poor borrowers, but effects on mental health have been largely ignored. Methods Applicants who had previously been rejected (n = 257) for a loan (200% annual percentage rate – APR) from a lender in South Africa were randomly assigned to a "second-look" that encouraged loan officers to approve their applications. This randomized encouragement resulted in 53% of applicants receiving a loan they otherwise would not have received. All subjects were assessed 6–12 months later with questions about demographics, socio-economic status, and two indicators of mental health: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale (CES-D) and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were calculated using multinomial probit regressions. Results Randomization into receiving a "second look" for access to credit increased perceived stress in the combined sample of women and men; the findings were stronger among men. Credit access was associated with reduced depressive symptoms in men, but not women. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a mechanism used to reduce the economic stress of extremely poor individuals can have mixed effects on their experiences of psychological stress and depressive symptomatology. Our data support the notion that mental health should be included as a measure of success (or failure) when examining potential tools for poverty alleviation. Further longitudinal research is needed in South Africa and other settings to understand how borrowing at high interest rates affects gender roles and daily life activities. CCT: ISRCTN 10734925 PMID:19087316

  8. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  9. Mental and nonmental health hospital admissions among chronically homeless adults before and after supportive housing placement.

    PubMed

    Rieke, Katherine; Smolsky, Ann; Bock, Erin; Erkes, Laura Peet; Porterfield, Erin; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals experiencing chronic homelessness may utilize hospital services more frequently than the general population. Understanding the benefits of providing permanent supportive housing to these individuals can lead to improved services for this population. This study examined the effect of supportive housing placement on hospital admissions of adults who were homeless. Admissions were examined for a period of one-year pre- and postsupportive housing placement for 23 adults. Results showed a reduction in the number of emergency department admissions and an increase in outpatient admissions during the year following housing placement, indicating that supportive housing may encourage more appropriate use of health care services.

  10. A cross-sectional study about associations between personality characteristics and mental health service utilization in a Korean national community sample of adults with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Seong, Su Jeong; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Jun Young; Hahm, Bong Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2017-05-05

    Personality traits are not only associated with psychiatric symptoms, but also with treatment seeking behavior. Our purpose was to examine the relationship between mental health service utilization and personality characteristics in a nationwide community sample of Korean adults. Of the 6022 subjects aged 18-74 years who participated in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 1544 (25.6%) with a lifetime diagnosis of any DSM-IV psychiatric disorder were analyzed. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and personality constructs were measured by Big Five Personality Inventory-10. Of the 1544 participants, 275 (17.8%) had used mental health services. Multivariate analyses revealed positive associations between mental health service utilization and both neuroticism and openness, and an inverse association between mental health service utilization and agreeableness. These findings suggest that specific personality traits may have a role in treatment-seeking behaviors for mental health problems independent of the psychiatric disorder.

  11. Implementation of a youth-adult partnership model in youth mental health systems research: Challenges and successes.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Olivia S; Herzog, Tyson M; Schiralli, Jordana E; Hawke, Lisa D; Chaim, Gloria; Henderson, Joanna L

    2017-03-14

    By integrating Youth-Adult Partnerships (Y-APs) in organizational decision making and programming in health-care settings, youth can be engaged in decisions that affect them in a way that draws on their unique skills and expertise. Despite challenges, Y-APs can have many benefits for youth and adults alike, as well as for the programmes and initiatives that they undertake together. This article describes the development, implementation and success of a Y-AP initiative at the McCain Centre at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, a large urban hospital. The McCain Y-AP implementation model was developed based on the existing literature, guided by the team's progressive experience. The development and implementation procedure is described, with indicators of the model's success and recommendations for organizations interested integrating youth engagement. The McCain Y-AP has integrated youth into a wide range of mental health and substance use-related initiatives, including research projects, conferences and educational presentations. The model of youth engagement is flexible to include varying degrees of involvement, allowing youth to contribute in ways that fit their availability, interest and skills. Youth satisfaction has been strong and both the youth and adult partners have learned from the experience. Through the McCain Y-AP initiative, youth engagement has helped advance numerous initiatives in a variety of ways. Flexible engagement, multifaceted mentorship, reciprocal learning and authentic decision making have led to a successful partnership that has provided opportunities for growth for all those involved. Health-care organizations interested in engaging youth can learn from the McCain Y-AP experience to guide their engagement initiatives and maximize success. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A prospective study of the substance use and mental health outcomes of young adult former and current cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Silins, Edmund; Swift, Wendy; Slade, Tim; Toson, Barbara; Rodgers, Bryan; Hutchinson, Delyse M

    2017-09-01

    The extent to which young adult former cannabis users fare better than infrequent users is unclear. We investigated the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and substance use and mental health outcomes at age 27. Data were from the 20+ year cohort of the PATH Through Life Study. Lifetime cannabis users (n = 1410) at age 23 were classified as former/occasional/regular users. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between cannabis use status at age 23 and six outcomes assessed at age 27. Compared with occasional cannabis users: (i) former users had odds of subsequent tobacco use [odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.85], illicit drug use (cannabis, OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.28; other illicit drugs, OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.22-0.39) and mental health impairment (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92) that were 29-78% lower; and (ii) regular users had odds of subsequent frequent alcohol use (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 0.67-1.34), tobacco use (OR = 3.67, 95% CI 2.54-5.30), cannabis use (OR = 11.73, 95% CI 6.81-20.21) and dependence symptoms (OR = 12.60, 95% CI 8.38-18.94), and other illicit drug use (OR = 2.95, 95% CI 2.07-4.21) that were 2-13 times greater. Associations attenuated after covariate adjustment, and most remained significant. Clear associations exist between cannabis use status in young adulthood and subsequent mental health and substance use. While early intervention remains important to prevent regular cannabis use and the associated harms, experimentation with cannabis use in the years leading into young adulthood may not necessarily determine an immutable pathway to mental health problems and illicit substance use. [Silins E, Swift W, Slade T, Toson B, Rodgers B, Hutchinson DM. A prospective study of the substance use and mental health outcomes of young adult former and current cannabis users. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other

  13. Tertiary education and its association with mental health indicators and educational factors among Arctic young adults: the NAAHS cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bania, Elisabeth Valmyr; Kvernmo, Siv Eli

    2016-01-01

    conduct problems choose lower or intermediate education, and males in need of specialist mental health care have half the chance to complete intermediate tertiary education compared with males not in contact with the mental health service. Closer cooperation between low threshold social services, general practitioners, mental health services and higher study institutions can help young male adults complete tertiary education. PMID:27680200

  14. Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors.

  15. Mental health. Inside job.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Emma

    2005-11-17

    Four out of five prisoners suffer mental health problems. There are 139 liaison teams responsible for ensuring offenders are directed to hospitals where appropriate, but they are under-resourced and stretched to capacity. Mental health teams are working to reduce inappropriate referrals.

  16. Rethinking Mental Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.

    Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…

  17. Meeting the needs? Perceived support of a nurse-led lifestyle programme for young adults with mental illness in a primary health-care setting.

    PubMed

    Rönngren, Ylva; Björk, Annette; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Haage, David; Enmarker, Ingela; Audulv, Åsa

    2017-04-04

    Being a young adult with mental illness challenges all aspects of health, including an increased risk for developing lifestyle-related diseases. There is a lack of lifestyle programmes in primary health care that target physical, mental, and social needs for young adults with mental illness. The aim of the present study was to describe the experiences of young adults with mental illness receiving support from a nurse-led lifestyle programme, and how this support was related to their life context, including challenges and coping strategies. Two focus groups and six individual interviews were performed with 13 young adults (16-25 years), and analysed using a qualitative content analysis. The findings showed that the young adults experienced challenges in their daily lives, including psychiatric symptoms, lack of social understanding, and loneliness. The study indicated that the programme could support lifestyle habits with its components of supportive interpersonal relationships, awareness of coping strategies, understanding of health and illness, and cognitive support (e.g. schedules and reminders). However, the programme could not meet everyone's needs for new social relationships or more comprehensive support. Even so, this nurse-led programme provides health information-management strategies that could easily be integrated in a primary health-care setting. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Distinct Contributions of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Resilience Resources: A Cohort Analysis of Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S.; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18–79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed. PMID:25255340

  19. Distinct contributions of adverse childhood experiences and resilience resources: a cohort analysis of adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18-79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed.

  20. The association between regular marijuana use and adult mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; White, Helene R; Bailey, Jennifer A; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Epstein, Marina; Jones, Tiffany M; Hawkins, J David

    2017-07-18

    The present study is a prospective examination of the relationship between regular marijuana use from adolescence through young adulthood and mental health outcomes at age 33. Data came from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse longitudinal panel of 808 participants from Seattle, Washington. Outcomes included symptom counts for six mental health disorders. Regular marijuana use was tracked during adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses controlled for demographics and early environment, behaviors, and individual risk factors. Nonusers of marijuana reported fewer symptoms of alcohol use disorder, nicotine dependence, and generalized anxiety disorder than any category of marijuana users. More persistent regular marijuana use in young adulthood was positively related to more symptoms of cannabis use disorder, alcohol use disorder, and nicotine dependence at age 33. Findings highlight the importance of avoiding regular marijuana use, especially chronic use in young adulthood. Comprehensive prevention and intervention efforts focusing on marijuana and other substance use might be particularly important in the context of recent legalization of recreational marijuana use in Washington and other U.S. states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Self and Informant Reports of Mental Health Difficulties among Adults with Autism Findings from a Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Philippa; Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44?years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when…

  2. Quality Group Home Care for Adults with Developmental Disabilities and/or Mental Health Disorders: Yearning for Understanding, Security and Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipton, Leah; Lashewicz, Bonnie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to uncover and understand factors influencing quality of care received by adults with developmental disabilities and/or mental health disorders living in group homes. Methods: The present authors conducted a secondary analysis of data from nine focus group discussions with adults with developmental…

  3. Self and Informant Reports of Mental Health Difficulties among Adults with Autism Findings from a Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Philippa; Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44?years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when…

  4. Learning disability and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-03-01

    Essential facts [Figure: see text] Learning disabilities affect about 1.5 million people in the UK. The prevalence of mental health problems is considerably higher for those with learning disabilities than for the general population; estimates suggest 30-50% of adults are affected.

  5. Older immigrants: language competencies and mental health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura E; Taylor-Henley, Sharon; Doan, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Later-life immigration and a lack of dominant language competency present many challenges to mental health for older adults. English as a Second Language (ESL) classes for seniors, often regarded as the sole domain of ESL teachers, offer mental health professionals opportunities for mental health promotion and education. This paper examines some of the mental health issues that emerged from stories written by older adults in an ESL for Seniors program. The program is presented as an example of best practices in an ESL for Seniors program because of its specific development to meet the needs of ESL older persons.

  6. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Calear, Alison L

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. Objective This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. Methods A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Results Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Conclusions Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help. PMID:28666976

  7. Characteristics of HIV-infected adults in the Deep South and their utilization of mental health services: A rural vs. urban comparison.

    PubMed

    Reif, Susan; Whetten, Kathryn; Ostermann, Jan; Raper, James L

    2006-01-01

    Insufficient utilization of mental health services has been described among HIV-infected individuals in urban areas; however, little is known about utilization of mental health services among rural-living HIV-infected individuals. This article examines use of mental health services by HIV-infected adults in the Southern U.S., where approximately two-thirds of rural HIV cases reside, and compares mental health services use between those in rural and urban areas. Data were obtained from surveys of HIV-infected individuals receiving care at tertiary Infectious Diseases clinics in the Southern U.S. (n = 474). Study findings indicated that participants living in areas with a higher proportion of rural-living individuals were less likely to report seeing a mental health provider (p < .001) in the last year even though there were no differences in level of psychological distress by degree of rurality. Participants living in more rural areas also reported significantly fewer mental health visits in the previous month (p = .025). Furthermore, rural living was significantly associated with being African-American, heterosexual, less educated, and having minor children in the home. Due to differences in characteristics and mental health services use by degree of rurality, efforts are needed to assess and address the specific mental health and other needs of HIV-infected individuals in rural areas.

  8. Voices of care for adults with disabilities and/or mental health issues in Western Canada: what do families and agencies need from each other?

    PubMed

    Mooney, Laura R; Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2014-03-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to report on the frustrations and unmet needs of paid, formal caregivers and unpaid, family caregivers who together provide care to adults with disabilities and/or mental health issues. We conducted eight focus group interviews between November 2010 and June 2011 in two large, urban centres and one smaller centre in Western Canada. Four of our focus groups were with family members including adults with disabilities and/or mental health issues, their parents and their siblings, and four were with representatives from agencies providing support and services to adults with disabilities and/or mental health issues and their families. Data were collected from 23 family members and 24 agency representatives who responded to questions about successes and struggles in meeting, and collaborating to meet, care needs of adults with disabilities and/or mental health issues. Each focus group session was digitally recorded and transcribed; field notes were also taken and we thematically analysed data according to family versus agency perspectives of their successes and barriers in care provision and care collaboration. We found that family members desire greater and more effective support in enriching the lives of adults with disabilities and/or mental health issues and in preparing for age-related changes. Agency representatives are keenly aware of the needs and challenges faced by families, yet grapple with being effective collaborators with families of widely varying priorities and styles of care and collaboration.

  9. Mental health nurses' attitudes towards severe perinatal mental illness.

    PubMed

    McConachie, Susan; Whitford, Heather

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the experiences and attitudes of generic mental health nurses towards care of women with severe mental illness during the perinatal period. Severe mental disorder in the perinatal period is a global public health concern. However, there are concerns that mental health nurses other than dedicated perinatal mental health teams may lack knowledge, skills and experience in caring for such disorders, because of their low prevalence. Sixteen generic Registered Mental Nurses working in public adult mental health services participated in three focus groups during 2007. Participants did not perceive any difference between symptoms during perinatal and non-perinatal periods. There were mixed attitudes towards caring for women with severe mental illness in the perinatal period. Fear and anxiety was expressed by the nurses when caring or feeling responsible for the babies of clients. Lack of communication between professional groups and decreased clinical decision-making following the introduction of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale caused frustration. Confidence was displayed when working with known and trusted colleagues. Generic mental health nurses would benefit from more education on perinatal mental health and there may be a need for them to be supported by specialist perinatal mental health practitioners.

  10. A Common Elements Treatment Approach for Adult Mental Health Problems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Laura K.; Dorsey, Shannon; Haroz, Emily; Lee, Catherine; Alsiary, Maytham M.; Haydary, Amir; Weiss, William M.; Bolton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) for adults presenting with mood or anxiety problems developed specifically for use with lay counselors in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Details of the intervention development, training, supervision, and decision-making process are presented. Case vignettes are used as examples throughout. Preliminary findings are presented on counselor/supervisor performance and client outcomes from practice cases completed prior to randomized controlled trials (RCT) conducted at two sites for adult survivors of torture and/or systematic violence in (a) southern Iraq and (b) Thailand-Burma border. Data suggest that local supervisors and lay counselors with little prior mental health training or experience maintained fidelity to the model. The majority of pilot clients were retained in treatment, suggesting acceptability. Using the Reliable Change Index (RCI) for each individual we examined the number of clients above a minimal threshold (z > 1.96) for each outcome. In Iraq 100% of clients had RCIs above the threshold for depression and posttraumatic stress, and 81.8% for impaired function. In Thailand, 81.3% of clients had RCIs above minimum threshold for depression, 68.8% for posttraumatic stress, and 37.5% for impaired function. Implementation of CETA is discussed in relation to cultural issues within LMIC. These findings, combined with US-based evidence, suggest that a common elements approach warrants further development and testing as a means for addressing the treatment gap for mental health problems in LMIC. PMID:25620867

  11. A Common Elements Treatment Approach for Adult Mental Health Problems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Murray, Laura K; Dorsey, Shannon; Haroz, Emily; Lee, Catherine; Alsiary, Maytham M; Haydary, Amir; Weiss, William M; Bolton, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) for adults presenting with mood or anxiety problems developed specifically for use with lay counselors in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Details of the intervention development, training, supervision, and decision-making process are presented. Case vignettes are used as examples throughout. Preliminary findings are presented on counselor/supervisor performance and client outcomes from practice cases completed prior to randomized controlled trials (RCT) conducted at two sites for adult survivors of torture and/or systematic violence in (a) southern Iraq and (b) Thailand-Burma border. Data suggest that local supervisors and lay counselors with little prior mental health training or experience maintained fidelity to the model. The majority of pilot clients were retained in treatment, suggesting acceptability. Using the Reliable Change Index (RCI) for each individual we examined the number of clients above a minimal threshold (z > 1.96) for each outcome. In Iraq 100% of clients had RCIs above the threshold for depression and posttraumatic stress, and 81.8% for impaired function. In Thailand, 81.3% of clients had RCIs above minimum threshold for depression, 68.8% for posttraumatic stress, and 37.5% for impaired function. Implementation of CETA is discussed in relation to cultural issues within LMIC. These findings, combined with US-based evidence, suggest that a common elements approach warrants further development and testing as a means for addressing the treatment gap for mental health problems in LMIC.

  12. Predictors of mental health in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions attending the Australian craniofacial unit.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2013-07-01

    Objective : Adults with craniofacial conditions experience more psychosocial problems than adults in the general population, but little is known about the factors that render a person more or less susceptible to these problems. Guided by research on adults with other conditions that affect appearance, this study examined predictors of psychosocial outcome in adults with craniofacial conditions. Design : Single-sample cross-sectional design. Setting : The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Participants : Adults (N  =  93; 36.9% of the potential sample) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip and/or cleft palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. Main Outcome Measures : All participants completed measures assessing anxiety, depression, and quality of life (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form Health Survey) and variables predicted to affect these outcomes (SF-36 Health Survey - Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cleft Satisfaction Profile, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Derriford Appearance Scale). Results : Multiple regression analyses revealed that anxiety was predicted by social support, self-esteem, and fear of negative evaluation, while depression was predicted by self-esteem and social support. Physical quality of life was not predicted by any of the measures. Satisfaction with appearance, gender, age, and education were not related to outcome. Conclusions : Interventions designed to increase perceived social support and self-esteem and reduce fear of negative evaluation appear to be indicated and may assist in establishing a causal relationship between these variables.

  13. Spanking and adult mental health impairment: The case for the designation of spanking as an adverse childhood experience.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; Ford, Derek; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Merrick, Melissa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ports, Katie A; MacMillan, Harriet L; Holden, George W; Taylor, Catherine A; Lee, Shawna J; Peters Bennett, Robbyn

    2017-01-23

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse are related to poor health outcomes. Spanking has indicated a similar association with health outcomes, but to date has not been considered an ACE. Physical and emotional abuse have been shown in previous research to correlate highly and may be similar in nature to spanking. To determine if spanking should be considered an ACE, this study aimed to examine 1): the grouping of spanking with physical and emotional abuse; and 2) if spanking has similar associations with poor adult health problems and accounts for additional model variance. Adult mental health problems included depressive affect, suicide attempts, moderate to heavy drinking, and street drug use. Data were from the CDC-Kaiser ACE study (N=8316, response rate=65%). Spanking loaded on the same factor as the physical and emotional abuse items. Additionally, spanking was associated with increased odds of suicide attempts (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=1.02 to1.86), moderate to heavy drinking (AOR)=1.23; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.41), and the use of street drugs (AOR)=1.32; 95% CI=1.4 to 1.52) in adulthood over and above experiencing physical and emotional abuse. This indicates spanking accounts for additional model variance and improves our understanding of these outcomes. Thus, spanking is empirically similar to physical and emotional abuse and including spanking with abuse adds to our understanding of these mental health problems. Spanking should also be considered an ACE and addressed in efforts to prevent violence.

  14. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  15. How Possibly Do Leisure and Social Activities Impact Mental Health of Middle-Aged Adults in Japan?: An Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Fumi; Noguchi, Haruko; Monma, Takafumi; Tamiya, Nanako

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal relations between leisure and social activities and mental health status, considering the presence or absence of other persons in the activity as an additional variable, among middle-aged adults in Japan. This study used nationally representative data in Japan with a five-year follow-up period. This study focused on 16,642 middle-aged adults, age 50-59 at baseline, from a population-based, six-year panel survey conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. To investigate the relations between two leisure activities ('hobbies or cultural activities' and 'exercise or sports') and four social activities ('community events', 'support for children', 'support for elderly individuals' and 'other social activities') at baseline and mental health status at follow-up, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. We also used multiple logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between ways of participating in these activities ('by oneself', 'with others', or 'both' (both 'by oneself' and 'with others')) at baseline and mental health status at follow-up. Involvement in both leisure activity categories, but not in social activities, was significantly and positively related to mental health status in both men and women. Furthermore, in men, both 'hobbies or cultural activities' and 'exercise or sports' were significantly related to mental health status only when conducted 'with others'. In women, the effects of 'hobbies or cultural activities' on mental health status were no differences regardless of the ways of participating, while the result of 'exercise or sports' was same as that in men. Leisure activities appear to benefit mental health status among this age group, whereas specific social activities do not. Moreover, participation in leisure activities would be effective especially if others are present. These findings should be useful for preventing the deterioration of mental health

  16. [Depression and Anxiety Disorders and Associated Factors in the Adult Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez, Adriana; Rondón, Martín; Medina Rico, Mauricio; Rengifo, Hernet; Bautisa, Nubia

    2016-12-01

    Mental disorders are the first causes of disability adjusted life years (DALY), contributing with the 7.4%. This value increases as the DALYs of the transmittable diseases decrease. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of the major depressive and anxious disorders. Data obtained from the IV Mental Health Survey with representation from 5 regions. A computerised interview was conducted, focusing on the most frequent anxiety and depressive disorders, using the CIDI CAPI 3.0. A sample of 10,870 adults over 18 years old was obtained. The lifetime prevalence of any of these disorders is 10.1% (95% CI: 8.8-11.5) in the population between 18 and 44 years, and of 7.7% (95% CI: 6.5-9.1) in those older than 45 years. The prevalence in the last 12 months was 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-6.0) in the younger group, and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) in the older group. Of the people with evaluated mental disorders, 17.6% (95% CI: 13.1-23.4) had 2 or more disorders, a comorbidity that is more common in the female population (20.4%, 95% CI: 14.2-28.3) than in males (13.5%, 95% CI: 7.9-22.0). Major depressive disorder is the most prevalent of the disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 4.3% (95% CI: 3.7-5.0). After adjusting in a multivariate model, being divorced or widowed (OR=1.3), previous suicide attempt (OR=3.3), and having 6 or more features of border-line personality, were associated with an increased risk of presenting with any of the studied disorders. Anxiety and depressive mental disorders are an important health burden in Colombia. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  17. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Teychenne, Megan; McNaughton, Sarah A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males) completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test. Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life. If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy, focusing on

  18. Mental Health of Adults Treated in Adolescence with Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Program or Observed for Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Cieśliński, Igor; Nowobilski, Roman; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Terech, Jacek; Furgał, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine general mental health in adult males and females, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific therapeutic exercise program or were under observation due to diagnosis of scoliosis. Design. Registry-based, cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection. Methods. Sixty-eight subjects (43 women) aged 30.10 (25–39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis (11–36° Cobb angle), and 76 (38 women) nonscoliotic subjects, aged 30.11 (24–38) years, participated. The time period since the end of the exercise or observation regimes was 16.5 (12-26) years. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scores were analyzed with the χ 2 and U tests. Multiple regression analyses for confounders were also performed. Results. Intergroup differences of demographic characteristics were nonsignificant. Scoliosis, gender, participation in the exercise program, employment, and marital status were associated with BDI scores. The presence of scoliosis and participation in the exercise program manifested association with the symptoms. Higher GHQ-28 “somatic symptoms” subscale scores interacted with the education level. Conclusions. Our findings correspond to the reports of a negative impact of the diagnosis of scoliosis and treatment on mental health. The decision to introduce a therapeutic program in children with mild deformities should be made with judgment of potential benefits, risks, and harm. PMID:24574935

  19. Mental health of adults treated in adolescence with scoliosis-specific exercise program or observed for idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Cieśliński, Igor; Nowobilski, Roman; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Terech, Jacek; Furgał, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    To examine general mental health in adult males and females, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific therapeutic exercise program or were under observation due to diagnosis of scoliosis. Registry-based, cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection. Sixty-eight subjects (43 women) aged 30.10 (25-39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis (11-36° Cobb angle), and 76 (38 women) nonscoliotic subjects, aged 30.11 (24-38) years, participated. The time period since the end of the exercise or observation regimes was 16.5 (12-26) years. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scores were analyzed with the χ(2) and U tests. Multiple regression analyses for confounders were also performed. Intergroup differences of demographic characteristics were nonsignificant. Scoliosis, gender, participation in the exercise program, employment, and marital status were associated with BDI scores. The presence of scoliosis and participation in the exercise program manifested association with the symptoms. Higher GHQ-28 "somatic symptoms" subscale scores interacted with the education level. Our findings correspond to the reports of a negative impact of the diagnosis of scoliosis and treatment on mental health. The decision to introduce a therapeutic program in children with mild deformities should be made with judgment of potential benefits, risks, and harm.

  20. MENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YOLLES, STANLEY F.; AND OTHERS

    THE DIRECTORY IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GUIDE TO MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. IT IS ORGANIZED INTO A FEDERAL SECTION AND A STATE AND COMMUNITY SECTION, EACH OF WHICH IS PRECEDED BY AN INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT CONCERNING THE LISTINGS IN THAT SECTION. ADDRESSES AND SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAJOR MENTAL HEALTH…

  1. National integration of mental health providers in VA home-based primary care: an innovative model for mental health care delivery with older adults.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Bradley E; Karel, Michele J

    2014-10-01

    To promote mental health (MH) service access and quality for veterans with complex and chronic medical, social, and behavioral conditions, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has integrated a full-time MH provider into each VA home-based primary care (HBPC) team. The goal of the current evaluation is to examine the nature and extent to which MH care processes and practices have been integrated into HBPC nationally. Separate surveys assessing the integration of a wide range of MH care practices and HBPC team processes were sent to MH providers and program directors in each HBPC program in 2010. A total of 132 MH providers representing 119 HBPC programs, and 112 program directors completed the surveys. The most common clinical issues addressed by MH providers were depression, coping with illness and disability, anxiety, caregiver/family stress, and cognitive evaluation. Other team members typically conducted initial MH screenings, with MH providers' time focusing on cases with identified needs. Approximately 40% of MH providers' time was devoted to direct clinical care. Significant time was also spent on team activities, driving, and charting. Integration of MH services into HBPC is feasible and facilitates service access for a vulnerable population. Mental health care delivery in HPBC generally involves a high degree of interdisciplinary practice. Mental health integration into HBPC may serve as a model for other systems interested in promoting MH care delivery among homebound and other older individuals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  2. Ethical problems with the mental health evaluation standards of care for adult gender variant prospective patients.

    PubMed

    Hale, C Jabob

    2007-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health's "Standards of Care: The Hormonal and Surgical Sex Reassignment of Gender Dysphoric Persons" (SOC) set forth standards clinicians must meet to ensure ethical care of adequate quality. The SOC also set requirements gender variant prospective patients must meet to receive medical interventions to change their sexual characteristics to those more typical for the sex to which they were not assigned at birth. One such requirement is that mental health professionals must ascertain that prospective patients have met the SOC's eligibility and readiness criteria. This article raises two objections to this requirement: ethically obligatory considerations of the overall balance of potential harms and benefits tell against it, and it violates the principle of respect for autonomy. This requirement treats gender variant prospective patients who request medical intervention as different in kind, not merely degree, from other patient populations, as it constructs the very request as a phenomenon of incapacity. This is ethically indefensible in and of itself, but it is especially pernicious in a sociocultural and political context that already denies gender variant people full moral status.

  3. The effect of victimization, mental health, and protective factors on crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Swendener, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Although research has found high rates of child maltreatment, widespread victimization, and other negative outcomes among homeless youth and young adults, resiliency among this population has largely been understudied. Specifically, a gap remains in terms of how protective factors such as self-efficacy, low deviant beliefs, and religiosity operate among homeless youth and young adults. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between various forms of victimization, mental health, and protective factors with property and violent crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults. Results from regression analyses indicate that running away from home more frequently, experiencing more physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs were associated with greater property crime. Significant correlates of violent crime included being male, running away from home more frequently, greater sexual and physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs. Finally, being male, running away more frequently from home, greater child physical abuse and partner victimization, and more deviant beliefs were all associated with greater illicit drug use. Self-efficacy was positively related to both property and violent crime, suggesting that it may not operate for homeless young adults in the same manner as it does for normative populations.

  4. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  5. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  6. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults: results from the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Verhulst, Frank C; Bültmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on employment outcomes of young adults. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (2) investigate the relation between these trajectories and the educational or employment status of young adults. Data were used from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9-year follow-up. Trajectories of mental health problems measured at ages 11, 13.5, 16 and 19 years were identified in 1711 young adults with latent class growth models. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of total problems, from childhood to young adulthood, were more likely to work without BEL or be in NEET at age 19, than to be at school or to work with BEL (28.0% vs 16.0%, p=0.01). The same was found for externalising problems (35.3% vs 23.2%, p=0.02). For internalising and attention problems, no statistically significant differences were found. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of mental health problems from age 11 to 19, were at risk of adverse employment outcomes. Interventions reducing mental health problems in childhood may improve the educational or employment status of young adults and their chances for successfully entering the labour market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Attitudes of Jordanian mental health nurses toward mental illness and patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses.

  8. Could sport specialization influence fitness and health of adults with mental retardation?

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual disability (ID) compared with individuals included in recreational and leisure activity programs (non-athletic people); (b) contribution of sport specialization on athletes' fitness; and c) correlation of each fitness variable with subjects' ID levels. Twenty-two track and field, 19 basketball, and 23 non-athletic adults were recruited. Before and after a 9-month period, all participants performed fitness tests assessing body composition, flexibility (SR), arm muscular strength (HG), lower and upper-body muscular strength and endurance (SUP and PUP), explosive leg power (SLJ), cardiovascular endurance (ST), balance ability (FT), motor coordination (TUGT). The results showed that participants' weight, BMI and FT were significantly affected by time; SLJ by activity; ST, HG, PUP, SUP, and TUGT by both time and activity. Only track and field athletes increased significantly ST. All athletes improved significantly HG, PUP and SUP, instead non-athletic people decreased significantly SUP (p<0.01). TUGT improved significantly in track and field athletes (p<0.05), and decreased significantly in non-athletic people. ID level was positively correlated to TUGT. Findings of this study showed that physical activity improved fitness in adult athletes with ID, decreasing health risks. Athletes with lower ID obtained higher performance scores in motor coordination test.

  9. Implementation of the Crisis Resolution Team model in adult mental health settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Claire; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Churchard, Alasdair; Fitzgerald, Caroline; Fullarton, Kate; Mosse, Liberty; Paterson, Bethan; Zugaro, Clementina Galli; Johnson, Sonia

    2015-04-08

    Crisis Resolution Teams (CRTs) aim to offer an alternative to hospital admission during mental health crises, providing rapid assessment, home treatment, and facilitation of early discharge from hospital. CRTs were implemented nationally in England following the NHS Plan of 2000. Single centre studies suggest CRTs can reduce hospital admissions and increase service users' satisfaction: however, there is also evidence that model implementation and outcomes vary considerably. Evidence on crucial characteristics of effective CRTs is needed to allow team functioning to be optimised. This review aims to establish what evidence, if any, is available regarding the characteristics of effective and acceptable CRTs. A systematic review was conducted. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched to November 2013. A further web-based search was conducted for government and expert guidelines on CRTs. We analysed studies separately as: comparing CRTs to Treatment as Usual; comparing two or more CRT models; national or regional surveys of CRT services; qualitative studies of stakeholders' views regarding best practice in CRTs; and guidelines from government and expert organisations regarding CRT service delivery. Quality assessment and narrative synthesis were conducted. Statistical meta-analysis was not feasible due to the variety of design of retrieved studies. Sixty-nine studies were included. Studies varied in quality and in the composition and activities of the clinical services studied. Quantitative studies suggested that longer opening hours and the presence of a psychiatrist in the team may increase CRTs' ability to prevent hospital admissions. Stakeholders emphasised communication and integration with other local mental health services; provision of treatment at home; and limiting the number of different staff members visiting a service user. Existing guidelines prioritised 24-hour, seven-day-a-week CRT service provision (including psychiatrist and

  10. Detecting and Managing Mental Health Issues within Young Adults. A Systematic Review on College Counselling in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ghilardi, Alberto; Buizza, Chiara; Carobbio, Egle Miriam; Lusenti, Rossella

    2017-01-01

    Background: College counselling can be considered as a front-line service in detecting and managing mental health issues within young adults. In this sense, it is important to investigate the effectiveness of counselling interventions. Objective: To provide a systematic review about college counselling in Italy; to assess which psychological interventions really meet student needs, and their effectiveness; to focus on the level of cohesion between Italian counselling services and the international guidelines about college counselling. Method: A systematic review about college counselling through PsycInfo and PubMed was carried out. Because of the scarceness of pertinent available articles, the survey was extended to Google Scholar and Riviste Web. Keywords: counselling, mental health, wellbeing, psychological support, university, students, Italy. Results: Out of thirty-four articles retrieved, 16 are relevant to academic counselling, the other 18 have been considered not pertinent to the aim of the present review. Data show a lack of homogeneity in methodology and organization between each University: different approaches towards students’ needs. Furthermore, no follow-up studies or measurement of effectiveness were found. Conclusion: This review is a contribution to disseminate the results of counselling experiences in Italy and represents an effort to encourage colleagues working in a web environment to share results and methods for a more organized protocol application. PMID:28839455

  11. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  12. Factors Contributing to the Utilization of Adult Mental Health Services in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Carballo, Juan J.; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Alegria, Analucia A.; Basurte-Villamor, Ignacio; Sevilla-Vicente, Juncal; Navarro-Jimenez, Rocio; Legido-Gil, Teresa; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Jimenez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine whether age of First diagnosis, gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment modalities (pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy) at Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) moderate the risk of Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) utilization in patients diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS. Methods. Data were derived from the Madrid Psychiatric Cumulative Register Study. The target population comprised 32,183 patients who had 3 or more visits at CAMHS. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess survival data. A series of logistic regression analyses were performed to study the role of age of diagnosis, gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment modalities. Results. 7.1% of patients presented with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS. Compared to preschool children, children and adolescents first diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorder at CAMHS were more likely to use AMHS. Female gender and comorbidity with affective disorders, schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders increased the risk of use of AMHS. Pharmacological or combined treatment of hyperkinetic disorder diagnosed at CAMHS was associated with increased risk of use at AMHS. Conclusions. Older age of first diagnosis, female gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and pharmacological treatment at CAMHS are markers of risk for the transition from CAMHS to AMHS in patients with hyperkinetic disorder diagnosed at CAMHS. PMID:22654608

  13. Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Cherie; Stringer, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014) was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue. PMID:25279103

  14. Home-Based Art Therapy for Older Adults with Mental Health Needs: Views of Clients and Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Siobhan; Warren, Alison; Jones, Fay

    2006-01-01

    The value of art therapy for older people with mental health problems is well documented although there is a paucity of research for people who are home bound. This study, based in England, involved five clients, all older people with mental health problems, receiving art therapy sessions at home. The clients and caregivers were then interviewed…

  15. Paradoxical Trend for Improvement in Mental Health With Aging: A Community-Based Study of 1,546 Adults Aged 21-100 Years.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Palmer, Barton W; Depp, Colin A; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Glorioso, Danielle K; Thompson, Wesley K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2016-08-01

    Studies of aging usually focus on trajectories of physical and cognitive function, with far less emphasis on overall mental health, despite its impact on general health and mortality. This study examined linear and nonlinear trends of physical, cognitive, and mental health over the entire adult lifespan. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1,546 individuals aged 21-100 years, selected using random digit dialing for the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study, a structured multicohort investigation that included telephone interviews and in-home surveys of community-based adults without dementia. Data were collected from 1/26/2010 to 10/07/2011 targeting participants aged 50-100 years and from 6/25/2012 to 7/15/2013 targeting participants aged 21-100 years with an emphasis on adding younger individuals. Data included self-report measures of physical health, measures of both positive and negative attributes of mental health, and a phone interview-based measure of cognition. Comparison of age cohorts using polynomial regression suggested a possible accelerated deterioration in physical and cognitive functioning, averaging 1.5 to 2 standard deviations over the adult lifespan. In contrast, there appeared to be a linear improvement of about 1 standard deviation in various attributes of mental health over the same life period. These cross-sectional findings suggest the possibility of a linear improvement in mental health beginning in young adulthood rather than a U-shaped curve reported in some prior studies. Lifespan research combining psychosocial and biological markers may improve our understanding of resilience to mental disability in older age and lead to broad-based interventions promoting mental health in all age groups. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Use of a formal consensus development technique to produce recommendations for improving the effectiveness of adult mental health multidisciplinary team meetings.

    PubMed

    Raine, Rosalind; a' Bháird, Caoimhe Nic; Xanthopoulou, Penny; Wallace, Isla; Ardron, David; Harris, Miriam; Barber, Julie; Prentice, Archie; Gibbs, Simon; King, Michael; Blazeby, Jane M; Michie, Susan; Lanceley, Anne; Clarke, Alex; Livingston, Gill

    2015-07-03

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are the core mechanism for delivering mental health care but it is unclear which models improve care quality. The aim of the study was to agree recommendations for improving the effectiveness of adult mental health MDT meetings, based on national guidance, research evidence and experiential insights from mental health and other medical specialties. We established an expert panel of 16 health care professionals, policy-makers and patient representatives. Five panellists had experience in a range of adult mental health services, five in heart failure services and six in cancer services. Panellists privately rated 68 potential recommendations on a scale of one to nine, and re-rated them after panel discussion using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to determine consensus. We obtained agreement (median ≥ 7) and low variation in extent of agreement (Mean Absolute Deviation from Median of ≤1.11) for 21 recommendations. These included the explicit agreement and auditing of MDT meeting objectives, and the documentation and monitoring of treatment plan implementation. Formal consensus development methods that involved learning across specialities led to feasible recommendations for improved MDT meeting effectiveness in a wide range of settings. Our findings may be used by adult mental health teams to reflect on their practice and facilitate improvement. In some other contexts, the recommendations will require modification. For example, in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, context-specific issues such as the role of carers should be taken into account. A limitation of the comparative approach adopted was that only five members of the panel of 16 experts were mental health specialists.

  17. Associations of a social network typology with physical and mental health risks among older adults in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, N S; Jang, Y; Lee, B S; Chiriboga, D A; Chang, S; Kim, S Y

    2017-03-14

    The objectives of this study were to (1) develop an empirical typology of social networks in older Koreans; and (2) examine its effect on physical and mental health. A sample of 6900 community-dwelling older adults in South Korea was drawn from the 2014 Korean National Elderly Survey. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to derive social network types using eight common social network characteristics (marital status, living arrangement, the number and frequency of contact with close family/relatives, the number and frequency of contact with close friends, frequency of participation in social activities, and frequency of having visitors at home). The identified typologies were then regressed on self-rated health and depressive symptoms to explore the health risks posed by the group membership. The LPA identified a model with five types of social network as being most optimal (BIC = 153,848.34, entropy = .90). The groups were named diverse/family (enriched networks with more engagement with family), diverse/friend (enriched networks with more engagement with friends), friend-focused (high engagement with friends), distant (structurally disengaged), and restricted (structurally engaged but disengaged in family/friends networks). A series of regression analyses showed that membership in the restricted type was associated with more health and mental health risks than all types of social networks except the distant type. Findings demonstrate the importance of family and friends as a source of social network and call attention to not only structural but also non-structural aspects of social isolation. Findings and implications are discussed in cultural contexts.

  18. Mental Health Professionals and the Bereaved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterweis, Marian; Townsend, Jessica

    This booklet provides mental health professionals with an analytic framework for understanding psychosocial reactions to bereavement of adults and children and for selecting appropriate intervention strategies. It also identifies those people most likely to need the intervention of a mental health professional to help prevent or mitigate…

  19. The Onset of Depression During the Great Recession: Foreclosure and Older Adult Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.; Iveniuk, James; English, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined neighborhood-level foreclosure rates and their association with onset of depressive symptoms in older adults. Methods. We linked data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (2005–2006 and 2010–2011 waves), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey, to data on zip code–level foreclosure rates, and predicted the onset of depressive symptoms using logit-linked regression. Results. Multiple stages of the foreclosure process predicted the onset of depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic characteristics and changes in household assets, neighborhood poverty, and visible neighborhood disorder. A large increase in the number of notices of default (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 2.67) and properties returning to ownership by the bank (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.47) were associated with depressive symptoms. A large increase in properties going to auction was suggestive of such an association (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96, 2.19). Age, fewer years of education, and functional limitations also were predictive. Conclusions. Increases in neighborhood-level foreclosure represent an important risk factor for depression in older adults. These results accord with previous studies suggesting that the effects of economic crises are typically first experienced through deficits in emotional well-being. PMID:24446830

  20. Standard 12 month dialectical behaviour therapy for adults with borderline personality disorder in a public community mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Daniel; Kells, Mary; Joyce, Mary; Corcoran, Paul; Gillespie, Conall; Suarez, Catalina; Weihrauch, Mareike; Cotter, Padraig

    2017-01-01

    Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is noted to be an intervention with a growing body of evidence that demonstrates its efficacy in treating individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Evidence for the effectiveness of DBT in publicly funded community mental health settings is lacking however. No study to our knowledge has been published on the effectiveness of a 12 month standard DBT programme without adaptations for individuals with BPD in a publicly funded community mental health setting and no study has included data across multiple time-points. The main objective of the current study was to determine if completion of a 12 month DBT programme is associated with improved outcomes in terms of borderline symptoms, anxiety, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, depression and quality of life. A secondary objective includes assessing client progress across multiple time-points throughout the treatment. Fifty-four adult participants with BPD completed the standard DBT programme across four sites in community mental health settings in the Republic of Ireland. Data was collected by the DBT therapists working with participants and took place at 8 week intervals across the 12 month programme. To explore the effects of the intervention for participants, linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate change utilising data available from all time-points. At the end of the 12 month programme, significant reductions in borderline symptoms, anxiety, hopelessness, suicidal ideation and depression were observed. Increases in overall quality of life were also noted. In particular, gains were made during the first 6 months of the programme. There was a tendency for scores to slightly regress after the six-month mark which marks the start of the second delivery of the group skills cycles. The current study provides evidence for the effectiveness of standard DBT in publicly funded community mental health settings. As participants were assessed at the end of

  1. Longitudinal association between physical activity engagement during adolescence and mental health outcomes in young adults: A 21-year birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Suetani, Shuichi; Mamun, Abdullah; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jake M; McGrath, John J; Scott, James G

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies provide mixed evidence that physical activity engagement (PAE) in adolescence is associated with later mental health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between PAE at age 14 and mental health outcomes at age 21 using a large birth cohort study. Prospective data from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, consisting of 3493 young adults, were analyzed. PAE at age 14 was estimated using self-report, and participants were categorized into; (1) frequent, (2) infrequent, or (3) no PAE group. Mental health outcomes at age 21 consisted of; (1) common mental disorders, (2) psychosis-related outcomes, and, (3) emotional and behavioral problems. The association between PAE in adolescence and later mental health outcomes in young adulthood was examined using logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and adolescent psychopathology. No PAE at age 14 was associated with the increased likelihood of lifetime diagnosis of any affective disorder, elevated delusional ideation, and endorsement of visual perceptual disturbance at age 21. Conversely, infrequent PAE at age 14 was associated with the decreased likelihood of subsequent lifetime diagnosis of any substance use disorder. Our findings suggest that lack of PAE in adolescence influences some, but not all, later mental health outcomes. Interventions to increase PAE in adolescence may represent an opportunity to prevent future mental health problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intentional misuse of over-the-counter medications, mental health, and polysubstance use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen; Martin, Aaron M; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana; Jeffers, Amy J

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the non-medical use of prescription drugs (without a doctor's prescription) has increased dramatically. Less attention has been paid to the intentional misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Misuse of OTC medications has negative health consequences similar to those of illicit drugs, including psychosis, tachycardia, seizures and agitation. When mixed with alcohol or other drugs, these medications can also be dangerous: OTC-related emergency room visits increased 70% from 2004 to 2008. This study examined the intentional misuse of OTC medications, the non-medical use of prescription drugs, the use of alcohol and illicit drugs, and psychological factors in two samples of young adults (ages 18-25) from different areas of the United States (Total N = 1,197). Overall, 18.6% of the Colorado sample and 13.0% of the Virginia sample reported lifetime misuse of an OTC medication. Participants who reported misusing OTC medications were also significantly more likely to report using marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, and non-medical use of prescription analgesics, stimulants, anxiolytics, and sedatives. Participants who reported misusing OTC medications were more than twice as likely to report hazardous alcohol use, relative to individuals who denied misusing OTC medications. Individuals who had misused OTC medications scored significantly higher in sensation seeking and hopelessness and reported more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatic distress, relative to those who denied OTC misuse. Results suggest that a considerable minority of young adults are jeopardizing their health with the misuse of OTC medications as part of a pattern of polysubstance use.

  3. Divinity and distress: the impact of religion and spirituality on the mental health of HIV-positive adults in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Steglitz, Jeremy; Ng, Reuben; Mosha, John S; Kershaw, Trace

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between religiosity, spirituality and mental health in the context of a stress-coping framework. Participants were 135 rural, low-income HIV-positive adults in Iringa, Tanzania. The relationships between religiosity, spirituality, coping responses, social support, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) were examined using structural equation modeling. Religiosity was related to decreased avoidant coping and increased social support, which in turn were related to psychological distress. Spirituality was positively related to active coping and social support. Results suggest that coping strategies and social support may mediate the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and psychological distress. Interventions to reduce psychological distress among HIV-positive individuals in Tanzania might incorporate strategies to reduce avoidant coping and increase social support. According to the present findings, this may be accomplished through faith-based approaches that incorporate religious and spiritual activities into HIV prevention programs.

  4. Childhood trauma levels in individuals attending adult mental health services: An evaluation of clinical records and structured measurement of childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Amy; Byrne, Fintan; Wota, Anna Paulina; Nisar, Zafar; Ofuafor, Thomas; Murray, Ivan; Byrne, Charles; Hallahan, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Despite an increased awareness regarding the prevalence and impact of childhood trauma, especially childhood sexual abuse (CSA), few studies examine the clinical reporting of such childhood experiences. This study compared the prevalence of childhood trauma recorded in individual's clinical notes to those ascertained with a structured validated questionnaire, examined which forms of childhood trauma were less likely to be reported to the treating mental health team and established which demographic or clinical factors were associated with reporting of childhood trauma. The prevalence of childhood trauma was ascertained using both the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and a lifetime retrospective clinical note review in 129 individuals attending a general adult mental health service. Individuals were evaluated for the presence of mental health disorders, impulsivity, symptom severity and disability. Using the CTQ, childhood trauma was noted in 77% of individuals and recorded in 38% of individual's clinical notes (p<0.001). The greatest differences between CTQ reporting and clinical note documentation were noted for emotional neglect (62% versus 13.2%), physical neglect (48.1% versus 5.4%) and CSA (24.8% versus 8.5%). Childhood trauma was associated with increased psychopathology and greater symptom severity, and was particularly prevalent for individuals with personality disorders. This study demonstrated high rates of childhood trauma amongst adults attending a general adult mental health service. Furthermore, we demonstrated high rates of either non-enquiry from mental health professionals and/or high rates of non-documentation of childhood trauma by mental health professionals. Given the disparity between reporting of childhood trauma in clinical notes and findings with the CTQ, the use of a standardised questionnaire for the assessment of childhood trauma should be considered when performing a comprehensive mental health history.

  5. Older adults' mental health function and patient-centered care: does the presence of a family companion help or hinder communication?

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer L; Roter, Debra L

    2012-06-01

    Late-life mental health disorders are prevalent, costly, and commonly under-diagnosed and under-treated. To investigate whether family companion presence in routine primary care visits helps or hinders patient-centered processes among older adults with poor mental health function. Observational study of accompanied (n = 80) and unaccompanied (n = 310) primary care patients ages 65 and older. Audio-taped medical visit communication, coded with the Roter Interactional Analysis System, and three process measures: visit duration (in minutes), patient/companion verbal activity, and a ratio of patient-centered communication, adjusted for patient age, gender, race, and physical function. Participants were stratified by SF-36 mental health subscale (MCS) using two approaches (1) standardized population midpoint to delineate "good" (50+) and "poor" health (< 50) and (2) clinically derived cut-points (<35; 35-49; 50+). When patients with poor mental health were accompanied by a family companion, patient/companions provided less psychosocial information, physicians engaged in less question-asking and partnership-building, and both patient/companions and physicians contributed more task-oriented, biomedical discussion. Accompanied patients with poor mental health were less likely to experience patient-centered communication relative to unaccompanied patients (aOR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.68); no difference was observed for patients with good mental health (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.46, 2.27). Verbal activity was comparable for accompanied patients/companions and unaccompanied patients in both mental health strata. Medical visits were 2.3 minutes longer when patients with good mental health were accompanied (b = 2.31; p = 0.006), but was comparable for patients with poor mental health (b = -0.37; p = 0.827). Study findings were amplified in the lowest functioning mental health subgroup (MCS < 35): medical visits were shorter, and communication was

  6. Racial and ethnic differences in asthma and mental health among US adults: results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    PubMed

    Arias, Devin; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2015-09-01

    Evaluate the racial and ethnic differences in asthma and mental health comorbidity. A secondary analysis of 2008-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted, resulting in a total of 206 993 civilian adult respondents to evaluate the association between asthma and mental health (past year serious psychological distress [SPD] and doctor diagnosis of depression). Both survey weighted bivariate (chi-square) and multivariable (binary logistic) regression analyses, after accounting for control variables, were conducted to evaluate the asthma/mental health nexus. A p value of less than 0.05 was used to denote significance. Current asthma was significantly associated with past year SPD for non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.45), Hispanics (aOR = 1.68), and Black/African Americans (aOR = 1.47). A similar association was noted for current asthma and past year doctor diagnosis of depression (non-Hispanic White aOR = 1.74; Hispanics aOR = 1.77; Black/African American aOR = 1.62). Among those with lifetime asthma, higher odds of SPD were reported for non-Hispanic Whites (aOR = 1.42), Hispanics (aOR = 1.64), and Black/African Americans (aOR = 1.50). Lifetime asthma also significantly associated with past year doctor diagnosis of depression for non-Hispanic Whites (aOR = 1.42), Hispanics (aOR = 1.41), and Black/African Americans (aOR = 1.46). Our results demonstrate the significant burden of asthma and mental health comorbidity among diverse racial and ethnic groups. Improved public health efforts through promotion of integrated care for early screening and preventive measures are needed to alleviate the burden for at-risk groups.

  7. Excessive computer game playing among Norwegian adults: self-reported consequences of playing and association with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, H G; Bakken, I J; Johansson, A; Götestam, K G; Øren, Anita

    2009-12-01

    Computer games are the most advanced form of gaming. For most people, the playing is an uncomplicated leisure activity; however, for a minority the gaming becomes excessive and is associated with negative consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate computer game-playing behaviour in the general adult Norwegian population, and to explore mental health problems and self-reported consequences of playing. The survey includes 3,405 adults 16 to 74 years old (Norway 2007, response rate 35.3%). Overall, 65.5% of the respondents reported having ever played computer games (16-29 years, 93.9%; 30-39 years, 85.0%; 40-59 years, 56.2%; 60-74 years, 25.7%). Among 2,170 players, 89.8% reported playing less than 1 hr. as a daily average over the last month, 5.0% played 1-2 hr. daily, 3.1% played 2-4 hr. daily, and 2.2% reported playing > 4 hr. daily. The strongest risk factor for playing > 4 hr. daily was being an online player, followed by male gender, and single marital status. Reported negative consequences of computer game playing increased strongly with average daily playing time. Furthermore, prevalence of self-reported sleeping problems, depression, suicide ideations, anxiety, obsessions/ compulsions, and alcohol/substance abuse increased with increasing playing time. This study showed that adult populations should also be included in research on computer game-playing behaviour and its consequences.

  8. The Effects of Yoga on Positive Mental Health Among Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Tom; de Jong, Joop; Cramer, Holger

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to present an overview of the research on the effects of yoga on positive mental health (PMH) among non-clinical adult populations. This was a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, including a risk of bias assessment. The electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Scopus, IndMED, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1975 to 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of yoga interventions on PMH among a healthy adult population were selected. A total of 17 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Four indicators of PMH were found: psychological well-being, life satisfaction, social relationships, and mindfulness. A significant increase in psychological well-being in favor of yoga over no active control was found. Overall risk of bias was unclear due to incomplete reporting. The current body of research offers weak evidence that the practice of yoga contributes to an increase in PMH among adults from non-clinical populations in general. Yoga was found to contribute to a significant increase in psychological well-being when compared to no intervention but not compared to physical activity. For life satisfaction (emotional well-being), social relationships (social well-being), and mindfulness no significant effects for yoga were found over active or non-active controls. Due to the limited amount of studies, the heterogeneity of the intervention, and perhaps the way PMH is being measured, any definite conclusions on the effects of yoga on PMH cannot be drawn.

  9. An Innovative Model of Depression Care Delivery: Peer Mentors in Collaboration with a Mental Health Professional to Relieve Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jin Hui; Hwang, Seungyoung; Abu, Hawa; Gallo, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Traditional mental health services are not used by a majority of older adults with depression, suggesting a need for new methods of health service delivery. We conducted a pilot study using peer mentors to deliver depression care to older adults in collaboration with a mental health professional. We evaluated the acceptability of peer mentors to older adults and examined patient experiences of the intervention. Methods Six peer mentors met 30 patients for 1 hour weekly for 8 weeks. A mental health professional provided an initial clinical evaluation as well as supervision and guidance to peer mentors concurrent with patient meetings. We measured depressive symptoms at baseline and after study completion, and depressive symptoms and working alliance at weekly peer-patient meetings. We also interviewed participants and peer mentors to assess their experiences of the intervention. Results Ninety-six percent of patients attended all eight meetings with the peer mentor and PHQ-9 scores decreased for 85% of patients. Patients formed strong, trusting relationships with peer mentors. Patients emphasized the importance of trust, of developing a strong relationship, and of the credibility and communication skills of the peer mentor. Participants described benefits such as feeling hopeful, and reported changes in attitude, behavior, and insight. Conclusions Use of peer mentors working in collaboration with a mental health professional is promising as a model of depression care delivery for older adults. Testing of effectiveness is needed and processes of recruitment, role definition, and supervision should be further developed. PMID:27066731

  10. Insomnia and mental health in college students.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel J; Gardner, Christie E; Bramoweth, Adam D; Williams, Jacob M; Roane, Brandy M; Grieser, Emily A; Tatum, Jolyn I

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is strongly associated with certain mental health problems in the general population. However, there is little research examining this relation in young adults-an age group where many mental health problems first present. This study examined relations between insomnia and mental health symptoms in a college population (N = 373; 60.9% women; mean age of 21 years). Insomnia was assessed via self-report and sleep diaries, and mental health was assessed via the Symptom Check List-90. Analyses revealed insomnia was prevalent (9.4%), and these young adults had significantly more mental health problems than those without insomnia, although some significant results were lost after controlling for comorbid health problems.

  11. Stigma, Discrimination, and Well-Being Among California Adults Experiencing Mental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Eunice C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Cerully, Jennifer L.; Roth, Elizabeth; Marks, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Presents results of the 2014 California Well-Being Survey, which tracks mental illness stigma and discrimination, well-being, and exposure to prevention and early intervention activities among Californians experiencing psychological distress. PMID:28083387

  12. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    PubMed

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Atheism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.

  14. Effects of Nativity, Length of Residence, and County-Level Foreign-Born Density on Mental Health Among Older Adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunha; Kim, Giyeon; Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-12-01

    Using the 2004-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data that are linked to county-level data from the Area Health Resources Files, this study examined whether the healthy immigrant effect applies to mental health of foreign-born older adults. Additionally, testing a protective ethnic density effect on older foreign-born individuals' mental health, this study examined how the percentage of foreign-born population in the county affected the relationship between older adults' immigration status (U.S.-nativity and length of residence in the U.S.) and their mental health status. The sample included 29,011 individuals (level-1) from 920 counties (level-2) across 50 states and D.C. Using the Mental Component Summary of the Short-Form 12, the Kessler Index (K-6), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), U.S.-born individuals (n = 24,225), earlier immigrants (≥15 years in the U.S.; n = 3866), and recent immigrants (<15 years in the U.S.; n = 920) were compared. The results indicate that recent immigrants showed worse mental health on all three measures compared with U.S.-born individuals and on the K-6 and PHQ-2 compared with earlier immigrants. Higher county-level foreign-born densities were associated with worse mental health status of individuals. However, the significant interactions found in the full conditional multilevel models indicated that the high foreign-born density functioned as a risk factor for worse mental health only among recent immigrants but not among the U.S.-born. In conclusion, the results revealed the vulnerability of older recent immigrants, especially those living in the counties with high foreign-born densities.

  15. Religiosity and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pajević, Izet; Sinanović, Osman; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2005-06-01

    Mental health is not considered only as absence of mental disorders, but rather as the achievement of higher standards of available psychical potentials. True devotion and obedience to The God give the one a huge and incredible strength, constant source of spiritual emotional and moral energy, which is of help in resisting destructive and slavery attacks of the environment and its materialistic-consuming tendencies, as well as social and mental disruption. According to the opinion of numerous worldwide recognized mental health experts, humankind of today is confronted with a number of problems, which are the consequence of spiritual and moral-ethical degradation of human being. Therefore, religiosity became the field of interest of mental health researchers. The results of new studies undoubtedly indicate beneficial effects of religion on life and mental health in humans. Religiosity reduces tendencies for risky behaviour, impulsive reactions and aggression; it corrects tendencies towards psychopathic and paranoid behaviour, reduces converse, depressive and schizoid tendency, and provides successful overcome of emotional conflicts. In comparison to low-religious adolescents, the factors such as inner conflicts, frustration, fear, anxiety, psychological trauma, low self-esteem, unbalance of psychical homeostasis, emotional instability, and negative psychical energy are less present in highly religious adolescents and neutralized in a healthier and more efficient way. Beneficial impact of religion on mental health derives from precise cognitive-behavioural patterns, which provide a clear life orientation, solid basis and safe frames for personality development, assuring human to be continually on the way to achieve its own generic essence and reach its own maturity and self-actualization.

  16. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  17. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  18. Problematic Internet Use, Mental Health and Impulse Control in an Online Survey of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.; White, Marney A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Internet use has become a popular entertainment source and has become highly integrated into daily life. However, some people display problematic or addictive usage of the Internet. The present study attempts to fill current knowledge gaps regarding at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) and its relation to various health and functioning measures. Methods Online survey data from 755 adults in the United States were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVAs. Results The ARPIU group did not differ from the non-ARPIU group with respect to substance use. Individuals with ARPIU were, however, more likely to report at-risk/problematic engagement in video-game playing and gambling. Compared to the non-ARPIU group, the ARPIU group reported poorer self-control and higher levels of impulsivity and depression. Conclusions ARPIU appears associated with other risk behaviors, particularly those that might be performed on the Internet. Future studies should examine the extent to which the Internet may promote engagement in these risk behaviors and the extent to which preventative interventions targeting better self-control or negative mood states might help a range of non-substance-related addictive behaviors. PMID:24294501

  19. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  20. The association between substance use and common mental disorders in young adults: results from the South African Stress and Health (SASH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J; Grimsrud, Anna; Morojele, Neo; London, Leslie; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although substance use is commonly associated with mental disorders, limited data on this association are available from low and middle income countries such as South Africa. The aims of the study were i) to determine patterns of substance use in young adults, ii) to identify trends of common psychiatric disorders in relation to use of specific substances, and iii) to determine whether specific psychiatric disorders were associated with use of specific substances in the South African population. Methods Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of South African households that forms part of a World Health Organisation (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) initiative to standardise information on the global burden of mental illness and its correlates. Data from a subset (n = 1766; aged 18 to 30 years) of the SASH sample of 4351 individuals were analysed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3 (CIDI 3.0) was used to elicit basic demographic details and information regarding mental illness and substance use. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, were used to identify associations between mental disorders and substance use. Results Significant associations were found between substance use and mood and anxiety disorders, with a particularly strong relationship between cannabis use and mental disorder. Conclusion The results are consistent with those from previous studies, and reinforce the argument that comorbid substance use and mental disorders constitute a major public health burden. PMID:24624244